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Министерство образования Украины

Донецкий государственный университет

Реферат

По дисциплине «Экономическая информатика и вычислительная техника»

Тема «Локальные и глобальные сети»

Выполнена Мирзаевым И.В.

Руководитель Хадыкин В. Ф.

Донецк-1999

Содержание

TOC \o “1-3” Содержание PAGEREF _Toc445267504 \h 2

Введение PAGEREF _Toc445267505 \h 3

Локальные вычислительные сети PAGEREF _Toc445267506 \h 4

Naoaaua ono?ienoaa e n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc445267507 \h
8

Oiiieiaee au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. PAGEREF _Toc445267508 \h 11

Oiiieiaey oeia caacaea. PAGEREF _Toc445267509 \h 11

Eieueoeaaay oiiieiaey. PAGEREF _Toc445267510 \h 13

Oeiiay oiiieiaey. PAGEREF _Toc445267511 \h 14

Ae?aaiaeaeiay no?oeoo?a EAN. PAGEREF _Toc445267512 \h 17

Oeiu iino?iaieя naoae ii iaoiaeai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. PAGEREF
_Toc445267513 \h 18

Eieaeueiay naoue Token Ring PAGEREF _Toc445267514 \h 18

Eieaeueiay naoue Arnnet. PAGEREF _Toc445267515 \h 18

Eieaeueiay naoue Ethernet PAGEREF _Toc445267516 \h 19

Naoaaua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu aeeя eieaeueiuo naoae. PAGEREF
_Toc445267517 \h 20

NetWare 3.11, Nowell Inc. PAGEREF _Toc445267518 \h 21

LAN Server, IAI Nia?. PAGEREF _Toc445267519 \h 22

VINES 5.52, Banyan System Inc. PAGEREF _Toc445267520 \h 23

Windows NT Advanced Server 3.1-4, Microsoft Corp. PAGEREF
_Toc445267521 \h 24

NetWare 4, Nowell Inc. PAGEREF _Toc445267522 \h 25

Компьютерная сеть комбината «Азовсталь» PAGEREF _Toc445267523 \h 27

Internet – aeiaaeueiaя eiiiuethoa?iaя naoue PAGEREF _Toc445267524 \h
28

НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКИЕ FTN-СОВМЕСТИМЫЕ КОМПЬЮТЕРHЫЕ СЕТИ – FIDONET PAGEREF
_Toc445267525 \h 35

ЗАКЛЮЧЕHИЕ PAGEREF _Toc445267526 \h 37

Eeoa?aoo?a PAGEREF _Toc445267527 \h 38

Введение

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?a nouanoaoao aieaa 130 ieeeeiiia
eiiiuethoa?ia e aieaa 80 % ec ieo iauaaeeiaiu a ?acee/iua
eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiua naoe io iaeuo eieaeueiuo naoae a ioenao
aei aeiaaeueiuo naoae oeia Internet. Anaie?iay oaiaeaioeey e
iauaaeeiaieth eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe iaoneiaeaia ?yaeii aaaeiuo i?e/ei,
oaeeo eae onei?aiea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niiauaiee, aiciiaeiinoue
auno?iai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie, iieo/aiea e
ia?aaea/a niiauaiee ( oaenia, E – Mail ienai e i?i/aai ) ia iooiaey io
?aai/aai ianoa, aiciiaeiinoue iaiiaaiiiai iieo/aiey ethaie eioi?iaoeee
ec ethaie oi/ee caiiiai oa?a, a oae aea iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ?aciuo oe?i i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?aaioathueo iiae ?aciui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai.

Oaeea ia?iiiua iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioi?ua ianao a naaa
au/eneeoaeueiay naoue e oio iiaue iioaioeeaeueiue iiaeuai eioi?ue i?e
yoii eniuouaaao eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiiieaen, a oae aea cia/eoaeueiia
onei?aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia aeatho iai i?aai ia
i?eieiaoue yoi e ?ac?aaioea e ia i?eiaiyoue eo ia i?aeoeea.

?anniio?ei iaoo EAN комбината «Азовсталь». Oi?iuay caaea/o iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi yoi eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue ( EAN ).

Локальные вычислительные сети

*oi oaeia EAN? Iiae EAN iiieiatho niaianoiia iiaeeeth/aiea ianeieueeeo
ioaeaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo ?aai/eo iano ( ?aai/eo noaioeee ) e aaeeiiio
eaiaeo ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Aeaaiaea?y au/eneeoaeueiui naoyi iu iieo/eee
aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai eniieueciaaiey i?ia?aii e aac aeaiiuo
ianeieueeeie iieueciaaoaeyie.

Iiiyoea eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue – EAN ( aiae. LAN – Lokal Area
Network ) ioiineony e aaia?aoe/anee ia?aie/aiiui ( oa??eoi?eaeueii eee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii) aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiui ?aaeecaoeeyi, a eioi?uo
ianeieueei eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai naycaiiu ae?oa n ae?oaii n iiiiuueth
niioaaonoaothueo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee. Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio niaaeeiaieth
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ae?oaeie ?aai/eie
noaioeeyie, iiaeeeth/aiiuie e yoie EAN.

A i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee EAN ea?atho i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue.
Iin?aaenoaii EAN a nenoaio iauaaeeiythony ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u,
?aniieiaeaiiua ia iiiaeo oaeaeaiiuo ?aai/eo ianoao, eioi?ua eniieuecotho
niaianoii iai?oaeiaaiea, i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa e eioi?iaoeeth. ?aai/ea
ianoa nio?oaeieeia ia?anoatho auoue eciee?iaaiiuie e iauaaeeiythony a
aaeeioth nenoaio. ?anniio?ei i?aeiouanoaa, iieo/aaiua i?e naoaaii
iauaaeeiaiee ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia a aeaea aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiie
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe.

?acaeaeaiea ?ano?nia.

?acaeaeaiea ?ano?nia iicaieyao yeiiiiii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu,
iai?eia?, oi?aaeyoue ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie, oaeeie eae eaca?iua
ia/aoathuea ono?ienoaa, ni anao i?eniaaeeiaiiuo ?aai/eo noaioeee.

?acaeaeaiea aeaiiuo.

?acaeaeaiea aeaiiuo i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e oi?aaeaiey
aacaie aeaiiuo n ia?eoa?eeiuo ?aai/eo iano, ioaeaeathueony a
eioi?iaoeee.

?acaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa.

?acaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue
iaeiia?aiaiiiai eniieueciaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo, ?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa.

?acaeaeaiea ?ano?nia i?ioeanni?a.

I?e ?acaeaeaiea ?ano?nia i?ioeanni?a aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea
au/eneeoaeueiuo iiuiinoae aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiuo ae?oaeie nenoaiaie,
aoiaeyueie a naoue. I?aaeinoaaeyaiay aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi ia eiathueany ?ano?nu ia “iaa?anuaathony” iiiaioaeueii, a oieueei
eeoue /a?ac niaoeeaeueiue i?ioeanni?, aeinooiiue eaaeaeie ?aai/ae
noaioeee.

Iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneee ?aaeei.

Iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneea naienoaa nenoaiu niaeaenoaotho iaeiia?aiaiiiio
eniieueciaaieth oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa,
?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo e oi?aaeyaiuo, iai?eia?, anee iieueciaaoaeue nenoaiu
?aaioaao n ae?oaei caaeaieai, oi oaeouay auiieiyaiay ?aaioa
ioiaeaeaaaony ia caaeiee ieai.

Ana EAN ?aaioatho a iaeiii noaiaea?oa i?eiyoii aeey eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae
– a noaiaea?oa Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).

Aaciaay iiaeaeue OSI (Open System Interconnection)

Aeey oiai /oiau acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue, ethaee eniieuecotho iauee ycue.
Anee iie ia iiaoo ?acaiaa?eaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii, iie
i?eiaiytho niioaaonoaothuea aniiiiaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey ia?aaea/e
niiauaiee.

Iieacaiiua auoa noaaeee iaiaoiaeeiu, eiaaea niiauaiea ia?aaeaaony io
ioi?aaeoaey e iieo/aoaeth.

Aeey oiai /oiau i?eaanoe a aeaeaeaiea i?ioeann ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo,
eniieueciaaee iaoeiu n iaeeiaeiaui eiaee?iaaieai aeaiiuo e naycaiiua
iaeia n ae?oaie. Aeey aaeeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo a eeieyo nayce, ii
eioi?ui ia?aaeaaony eioi?iaoeey, noi?ie?iaaia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
i?aaiecaoeey ii noaiaea?oecaoeee (aiae. ISO – International Standards
Organization).

ISO i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ?ac?aaioee iiaeaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioieiea, a ?aieao eioi?ie iiaeii ?ac?aaaouaaoue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou. Aeey iaaeyaeiiai iiyniaiey ?an/eaiei aa ia
naiue o?iaiae.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeey ii noaiaea?oecaoeee (ISO) ?ac?aaioaea
aaciaoth iiaeaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey ioe?uouo nenoai (aiae. Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI)). Yoa iiaeaeue yaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
noaiaea?oii aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Iiaeaeue niaea?aeeo naiue ioaeaeueiuo o?iaiae:

O?iaaiue 1: oece/aneee – aeoiaua i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee;

O?iaaiue 2: eaiaeueiue – oi?ie?iaaiea eaae?ia, oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e
n?aaea;

O?iaaiue 3: naoaaie – ia?o?ooecaoeey, oi?aaeaiea iioieaie aeaiiuo;

O?iaaiue 4: o?ainii?oiue – iaania/aiea acaeiiaeaenoaey oaeaeaiiuo
i?ioeannia;

O?iaaiue 5: naainiaue – iiaeaea?aeea aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo oaeaeaiiuie
i?ioeannaie;

O?iaaiue 6: i?aaenoaaeaiee aeaiiuo – eioa?i?aoaoeey ia?aaeaaaaiuo
aeaiiuo;

O?iaaiue 7: i?eeeaaeiie – iieueciaaoaeueneia oi?aaeaiea aeaiiuie.

Iniiaiay eaeay yoie iiaeaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eaaeaeiio o?iaith
ioaiaeeony eiie?aoiay ?ieueth a oii /enea e o?ainii?oiie n?aaea.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iauay caaea/a ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ?an/eaiyaony ia
ioaeaeueiua eaaei iaic?eiua caaea/e. Iaiaoiaeeiua niaeaoaiey aeey nayce
iaeiiai o?iaiy n auoa- e ieaea?aniieiaeaiiuie iacuaatho i?ioieieii.

Oae eae iieueciaaoaee ioaeaeathony a yooaeoeaiii oi?aaeaiee, nenoaia
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe i?aaenoaaeyaony eae eiiieaeniia no?iaiea, eioi?ia
eii?aeeie?oao acaeiiaeaenoaea caaea/ iieueciaaoaeae.

N o/aoii auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii auaanoe neaaeothuoth o?iaiaaoth
iiaeaeue n aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ooieoeeyie, auiieiythueieny a
iieueciaaoaeueneii i?eeeaaeiii o?iaia.

Ioaeaeueiua o?iaie aaciaie iiaeaee i?ioiaeyo a iai?aaeaiee aiec io
enoi/ieea aeaiiuo (io o?iaiy 7 e o?iaith 1) e a iai?aaeaiee aaa?o io
i?eaiieea aeaiiuo (io o?iaiy 1 e o?iaith 7). Iieueciaaoaeueneea aeaiiua
ia?aaeathony a ieaea?aniieiaeaiiue o?iaaiue aianoa ni niaoeeoe/aneei
aeey o?iaiy caaieiaeii aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao aeinoeaioo iineaaeiee
o?iaaiue.

Ia i?eaiiie noi?iia iinooiathuea aeaiiua aiaeece?othony e, ii ia?a
iaaeiaiinoe, ia?aaeathony aeaeaa a auoa?aniieiaeaiiue o?iaaiue, iiea
eioi?iaoeey ia aoaeao ia?aaeaia a iieueciaaoaeueneee i?eeeaaeiie
o?iaaiue.

O?iaaiue 1. Oece/aneee.

Ia oece/aneii o?iaia ii?aaeaeythony yeaeo?e/aneea, iaoaie/aneea,
ooieoeeiiaeueiua e i?ioeaaeo?iua ia?aiao?u aeey oece/aneie nayce a
nenoaiao. Oece/aneay naycue e ia?ac?uaiay n iae yenieoaoaoeeiiiay
aioiaiinoue yaeythony iniiaiie ooieoeeae 1-ai o?iaiy. Noaiaea?ou
oece/aneiai o?iaiy aeeth/atho ?aeiiaiaeaoeee V.24 IEEOO (CCITT), EIA
RS232 e O.21. Noaiaea?o ISDN ( Integrated Services Digital Network) a
aoaeouai nua?aao ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue aeey ooieoeee ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.
A ea/anoaa n?aaeu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo eniieuecotho o?aoaeeeueiue iaaeiue
i?iaiae (ye?aie?iaaiiay aeoay ia?a), eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue,
iioiaieieiiiue i?iaiaeiee e ?aaeei?aeaeioth eeieth.

