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Устройство и классификация принтеров

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THaeii-Naoaeeineee einoeooo Iineianeiai

Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Oieaa?neoaoa Eiiia?oeee

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ? 1

Ii i?aaeiaoo: Eioi?iaoeea

Oaia: Ono?ienoai e eeanneoeeaoeey i?eioa?ia

Auiieiee nooaeaio I eo?na

niaoeeaeueiinoue «Aooo/ao e aoaeeo»

(cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey) 1.605(onei?.)

?oaeaiei Aeoaeee Aiaoieueaae/

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: *a?iuo N.I

I?iaa?ee: …………………..

a. THaeii-Naoaeeine

2000 aiae

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea.

Iao?e/iua i?eioa?a.

No?oeiua i?eioa?a.

Eaca?iua i?eioa?a.

Oa?iii?eioa?u.

Aeoieeeaoi?u.

Caeeth/aiea

Aaaaeaiea.

Ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiia ono?ienoai, a eioi?ii anoue ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
aaoiiiiiie aeecie. Oioy ?acaiai?u i “aacaoiaaeiie” oaoiieiaee
aaaeoony oaea aeiaieueii aeaaii, ii?iaeueioth ?aaioo n eiiiuethoa?ii
iiea aua o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aac eniieueciaaiey ia/aoathuaai
ono?ienoaa. Ca/anooth ioaeia eiiey ia aoiaaa oiai eee eiiai
aeieoiaioa, ?enoiea e o. i., eiathueony a eiiiuethoa?a a oaeea.
?acee/athony i?eioa?u i?aaeaea anaai ii niiniao ia/aoe. Oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu ianeieueei aeaeia i?eioa?ia : iao?e/iua, no?oeiua,
eaca?iua, naaoiaeeiaeiua.

Iao?e/iua i?eioa?a.

Iao?e/iua i?eioa?u – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oei i?eioa?ia.
Eaeay iao?e/iuo ia/aoathueo ono?ienoa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi o?aaoaiia
ecia?aaeaiea aini?iecaiaeeony ec iaai?a ioaeaeueiuo oi/ae, iaiineiuo ia
aoiaao. A yoii oeia i?eioa?ia eniieuecoaony aeey ia/aoe ia/aoathuay
aieiaea(IA) , eioi?ay niaea?aeeo iaeie eee aeaa ?yaea oiieeo eae.
Aieiaea onoaiaaeeaaaony ia ?aeaoea e aeaeaeaony aaeieue ia/aoaaiie
no?iee. I?e yoii eaieee a ioaeiue iiiaio oaea?ytho /a?ac e?anyuoth eaioo
ii aoiaaa. Yoi iaania/eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea ia aoiaaa neiaieia e
ecia?aaeaiee. A aeaoaauo iiaeaeyo i?eioa?ia eniieuecothony IA n 9
eaeaie. Ea/anoai ia/aoe a yoeo i?eioa?ao oeo/oaaony i?e ia/aoe
eioi?iaoeee ia a iaeei, a a aeaa eee /aou?a i?ioiaea IA aaeieue
ia/aoaaiie no?iee. Aieaa ea/anoaaiiay e auno?ay ia/aoue iaania/eaaaony
24-eaiei/iuie i?eioa?aie. Iaeiaei yoe i?eioa?u aieaa aei?iae ii
n?aaiaieth n 9-eaiei/iuie,iaiaa iaaeaaeiu .

Aeey ia?aiauaiey e?anyuae eaiou eniieuecoaony ia?aaeaoi/iue iaoaieci,
eniieuecothuee aeaeaeaiea ea?aoee. Ca ia?aiauaiea ea?aoee ioaa/aao
oaaiaie aeaeaaoaeue. Aua iaeei oaaiaie aeaeaaoaeue ioaa/aao ca
ia?aiauaiea aoiaaiiii?iiai aaeeea. Nei?inoue ia/aoe iao?e/iuo i?eioa?ia
iaauniea. A caaeneiinoe io aua?aiiiai ea/anoaa ia/aoe e iiaeaee i?eioa?a
nei?inoue ia/aoe ninoaaeyao io 10 aei 60 naeoiae ia no?aieoeo.

No?oeiua i?eioa?a.

Iaoiaeo no?oeiie ia/aoe oaea ii/oe noi eao. Ei?ae ?aeee , eao?aao
iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ii oeceea, naeaeae naie ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ioe?uoey a
iaeanoe ?aniaaea no?oe aeeaeeinoe e oi?ie?iaaiey eaiaeue aua a i?ioeii
aaea, aeaoie ?iaeaeaiey oaoiieiaee no?oeiie ia/aoe iiaeii n/eoaoue
oieueei 1948 aiae. Eiaiii oiaaea oaaaeneay oe?ia Siemens Elema iiaeaea
iaoaioioth cayaeo ia ono?ienoai, ?aaioathuaa eae aaeueaaiiiao?, ii
iai?oaeiaaiiia ia ecia?eoaeueiie no?aeeie , a ?aniueeoaeai, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue ?acoeueoaou ecia?aiee.

