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TCP/IP

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Iienaiea i?ioieieia TCP/IP

Nianeai iaecaanoiiio aaoi?o (e ia?aaiae/eeo?)

Oi?iaoe?iaaiea i?iecaaaeaii Aeaaeeie?ii ?iiaiiaui (Iieeeii I?i)

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024658 PAGEREF
_Toc359024658 1

2. Iniiau TCP/IP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024659 PAGEREF _Toc359024659 2

2.1. Iiaeoeue IP nicaeaao aaeeioth eiae/aneoth naoue GOTOBUTTON
_Toc359024660 PAGEREF _Toc359024660 2

2.2. No?oeoo?a naycae i?ioieieueiuo iiaeoeae GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024661
PAGEREF _Toc359024661 2

2.3. Oa?ieiieiaey GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024662 PAGEREF _Toc359024662 3

2.4. Iioiee aeaiiuo GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024663 PAGEREF _Toc359024663
3

2.5. ?aaioa n ianeieueeeie naoaauie eioa?oaenaie GOTOBUTTON
_Toc359024664 PAGEREF _Toc359024664 4

3. Ethernet GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024665 PAGEREF _Toc359024665 5

3.1. Aiaeiaey n ?acaiai?ii GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024666 PAGEREF
_Toc359024666 6

4. I?ioieie ARP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024667 PAGEREF _Toc359024667 6

4.1. ARP-oaaeeoea aeey i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania GOTOBUTTON
_Toc359024668 PAGEREF _Toc359024668 6

4.2. Ii?yaeie i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024669
PAGEREF _Toc359024669 7

4.4. I?iaeieaeaiea i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024670
PAGEREF _Toc359024670 8

5. Iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie IP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024671 PAGEREF
_Toc359024671 8

5.1. I?yiay ia?o?ooecaoeey GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024672 PAGEREF
_Toc359024672 9

5.2. Einaaiiay ia?o?ooecaoeey GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024673 PAGEREF
_Toc359024673 9

5.3. I?aaeea ia?o?ooecaoeee a iiaeoea IP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024674
PAGEREF _Toc359024674 10

5.4. IP-aae?an GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024675 PAGEREF _Toc359024675 11

5.5. Auai? aae?ana GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024676 PAGEREF _Toc359024676
12

5.6. Iiaenaoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024677 PAGEREF _Toc359024677 12

5.7. Eae iacia/aoue iiia?a naoae e iiaenaoae GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024678
PAGEREF _Toc359024678 13

5.8. Eiaia GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024679 PAGEREF _Toc359024679 13

5.9. IP-oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024680 PAGEREF
_Toc359024680 14

5.10. Iiae?iaiinoe i?yiie ia?o?ooecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024681
PAGEREF _Toc359024681 14

5.11. Ii?yaeie i?yiie ia?o?ooecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024682
PAGEREF _Toc359024682 15

5.12. Iiae?iaiinoe einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024683
PAGEREF _Toc359024683 15

5.13. Ii?yaeie einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024684
PAGEREF _Toc359024684 16

6. Onoaiiaea ia?o?ooia GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024685 PAGEREF
_Toc359024685 17

6.1. Oeene?iaaiiua ia?o?oou GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024686 PAGEREF
_Toc359024686 17

6.2. Ia?aiai?aaeaiea ia?o?ooia GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024687 PAGEREF
_Toc359024687 18

7. I?ioieie UDP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024688 PAGEREF _Toc359024688 21

7.1. Ii?ou GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024689 PAGEREF _Toc359024689 22

7.2. Eiio?ieueiia noiie?iaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024690 PAGEREF
_Toc359024690 22

8. I?ioieie TCP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024691 PAGEREF _Toc359024691 22

9.1. I?ioieie TELNET GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024692 PAGEREF _Toc359024692
23

9.2. I?ioieie FTP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024693 PAGEREF _Toc359024693
24

9.3. I?ioieie SMTP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024694 PAGEREF _Toc359024694
24

9.4. r-eiiaiaeu GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024695 PAGEREF _Toc359024695 24