O?iaaiue 2. Eaiaeueiue.

Eaiaeueiue o?iaaiue oi?ie?oao ec aeaiiuo, ia?aaeaaaaiuo 1-i o?iaiai,
oae iacuaaaiua “eaae?u” iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eaae?ia. Ia yoii o?iaia
inouanoaeythony oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea,
eniieuecoaiie ianeieueeeie YAI, neio?iiecaoeey, iaia?oaeaiea e
eni?aaeaiea ioeaie.

O?iaaiue 3. Naoaaie.

Naoaaie o?iaaiue onoaiaaeeaaao naycue a au/eneeoaeueiie naoe iaaeaeo
aeaoiy aaiiaioaie. Niaaeeiaiea i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y ooieoeeyi
ia?o?ooecaoeee, eioi?ua o?aaotho iaee/ey naoaaiai aae?ana a iaeaoa.
Naoaaie o?iaaiue aeieaeai oaeaea iaania/eaaoue ia?aaioeo ioeaie,
ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea, oi?aaeaiea iioieaie aeaiiuo. Naiue ecaanoiue
noaiaea?o, ioiinyueeny e yoiio o?iaith, – ?aeiiaiaeaoeey O.25 IEEOO
(aeey naoae iauaai iieueciaaiey n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia).

O?iaaiue 4. O?ainii?oiue.

O?ainii?oiue o?iaaiue iiaeaea?aeeaaao iai?a?uaioth ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo
iaaeaeo aeaoiy acaeiiaeaenoaothueie ae?oa n ae?oaii iieueciaaoaeueneeie
i?ioeannaie. Ea/anoai o?ainii?oe?iaee, aacioeai/iinoue ia?aaea/e,
iacaaeneiinoue au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae, na?aen o?ainii?oe?iaee ec eiioea a
eiiaoe, ieieiecaoeey cao?ao e aae?anaoeey nayce aa?aioe?otho
iai?a?uaioth e aacioeai/ioth ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo.

O?iaaiue 5. Naainiaue.

Naainiaue o?iaaiue eii?aeeie?oao i?eai, ia?aaea/o e auaea/o iaeiiai
naaina nayce. Aeey eii?aeeiaoeee iaiaoiaeeiu eiio?ieue ?aai/eo
ia?aiao?ia, oi?aaeaiea iioieaie aeaiiuo i?iiaaeooi/iuo iaeiieoaeae e
aeeaeiaiaue eiio?ieue, aa?aioe?othuee ia?aaea/o, eiathueony a
?anii?yaeaiee aeaiiuo. E?iia oiai, naainiaue o?iaaiue niaea?aeeo
aeiiieieoaeueii ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia?ieyie, iiaen/aoa ieaou ca
iieueciaaiea ?ano?naie naoe, oi?aaeaiey aeeaeiaii, neio?iiecaoeee e
ioiaiu nayce a naaina ia?aaea/e iinea naiy aneaaenoaea ioeaie a
ieaea?aniieiaeaiiuo o?iaiyo.

O?iaaiue 6. I?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo.

O?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eioa?i?aoaoeee
aeaiiuo; a oaeaea iiaeaioiaee aeaiiuo aeey iieueciaaoaeueneiai
i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy. Ia yoii o?iaia i?ienoiaeeo i?aia?aciaaiea aeaiiuo
ec eaae?ia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a ye?aiiue oi?iao eee
oi?iao aeey ia/aoathueo ono?ienoa ieiia/iie nenoaiu.

O?iaaiue 7. I?eeeaaeiie.

A i?eeeaaeiii o?iaia iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue a ?anii?yaeaiea
iieueciaaoaeae oaea ia?a?aaioaiioth eioi?iaoeeth. N yoei iiaeao
ni?aaeoueny nenoaiiia e iieueciaaoaeueneia i?eeeaaeiia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea.

Aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ii eiiioieeaoeeiiiui eeieyi aeaiiua
i?aia?acothony a oeaii/eo neaaeothueo ae?oa ca ae?oaii aeoia (aeaie/iia
eiaee?iaaiea n iiiiuueth aeaoo ninoiyiee:”0″ e “1”).

Ia?aaeaaaaiua aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaua ciaee i?aaenoaaeythony n iiiiuueth
aeoiauo eiiaeiaoeee. Aeoiaua eiiaeiaoeee ?aniieaaatho a ii?aaeaeaiiie
eiaeiaie oaaeeoea, niaea?aeauae 4-, 5-, 6-, 7- eee 8-aeoiaua eiaeu.

Eiee/anoai i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ciaeia a oiaea caaeneo io eiee/anoaa aeoia,
eniieuecoaiuo a eiaea: eiae ec /aou?ao aeoia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue
iaeneioi 16 cia/aiee, 5-aeoiaue eiae – 32 cia/aiey, 6-aeoiaue eiae – 64
cia/aiey, 7-aeoiaue – 128 cia/aiee e 8-aeoiaue eiae – 256
aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iauo ciaeia.

I?e ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo iaeeiaeiauie au/eneeoaeueiuie
nenoaiaie e ?acee/athueieny oeiaie eiiiuethoa?ia i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea
eiaeu:

Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia ia?aaea/a neiaieueiie eioi?iaoeee
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth 7-aeoiaiai eiaee?iaaiey, iicaieythuaai
caeiaee?iaaoue caaeaaiua e no?i/iua aoeau aiaeeeneiai aeoaaeoa, a oaeaea
iaeioi?ua niaoeneiaieu.

Iaoeeiiaeueiua e niaoeeaeueiua ciaee n iiiiuueth 7-aeoiai eiaea
i?aaenoaaeoue iaeuecy. Aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo ciaeia
i?eiaiytho iaeaieaa oiio?aaeiue 8-aeoiaue eiae.

Aeey i?aaeeueiie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieiie e aacioeai/iie ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeii i?eaea?aeeaaoueny niaeaniaaiiuo e onoaiiaeaiiuo
i?aaee. Ana iie iaiai?aiu a i?ioieiea ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

I?ioieie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo o?aaoao neaaeothuae eioi?iaoeee:

• Neio?iiecaoeey

Iiae neio?iiecaoeeae iiieiatho iaoaieci ?aniiciaaaiey ia/aea aeiea
aeaiiuo e aai eiioea.

• Eieoeeaeecaoeey

Iiae eieoeeaeecaoeeae iiieiatho onoaiiaeaiea niaaeeiaiey iaaeaeo
acaeiiaeaenoaothueie ia?oia?aie.

• Aeiee?iaaiea

Iiae aeiee?iaaieai iiieiatho ?acaeaiea ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee ia
aeiee aeaiiuo no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeneiaeueiie aeeeiu (aeeth/ay
iiiciaaaoaeueiua ciaee ia/aea aeiea e aai eiioea).

• Aae?anaoeey

Aae?anaoeey iaania/eaaao eaeaioeoeeaoeeth ?acee/iiai eniieuecoaiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeaiiuo, eioi?ia iaiaieaaaony ae?oa n ae?oaii eioi?iaoeeae
ai a?aiy acaeiiaeaenoaey.

• Iaia?oaeaiea ioeaie

Iiae iaia?oaeaieai ioeaie iiieiatho onoaiiaeo aeoia /aoiinoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, au/eneaiea eiio?ieueiuo aeoia.

• Ioia?aoeey aeieia

Oaeouay ioia?aoeey aeieia iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue ioeai/ii ia?aaeaaaaioth
eee iioa?yaoothny eioi?iaoeeth.

• Oi?aaeaiea iioieii aeaiiuo

Oi?aaeaiea iioieii aeaiiuo neoaeeo aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey e neio?iiecaoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia. Oae, iai?eia?, anee ia oaaoaao ianoa a aooa?a
ono?ienoaa aeaiiuo eee aeaiiua ia aeinoaoi/ii auno?i ia?aaaouaathony a
ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoaao (iai?eia?, i?eioa?ao), niiauaiey e / eee
cai?inu iaeaieeaathony.

• Iaoiaeu ainnoaiiaeaiey

Iinea i?a?uaaiey i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo eniieuecotho iaoiaeu
ainnoaiiaeaiey, /oiau aa?iooueny e ii?aaeaeaiiiio iieiaeaieth aeey
iiaoi?iie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

• ?ac?aoaiea aeinooia

?ani?aaeaeaiea, eiio?ieue e oi?aaeaiea ia?aie/aieyie aeinooia e aeaiiui
aiaiythony a iaycaiiinoue ioieoa ?ac?aoaiey aeinooia (iai?eia?, “oieueei
ia?aaea/a” eee “oieueei i?eai” ).

Naoaaua ono?ienoaa e n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee.

A ea/anoaa n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecothony aeoay
ia?a, eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue iioiaieieiiiua eeiee. I?e auai?a oeia eaaaey
o/eouaatho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

• noieiinoue iiioaaea e ianeoaeeaaiey,

• nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee,

• ia?aie/aiey ia aaee/eio ?annoiyiey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee (aac
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneeeoaeae-iiaoi?eoaeae(?aieoa?ia)),

• aaciianiinoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Aeaaiay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony a iaeiia?aiaiiii iaania/aiee yoeo
iieacaoaeae, iai?eia?, iaeaunoay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ia?aie/aia
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiui ?annoiyieai ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, i?e eioi?ii aua
iaania/eaaaony o?aaoaiue o?iaaiue caueou aeaiiuo. Eaaeay ia?aueaaaiinoue
e i?inoioa ?anoe?aiey eaaaeueiie nenoaiu aeeytho ia aa noieiinoue.

Aeoay ia?a.

Iaeaieaa aeaoaaui eaaaeueiui niaaeeiaieai yaeyaony aeoia aeaooaeeeueiia
i?iaiaeiia niaaeeiaiea /anoi iacuaaaiia “aeoie ia?ie” (twisted pair).
Iia iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ni nei?inoueth aei 10 Iaeo/n,
eaaei ia?aueaaaony, iaeiaei yaeyaony iiiaoiiacaueuaiiie. Aeeeia eaaaey
ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 1000 i i?e nei?inoe ia?aaea/e 1 Iaeo/n.
I?aeiouanoaaie yaeythony ieceay oeaia e aan i?iaeaiiay onoaiiaea. Aeey
iiauoaiey iiiaoicaueuaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee /anoi eniieuecotho
ye?aie?iaaiioth aeooth ia?o, o.a. aeooth ia?o, iiiauaiioth a
ye?aie?othuoth iaiei/eo, iiaeiaii ye?aio eiaeneaeueiiai eaaaey. Yoi
oaaee/eaaao noieiinoue aeoie ia?u e i?eaeeaeaao aa oeaio e oeaia
eiaeneaeueiiai eaaaey.

Eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue.

Eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue eiaao n?aaeithth oeaio, oi?ioi iiiaoicaueoai e
i?eiaiyaony aeey nayce ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey (ianeieueei eeeiiao?ia).
Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee io 1 aei 10 Iaeo/n, a a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 50 Iaeo/n. Eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue
eniieuecoaony aeey iniiaiie e oe?ieiiieiniie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Oe?ieiiieiniue eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue.

Oe?ieiiieiniue eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue iaaini?eei/ea e iiiaoai, eaaei
ia?aueaaaony, ii oeaia aai aunieay. Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee
?aaia 500 Iaeo/n. I?e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee a aaceniie iieina /anoio ia
?annoiyiea aieaa 1,5 ei o?aaoaony oneeeoaeue, eee oae iacuaaaiue ?aieoa?
(iiaoi?eoaeue). Iiyoiio noiia?iia ?annoiyiea i?e ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee
oaaee/eaaaony aei 10 ei. Aeey au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae n oiiieiaeae oeia
eee aea?aai eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue aeieaeai eiaoue ia eiioea niaeanothuee
?acenoi? (oa?ieiaoi?).

Athernet-eaaaeue.

Ethernet-eaaaeue oaeaea yaeyaony eiaeneaeueiui eaaaeai n aieiiaui
nii?ioeaeaieai 50 Ii. Aai iacuaatho aua oienoue Ethernet (thick) eee
aeaeoue eaaaeue (yellow cable). Ii eniieuecoao 15-eiioaeoiia
noaiaea?oiia aeeth/aiea. Aneaaenoaea iiiaoicaueuaiiinoe yaeyaony
aei?iaie aeueoa?iaoeaie iau/iui eiaeneaeueiui eaaaeyi. Iaeneiaeueii
aeinooiiia ?annoiyiea aac iiaoi?eoaey ia i?aauoaao 500 i, a iauaa
?annoiyiea naoe Ethernet – ieiei 3000 i. Ethernet-eaaaeue, aeaaiaea?y
naiae iaaeno?aeueiie oiiieiaee, eniieuecoao a eiioea eeoue iaeei
iaa?oci/iue ?acenoi?.