E aeaaea oaia?ue, nionoy ii/oe iieaaea, yoa aaieaeueii i?inoay
nenoaia ia/aoe i?eiaiyaony, iai?eia?, a iaaeeoeeineeo i?eai?ao .
I?aaaea, aeeaeeinoiue inoeeeeia?ao niiniaai ia/aoaoue eeoue e?eaua, a ia
oaenou e a?aoeee. Yoa yooaeoeaiay noaia auea oniaa?oainoaiaaia , e
iiyaeeny iiaue no?oeiue i?eioa? , ooieoeeiie?othuee ii i?eioeeio
iai?a?uaiiai ?aniueaiey e?aneoaey eee ia/aoe iiae aunieei aeaaeaieai.

?ac?aaio/eee ainiieueciaaeenue caeiiiia?iinoueth, auyaeaiiie
ei?aeii ?aeee : no?oy aeeaeeinoe no?aieony ?anianoueny ia ioaeaeueiua
eaiee . Ioaeii oieueei /ooue iiaei?aaeoue neo/aeiue i?ioeann ?aniaaeaiey
no?oe, iaeeaaeuaay n iiiiuueth iueaciyeaeo?e/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey ia
no?oth e?aneoaey , aua?anuaaaioth iiae aunieei aeaaeaieai (aei 90 aa?),
auniei/anoioiua eieaaaiey aeaaeaiey.

Oaeei niiniaii iiaeao aua?anuaaoueny aei ieeeeiia eaiaeue a
naeoiaeo. Eo ?acia?u caaenyo io aaiiao?e/aneie oi?iu niiae-?aniueeoaeae
e ninoaaeytho anaai eeoue ianeieueei iee?ii, a nei?inoue, n eioi?ie iie
aeieaoatho aei aoiaae, aeinoeaaao 40 i/n.

Aeaaiaea?y aunieie nei?inoe iieaoa eaiaeue aeiioneaaony
eniieueciaaoue iiaa?oiinoe n neeueiuie ia?iaiinoyie e a caaeneiinoe io
o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao ia/aoe ?aciauaoue eo ia ?annoiyiee 1-2 ni io
niiea-?aniueeoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeii iaiineoue ia?ee?iaeo, iai?eia?
aeaiiua i n?iea aiaeiinoe oiaa?a ia ea?oiiiua ei?iaee, aooueee,
eiina?aiua aaiee, yeoea eee eaaaee. Yoo oaoiieiaeth ia/aoe iao?oaeii
ociaoue ii oi/eai, eaaeoueiny ia?aaiiia?iuie e eae au iao?aiaiiuie.

N ia/aea 70-o aiaeia iaiau/aeii aeoeaece?iaaeanue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia nicaeaiea nenoai
aac iaaeinoaoeia, naienoaaiiuo nenoaiai ia/aoe iiae aunieei aeaaeaieai.
Ia?aia ?aoaiea, iaeaeaiiia niaoeeaeenoaie – ia/aoathuea aieiaee n
iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie, enioneathuea ii cai?ino
ioaeaeueiua eaiee e?aneoaey.

Ia/aoathuea ono?ienoaa n iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeie

eniieieoaeueiuie iaoaieciaie.

Ia?aua cayaee ia ?aaeno?aoeeth ecia?aoaiey nenoai no?oeiie ia/aoe
n iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeie eniieieoaeueiuie iaoaieciaie auee iiaeaiu a
1970 e 1971 aa. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eao ?acee/iua oe?iu e
einoeooou i?iaiaeeee ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, iiea, iaeiiaoe,
eiiiaiee Siemens ia oaeaeinue iaea/ue yoio i?eioeei a i?eaieaioth aeey
?uiea oi?io. A 1977 a. Aue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaai ia?aue no?oeiue i?eioa? n
aeice?iaaiiui aua?inii e?aneoaey. Yoio i?eioa?, iniauaiiue
aeaaiaaeoeaoueth niieaie-?aniueeoaeyie e ia/aoathuee ii/oe aanooiii ni
nei?inoueth 270 neiaieia a naeoiaeo, i?iecaae ?aaiethoeeth aeaaea a
e?oaao niaoeeaeenoia.

Siemens a ea/anoaa yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaoaey
eniieueciaaea iueaciyeaeo?e/aneoth o?oai/eo, aiiioe?iaaiioth a eaiae
ec eeoueaaie niieu.. Ana eaiaeu caeai/eaathony ieanoeiie n
eaeea?iaaiiuie ioaa?noeyie aeey ?aniueaiey, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia ia?aaeiae
noi?iia ono?ienoaa. Ia?aaea/a yeaeo?iyia?aee e e?aneoaey i?iecaiaeeony
eneeth/eoaeueii iin?aaenoaii eieaaaiee aeaaeaiey, ?ani?ino?aiythueony
a eaiaea a niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie aeonoeee. Eieaaaiey, aeinoeaathuea
eiioea eaiaea, io?aaeathony oai n eiaa?neae oacu, o.a. a yoii ianoa
eieaaaiea n iiieaeaiiui aeaaeaieai e iaiai?io.

Iueaciieanoeiu.

A ia/aea 1985 a. eiiiaiey Epson i?aaenoaaeea ia?aue ec naieo
iueaciieaia?iuo no?oeiuo i?eioa?ia.

Aianoi iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeo o?oai/ae, eae o Siemens, ia
ia/aoathueo aieiaeao Epson, auiieiaiiuo ec no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuo
noaeeyiiuo ieanoeiie, oe?aieaiu iaaieueoea iueaciieanoeiee. Anee e iei
i?eeiaeeoue yeaeo?e/aneia iai?yaeaiea, eo aeeaiao? /ooue-/ooue
eciaieony, ii e yoiai aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iie niaioeenue aianoa n
ianneaiie noaeeyiiie iiiaineieiie iiaeeiaeeie iiaeiaii aeiaoaeee/aneie
ieanoeia, /oi i?eaaaeao e aicieeiiaaieth a eaiaea e?aneoaey
auoaeeeaathony oai aea niiniaii, /oi e a ia/aoathueo aieiaeao n
iueacio?oai/eaie.

A 1987 a. eiiiaiey Dataproducts i?aaeeiaeeea ae?oaie i?eioeei
eniieueciaaiey iueaciyeaeo?eeia aeey no?oeiie ia/aoe, iniiaaiiue ia
i?eiaiaiee ieanoei/aoiai iueacii?aia?aciaaoaey. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu
yoio iaoiae inoaaaeny n?aaieoaeueii iaeiecaanoiui i?e/ai ia noieueei
ec-ca eiino?oeoeee ia aaca i?aia?aciaaoaey, neieueei ec-ca aeeaeeeo
aineiauo /a?iee, eioi?ua i?eiaiyeenue ai anao no?oeiuo i?eioa?ao n
ieanoei/aoui iueacii?aia?aciaaoaeai i?iecaiaenoaa Epson

Niaeanii yoiio iaoiaeo iueacii?aia?aciaaoaeue, i?aaenoaaeythuee
niaie aeeeiioth ieineoth ieanoeieo (eaiaeue), ?aciauaaony iicaaee
iaaieueoiai ?aca?aoa?a n e?aneoaeai. I?e aicaeaenoaee ia eaiaeue
eiioeuenia iai?yaeaiey aa aeeeia iaiiiai iaiyaony, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
anieaneai aeaaeaiey aioo?e ?aca?aoa?a, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue,
auoaeeeaatho eaiee ec niiea-?aniueeoaey.

Ieanoei/aoua iueacii?aiaaciaaoaee ni/aoatho a naaa i?aeiouanoaa
eae ieineeo, oae e o?oa/aouo nenoai aunieoth /anoioo ?aniueaiey e
eiiiaeoioth eiino?oeoeeth. Naaiaeiy ia ia/aoathuea aieiaee n
iueacieaiaeyie aeaeatho noaaeo oaeea oe?iu, eae Dataproduts, Tektronix e
Epson.

A ia/aea 1994 aiaea Epson i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae iueacioaoiieiaeth
MACH (Multilayer Actuator Head – aieiaea n iiiaio?iaiaaui
eniieieoaeueiuo iaoaieciii). Oai ia iaiaa e a iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeo
ia/aoathueo aieiaeao MACH-aieiaeao i?eiaiythony iueacieaiaee. I?aaaea,
eiiiaiee Epson oaeaeinue ecaioiaeoue iueacieaiaee iaeiiai ?yaea
niiae-?aniueeoaeae a aaeeiii aeiea (Multilayer). Oaeei ia?acii
ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui aua oiaiueoeoue ?acia?u ia/aoathuae aieiaee,
?acianoeoue i?aia?aciaaoaee, eaiaeu e niiea-?aniueeoaee n iaiueoae
aeenoaioeeae e iaeiia?aiaiii nieceoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu.

Ia/aoathuea ono?ienoaa n oa?iia?aoe/aneeie eniieieoaeueiuie

iaoaieciaie.

A 1985 aiaeo nainaoeeth aucaae Thinkjet eiiiaiee
Hewlett-Packard – ia?aue no?oeii-iocu?ueeiaue oa?iii?eioa?. Iaoiae
iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiie oa?iiia/aoe ca ianeieueei eao iiei?ee ?uiie
(eiee/anoai i?iaeaiiuo no?oeiuo oa?iii?eioa?ia ninoaaeei 10 iei.)

A /ai aea ?aaiethoeeiiiinoue yoie oaoiieiaee? Eae /anoi auaaao a
iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo, aeinoeaeaieai noaei nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
?anoiaeia. Anee iueaciyeaeo?e/aneea ia/aoathuea iaoaieciu
i?eoiaeeeinue n aieueoei eee iaiueoei o?oaeii niae?aoue ec iiiaeanoaa
ioaeaeueiuo aeaoaeae, oi iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiua ia/aoathuea aieiaee,
i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie e?enoaeeu ia e?aiieaauo iiaeeiaeeao,
ecaioaaeeaaeenue ii oiieineieiie oaoiieiaee nioiyie.