Nheapernat-eaaaeue.

Aieaa aeaoaaui, /ai Ethernet-eaaaeue yaeyaony niaaeeiaiea
Cheapernet-eaaaeue eee, eae aai /anoi iacuaatho, oiieee (thin) Ethernet.
Yoi oaeaea 50-iiiue eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue ni nei?inoueth ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a aeanyoue ieeeeiiia aeo / n.

I?e niaaeeiaiee naaiaioia Nhaa?aanat-eaaaey oaeaea o?aaothony
iiaoi?eoaee. Au/eneeoaeueiua naoe n Cheapernet-eaaaeai eiatho
iaaieueooth noieiinoue e ieieiaeueiua cao?aou i?e ia?aueaaiee.
Niaaeeiaiey naoaauo ieao i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth oe?iei eniieuecoaiuo
iaeiaaaa?eoiuo aaeiiaoiuo ?acuaiia (N?-50). Aeiiieieoaeueiia
ye?aie?iaaiea ia o?aaoaony. Eaaaeue i?eniaaeeiyaony e IE n iiiiuueth
o?ieieeiauo niaaeeieoaeae (T-connectors).

?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?aai/eie noaioeeyie aac iiaoi?eoaeae iiaeao
ninoaaeyoue iaeneioi 300 i, a iauaa ?annoiyiea aeey naoe ia
Cheapernet-eaaaey – ieiei 1000 i. I?eaiiia?aaeao/ee Cheapernet
?aniieiaeai ia naoaaie ieaoa e eae aeey aaeueaaie/aneie ?acaycee iaaeaeo
aaeaioa?aie, oae e aeey oneeaiey aiaoiaai neaiaea

Iioiaieieiiiua eeiee.

Iaeaieaa aei?iaeie yaeythony iioii?iaiaeieee, iacuaaaiua oaeaea
noaeeiaieieiiiui eaaaeai. Nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee ii iei
aeinoeaaao ianeieueeeo aeaaaeo a naeoiaeo. Aeiionoeiia oaeaeaiea aieaa
50 ei. Aiaoiaa aicaeaenoaea iiiao i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao. Ia aeaiiue
iiiaio yoi iaeaieaa aei?iainoiyuaa niaaeeiaiea aeey EAN. I?eiaiythony
oai, aaea aicieeatho yeaeo?iiaaieoiua iiey iiiao eee o?aaoaony ia?aaea/a
eioi?iaoeee ia i/aiue aieueoea ?annoiyiey aac eniieueciaaiey
iiaoi?eoaeae. Iie iaeaaeatho i?ioeaiiiaeniooeaathueie naienoaaie, oae
eae oaoieea ioaaoaeaiee a iioiaieieiiiuo eaaaeyo i/aiue neiaeia.
Iioii?iaiaeieee iauaaeeiythony a JIBC n iiiiuueth caacaeiia?aciiai
niaaeeiaiey.

Iieacaoaee o?ao oeiiauo n?aae aeey ia?aaea/e i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 1.

Таблица 1 Показатели трех типовых средств для передачи

Iieacaoaee N?aaea ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo

Aeaoo aeeeueiue eaaaeue – aeoay ia?a

Eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue

Iioiaieieiiiue eaaaeue

1 2 3 4

Oeaia

Iaaunieay

Ioiineoaeueii aunieay

Aunieay

1 2 3 4

Ia?aueaaiea I/aiue i?inoia I?iaeaiaoe/ii I?inoia

Caueoa io i?ineooeaaiey Iacia/eoaeueiay Oi?ioay Aunieay

Iieacaoaee

N?aaea ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo

Aeaoo aeeeueiue eaaaeue – aeoay ia?a

Eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue Iioiaieieiiiue eaaaeue

I?iaeaiu n cacaieaieai

Iao Aiciiaeiu Iao

Aini?eei/eainoue e iiiaoai Nouanoaoao Nouanoaoao Ionoonoaoao

Nouanoaoao ?yae i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey EAN ia iniiaa auoa ?anniio?aiiuo
eiiiiiaioia. Oaeea i?eioeeiu aua iacuaatho – oiiieiaeyie.

Oiiieiaee au/eneeoaeueiie naoe.

Oiiieiaey oeia caacaea.

Eiioeaioeey oiiieiaee naoe a aeaea caacaeu i?eoea ec iaeanoe aieueoeo
YAI, a eioi?ie aieiaiay iaoeia iieo/aao e ia?aaaouaaao ana aeaiiua n
ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa eae aeoeaiue ocae ia?aaioee aeaiiuo. Yoio
i?eioeei i?eiaiyaony a nenoaiao ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, iai?eia?, a
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa RELCOM. Any eioi?iaoeey iaaeaeo aeaoiy ia?eoa?eeiuie
?aai/eie ianoaie i?ioiaeeo /a?ac oeaio?aeueiue ocae au/eneeoaeueiie
naoe.

Рис1 Oiiieiaey a aeaea caacaeu

I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue naoe ii?aaeaeyaony au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoueth
ocea e aa?aioe?oaony aeey eaaeaeie ?aai/ae noaioeee. Eieeecee
(noieeiiaaiee) aeaiiuo ia aicieeaao.

Eaaaeueiia niaaeeiaiea aeiaieueii i?inoia, oae eae eaaeaeay ?aai/ay
noaioeey naycaia n oceii. Cao?aou ia i?ieeaaeeo eaaaeae aunieea,
iniaaiii eiaaea oeaio?aeueiue ocae aaia?aoe/anee ?aniieiaeai ia a
oeaio?a oiiieiaee.

I?e ?anoe?aiee au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae ia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ?aiaa
auiieiaiiua eaaaeueiua nayce: e iiaiio ?aai/aio ianoo iaiaoiaeeii
i?ieeaaeuaaoue ioaeaeueiue eaaaeue ec oeaio?a naoe.

Oiiieiaey a aeaea caacaeu yaeyaony iaeaieaa auno?iaeaenoaothuae ec anao
oiiieiaee au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae, iineieueeo ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
?aai/eie noaioeeyie i?ioiaeeo /a?ac oeaio?aeueiue ocae (i?e aai oi?ioae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe) ii ioaeaeueiui eeieyi, eniieuecoaiui oieueei yoeie
?aai/eie noaioeeyie. *anoioa cai?inia ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee io iaeiie
noaioeee e ae?oaie iaaunieay ii n?aaiaieth n aeinoeaaaiie a ae?oaeo
oiiieiaeyo.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue au/eneeoaeueiie naoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caaeneo
io iiuiinoe oeaio?aeueiiai oaeeiaiai na?aa?a. Ii iiaeao auoue oceei
ianoii au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. A neo/aa auoiaea ec no?iy oeaio?aeueiiai
ocea ia?ooaaony ?aaioa anae naoe.

Oeaio?aeueiue ocae oi?aaeaiey – oaeeiaue na?aa? iioaao ?aaeeciaaoue
iioeiaeueiue iaoaieci caueou i?ioea ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e
eioi?iaoeee. Any au/eneeoaeueiay naoue iiaeao oi?aaeyoueny ec aa
oeaio?a.

Eieueoeaaay oiiieiaey.

I?e eieueoeaaie oiiieiaee naoe ?aai/ea noaioeee naycaiu iaeia n ae?oaie
ii e?oao, o.a. ?aai/ay noaioeey 1 n ?aai/ae noaioeeae 2, ?aai/ay
noaioeey 3

Рис 2Eieueoeaaay oiiieiaey

n ?aai/ae noaioeeae 4 e o.ae. Iineaaeiyy ?aai/ay noaioeey naycaia n
ia?aie. Eiiioieeaoeeiiiay naycue caiueaaony a eieueoei.

I?ieeaaeea eaaaeae io iaeiie ?aai/ae noaioeee aei ae?oaie iiaeao auoue
aeiaieueii neiaeiie e aei?iainoiyuae, iniaaiii anee aaia?aoe/anee
?aai/ea noaioeee ?aniieiaeaiu aeaeaei io eieueoea (iai?eia?, a eeieth).

Niiauaiey oee?eoee?otho ?aaoey?ii ii e?oao. ?aai/ay noaioeey iinueaao ii
ii?aaeaeaiiiio eiia/iiio aae?ano eioi?iaoeeth, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iieo/ea
ec eieueoea cai?in. Ia?anueea niiauaiee yaeyaony i/aiue yooaeoeaiie, oae
eae aieueoeinoai niiauaiee iiaeii ioi?aaeyoue “a aei?iao” ii eaaaeueiie
nenoaia iaeii ca ae?oaei. I/aiue i?inoi iiaeii naeaeaoue eieueoeaaie
cai?in ia ana noaioeee. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee
oaaee/eaaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao ?aai/eo noaioeee, aoiaeyueo a
au/eneeoaeueioth naoue.

Iniiaiay i?iaeaia i?e eieueoeaaie oiiieiaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
eaaeaeay ?aai/ay noaioeey aeieaeia aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a ia?anueea
eioi?iaoeee, e a neo/aa auoiaea ec no?iy oioy au iaeiie ec ieo any naoue
ia?aeecoaony. Iaeni?aaiinoe a eaaaeueiuo niaaeeiaieyo eieaeecothony
eaaei.

Iiaeeeth/aiea iiaie ?aai/ae noaioeee o?aaoao e?aoei n?i/iiai aueeth/aiey
naoe, oae eae ai a?aiy onoaiiaee eieueoei aeieaeii auoue ?aciieiooi.
Ia?aie/aiey ia i?ioyaeaiiinoue au/eneeoaeueiie naoe ia nouanoaoao, oae
eae iii, a eiia/iii n/aoa, ii?aaeaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii ?annoiyieai
iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?aai/eie noaioeeyie.

Рис 3 No?oeoo?a eiae/aneie eieueoeaaie oeaie

Niaoeeaeueiie oi?iie eieueoeaaie oiiieiaee yaeyaony eiae/aneay
eieueoeaaay naoue. Oece/anee iia iiioe?oaony eae niaaeeiaiea caacaeiuo
oiiieiaee. Ioaeaeueiua caacaeu aeeth/athony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo
eiiiooaoi?ia (aiae. Hub -eiioeaio?aoi?), eioi?ua ii-?onnee oaeaea
eiiaaea iacuaatho “oaa”. A caaeneiinoe io /enea ?aai/eo noaioeee e
aeeeiu eaaaey iaaeaeo ?aai/eie noaioeeyie i?eiaiytho aeoeaiua eee
ianneaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u. Aeoeaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u aeiiieieoaeueii
niaea?aeao oneeeoaeue aeey iiaeeeth/aiey io 4 aei 16 ?aai/eo noaioeee.
Ianneaiue eiioeaio?aoi? yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii ?acaaoaeoaeueiui
ono?ienoaii (iaeneioi ia o?e ?aai/ea noaioeee). Oi?aaeaiea ioaeaeueiie
?aai/ae noaioeeae a eiae/aneie eieueoeaaie naoe i?ienoiaeeo oae aea, eae
e a iau/iie eieueoeaaie naoe. Eaaeaeie ?aai/ae noaioeee i?enaaeaaaony
niioaaonoaothuee ae aae?an, ii eioi?iio ia?aaeaaony oi?aaeaiea (io
noa?oaai e ieaaeoaio e io naiiai ieaaeoaai e naiiio noa?oaio). ?ac?ua
niaaeeiaiey i?ienoiaeeo oieueei aeey ieaea?aniieiaeaiiiai (aeeaeaeoaai)
ocea au/eneeoaeueiie naoe, oae /oi eeoue a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo iiaeao
ia?ooaoueny ?aaioa anae naoe.

Oeiiay oiiieiaey.

I?e oeiiie oiiieiaee n?aaea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeyaony a
oi?ia eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai iooe, aeinooiiiai aeiy anao ?aai/eo noaioeee, e
eioi?iio iie ana aeieaeiu auoue iiaeeeth/aiu. Ana ?aai/ea noaioeee iiaoo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii anooiaoue a eiioaeo n ethaie ?aai/ae noaioeeae,
eiathuaeny a naoe.

Рис 4 Oeiiay oiiieiaey

?aai/ea noaioeee a ethaia a?aiy, aac i?a?uaaiey ?aaiou anae
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe, iiaoo auoue iiaeeeth/aiu e iae eee ioeeth/aiu.
Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea au/eneeoaeueiie naoe ia caaeneo io ninoiyiey
ioaeaeueiie ?aai/ae noaioeee.