I?e oiieineieiie oaoiieiaee i?eiaiythony a i?eioeeia oa aea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu, /oi e i?e ecaioiaeaiee eioaa?aeueiuo noai.
Eaiaeu iiaea/e e?aneoaey, niiea-?aniueeoaee, eniieieoaeueiua iaoaieciu e
oieiiiaeaiaeyuea oeiu aicieeatho i?e iii/a?aaeiii iaianaiee neiaa ia
iiaeeiaeee, iai?eia? niiniaii eiiii-eo/aaiai iaiueaiey, e iineaaeothuai
no?oeoo?e?iaaiee yoeo neiaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii caaa?oaiee i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
ian/eouaathuaai aieaa nioie oaaia, ia iaeiie iiaeeiaeea iiyaeyaony
i/aiue iiiai oa?iiia/aoathueo yeaiaioia. Ana no?oeoo?u aeieaeiu auoue
auiieiaiu n oi/iinoueth aei ouny/iie aeiee ieeeeiao?a. E?iia oiai,
iaeaeoaa caa?yciaiea i?e i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaiaeeo e ioeaco. Ii yoie
i?e/eia iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiua ia/aoathuea yeaiaiou ecaioaaeeaathony a
/enouo iiiauaieyo e n i?eiaiaieai iaoei, oeie/iuo aeey
iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iineieueeo aieiaee no?oeii-iocu?ueeiaie oa?iiia/aoe
ecaioaaeeaathony ii oiio aea i?eioeeio, /oi e eioaa?aeueiua iee?inoaiu,
iai?aoeaaaony iuneue ia eioaa?aoeee iineaaeieo a ia/aoathuea e?enoaeeu.
E ia?aue oaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee naeaeaea oe?ia Canon, ano?iea a
ia/aoathuea aieiaee naieo i?eioa?ia o?aicenoi?ioth iao?eoeo. I?eia?o
Canon iineaaeiaaea eiiiaiey Xerox, auionoeaoay a 1993 aiaeo
iiaeaeue iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiiai i?eioa?a n aieiaeie, iai?oaeiaaiiie 128
?aniueeoaeyie, e iieiinoueth eioaa?e?iaaiiui
iineaaeiaaoaeueii-ia?aeeaeueiui i?aia?aciaaoaeai.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiiai niiea-?aniueeoaey:

Nia/aea neeueiue eiioeuen iai?yaeaiey aeeeoaeueiinoueth 3-7 ien
iiaeaaony ia e?ioioiue iaa?aaaoaeueiue yeaiaio, eioi?ue iaiiaaiii
iaeaeyaony aei 500 a?. Oeaeueney. Ia aai iiaa?oiinoe oaiia?aoo?a
i?aauoaao 300 a?. Oeaeueney. Iiuiinoue iaa?aaa iiaa?oiinoe ianoieueei
aaeeea, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee aeeeoaeueiinoe eiioeuena iai?yaeaiey anaai
eeoue ia ianeieueei iee?inaeoiae iaa?aaaoaeueiue yeaiaio iiiaioaeueii au
?ac?ooeeny.

N?aco aea a oiieie ieaiea iaae iaa?aaaoaeueiui yeaiaioii ia/eiatho
eeiaoue /a?ieea, e /a?ac 15 ien ia?acoaony cae?uoue iocu?ae ia?a
aunieiai aeaaeaiey (aei 10 aa?). Ii auoaeeeaaao eaieth /a?iee ec
niiea-?aniueeoaey, i?e /ai nei?inoue iieaoa eaiee aeinoeaaao 10 i/n e
aieaa. *a?ac 40 ien iocu?ae, niaaeeieaoenue n aoiinoa?ie, iiyoue
iiaaeaao, iaeiaei i?ieaeao aua 200 ien, iiea iiaua /a?ieea iiae
aeaenoaeai eaieeey?iuo nee ia aoaeoo caninaiu ec ?aca?aoa?a.

N naiiai ia/aea iocu?ueeiai-no?oeiua ia/aoathuea aieiaee aeaeeeenue
ia aeaa a?oiiu. Eiiiaiey Canon, ecia?aoaoaeue nenoaiu, i?aaeii/ea
aa?eaio Edlgeshooter. Ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii oe?ia Hewlett-Packard
?ac?aaioaea aieiaeo oeia Sidechooter, eioi?oth oaia?ue ecaioaaeeaaao e
eiiiaiey Olivetti.

Aieiaea Edgeshooter, eae noaiiaeony ynii oaea ec iacaaiey,
?aca?ucaeaaao /a?ieeueiua eaiee “ca oaie”, o.a. ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e
iai?aaeaieth ia?aciaaiey iocu?ueeia. A aieiaea Sideshooter, aaea
ieanoeia n niieaie-?aniueeoaeyie iaoiaeeony iiaa?o iaa?aaaoaeueiuo
yeaiaioia e eaiaeia iiaea/e /a?iee, iocu?ueee e eaiee aeaeaeoony a
iaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Iineieueeo e?ay niiae-?aniueeoaeae a aieiaeao
oeia Sideshooter naeaeaiu ec iaeii?iaeiiai, a ia ec ?acee/iuo
iaoa?eaeia, eae a Edgeshooter, i?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey ?aniueeoaeae n
ioaa?noeyie ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acia?a aeey Sideshooter cia/eoaeueii i?iua,
/ai aeey aieiaie Edgeshooter. E?iia oiai, i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue
iaiaeeiaeiaia nia/eaaiea ?acii?iaeiie iiaa?oiinoe aieiaee
Edgeshooter.

O?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao /a?iee aeey ethaie nenoaiu no?oeiie
oa?iiia/aoe i/aiue auniee, cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai iueacinenoaiao.
I?eioeei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e aunieea oaiia?aoo?u iaoneiaeeaatho
i?eiaiaiea oieueei niaoaiiuo ?anoai?eiuo e?aneoaeae ia aiaeyiie iniiaa.