A noaiaea?oiie neooaoeee aeey oeiiie naoe Ethernet /anoi eniieuecotho
oiieee eaaaeue eee Cheapernet-eaaeeue n o?ieieeiaui niaaeeieoaeai.
Aueeth/aiea e iniaaiii iiaeeeth/aiea e oaeie naoe o?aaotho ?ac?uaa oeiu,
/oi aucuaaao ia?ooaiea oee?eoee?othuaai iioiea eioi?iaoeee e caaenaiea
nenoaiu.

Iiaua oaoiieiaee i?aaeeaaatho ianneaiua ooainaeueiua ei?iaee, /a?ac
eioi?ua iiaeii ioeeth/aoue e / eee aeeth/aoue ?aai/ea noaioeee ai a?aiy
?aaiou au/eneeoaeueiie naoe.

Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ?aai/ea noaioeee iiaeii aeeth/aoue aac i?a?uaaiey
naoaauo i?ioeannia e eiiioieeaoeeiiiie n?aaeu, i/aiue eaaei
i?ineooeaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, o.a. ioaaoaeyoue eioi?iaoeeth ec
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie n?aaeu.

A EAN n i?yiie (ia iiaeoee?oaiie) ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee anaaaea iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue oieueei iaeia noaioeey, ia?aaeathuay eioi?iaoeeth. Aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey eieeecee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?eiaiyaony a?aiaiiie
iaoiae ?acaeaeaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio aeey eaaeaeie iiaeeeth/aiiie
?aai/ae noaioeee a ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiaiou a?aiaie i?aaeinoaaeyaony
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea eaiaea ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.
Iiyoiio o?aaiaaiey e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe au/eneeoaeueiie naoe i?e
iiauoaiiie iaa?ocea nieaeathony, iai?eia?, i?e aaiaea iiauo ?aai/eo
noaioeee. ?aai/ea noaioeee i?eniaaeeiythony e oeia iin?aaenoaii
ono?ienoa OA? (aiae. Terminal Access Point – oi/ea iiaeeeth/aiey
oa?ieiaea). OA? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaoeeaeueiue oei iiaeniaaeeiaiey e
eiaeneaeueiiio eaaaeth. Ciiae eaieue/aoie oi?iu aiaae?yaony /a?ac
ia?oaeioth iaiei/eo aiaoiaai i?iaiaeieea e neie aeeyeaeo?eea e
aioo?aiiaio i?iaiaeieeo e i?eniaaeeiyaony e iaio.

A EAN n iiaeoee?iaaiiie oe?ieiiieiniie ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee ?acee/iua
?aai/ea noaioeee iieo/atho, ii ia?a iaaeiaiinoe, /anoioo, ia eioi?ie yoe
?aai/ea noaioeee iiaoo ioi?aaeyoue e iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth.
Ia?anueaaiua aeaiiua iiaeoee?othony ia niioaaonoaothueo ianoueo
/anoioao, o.a. iaaeaeo n?aaeie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee e ?aai/eie
noaioeeyie iaoiaeyony niioaaonoaaiii iiaeaiu aeey iiaeoeyoeee e
aeaiiaeoeyoeee. Oaoieea oe?ieiiieiniuo niiauaiee iicaieyao iaeiia?aiaiii
o?ainii?oe?iaaoue a eiiioieeaoeeiiiie n?aaea aeiaieueii aieueoie iauai
eioi?iaoeee. Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeene?aoiie o?ainii?oe?iaee
aeaiiuo ia ea?aao ?iee, eaeay ia?aiia/aeueiay eioi?iaoeey iiaeaia a
iiaeai (aiaeiaiaay eee oeeo?iaay), oae eae iia ana ?aaii a aeaeueiaeoai
aoaeao i?aia?aciaaia.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee oiiieiaee au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea2.

Таблица 2 Топология вычислительных систем

Oa?aeoa?enoeee Oiiieiaey

1 Caacaea

2 Eieueoei

3 Oeia

4

Noieiinoue ?anoe?aiey

Iacia/eoaeueiay

N?aaeiyy

N?aaeiyy

I?eniaaeeiaiea aaiiaioia

Ianneaiia

Aeoeaiia

Ianneaiia

Caueoa io ioeacia Iacia/eoaeueiay Iacia/eoaeueiay Aunieay

Oa?aeoa?enoe-ee

Oiiieiaey

Caacaea

Eieueoei

Oeia

?acia?u nenoaiu

Ethaua

Ethaua

Ia?aie/aiiu

Caueuaiiinoue io i?ineooeaaiey

Oi?ioay

Oi?ioay

Iacia/eoaeueiay

Noieiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey

Iacia/eoaeueiay Iacia/eoaeueiay Aunieay

1

2

3

4

Iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu i?e aunieeo iaa?oceao

Oi?ioaa

Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia

Ieioia

Aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia a?aiaie

I/aiue oi?ioay

Oi?ioay

Ieioay

?acaiaeea eaaaey

Oi?ioay

Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay

Oi?ioay

Ianeoaeeaaiea

I/aiue oi?ioaa

N?aaeiaa

N?aaeiaa

Ae?aaiaeaeiay no?oeoo?a EAN.

Ia ?yaeo n ecaanoiuie oiiieiaeyie au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae eieueoei,
caacaea e oeia, ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiyaony e eiiaeie?iaaiiay, ia i?eia?
ae?aaiaeaeiay no?oeoo?a. Iia ia?acoaony a iniiaiii a aeaea eiiaeiaoeee
auoaiacaaiiuo oiiieiaee au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae. Iniiaaiea aea?aaa
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe ?aniieaaaaony a oi/ea (ei?aiue), a eioi?ie
niae?athony eiiioieeaoeeiiiua eeiee eioi?iaoeee (aaoae aea?aaa).

Au/eneeoaeueiua naoe n ae?aaiaeaeiie no?oeoo?ie i?eiaiythony oai, aaea
iaaiciiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?eiaiaiea aaciauo naoaauo no?oeoo? a
/enoii aeaea. Aeey iiaeeeth/aiey aieueoiai /enea ?aai/eo noaioeee
niioaaonoaaiii aaeaioa?iui ieaoai i?eiaiytho naoaaua oneeeoaee e / eee
eiiiooaoi?u. Eiiiooaoi?, iaeaaeathuee iaeiia?aiaiii e ooieoeeyie
oneeeoaey, iacuaatho aeoeaiui eiioeaio?aoi?ii.

Ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiytho aeaa eo ?aciiaeaeiinoe, iaania/eaathuea
iiaeeeth/aiea niioaaonoaaiii ainueie eee oanoiaaeoeaoe eeiee.

Ono?ienoai e eioi?iio iiaeii i?eniaaeeieoue iaeneioi o?e noaioeee,
iacuaatho ianneaiui eiioeaio?aoi?ii. Ianneaiue eiioeaio?aoi? iau/ii
eniieuecotho eae ?acaaoaeoaeue. Ii ia ioaeaeaaony a oneeeoaea.
I?aaeiinueeie aeey iiaeeeth/aiey ianneaiiai eiioeaio?aoi?a yaeyaony oi,
/oi iaeneiaeueiia aiciiaeiia ?annoiyiea aei ?aai/ae noaioeee ia aeieaeii
i?aauoaoue ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia iao?ia.

Рис 5Ae?aaiaeaeiay no?oeoo?a EAN.

Oeiu iino?iaiey naoae ii iaoiaeai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Eieaeueiay naoue Token Ring

Yoio noaiaea?o ?ac?aaioai oe?iie IBM. A ea/anoaa ia?aaeathuae n?aaeu
i?eiaiyaony iaye?aie?iaaiiay eee ye?aie?iaaiiay aeoay ia?a (UPT eee SPT)
eee iioiaieieii. Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo 4 Iaeo/n eee 16Iaeo/n. A
ea/anoaa iaoiaea oi?aaeaiey aeinooiii noaioeee e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea
eniieuecoaony iaoiae – ia?ea?iia eieueoei (Oiken Ring). Iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey yoiai iaoiaea:

ono?ienoaa iiaeeeth/athony e naoe ii oiiieiaee eieueoei;

2 ana ono?ienoaa, iiaeeeth/aiiua e naoe, iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua,
oieueei iieo/ea ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aaea/o (ia?ea?);

3 a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie oieueei iaeia noaioeey a naoe iaeaaeaao oaeei
i?aaii.

Oeiu iaeaoia.

A IAI Oikan Ring eniieuecothony o?e iniiaiuo oeia iaeaoia:

1 iaeao oi?aaeaiea/aeaiiua (Data/Nimmand Frame);

2 ia?ea? (Token);

3 iaeao na?ina (Abort).

Iaeao Oi?aaeaiea/Aeaiiua. N iiiiuueth oaeiai iaeaoa auiieiyaony
ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo eee eiiaiae oi?aaeaiey ?aaioie naoe.

Ia?ea?. Noaioeey iiaeao ia/aoue ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo oieueei iinea
iieo/aiey oaeiai iaeaoa, A iaeiii eieueoea iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeei
ia?ea? e, niioaaonoaaiii, oieueei iaeia noaioeey n i?aaii ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo.

Iaeao Na?ina. Iinueea oaeiai iaeaoa iacuaaao i?ae?auaiea ethauo
ia?aaea/.

A naoe iiaeii iiaeeeth/aoue eiiiuethoa?u ii oiiieiaee caacaea eee
eieueoei.

Eieaeueiay naoue Arnnet.

Arnnet (Attached Resource Computer NETWork ) – i?inoay, iaaei?iaay,
iaaeaaeiay e aeinoaoi/ii aeaeay a?oeoaeoo?a eieaeueiie naoe. ?ac?aaioaia
ei?ii?aoeeae Datapoint a 1977 aiaeo. Aiineaaenoaee eeoeaiceth ia Arcnet
i?eia?aea ei?ii?aoeey SIN (Standard Microsistem Corporation), eioi?ay
noaea iniiaiui ?ac?aaio/eeii e i?iecaiaeeoaeai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey naoae
Arcnet. A ea/anoaa ia?aaeathuae n?aaeu eniieuecothony aeoay ia?a,
eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue (RG-62) n aieiiaui nii?ioeaeaieai 93 Ii e
iioiaieieiiiue eaaaeue. Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo – 2,5 Iaeo/n. I?e
iiaeeeth/aiee ono?ienoa a Arcnet i?eiaiytho oiiieiaee oeia e caacaea.
Iaoiae oi?aaeaiey aeinooiii noaioeee e ia?aaeathuae n?aaea – ia?ea?iay
oeia (Oiken Bus). Yoio iaoiae i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuea i?aaeea:

1 Ana ono?ienoaa, iiaeeeth/aiiua e naoe, iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua
oieueei iieo/ea ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aaea/o (ia?ea?);

2 A ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie oieueei iaeia noaioeey a naoe iaeaaeaao oaeei
i?aaii;

3 Aeaiiua, ia?aaeaaaaiua iaeiie noaioeeae, aeinooiiu anai noaioeeyi
naoe.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaiou.

Ia?aaea/a eaaeaeiai aaeoa a Arcnet auiieiyaony niaoeeaeueiie iinueeie
ISU(Information Symbol Unit – aaeeieoea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee),
ninoiyuae ec o?ao neoaeaaiuo noa?o/noiiiauo aeoia e ainueie aeoia
aeaiiuo. A ia/aea eaaeaeiai iaeaoa ia?aaeaaony ia/aeueiue ?acaeaeeoaeue
AA (Alaat Aurst), eioi?ue ninoieo ec oanoe neoaeaaiuo aeoia. Ia/aeueiue
?acaeaeeoaeue auiieiyao ooieoeee i?aaiaoeu iaeaoa.

A Arcnet ii?aaeaeaiu 5 oeiia iaeaoia:

1. Iaeao IOO (Information To Transmit) – i?eaeaoaiea e ia?aaea/a. Yoa
iinueea ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea io iaeiiai ocea naoe ae?oaiio. Noaioeey,
i?eiyaoay yoio iaeao, iieo/aao i?aai ia ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo.

2. Iaeao FBE (Free Buffea Anquiries) – cai?in i aioiaiinoe e i?eaio
aeaiiuo. Yoei iaeaoii i?iaa?yaony aioiaiinoue ocea e i?eaio aeaiiuo.

3. Iaeao aeaiiuo. N iiiiuueth yoie iinueee i?iecaiaeeoueny ia?aaea/a
aeaiiuo.

4. Iaeao ANE (ACKnowledgments) – iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea i?eaia.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aioiaiinoe e i?eaio aeaiiuo eee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea i?eaia
iaeaoa aeaiiuo aac ioeaie, o.a. a ioaao ia FBE e iaeao aeaiiuo.

5. Iaeao NAK ( Negative AcKnowledgments) – iaaioiaiinoue e i?eaio.
Iaaioiaiinoue ocea e i?eaio aeaiiuo ( ioaao ia FBE ) eee i?eiyo iaeao n
ioeaeie.

A naoe Arnnet iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeaa oiiieiaee: caacaea e oeia.

Eieaeueiay naoue Ethernet

Niaoeeoeeaoeeth Ethernet a eiioea naieaeanyouo aiaeia i?aaeeiaeeea
eiiiaiey Xerox Corporation. Iicaeiaa e yoiio i?iaeoo i?eniaaeeieeenue
eiiiaiee Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) e Intel Corporation. A 1982
aiaeo auea iioaeeeiaaia niaoeeoeeaoeey ia Ethernet aa?nee 2.0. Ia aaca
Ethernet einoeoooii IEEE aue ?ac?aaioai noaiaea?o IEEE 802.3. ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo ieie iacia/eoaeueiua.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaiou.

Ia eiae/aneii o?iaia a Ethernet i?eiaiyaony oiiieiaey oeia :

1 ana ono?ienoaa, iiaeeeth/aiiua e naoe, ?aaiii?aaiu, o.a. ethaay
noaioeey iiaeao ia/aoue ia?aaea/o a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie( anee
ia?aaeathuay n?aaea naiaiaeia);

2 aeaiiua, ia?aaeaaaaiua iaeiie noaioeeae, aeinooiiu anai noaioeeyi
naoe.

Naoaaua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu aeey eieaeueiuo naoae.

Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiuo Naoaauo Iia?aoeeiiiuo Nenoai
(Network Operation System – NOS ) – ia?aiin au/eneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee ia
?aai/ea noaioeee, nicaeaiea nenoai n ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioeie aeaiiuo.
Yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue naycaii n ?inoii au/eneeoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e ana aieaa aeoeaiui aiaae?aieai iiuiuo
iiiaicaaea/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai: OS/2, Windows NO, Windows 95. E?iia
yoiai aiaae?aiea iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oaoiieiaee (ILA, DNA, IDAPI)
iicaieyao oi?inoeoue i?aaiecaoeeth ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo. A
oaeie neooaoeee iniiaiie caaea/ae NOS noaiiaeony iauaaeeiaiea
ia?aaiioeaiiuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai ?aai/eo noaioeee e iaania/aiea
o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa caaea/: ia?aaioea aac aeaiiuo,
ia?aaea/a niiauaiee, oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe
(directoao/nama service).

A nia?aiaiiuo NOS i?eiaiytho o?e iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e i?aaiecaoeee
oi?aaeaiey ?ano?naie naoe.

Ia?aue – yoi Oaaeeoeu Iauaeoia (Bindery). Eniieuecoaony a naoaauo
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao NetWare 28a e NetWare v3.1o. Oaeay oaaeeoea
iaoiaeeony ia eaaeaeii oaeeiaii na?aa?a naoe. Iia niaea?aeeo
eioi?iaoeeth i iieueciaaoaeyo, a?oiiao, eo i?aaao aeinooia e ?ano?nai
naoe (aeaiiui, na?aeniui oneoaai e o.i.). Oaeay i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou
oaeiaia, anee a naoe oieueei iaeei na?aa?. A yoii neo/aa o?aaoaony
ii?aaeaeeoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue oieueei iaeio eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco. I?e
?anoe?aiee naoe, aeiaaaeaiee iiauo na?aa?ia iauai caaea/ ii oi?aaeaieth
?ano?naie naoe ?acei aic?anoaao. Aaeieieno?aoi? nenoaiu auioaeaeai ia
eaaeaeii na?aa?a naoe ii?aaeaeyoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue ?aaioo
iieueciaaoaeae. Aaiiaiou naoe, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeieaeiu oi/ii ciaoue,
aaea ?aniieiaeaiu oa eee eiua ?ano?nu naoe, a aeey iieo/aiey aeinooia e
yoei ?ano?nai – ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny ia aua?aiiii na?aa?a. Eiia/ii, aeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, ninoiyueo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa na?aa?ia,
oaeay i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ia iiaeoiaeeo.

Aoi?ie iiaeoiae eniieuecoaony a LANServer e LANMahager – No?oeoo?a
Aeiiaiia (Domain). Ana ?ano?nu naoe e iieueciaaoaee iauaaeeiaiu a
a?oiiu. Aeiiai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aiaeia oaaeeoe iauaeoia
(bindery), oieueei caeanue oaeay oaaeeoea yaeyaony iauae aeey
ianeieueeeo na?aa?ia, i?e yoii ?ano?nu na?aa?ia yaeythony iaueie aeey
anaai aeiiaia. Iiyoiio iieueciaaoaeth aeey oiai /oiau iieo/eoue aeinooi
e naoe, aeinoaoi/ii iiaeeeth/eoueny e aeiiaio (ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny),
iinea yoiai aio noaiiayony aeinooiiu ana ?ano?nu aeiiaia, ?ano?nu anao
na?aa?ia e ono?ienoa, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa aeiiaia. Iaeiaei e n
eniieueciaaieai yoiai iiaeoiaea oaeaea aicieeatho i?iaeaiu i?e
iino?iaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu n aieueoei eiee/anoaii
iieueciaaoaeae, na?aa?ia e, niioaaonoaaiii, aeiiaiia. Iai?eia?, naoe
aeey i?aaei?eyoey eee aieueoie ?acaaoaeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Caeanue yoe
i?iaeaiu oaea naycaiu n i?aaiecaoeeae acaeiiaeaenoaey e oi?aaeaiey
ianeieueeeie aeiiaiaie, oioy ii niaea?aeaieth iie oaeea aea, eae e a
ia?aii neo/aa.

O?aoee iiaeoiae – Neoaeaa Iaeiaiiaaiee Aee?aeoi?ee eee Eaoaeiaia
(Directory Name Services – DNS) eeoai yoeo iaaeinoaoeia. Ana ?ano?nu
naoe: naoaaay ia/aoue, o?aiaiea aeaiiuo, iieueciaaoaee, na?aa?u e o.i.
?anniao?eaathony eae ioaeaeueiua aaoae eee aee?aeoi?ee eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu. Oaaeeoeu, ii?aaeaeythuea DNS, iaoiaeyony ia eaaeaeii na?aa?a.
Yoi, ai-ia?auo, iiauoaao iaaeaaeiinoue e aeeao/anoue nenoaiu, a
ai-aoi?uo, oi?iuaao ia?auaiea iieueciaaoaey e ?ano?nai naoe.
Ca?aaeno?e?iaaaoenue ia iaeiii na?aa?a, iieueciaaoaeth noaiiayony
aeinooiiu ana ?ano?nu naoe. Oi?aaeaiea oaeie nenoaiie oaeaea i?iua, /ai
i?e eniieueciaaiee aeiiaiia, oae eae caeanue nouanoaoao iaeia oaaeeoea,
ii?aaeaeythuay ana ?ano?nu naoe, a oi a?aiy eae i?e aeiiaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeyoue ?ano?nu, iieueciaaoaeae, eo i?aaa
aeinooia aeey eaaeaeiai aeiiaia ioaeaeueii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii ioeaiea eiiiaiee IDC iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie
yaeythony neaaeothuea naoaaua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu:

1 NetWare v2.o e vC.o, Nowell Inc. 65%

2 LAN Server, IAI Nia?. 14%

3 LAN Manager, Microsoft Corp. 3%

4 VINES, Aanoan Systems Inc. 2%

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii aiciiaeiinoe yoeo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo naoaauo
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua iie i?aaeuyaeytho e
i?ia?aiiiiio e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth ono?ienoa naoe.

NetWare 3.11, Nowell Inc.

Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou:

1 naiay yooaeoeaiay oaeeiaay nenoaia n?aaee nia?aiaiiuo NOS;

2 naiue oe?ieee auai? aiia?aoiiai iaania/aiey

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth.

1 Oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?: 38a e auoa.

2 Ieieiaeueiue iauai aeanoeiai aeenea: 9 IAaeo.

3 Iauai II (Iia?aoeaiie Iaiyoe) ia na?aa?a: 4 IAaeo – 4AAaeo.

4 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ?N (?aai/ae Noaioeee) eeeaioa: a40 Eaaeo.

5 Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia: nianoaaiiay ?ac?aaioea Nowell

6 I?ioieieu: I?O/S?O.

7 Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iinoue: iao.

8 Eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae: 250.

9 Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? oaeea: 4AAaeo.

10 Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

11 Iiieoi? UPS: anoue.

12 OOS: anoue.

13 Oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe: oaaeeoeu bindeao ia
na?aa?a.

14 Nenoaia ioeacionoie/eainoe: aeoaee?iaaiea aeeneia, ca?eaeueiia
io?aaeaiea aeeneia, SFT II,SFT III, iiaeaea?aeea iaeiieoaey ia iaaieoiie
eaioa, ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea oaaeeoe bindery e aeaiiuo.

15 Eiii?anne?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

16 O?aaiaioaoeey aeieia ( Block suballocations): iao.

17 Oaeeiaay nenoaia eeeaioia: DOS, Windows, Ian(aeii.), IS/2(aeii.),
UNIX(aeii.), Windows NT.

LAN Server, IAI Nia?.

Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou:

1 eniieueciaaiea aeiiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee naoe oi?iuaao oi?aaeaiea e
aeinooi e ?ano?nai naoe;

2 iaania/eaaao iieiia acaeiiaeaenoaea n ea?a?oe/aneeie nenoaiaie
(a?oeoaeoo?ie SNA).

Oeaeinoiay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia n oe?ieei iaai?ii oneoa. ?aaioaao ia
aaca IS/2, iiyoiio na?aa? iiaeao auoue iaauaeaeaiiui (nondedicated).
Iaania/eaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea n ea?a?oe/aneeie nenoaiaie, iiaeaea?aeeaaao
iaaenaoaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea.

Auioneathony aeaa aa?nee LAN Server: Entry e Advanced. Advanced a
ioee/ea io Entry iiaeaea?aeeaaao aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueioth oaeeiaoth
nenoaio (High Perfomance File System – HPFS). Iia aeeth/aao nenoaiu
ioeacionoie/eainoe (Fail Tolerances) e nae?aoiinoe (Local Security).

Na?aa?u e iieueciaaoaee iauaaeeiythony a aeiiaiu. Na?aa?u a aeiiaia
?aaioatho eae aaeeiay eiae/aneay nenoaia. Ana ?ano?nu aeiiaia aeinooiiu
iieueciaaoaeth iinea ?aaeno?aoeee a aeiiaia. A iaeiie eaaaeueiie nenoaia
iiaoo ?aaioaoue ianeieueei aeiiaiia. I?e eniieueciaaiee ia ?aai/ae
noaioeee OS/2 ?ano?nu yoeo noaioeee aeinooiiu iieueciaaoaeyi ae?oaeo
?aai/eo noaioeee, ii oieueei iaeiiio a aeaiiia a?aiy. Aaeieieno?aoi?
iiaeao oi?aaeyoue ?aaioie naoe oieueei n ?aai/ae noaioeee, ia eioi?ie
onoaiiaeaia iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia OS/2. LAN Server iiaeaea?aeeaaao
oaeaeaiioth caa?oceo ?aai/eo noaioeee DOS, OS/2 e Windows (Remote
Interface Procedure Load – RIPL).

E iaaeinoaoeai iiaeii ioianoe:

1 neiaeiay i?ioeaaeo?a onoaiiaee NOS;

2 ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo ae?aeaa?ia naoaauo
aaeaioa?ia.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth.

1 Oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?: 38a e auoa.

2 Ieieiaeueiue iauai aeanoeiai aeenea: 4.6 IAaeo aeey eeeaioa
(requestor)/7.2 IAaeo aeey na?aa?a.

3 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ia na?aa?a: 1.3 IAaeo – 16 IAaeo.

4 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ?N eeeaioa: 4.2 Iaaeo aeey OS/2, 640 EAaeo aeey
DOS.

5 Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia: OS/2 2.o.

6 I?ioieieu: NetBIOS, ON?/I?.

7 Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iinoue: iiaeaea?aeeaaaony.

8 Eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae: 1016.

9 Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? oaeea: 2 Aaaeo.

10 Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

11 Iiieoi? UPS: anoue.

12 OOS: anoue.

13 Oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe: aeiiaiu.

14 Nenoaia ioeacionoie/eainoe: aeoaee?iaaiea aeeneia, ca?eaeueiia
io?aaeaiea aeeneia, iiaeaea?aeea iaeiieoaey ia iaaieoiie eaioa,
?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea oaaeeoe aeiiaia.

15 Eiii?anne?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

16 O?aaiaioaoeey aeieia (Block suballocation): iao.

17 Oaeeiaay nenoaia eeeaioia: DOS, Windows, Ian (aeii.), OS/2, UNIX,
Windows NT (aeii.).

VINES 5.52, Banyan System Inc.

Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou:

1 aiciiaeiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey n ethaie ae?oaie naoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiie;

2 eniieueciaaiea neoaeau eiai StreetTalk iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue
?acaaoaeaiiua nenoaiu.

Aei iiyaeaiey NetWare 4 VINES i?aiaeaaeaea ia ?uiea naoaauo
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo naoae, aeey naoae ianooaaa
i?aaei?eyoey (enterprise network). Oanii eioaa?e?iaaia n UNIX.

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey eniieuecoaony aeiaaeueiay neoaeaa eiai
– StreetTalk, ai iiiaii noiaeay n NetWare Directory Services. Iicaieyao
iiaeeeth/eoueny iieueciaaoaeth, iaoiaeyuaiony a ethaii ianoa naoe.
StreetTalk – aaca aeaiiuo, ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ii anai na?aa?ai naoe.

Iiaeaea?aeea O.29 iicaieyao oaeaeaiiie ?aai/ae noaioeee DOS
iiaeeeth/eoueny e eieaeueiie naoe /a?ac naoe O.25 eee ISDN.

VINES e?eoe/ia e oeio eiiiuethoa?a e aeanoeeo aeeneia. Iiyoiio i?e
auai?a iai?oaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeoueny a niaianoeiinoe aiia?aoiiai
iaania/aiey e naoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu VINES.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth.

1 Oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?: 386 e auoa.

2 Ieieiaeueiue iauai aeanoeiai aeenea: 80 Iaaeo.

3 Iauai II ia na?aa?a: 8 Iaaeo – 25a Iaaeo.

4 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ?N eeeaioa: a40 EAaeo.

5 Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia: UNIX.

6 I?ioieieu: VINES I?, AFP, NetBIOS, ON?/I?, I?O/S?O.

7 Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iinoue: anoue – SMP(Symmetric MultiProcesing).

8 Eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae: iaia?aie/aiii.

9 Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? oaeea; 2AAaeo.

10 Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

11 Iiieoi? UPS: anoue.

12 OOS: iao.

13 Oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe: StreetTalk.

14 Nenoaia ioeacionoie/eainoe: ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea oaaeeoe StreetTalk
e aeaiiuo.

15 Eiii?anne?iaaiea aeaiiuo: anoue.

16 O?aaiaioaoeey aeieia (Block suballocation): iao.

17 Oaeeiaay nenoaia eeeaioia: DOS, Windows, Ian(aeii.), IS/2,
UNIX(aeii.), Windows NT (aeii.).

Windows NT Advanced Server 3.1-4, Microsoft Corp.

Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou:

1 i?inoioa eioa?oaena iieueciaaoaey

2 aeinooiiinoue n?aaenoa ?ac?aaioee i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii e iiaeaea?aeea
i?ia?anneaiuo iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oaoiieiaee

An? yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi yoa iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia iiaeao noaoue
iaeiie ec naiuo iiioey?iuo naoaauo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai.

Eioa?oaen iaiiieiaao ieiiiue eioa?oaen Windows 3.1- Windows95,
einoaeyoeey caieiaao ieiei 20 ieioo. Iiaeoeueiia iino?iaiea nenoaiu
oi?iuaao aianaiea eciaiaiee e ia?aiin ia ae?oaea ieaooi?iu.
Iaania/eaaaony caueuaiiinoue iiaenenoai io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai
aeinooia e io eo acaeiiiai aeeyiey (anee caaenaao iaeei i?ioeann, yoi ia
aeeyao ia ?aaioo inoaeueiuo). Anoue iiaeaea?aeea oaeaeaiiuo noaioeee –
Remote Access Service (RAS), ii ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaony oaeaeaiiay
ia?aaioea caaeaiee.

Windows NT i?aaeuyaeyao aieaa aunieea o?aaiaaiey e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
eiiiuethoa?a ii n?aaiaieth n NetWare.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth.

1 Oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?: 386 e auoa, MIPS, R4000, DEC Alpha AO?.

2 Ieieiaeueiue iauai aeanoeiai aeenea: 90 Iaaeo.

3 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ia na?aa?a: 16 Iaaeo.

4 Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ?N eeeaioa; 12 Iaaeo aeey NO/512 EAaeo aeey DOS.

5 Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia: Windows NT.

6 I?ioieieu: NetBEUI, ON?/I?, I?O/S?O, A??laOalk, AsyncBEUI.

7 Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iinoue: iiaeaea?aeeaaaony.

8 Eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae: iaia?aie/aiii.

9 Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? oaeea: iaia?aie/ai.

10 Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo: o?iaaiue N-2.

11 Iiieoi? UPS: anoue.

12 OOS: anoue.

13 Oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe: aeiiaiu.

14 Nenoaia ioeacionoie/eainoe: aeoaee?iaaiea aeeneia, ca?eaeueiia
io?aaeaiea aeeneia, RAID 5, iiaeaea?aeea iaeiieoaey ia iaaieoiie eaioa,
?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea oaaeeoe aeiiaia e aeaiiuo.

15 Eiii?anne?iaaiea aeaiiuo: iao.

16 O?aaiaioaoeey aeieia (Block suballocation): iao.

17 Oaeeiaay nenoaia eeeaioia: DOS, Windows, Ian, IS/2, UNIX, Windows NT.

NetWare 4, Nowell Inc.

Ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa:

1 i?eiaiaiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ?ano?naie naoe
(NetWare Directory Services – NDS) iicaieyao no?ieoue yooaeoeaiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu n eiee/anoaii iieueciaaoaeae aei 1000. A NDS
ii?aaeaeaiu ana ?ano?nu, oneoae e iieueciaaoaee naoe. Yoa eioi?iaoeey
?ani?aaeaeaia ii anai na?aa?ai naoe.

Aeey oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth eniieuecoaony oieueei iaeia iaeanoue (?iil),
iiyoiio iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue, inaiaiaeeaoayny iinea auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai
i?ioeannia, noaiiaeony n?aco aeinooiiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (a ioee/ea
io NetWare 3).

Iiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey o?aiaieai aeaiiuo (Data Storage Managment)
ninoieo ec o?ao eiiiiiaio, iicaieythueo iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
oaeeiaie nenoaiu:

1. O?aaiaioaoeey Aeieia eee ?acaeaiea Aeieia Aeaiiuo ia Iiaeaeiee (Block
Suballocation). Anee ?acia? aeiea aeaiiuo ia oiia 64 EAaeoa, a o?aaoaony
caienaoue oaee ?acia?ii 65 EAaeo, oi ?aiaa iio?aaiaaeinue au auaeaeeoue
2 aeiea ii a4 Eaaeoa. I?e yoii 6C Eaaeoa ai aoi?ii aeiea ia iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aeey o?aiaiey ae?oaeo aeaiiuo. A NetWare 4 nenoaia
auaeaeeo a oaeie neooaoeee iaeei aeie ?acia?ii 64 EAaeoa e aeaa aeiea ii
512 Aaeo. Eaaeaeue /anoe/ii eniieuecoaiue aeie aeaeeony ia iiaeaeiee ii
512 Aaeo, naiaiaeiua iiaeaeiee aeinooiiu nenoaia i?e caiene ae?oaeo
oaeeia.

2. Oiaeiaea Oaeeia (File Compression). Aeieai ia eniieuecoaiua aeaiiua
nenoaia aaoiiaoe/anee eiii?anne?oao, oiaeiauaaao, yeiiiiy oaeei ia?acii
ianoi ia aeanoeeo aeeneao. I?e ia?auaiee e yoei aeaiiui aaoiiaoe/anee
auiieiyaony aeaeiii?anney aeaiiuo.

3. Ia?aiauaiea Aeaiiuo (Data Migration). Aeieai ia eniieuecoaiua aeaiiua
nenoaia aaoiiaoe/anee eiie?oao ia iaaieoioth eaioo eeai ae?oaea
iineoaee, yeiiiiy oaeei ia?acii ianoi ia aeanoeeo aeeneao.

Ano?iaiiay iiaeaea?aeea I?ioieiea Ia?aaea/e Na?ee Iaeaoia (Packet-Burst
Migration). Yoio i?ioieie iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue ianeieueei iaeaoia aac
iaeeaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i iieo/aiee eaaeaeiai iaeaoa.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea ia?aaeaaony iinea iieo/aiey iineaaeiaai iaeaoa ec
na?ee.

I?e ia?aaea/a /a?ac oethcu e ia?o?ooecaoi?u iau/ii auiieiyaony ?acaeaiea
ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo ia naaiaiou ii 512 Aaeo, /oi oiaiueoaao: nei?inoue
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo i?eia?ii ia 20%. I?eiaiaiea a NetWare 4 i?ioieiea LIP
(Large Internet Packet) iicaieyao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaia
aeaiiuie iaaeaeo naoyie, oae eae a yoii neo/aa ?acaeaiea ia naaiaiou ii
512 Aaeo ia o?aaoaony.

Ana nenoaiiua niiauaiey e eioa?oaen eniieuecotho niaoeeaeueiue iiaeoeue.
Aeey ia?aoiaea e ae?oaiio ycueo aeinoaoi/ii iiiaiyoue yoio iiaeoeue eee
aeiaaaeoue iiaue. Aiciiaeii iaeiia?aiaiiia eniieueciaaiea ianeieueeeo
ycueia: iaeei iieueciaaoaeue i?e ?aaioa n ooeeeoaie eniieuecoao
aiaeeeneee ycue, a ae?oaie a yoi aea a?aiy iaiaoeeee.

Ooeeeou oi?aaeaiey iiaeaea?aeeaatho DOS, Windows e OS/2-eioa?oaen.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoiiio iaania/aieth.

1 Oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?: 38a e auoa.

Ieieiaeueiue iauai aeanoeiai aeenea: io 12 Iaaeo aei 60 Iaaeo.

Iauai II ia na?aa?a: 8 Iaaeo – 4AAaeo.

Ieieiaeueiue iauai II ?N eeeaioa: a40 EAaeo.

Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia: nianoaaiiay ?ac?aaioea Nowell.

I?ioieieu: I?O/S?O.

Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iinoue: iao.

Eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae: 1000.

Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? oaeea: 4 Aaaeo.

Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo: N-2.

Iiieoi? UPS: anoue.

OOS: anoue.

Oi?aaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ?ano?naie naoe: NDS.

Nenoaia ioeacionoie/eainoe: aeoaee?iaaiea aeeneia, ca?eaeueiia
io?aaeaiea aeeneia, SFT II,SFT III, iiaeaea?aeea iaeiieoaey ia iaaieoiie
eaioa, ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea oaaeeoe NDS.

Eiii?anne?iaaiea aeaiiuo: anoue.

2 O?aaiaioaoeey aeieia (Block suballocation): anoue.

3 Oaeeiaay nenoaia eeeaioia: DOS, Windows, Ian(5), IS/2, UNIX(aeii.),
Windows NT.

Компьютерная сеть комбината «Азовсталь»

В своем развитии локальная сеть комбината «Азовсталь» прошла целый ряд
этапов:

1 этап локальная сеть в заводоуправлении на базе компьютеров IBM – 10
пользователей –1970-1980 годы

В качестве программного обеспечения использовались LAN SERVER, DOS

2 этап локальная сеть в заводоуправлении на базе компьютеров OLIVETTI
LSX 3040 – 36 пользователей 1981-1984 годы

В качестве программного обеспечения использовались X-OS UNIX,PC DOS, DOS

В течение этих периодов в цехах работали локально компьютеры ЕС

3 этап замена серверов в заводоуправлении, создание локальной сети в
ОАСУ, создание локальных сетей в цехах-100 пользователей 1985-1994 годы

В качестве программного обеспечения используется NOVELL, MICROSOFT
XENIX, ORACLE, PARADOX, DOS

4 этап внедрение системы R3 на комбинате , объединение локальных цеховых
систем в одну общезаводскую, замена серверов- 400 пользователей –1995
–1999 годы

В качестве программного обеспечения используется WINDOWS NT 4.0, SCO
UNIX, BSD, Linux, Novell, DOS, Windows 95, ORACLE, Delphi

Eeieyie nayce iaaeaeo цехами в ianoiyuaa a?aiy neoaeao auaeaeaiiua
oaeaoiiiua eeiee e eiiiooe?oaiua eeiee oaeaoiiiie naoe . A ?aieao цеха
eeieyie nayce neoaeao a iniiaiii ianoiua oaeaoiiiua eeiee iauaai
iieueciaaiey. Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo цеховыми oceaie
ninoaaeyao 14400 – 19200bps. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey заводской naoe e
oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa aaiiaioia naoe i?aaeiieaaaaony iinoaiaiiue
ia?aoiae e oeeo?iaui eaiaeai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, eae iaaeaeo цеховыми
oceaie, oae e aioo?e цеха.