E?aneoaee aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue oeaeiio ?yaeo o?aaiaaiee:

– auoue niaianoiuie n iaoa?eaeaie, ec eioi?uo naeaeai ia/aoathuee
iaoaieci;

– ia ia?aciauaaoue ioeiaeaiee a eaiaeao e ?aniueeoaeyo, a oaeaea
ia ?anneaeaaoueny;

– o?aieoueny a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie;

– iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiuie iieacaoaeyie ieioiinoe, ayceinoe e
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey i?e oaiia?aoo?ao io 10 aei 40 a?. Oeaeueney;

– io neoaeeoue ieoaoaeueiie n?aaeie aeey ia?aciaaiey aaeoa?ee e
aiaei?ineae;

– ia niaea?aeaoue yaeiaeouo eee eaioea?iaaiiuo aauanoa e ia
aicai?aoueny.

E oiio aea e?aneoaee aeey no?oeiie oa?iiia/aoe aeieaeiu
ia?aciauaaoue iocu?ueee ia?a aac ioeiaeaiey inaaeeia e auaea?aeeaaoue
e?aoeia?aiaiiia iaa?aaaiea aei 350 a?. Oeaeueney.

E oae iu aeaeei /oi niinia no?oeiie ia/aoe, ca?iaeeaoeeny ieiei 50
eao iacaae, – ioiineoaeueii iieiaeay oaoiieiaey. Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi
no?oeiua i?eioa?u caaiththo ianniaue ?uiie, auoaniyy oaeei ia?acii
iao?e/iua i?eioa?u. Anee aea ?ac?aaio/eeai oaeanony iiauneoue
?ac?aoaiea e nei?inoue ia/aoe no?oeiuo i?eioa?ia, oi ecaioiaeoaeyi
eaca?iuo i?eioa?ia i?eaeaony ana?ueac iiai?ioueny ca ianoi ia ?uiea.

Aei neo ii? ieeaeie ae?oaie iaoiae ia/aoe ia ii?iaeaeae oaeiai
?aciiia?acey aa?eaioia, eae no?oeiay ia/aoue, i?e /ai ia iiaeeaaeeo
niiiaieth /oi aiciiaeiinoue yoie oaoiieiaee aua aeieai ia aoaeao
en/a?iaia.

Eaca?iua i?eioa?u

Eaca?iua i?eioa?u, eae e eiie?iaaeueiua aiia?aou eniieuecotho
i?eioeei nooie ena?ia?aoee, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo iaiueaiea ii?ioea
ia iaoa?eae n iineaaeothuei caiaeaieai.

Eae aea ono?iai iau/iue eaca?iue i?eioa?? Ai?i/ai aei oiai, eae
ia?aeoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?eioa?ai ?anniio?ei aia/aea eiie?iaaeueiua
aiia?aou, iineieueeo ia eo iniiaa no?iaiey auee naeaeaiu eaca?iua
i?eioa?u.

Ooieoeeiiaeueii aiia?ao ninoieo ec neaaeothueo /anoae (anee ia
?anniao?eaaoue neaie?othuoth /anoue):

Oioi?aoeaioi? (aa?aaai)

Iaaieoiue aae

?aeaeueiue iiae

Ei?io?ii ca?yaea

Aae ia?aiina (ei?io?ii ia?aiina)

Ei?io?ii iona/aiey

Aoiea? n oiia?ii

Aoiea? io?aaioee

Ia/ea (ouethca?)

Oioi?aoeaioi? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaoeeaeueiue iaoa?eae (iau/ii yoi
naeai), iaianaiiue ia iaoaeee/aneoth iniiao. Iau/ii ii auiieiyaony a
aeaea aaea, iiyoiio eiiaaea aai iacuaatho aa?aaai (drum unit).

Oioi?aoeaioi? ca?yaeaaony ei?io?iiii ca?yaea, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaoaeee/aneoth (iau/ii cieiooth eee ieaoeiiaoth i?iaieieo) eee aea
?aceiiaue aae n iaoaeee/aneie iniiaie. I?e/ai ?aceia oieii?iaiaeyuay. Ia
noa?uo aiia?aoao i?eiaiyeny i?iaiei/iue ei?io?ii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae e ae?oaie oaoiieiaee. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?iaiei/iue
ei?io?ii neeueii iciie?oao aicaeoo ec ca aunieiai iai?yaeaiey,
iiaeaaaaiiai ia iaai. Eae ecaanoii icii iieacai, ii a iaeuo eiee/anoaao.
Iiyoiio oa?aeoa?iue caiao iciia a eiie?iaaeueiuo oeaio?ao iinoaiaiii
ooiaeeo a i?ioeia.

Iinea ca?yaeee ia oioi?aoeaioi? iiaeaaony ecia?aaeaiea, eioi?ia a
eiie?iaaeueiuo aiia?aoao inaauaaony iiuiui enoi/ieeii naaoa e
i?iaoee?oaony /a?ac nenoaio ca?eae. Iau/ii aeey inaauaiey i?eaeiaea
eniieuecoaony ea?aoea n eaiiie eae a neaia?ao, Aeey oaaee/aiey e
oiaiueoaiey ecia?aaeaiey neoaeeo iauaeoea n eciaiyaiui oieoniui
?annoiyieai. Nei?inoue aa?aaaia e ea?aoee aeieaeia auoue niaeaniaaia. Oa
ianoa ia oioi?aoeaioi?a, ia eioi?ua iaaeaao naao iaiytho naie iioaioeeae
eee aiiaua oa?ytho ca?yae (a caaeneiinoe io oeia eiie?iaaeueiiai
aiia?aoa). Oaeei ia?acii ia oioi?aoeaioi?a inoaaony ?enoiie i?eaeiaea a
aeaea ca?yaeaiiuo o/anoeia.

Caoai oioi?aoeaioi? aoiaeeo a eiioaeo n iaaieoiui aaeii, eioi?ue
iie?uo nianueth oiia?a e iineoaey.

Oiia? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iueue ninoiyuoth ec iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeaaoa. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa ia/aoe
oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaee no?aiyony e nicaeaieth aieaa iaeeeo /anoeoe oiia?a.

Iineoaeue (developer) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaciua /anoeoeu, ia
eioi?uo inaaeaeaaony oiia?. Oaeei ia?acii ia iaaieoiii aaeo iaoiaeyony
aeaeaciua /anoeoeu, iie?uoua oiia?ii. A iaeioi?uo aiia?aoao iineoaeue
ioaeaeai io oiia?a e cai?aaeyaony ioaeaeueii, a ae?oaeo oiia?
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?ioie oaea niaoaiiue n iineoaeai. Oiia? iaoiaeeony
a niaoeeaeueiii aoiea?a. Aioo?e aoiea?a onoaiaaeeaaaony iaoaeea, eioi?ay
i?aaeioa?auaao ni?anniauaaiea oiia?a.

Oiia? ia?aoiaeeo ia oioi?aoeaioi? ca n/ao i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai
ca?yaea ia oioi?aoeaioi?a. Aanue yoio i?ioeann iineo iacaaiea i?iyaee.

Ai a?aiy yoiai i?ioeanna aoiaaa iiaeaaony ia ?aaeno?aoeeth. O.a.
iia auae?aaony ec eioea e onoaiaaeeaaaony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ia/eiaoue
ia/aoue. Eiaaea aeao/ee ?aaeno?aoeee aoiaae niiauaao, /oi aoiaaa aeioea
aei oioi aa?aaaia, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiin ecia?aaeaiey n oioi aa?aaaia ia
aoiaao.

Iinea oiai, eae oiia? ia?aianai iiaeaaony aoiaaa. Iiae aoiaaie
i?ioiaeeo ei?io?ii ia?aiina (aae ia?aiina), eioi?ue eiaao iioaioeeae
neeueiaa iioaioeeaea oioi?aoeaioi?a. Yoio aae auiieiyaony ec iaoaeea,
iie?uoiai niaoeeaeueiie oieii?iaiaeyuae ?aceiie. Aae ca n/ao aieaa
neeueiiai iioaioeeaea ia iai iooyaeaaao ia naay oiia?, eioi?ue
inaaeaeaaony ia aoiaaa. Caoai n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai iaoaiecia
aoiaaa io?uaaaony io ?aoeaioi?a e iiaeaaony ia caiaeaiea. A iaeioi?uo
iaoeiao nouanoaoao oaeie iaoaieci, a iaeioi?uo iao. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aua iaeei ei?io?ii, eioi?ue iooyaeaaao aoiaao io ?aoeaioi?a.

Caiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai
iaa?aaa aoiaae n iaeiia?aiaiiui i?eaeeiii niaoeeaeueiui aaeeeii.
Iaoaieci ninoieo ec iaa?aaaaiiai oaoeiiiaiai aaea, n eaa?oeaaie eaiiie
aioo?e, e ?aceiiaiai i?eaeeiiiai aaea. Iaoaieci aeey caiaeaiey iineo
iacaaiea ia/ea (fuser). Eiiaaea aianoi oaoeiiiaiai aaea onoaiaaeeaaaony
niaoeeaeueiue oa?iiyeaiaio, iie?uoue oa?iiieaieie. Oaeea eiie?u eiatho
iaiueoee n?ie i?ia?aaa e iaiueoaa yia?aiiio?aaeaiea, iaeiaei e oiaeeo
oa?iiieaiea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoaa eiee/anoai eiiee e iia?aaeeoue aa
cia/eoaeueii eaa/a i?e iai?aaeeueiii ecaea/aiee aoiaae. A iaeioi?uo
aiia?aoao i?aaeoniio?aia niacuaaiea i?eaeeiiiai aaea neeeeiiiaie
niaceie. Yoa niacea i?aaeioa?auaao i?eeeiaiea aoiaae e aaeo.

Iaoaieci n eaa?oeaaie eaiiie aieaa aei?iaie, ii e aieaa
iaaeaaeiue iau/ii eniieuecoaony a aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo iaoeiao.
Iaoaieci n oa?iiieaieie eniieuecoaony a i?eioa?ao e eiie?ao iaeiai
eeanna.

Oioi?aoeaioi? i/euaaony io inoaoeia oiia?a n iiiiuueth ?aeaeueiiai
iiaea, eioi?ue naeaeai ec niaoeeaeueiiai iaoa?eaea e iaoiaeeony a
ieioiii eiioaeoa n ?aoeaioi?ii. ?aeaeueiue iiae iau/ii auiieiyaony a
aeaea iieinu ec iyaeiai ieanoeea. A iaeioi?uo aiia?aoao i?aaeoniio?aia
niacea ?aeaeueiiai iiaea. Inoaoee oiia?a oaeaeythony a aoiea? io?aaioee.
Yoi iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue i?eioeei oaeaeaiey inoaoeia oiia?a.