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?.
Naaiaeiy Internet eiaao ieiei 15 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia a aieaa /ai 150
no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7-10%. Internet
ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi ai anai ie?a, iaeia n
ae?oaie.

Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu
ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony
aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e ?ani?aaeaeaiiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Ieiei aeaoo
eao iacaae auee nicaeaiu iaiei/ee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea ooieoeee naoaaiai
iienea e aeinooia e ?ani?aaeaeaiiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai,
yeaeo?iiiui a?oeaai.

Internet, neoaeeaoay eiaaea-oi eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e
o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e
noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a.

Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa, aeaoaaay aeiaaeueiay naycue, oaeianoai
aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay
aaca aeaiiuo naoe Internet. Iie ?anniao?eaatho aeiaaeueioth naoue eae
aeiiieiaiea e naiei nianoaaiiui eieaeueiie naoyi.

I?e ieceie noieiinoe oneoa (/anoi yoi oieueei oeene?iaaiiay
aaeaiany/iay ieaoa ca eniieuecoaiua eeiee eee oaeaoii) iieueciaaoaee
iiaoo iieo/eoue aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e iaeiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui
neoaeaai NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao
naiaiaeiiai aeinooia naoe Internet iiaeii iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth i?aeoe/anee
ii anai noa?ai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia/eiay n iiauo iao/iuo
ioe?uoee aei i?iaiica iiaiaeu ia caao?a.

E?iia oiai Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaoaaie,
iaaeaaeiie e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie aeiaaeueiie nayce ii anaio ie?o. Yoi
ieacuaaaony i/aiue oaeiaiui aeey oe?i eiathueo naie oeeeaeu ii anaio
ie?o, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee e no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey. Iau/ii,
eniieueciaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u Internet aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce
iaoiaeeony cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?yiie eiiiuethoa?iie nayce /a?ac
niooieeiaue eaiae eee /a?ac oaeaoii.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oneoaa naoe Internet. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy naie aae?an ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa eiatho i?eaeeceoaeueii
20 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iinueea ienueia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa iaoiaeeony
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea iinueee iau/iiai ienueia. E?iia oiai niiauaiea,
iineaiiia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa aeieaeao aei aae?anaoa ca ianeieueei
/ania, a oi a?aiy eae iau/iia ienueii iiaeao aeiae?aoueny aei aae?anaoa
ianeieueei aeiae, a oi e iaaeaeue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Internet eniuouaaao ia?eiae iiaeuaia, ai iiiaii
aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoa aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai e NOA. Aaeaaiaeii a NOA auaeaeyaony ieiei 1-2 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia
ia nicaeaiea iiaie naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe
naoaauo eiiioieeaoeee oeiaine?othony oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee, Aa?iaiee.

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea – eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue
iinooiathueo n?aaenoa, o.e. ana aieaa caiaoiie noaiiaeony
“eiiia?oeecaoeey” naoe (iaeeaeaaony, /oi 80-90% n?aaenoa aoaeao
iinooiaoue ec /anoiiai naeoi?a).

Enoi?ey naoe Internet

A 1961 aiaeo Defence Advanced Research Agensy (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue ia?aiia/aeueii aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe – TCP/IP. TCP/IP –
yoi iiiaeanoai eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eae
eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaoo iauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeanue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defence Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defence Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia inoaiiaeeinue; I?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standarts (MIL STD), o.a. a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkeley(BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc UNIX e TCP/IP.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Internet aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay
noaea ioiineoueny e Defence Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Internet noae eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Internet nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.
Aeeaa?aiia 1 eeethno?e?oao ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe
Internet n 4 eiiiuethoa?ia a 1969 aiaeo aei 3,2 ieeeeiiia a 1994. Oinoii
a naoe Internet iacuaathony eiiiuethoa?u, ?aaioathuea a iiiaicaaea/iie
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (Unix, VMS), iiaeaea?aeeaathuea i?ioieieu TCP\IP
e i?aaeinoaaeythuea iieueciaaoaeyi eaeea-eeai naoaaua oneoae.

Aeeaa?aiia 1

I?ioieieu naoe Internet

Iniiaiia, /oi ioee/aao Internet io ae?oaeo naoae – yoi aa i?ioieieu –
TCP/IP. Aiiaua, oa?iei TCP/IP iau/ii icia/aao ana, /oi naycaii n
i?ioieieaie acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie a Internet. Ii
ioaaouaaao oeaeia naiaenoai i?ioieieia, i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu, e aeaaea
naio naoue. TCP/IP – yoi oaoiieiaey iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
oaoiieiaey internet. Naoue, eioi?ay eniieuecoao oaoiieiaeth internet,
iacuaaaony “internet”. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i aeiaaeueiie naoe,
iauaaeeiythuae iiiaeanoai naoae n oaoiieiaeae internet, oi aa iacuaatho
Internet.

Naia iacaaiea i?ioieie TCP/IP iieo/ee io aeaoo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
i?ioieieia (eee i?ioieieia nayce). Yoi Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) e Internet Protocol (IP). Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a naoe Internet
eniieuecoaony aieueoia /enei ae?oaeo i?ioieieia, naoue Internet /anoi
iacuaatho TCP/IP-naoueth, oae eae yoe aeaa i?ioieiea, aaconeiaii,
yaeythony aaaeiaeoeie.

Eae e ai anyeie ae?oaie naoe a Internet nouanoaoao 7 o?iaiae
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie: oece/aneee, eiae/aneee,
naoaaie, o?ainii?oiue, o?iaaiue naainia nayce, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneee e
i?eeeaaeiie o?iaaiue. Niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeiio o?iaith acaeiiaeaenoaey
niioaaonoaoao iaai? i?ioieieia (o.a. i?aaee acaeiiaeaenoaey).

I?ioieieu oece/aneiai o?iaiy ii?aaeaeytho aeae e oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiee
nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie. A Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy niiniau nayce io i?inoiai i?iaiaea (aeoay
ia?a) aei aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eeiee nayce (AIEN).

Aeey eaaeaeiai oeia eeiee nayce ?ac?aaioai niioaaonoaothuee i?ioieie
eiae/aneiai o?iaiy, caieiathueeny oi?aaeaieai ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee ii
eaiaeo. E i?ioieieai eiae/aneiai o?iaiy aeey oaeaoiiiuo eeiee ioiinyony
i?ioieieu SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol) e PPP (Point to Point
Protocol). Aeey nayce ii eaaaeth eieaeueiie naoe – yoi iaeaoiua
ae?aeaa?u ieao EAN.

I?ioieieu naoaaiai o?iaiy ioaa/atho ca ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
ono?ienoaaie a ?aciuo naoyo, oi anoue caieiathony ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe. E i?ioieieai naoaaiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao IP (Internet
Protocol) e ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy oi?aaeytho ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo ec iaeiie
i?ia?aiiu a ae?oaoth. E i?ioieieai o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) e UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?iaiy naainia nayce ioaa/atho ca onoaiiaeo, iiaeaea?aeaiea e
oie/oiaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo eaiaeia. A Internet yoei caieiathony oaea
oiiiyiooua TCP e UDP i?ioieieu, a oaeaea i?ioieie UUCP (Unix to Unix
Copy Protocol).

I?ioieieu i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy caieiathony ianeoaeeaaieai
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii. E i?ia?aiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy
i?eiaaeeaaeao i?ia?aiiu, caioneaaiua, e i?eia?o, ia Unix-na?aa?a, aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo oneoa aaiiaioai. E oaeei i?ia?aiiai ioiinyony:
telnet-na?aa?, FTP-na?aa?, Gopher-na?aa?, NFS-na?aa?, NNTP (Net News
Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), POP2 e POP3
(Post Office Protocol) e o.ae.

E i?ioieieai i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy ioiinyony naoaaua oneoae e i?ia?aiiu eo
i?aaeinoaaeaiey.

Oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth

Ana oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth Internet iiaeii oneiaii iiaeaeeoue
ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie naoe e
eniieueciaaiea aac aeaiiuo naoe.

E /eneo oneoa nayce iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie i?eiaaeeaaeao.

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie. Oi anoue caioneaoue
i?ia?aiiu, iaiyoue ?aaeei ?aaiou e o.ae.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iaiaieaaoueny aeaie/iuie e oaenoiauie oaeeaie n
ethaui eiiiuethoa?ii naoe. Onoaiiaea naycue n oaeaeaiiui eiiiuethoa?ii,
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao neiie?iaaoue oaee n oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
naie eee neiie?iaaoue oaee ni naiaai eiiiuethoa?a ia oaeaeaiiue.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iieueciaaoueny oaeeiaie nenoaiie oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a, eae naiae nianoaaiiie.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet. Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ioi?aaee eae oaenoiauo, oae e
aeaie/iuo oaeeia. Ia ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey a naoe Internet
iaeeaaeuaaaony neaaeothuaa ia?aie/aiea – ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey ia
aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 64 eeeiaaeo.

Iiainoe – iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.
Yeaeo?iiiua aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe Internet oi?ie?othony ii oaiaoeea.
Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao ii naiaio auai?o iiaeienaoueny ia ethaua a?oiiu
iiainoae.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Ioi?aaea oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii (naoaaii)
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue ia
naoaaii i?eioa?a.

Ping – i?iaa?ea aeinooiiinoe oaeaeaiiie YAI ii naoe.

Talk – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai
oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia iaeiia?aiaiii aeaeai aaiaeeiue oaeno
e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai iieueciaaoaey.

Iptunnel – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui
iao iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe
Internet.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet. Ii cai?ino aaiiaio iiaeao
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a, i
iieueciaaoaeyo.

Finger – iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaeyo oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a.

E?iia auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oneoa, naoue Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeaea
neaaeothuea niaoeeoe/aneea oneoae.

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Oaen-na?aen – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoaeth ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey
ii oaeneieeueiie nayce, iieuecoynue oaen-na?aa?ii naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiue ia?aaiae/ee – i?iecaiaeeo ia?aaiae i?eneaiiiai ia iaai
oaenoa n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie. Ia?auaiea e yeaeo?iiiui ia?aaiae/eeai
i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

Oethcu – aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey a naoe, ia
?aaioathuea n i?ioieieaie TCP\IP (Fido, Goldnet, AT50).

E nenoaiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai iienea eioi?iaoeee a naoe Internet
i?eiaaeeaaeao neaaeothuea nenoaiu.

Gopher – iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia n?aaenoai iienea eioi?iaoeee a
naoe Internet, iicaieythuaa iaoiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth ii eeth/aaui neiaai
e o?acai. ?aaioa n nenoaiie Gopher iaiiieiaao i?iniio? iaeaaeaiey, i?e
yoii iieueciaaoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony i?ieoe neaicue ?yae aeiaeaiiuo iaith
e aua?aoue ioaeioth oaio. A Internet a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nauoa 2000
Gopher-nenoai, /anoue ec eioi?uo yaeyaony oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiie, a
/anoue niaea?aeeo aieaa ?aciinoi?iiithth eioi?iaoeeth.

Gopher iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth aac oeacaiey eiai e aae?ania
aaoi?ia, aeaaiaea?y /aio iieueciaaoaeue ia o?aoeo iiiai a?aiaie e
ia?aia. Ii i?inoi niiaueo nenoaia Gopher, /oi eiaiii aio ioaeii, e
nenoaia iaoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua. Gopher-na?aa?ia nauoa aeaoo
ouny/, iiyoiio n eo iiiiuueth ia anaaaea i?inoi iaeoe o?aaoaioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A neo/aa aicieeoeo cao?oaeiaiee iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny
neoaeaie VERONICA. VERONICA inouanoaeyao iiene aieaa /ai a 500 nenoaiao
Gopher, inaiaiaeaeay iieueciaaoaey io iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iniao?eaaoue eo
a?o/ioth.

WAIS – aua aieaa iiuiia n?aaenoai iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, /ai Gopher,
iineieueeo iii inouanoaeyao iiene eeth/aauo neia ai anao oaenoao
aeieoiaioia. Cai?inu iinueathony a WAIS ia oi?iuaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea.
Yoi cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, /ai oi?ioee?iaaoue eo ia ycuea aeaaa?u eiaeee, e
yoi aeaeaao WAIS aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey
iieueciaaoaeae-iai?ioanneiiaeia.

I?e ?aaioa n WAIS iieueciaaoaeyi ia ioaeii o?aoeoue iiiai a?aiaie, /oiau
iaeoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei iaoa?eaeu.

A naoe Internet nouanoaoao aieaa 200 WAIS – aeaeeioae. Ii iineieueeo
eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii nio?oaeieeaie aeaaeaie/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee ia aeia?iaieueiuo ia/aeao, aieueoay /anoue iaoa?eaeia
ioiineony e iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee e eiiiuethoa?iuo iaoe.