A iaeioi?uo aiia?aoao aianoi ?aeaeueiiai iiaea eniieuecoaony
yeaeo?inoaoe/aneia oaeaeaiea inoaoeia oiia?a. A yoeo iaoeiao iiyoue aea
i?aeoe/anee aanue oiia? ia?aiineony ia aoiaao.

Ana iienaiiia auoa i?eaaaeaii ia neaaeothuae noaia:

PRIVATE “TYPE=PICT;ALT=” A aieueoeo iaoeiao oiia?, oioi?aoeaioi?,
aeaaaeiia?, ?aeaeueiue iiae, ei?io?ii iaiythony ?acaeaeueii, iinea
i?ioiaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa eiiee. A iaeuo i?eioa?ao e
eiie?ao ana yoe /anoe iauaaeeiythony a iaeei ea?o?eaeae. A /anoe
aiia?aoia oaeie ea?o?eaeae ?acaeaeytho ia aeaa: eiie ea?o?eaeae
(oioi?aoeaioi? n ?aeaeai) e oiia?-ea?o?eaeae (oiia? n iaaieoiui aaeii).
Ii i?aaeeai yenieoaoaoeee ana oaeea ea?o?eaeaee eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie neoaeau e aeieaeiu caiaiyoueny iinea aai ieii/aiey.

Eaca?iue i?eioa? eae oaea aiai?eeinue aeaenoaoao ii oiio aea
i?eioeeio, ii a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea naaoa eniieuecoaony eaca?, eioi?ue
iaiyao iioaioeeae a ii?aaeaeaiiuo o/anoeao oioi?aoeaioi?a, ia eioi?ua
caoai ia?aiineony oiia?. I?e yoii eniieuecoaony neaaeothuee iaoaieci.

Eaca?iay iooea naaoeo ia ca?eaei, eioi?ia a?auaaony n aunieie
nei?inoueth. Io?aaeaiiue eo/ /a?ac nenoaio ca?eae e i?ecio iiiaaeaao ia
aa?aaai e ca n/ao iiai?ioa ca?eaea auaeaaao ca?yaeu ii anae aeeeia
aa?aaaia. Caoai i?ienoiaeeo iiai?io aa?aaaia ia iaeei oaa (yoio oaa
ecia?yaony a aeieyo aetheia e eiaiii ii ii?aaeaeyao ?ac?aoaiea i?eioa?a
ii aa?oeeaee) e au/a?/eaaaony iiaay eeiey. A iaeioi?uo i?eioa?ao e?iia
iiai?ioa aa?aaaia eniieuecoaony iiai?io ca?eaea ii aa?oeeaee, eioi?ia
iicaieyao ia iaeiii oaaa iiai?ioa aa?aaaia au/a?oeoue aeaa ?yaea oi/ae.
A /anoiinoe ia?aua i?eioa?u Lexmark n ?ac?aoaieai 1200 dpi eniieueciaaee
eiaiii yoio i?eioeei.

Eaca?iua i?eioa?u e eiie?iaaeueiua aiia?aou iio?aaeytho iiiai
yeaeo?iyia?aee, eioi?ay ?anoiaeoaony ia iaa?aa ia/ee e ia iiaeaea?aeaiea
aunieiai iai?yaeaiey ia ei?io?iiao.

Iauay noaia eaca?a i?eaaaeaia ieaea:

PRIVATE “TYPE=PICT;ALT=”

Eo/e neiaai e e?aniiai oeaaoa niioaaonoaotho ?acee/iui
iieiaeaieyi ca?eaea. A iiiaio A ca?eaei iiaa?iooi iiae iaeiei oaeii
(e?aniia iieiaeaiea ca?eaea). A neaaeothuee iiiaio a?aiaie,
niioaaonoaothuee /anoioa eaca?a ca?eaei iiai?a/eaaaony e caieiaao neiaa
iieiaeaiea. Io?aaeaiiue eo/ iiiaaeaao oaea a ae?oaoth oi/eo
oioi?aoeaioi?a. Anoanoaaiii a ?aaeueiinoe nouanoaotho aua
aeiiieieoaeueiua ca?eaea, i?eciu e naaoiaiaeu ioaa/athuea ca oieone?iaeo
e eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey eo/a.

Eaca?iua i?eioa?u e?iia iaoaie/aneie /anoe aeeth/atho a naay
aeinoaoi/ii na?ueacioth yeaeo?iieeo. A /anoiinoe ia i?eioa?ao
onoaiaaeeaaaony iaiyoue aieueoiai iauaia, aeey oiai, /oiau ia
caa?oaeaoue eiiiuethoa? e o?aieoue caaeaiey a iaiyoe. Ia /anoe i?eioa?ia
onoaiaaeeaathony aei/anoa?u. Yeaeo?iiiay ia/eiea i?eioa?a oaeaea
niaea?aeeo ?acee/iue ycuee iienaiey aeaiiuo (Adobe PostScript, PCL e o.
ae.). Yoe ycuee iiyoue aea i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oiai, /oiau caa?aoue
/anoue ?aaiou o eiiiuethoa?a e ia?aaeaoue i?eioa?o.

Oa?iii?eioa?u.

Oa?iii?eioa?u eae oaeiaua i?aeoe/anee ia eniieuecothony. Iau/ii
iie onoaiaaeeaathony a oaenao, iaeiaei eiaaea-oi iie nouanoaiaaee eae
ioaeaeueiua i?eioa?u .