WWW – nenoaia aeey ?aaiou n aeia?oaenoii. Iioaioeeaeueii iia yaeyaony
iaeaieaa iiuiui n?aaenoaii iienea. Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

WWW /anoi eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa eioa?oaena e aacai aeaiiuo WAIS, ii
ionoonoaea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe WWW aei
i?inoiai i?iniio?a, eae o Gopher.

Iieueciaaoaeue ni naiae noi?iiu iiaeao caaeaenoaiaaoue aiciiaeiinoue WWW
?aaioaoue n aeia?oaenoii aeey nayce iaaeaeo naieie aeaiiuie e aeaiiuie
WAIS e WWW oaeei ia?acii , /oiau nianoaaiiua caiene iieueciaaoaey eae au
eioaa?e?iaaeenue a eioi?iaoeeth aeey iauaai aeinooia. Ia naiii aeaea
yoiai, eiia/ii, ia i?ienoiaeeo, ii aini?eieiaaony eiaiii oae.

WWW – yoi ioiineoaeueii iiaay nenoaia. Onoaiiaeaiu ianeieueei
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo na?aa?ia, a oii /enea Vatican Exibit a aeaeeioaea
Eiia?anna NOA e ioeueooeeuei i iiaiaea “Aeoee niooieea” a Ie/eaaineii
ainoaea?noaaiiii oieaa?neoaoa. A ea/anoaa aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo oaeaea
?aaioatho na?aa?u into.funet.fi (Oeieyiaeey); into.cern.ch. (Oaaeoea?ey)
e eies2.njit.edu (NOA).

I?aeoe/anee ana oneoae naoe iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeia eeeaio-na?aa?.
Na?aa?ii a naoe Internet iacuaaaony eiiiuethoa? niiniaiue
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eeeaioai (ii ia?a i?eoiaea io ieo cai?inia) iaeioi?ua
naoaaua oneoae. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eeeaio-na?aa? no?ieony iau/ii
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii i?eoiaeo cai?inia io eeeaioia na?aa? caioneaao
?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu i?aaeinoaaeaiey naoaauo oneoa. Ii ia?a auiieiaiey
caiouaiiuo i?ia?aii na?aa? ioaa/aao ia cai?inu eeeaioia.

Ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea naoe oaeaea iiaeii iiaeaeeoue ia eeeaioneia
e na?aa?iia. I?e yoii i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea na?aa?a caieiaaony
i?aaeinoaaeaieai naoaauo oneoa, a eeeaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o cai?inia na?aa?o e iieo/aiea ioaaoia io iaai.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea naoe Internet

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a naoe Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua eeiee nayce io ieceinei?inoiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee aei
aunieinei?inoiuo oeeo?iauo niooieeiauo eaiaeia. Iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu,
eniieuecoaiua a naoe Internet, oaeaea ioee/athony ?aciiia?aceai.
Aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?ia naoe Internet ?aaioatho iiae IN Unix eee VMS.
Oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua ia?o?ooecaoi?u naoe oeia
NetBlazer eee Cisco, /uey IN iaiiieiaao IN Unix.

Oaeoe/anee Internet ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa eieaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui eiiiaieyi e i?aaei?eyoeyi,
naycaiiuo???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????

НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКИЕ FTN-СОВМЕСТИМЫЕ КОМПЬЮТЕРHЫЕ СЕТИ – FIDONET

Этот весьма pаспpостpаненный стандаpт, на котоpый сейчас
оpиентиpуются сотни любительских и коммеpческих сетей по всему миpу
появился сpавнительно недавно, в мае 1984 года, паpаллельно с
возникновением кpупнейшей в миpе любительской сети FidoNet. В
дальнейшем совеpшенствование и pазвитие FTN стандаpта пpоисходило
синхpонно с этой глобальной компьютеpной сетью.

Лень, как мощнейший двигатель пpогpесса, идеально сыгpала свою
созидательную pоль и здесь.

Два пpофессиональных пpогpаммиста – Том Дженнингс (Tom Jennings) из
Сан-Фpанциско и Джон Мэдилл (John Madill) из Бэлтимоpа, слывшие
большими ленивцами, были глубоко озадачены сложной пpоцедуpой их
общения. Им, бедняжкам, пpиходилось звонить дpуг дpугу на BBS, долго
нажимать на клавиши, писать в pежиме on-line сообщение, потом снова
звонить и читать ответы.

Такое безобpазие не могло пpодолжаться долго и, в конце концов,
Дженнингсом был написан пеpвый пpототип FTN-совместимого почтовика
(Mailer), пpедполагавший off-line pежим, и небольшой pедактоp частных
сообщений (Message). Почтовик связывался со своим аналогом в
Бэлтимоpе, и они с помощью пpоцедуpы “pукопожатия” (Handshaking), где
содеpжалась основная инфоpмация о связывающихся станциях,
устанавливали почтовую сессию (Mail Session), в течении котоpой
автоматически пеpедавались необходимые сообщения.

В дальнейшем был pазpаботан специальный фоpмат сообщений, отличный от
RFC822, и получивший название Fido/*.MSG-Style Messages. Также была
введена новая система написания адpесов.

Hапpимеp, выpажение 2:5020/275.909 означало, что пользователь находится
во 2-ой зоне (Россия+Сpедняя Азия+Кавказ), сети (Network) 5020
(г.Москва), под Node номеp 275, поpядковым номеpом 909. Такой
пользователь, кстати, и называется Point. Point’ов у Node может быть
очень много.

Совеpшенствовались почтовики, пpичем сейчас в миpе их существуют
многие десятки, возможно сотни. Росло число Node и Point станций и
Дженнингса снова начала съедать лень. Ведь только чеpез месяц
существования сети в ней насчитывалось уже 20 Node-узлов, еще чеpез
месяц их было уже более 50. И каждому пpиходилось звонить и пеpедавать
текущую почту. В этот момент и созpела чудесная идея воплотить в сети
схему маpшpутизации почты. Отныне каждый узел имел своих аплинков и
даунлинков,

была постpоена многоуpовневая система Hub-узлов и Дженнингс мог
спокойно заняться совеpшенствованием FTN-совместимого ПО.

Список всех Node-узлов содеpжался в Nodelist’е, где четко были
указаны название, местонахождение станции, имя Системного
Оператора(СисОпа), телефонный номеp узла, поддеpживаемые им
пpотоколы пеpедачи данных и специальные флаги (напpимеp, MO (Mail Only)
означал отсуствие на данном узле BBS; CM (Continuous Mail) –
кpуглосуточный pежим pаботы). Инфоpмация о Point-станциях
аккумулиpовалась с аналогичных Pointlist’ах. Pointlist’ы, как
пpавило, издаются и pаспpостpаняются в пpеделах огpаниченной
местности, так как, к пpимеpу, пользователю в Hовой Зеландии
совеpшенно не нужно знать нашего стаpого знакомого с адpесом
2:5020/275.909, коpотающего свои дни в холодной Москве. Пpи желании
он пpосто может сделать файловый запpос (File Request) на любой станции,
содеpжащей Pointlist сети (Network) 5020.

Стpогая система маpшpутизации почты, выполняющаяся с изpядным
педантизмом, pегламентиpованные иеpаpхические отношения между узлами
сети позволили FidoNet pезко выделиться сpеди дpугих сетей.
Увеличивалась скоpость хождения сообщений, повышалась надежность
получения адpесатом ожидаемого письма. Был установлен так называемый
Почтовый Час Зоны (Zone Mail Hour, в дальнейшем ZMH), когда все члены
сети обязаны заниматься исключительно пеpедачей почты. Если на
почтовом узле функциониpовала BBS, СисОп был обязан “обpубать” всех
несетевых пользователей, дабы не задеpживать пpохождения тpаффика (англ.
Traffic – поток, движение).

Вскоpе, паpаллельно с пpогpессивным увеличением сети, pеально
созpел вопpос о совеpшенствовании системы общения членов сети между
собой. Ведь до этого вpемени, если пользователь желал, чтобы его мысль
услышали многие, ему пpиходилось дублиpовать свое сообщение в
n-экземпляpах (Carbon Copies), что было делать, как всегда, лень. К
тому же эту мудpую мысль могли не услышать заинтеpесованные лица, об
интеpесах котоpых автоp даже и не подозpевал. В этот момент и pодилась
идея создания тематических телеконфеpенций (Echo Conference), где
каждого аукнувшегося могли бы услышать многие. Для этой цели была
создана специальная гpуппа пpогpамм под названием тоссеpы (англ.
Toss – метать, pазбpасывать). Тоссеpы (Squish, Fastecho, Gecho
и дp.) были пpизваны давать пользователю возможность посылать сообщения
в pазнообpазные телеконфеpенции, соответствующим обpазом их офоpмляя,
компpессиpуя и генеpиpуя почтовику указание на отпpавку
сфоpмиpованного пакета по опpеделенному сетевому адpесу, где данный
пользователь получал сообщения из этой конфеpенции. Тоссеpов было почти
столько же, сколько и мнений, а мнений, как известно, обычно бывает
по числу живых существ в дискуссии участвующих. Таким обpазом
обpазовался целый pяд стандаpтов содеpжания Echo-почты на узле. Со
вpеменем из них выделились Squish, HMB (Hudson Message Base), JAM и
Fido/*.MSG-Style стандаpты, последний из котоpых, по пpичине
непpактичности, вскоpе стал использоваться исключительно в личной
пеpеписке. Вместе с тоссеpами pазpабатывались и совеpшенствовались
pедактоpы Echo-конфеpенций (GoldEd, Great Wall и дp.) с помощью котоpых
пользователь мог быстpо и удобно пользоваться услугами телеконфеpенций.

Backbone доступных только в Москве Echo-конфеpенций насчитывает
несколько сотен названий. Каждый узел может иметь несколько адpесов
(AKA, англ. Also-Known-As – Также-Известен-Как), что позволяет ему
пользоваться конфеpенциями всех своих аплинков. Ведь бывает же так, что
один из аплинков пpивеpженец секты Аумсинpекё, а его даунлинк стpастный
почитатель Буддизма. Тогда буддисту следует или найти дpугого аплинка,
где была бы доступна телеконфеpенции соответствующей тематики, или
заставить существующего подписаться на нее.

По меpе pазвития сети и самих модемов, возникли и pазвились Файловые
Конфеpенции (File-Echo Conference), где в качестве элементаpных
единиц выступали не сообщения, а, как уже говоpилось выше, файлы.
Тем самым член сети, написавший, по его мнению, гениальную пpогpамму,
мог pазослать ее посpедством файловой конфеpенции всем на нее
подписанным. Пpавда, ежедневный поток (Traffic) в таких конфеpенциях
составляет от одного до нескольких мегабайтов в день, но существующие на
данный момент мощности модемов позволяют поддеpживать их без особых на
то усилий.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕHИЕ

“Если вы думаете, что образование дорого-попробуйте невежество”.
В пределах электронного бизнеса можно найти немного приложений,
которые развивались бы так быстро, как те, что связаны с передачей
данных: просмотр данных, электронный перенос фондов, оффис будующего,
домашние компьютеры, распределенная обработка данных, электронный обмен
данными (служба EDI) и так далее.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Craig Hunt “TCP/IP Network Administration”, O’Reilly &
Associates, Inc., March 1993.

2. Computer World – Iineaa, 36, 45, 150 /1998.

3. Oaoiieiaee yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee oii 27 “Iaaenaoaaua
i?ioieieu e ioeueoenaoe”, Iineaa, NI “Yei-O?aiaec” 1992.

4. Oaoiieiaee yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee oii 28 “Unix: Naoaaua
aiciiaeiinoe”, Iineaa, NI “Yei-O?aiaec” 1992.

5 Oaoiieiaee yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee oii 43 “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
eiiiuethoa?iay naoue Internet”, Iineaa, NI “Yei-O?aiaec” 1993.

6. Eeeiaei N.A., O?aciaoia A. “Internet. N?aaea iaeoaiey
eoi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”, I?ioaeii, EAOY, 1994.

7. LAN-WorkPlace for DOS. Administrators Guide. San Jose, Novell,
1992.

8. PC/TCP Network software for DOS. North Andover, FTP Software
Inc., 1992.

Eioi?iaoeey iieo/aiiay a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea

ec ioaee/iuo a?oeaia naoe Internet

1. “What is NFS” Aeinooi ii nenoaia VERONICA, ?acaeae FAQ.

2. RFC SYMBOL 63 \f “Times New Roman” \s 11 SYMBOL 63 \f “Times New
Roman” \s 11 764, 791, 793, 959. Aeinooi ii nenoaia VERONICA.

PAGE 38

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