I?eioeei aeaenoaey oa?iii?eioa?a i/aiue i?ino. Ia/aoathuee yeaiaio
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiaeue n iaa?aaaaiuie yeaiaioaie. A caaeneiinoe io
iiaeaaaaiiai ecia?aaeaiey iaa?aaathony oa eee eiua yeaiaiou, eioi?ua
canoaaeytho oaiiaoue niaoeeaeueioth oa?iiaoiaao a ianoa iaa?aaa.
Aeinoieinoaii aeaiiiai oeia i?eioa?a ianiiiaiii neoaeeo oi, /oi aio ia
ioaeiu ?anoiaeiua iaoa?eaeu e?iia niaoeeaeueiie aoiaae. Iaaeinoaoie –
ana a oie aea niaoeeaeueiie aoiaaa e iaaeeaiiie nei?inoe ia/aoe.

Aeoaeeeaoi?u

Aeoaeeeaoi? (?ecia?ao) i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ia/aoe aieueoeo
oe?aaeae n iaeiiai yecaiiey?a (io 50 yec.).

I?eioeei ?aaiou neaaeothuee: iinea neaie?iaaiey eiiee ia niaoeeaeueiie
ianoa? ieaiea oa?iiia/aoathuei ono?ienoaii i?iaeeaaaony ecia?aaeaiea.
Caoai ianoa?-ieaiea iaiaouaaaony ia aa?aaai, auiieiaiiue ec nao/aoiai
iaoa?eaea. *a?ac aa?aaai iiaeathony /a?ieea, eioi?ua auoaeatho /a?ac
i?iaeaeaiiua ioaa?noey a ianoa? ieaiea e ia?aiinyony ia eiieth. N iaeiie
ianoa? ieaiee iiaeii iieo/eoue aei 10000 yecaiiey?ia.

Ieceay naaanoieiinoue ia/aoe i?e aieueoii oe?aaea iaoneaaeeaaaony
ieceie noieiinoueth /a?iee, eioi?ua a i?eioeeia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
oeiia?aoneoth e?aneo.

Aeey oeaaoiie ia/aoe eniieuecothony niaiiua aa?aaaiu. I?e yoii
eaaeaeay eiiey i?iaiiyaony noieueei ?ac, neieueei oeaaoia ioaeii
iaia/aoaoue. Iaeiaei iieii oeaaoiie ia/aoe ia aeaiiii aiia?aoa iieo/eoue
iaeuecy. ?aaeueii iieo/eoue 3-4 oeaaoioth ia/aoue aea e oi ia oi?ioae
aoiaaa, iineieueeo i?e eniieueciaaiee aieueoaai eiee/anoaa oeaaoia
ea/anoai eiiee cia/eoaeueii oooaeoaaony.

Ea/anoai ia?aaea/e iooaieia i?eia?ii niioaaonoaoao iau/iiio
eiie?o.

I?e/eiie oiai, /oi aeaiiue aiia?ao iiaeao neoaeeoue oieueei aeey ia/aoe
aieueoeie oe?aaeaie yaeyaony aunieay noieiinoue ianoa? ieaiee, eioi?ay
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny oieueei iaeei ?ac.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iu ?anniio?aee iniiaiua aeaeu i?eioa?ia e aeaeei , /oi eaaeaeue ec
aeaeia ii naiaio oaeiaai a yenieoaoaoeee , a oaeaea aiea i?eaiaeai aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?iaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae neaaeai no?oeiua i?eioa?a
iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyo aeey aeiiaoiaai eniieueciaaiey e ia aieueoeo oe?i
anee iniiaiay caaea/a – ?ania/aoea oaenoia, oae eae caeanue ia o?aaoaony
aunieia ea/anoai ia/aoe. Eaca?iua i?eioa?u yoi aieaa ea/anoaaiiia
?aoaiea oao aea caaea/, eioi?ua ?aoatho no?oeiua i?eioa?a ( ca
eneeth/aieai ?aaiou n oeaaoii, aaea ea/anoai no?oeiuo i?eioa?ia auoa ) .
Iao?e/iua i?eioa?a eniieuecothony oai, aaea ia o?aaoaony ea/anoai , a
ioaeia iaaeaaeiinoue e iaeiaiueoea ?anoiaeu ii eniieueciaaieth.

Ii an? aea a iauai ana oe?iu i?iecaiaeeoaee i?eioa?ia
i?aneaaeotho oaeea caaea/e eae:

iaeneiaeueii oeo/oeoue ea/anoai auaiaeeiiai ia ia/aoue

oaaee/eoue nei?inoue ia/aoe

oiaiueoaiey cao?ao o?aaoaiuo aeey ia/aoe

E o/eouaay, /oi i?ioeann iiaea?iecaoeee e oeo/oaiey eaaeaeiai ec aeaeia
ia/aoe ia caaa?oai, oi aiciiaeii, /oi ana auoa iienaiiia ia aeaiiue
iiiaio iiaeao yaeyoueny enoi?eae.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1.Auuei? , nai?ea, aaa?aeae ea/anoaaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a

TH.E?aaaoeeee, I. ?aiaiaeee

2.I.I. Aieiioiaiei “Iao?e/iua i?eioa?u”

Naeou e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eioa?ia.

AEo?iae “HARD’n’SOFT”

5. AEo?iae “Eiiiuethoa?I?ann”

PAGE

PAGE 12

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