9.5. NFS GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024696 PAGEREF _Toc359024696 24

9.6. I?ioieie SNMP GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024697 PAGEREF _Toc359024697
25

9.7. X-Window GOTOBUTTON _Toc359024698 PAGEREF _Toc359024698 25

10. Acaeiicaaeneiinoue i?ioieieia naiaenoaa TCP/IP GOTOBUTTON
_Toc359024699 PAGEREF _Toc359024699 25

1. Aaaaeaiea

Naiaenoai i?ioieieia TCP/IP oe?iei i?eiaiyaony ai anai ie?a aeey
iauaaeeiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia a naoue Internet. Aaeeiay naoue Internet
ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa naoae ?acee/iie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu, io eieaeueiuo
naoae oeia Ethernet e Token Ring, aei aeiaaeueiuo naoae oeia NSFNET.
Iniiaiia aieiaiea a eieaa oaeaeyaony i?eioeeiai i?aaiecaoeee
iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iiiaea oaoie/aneea aeaoaee, enoi?e/aneea
aii?inu iiouaiu. Aieaa iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth i i?ioieieao TCP/IP
iiaeii iaeoe a RFC (Requests For Comments) niaoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao,
auioneaaiuo Naoaaui Eioi?iaoeeiiiui Oeaio?ii (Network Information Center
– NIC). I?eeiaeaiea 1 niaea?aeeo iooaaiaeeoaeue ii RFC, a i?eeiaeaiea 2
io?aaeaao iieiaeaiea aeae a iaeanoe noaiaea?oecaoeee i?ioieieia
naiaenoaa TCP/IP ia ia/aei 1991 aiaea

A eieaa i?eaiaeyony i?eia?u, iniiaaiiua ia ?aaeecaoeee TCP/IP a IN UNIX.
Iaeiaei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey i?eiaieiu ei anai ?aaeecaoeeyi TCP/IP

Iaaeathnue, /oi yoa eieaa aoaeao iieacia oai, eoi i?ioanneiiaeueii
?aaioaao eee niae?aaony ia/aoue ?aaioaoue a n?aaea TCP/IP: nenoaiiui
aaeieieno?aoi?ai, nenoaiiui i?ia?aiienoai e iaiaaeaea?ai naoe

2. Iniiau TCP/IP

Oa?iei “TCP/IP” iau/ii iaicia/aao ana, /oi naycaii n i?ioieieaie TCP e
IP. Ii ioaaouaaao oeaeia naiaenoai i?ioieieia, i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu e
aeaaea naio naoue. A ninoaa naiaenoaa aoiaeyo i?ioieieu UDP, ARP, ICMP,
TELNET, FTP e iiiaea ae?oaea. TCP/IP yoi oaoiieiaey iaaenaoaaiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey, oaoiieiaey internet. Naoue, eioi?ay eniieuecoao
oaoiieiaeth internet, iacuaaaony “internet”. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i
aeiaaeueiie naoe, iauaaeeiythuae iiiaeanoai naoae n oaoiieiaeae
internet, oi aa iacuaatho Internet

2.1. Iiaeoeue IP nicaeaao aaeeioth eiae/aneoth naoue

A?oeoaeoo?a i?ioieieia TCP/IP i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iauaaeeiaiiie naoe,
ninoiyuae ec niaaeeiaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii oethcaie ioaeaeueiuo
?acii?iaeiuo iaeaoiuo iiaenaoae, e eioi?ui iiaeeeth/athony ?acii?iaeiua
iaoeiu. Eaaeaeay ec iiaenaoae ?aaioaao a niioaaonoaee ni naieie
niaoeeoe/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie e eiaao naith i?e?iaeo n?aaenoa nayce.
Iaeiaei i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaaeaeay iiaenaoue iiaeao i?eiyoue iaeao
eioi?iaoeee (aeaiiua n niioaaonoaothuei naoaaui caaieiaeii) e
aeinoaaeoue aai ii oeacaiiiio aae?ano a yoie eiie?aoiie iiaenaoe. Ia
o?aaoaony, /oiau iiaenaoue aa?aioe?iaaea iaycaoaeueioth aeinoaaeo
iaeaoia e eiaea iaaeaaeiue neaiciie i?ioieie. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaa
iaoeiu, iiaeeeth/aiiua e iaeiie iiaenaoe iiaoo iaiaieaaoueny iaeaoaie

Eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaeaoue iaeao iaaeaeo iaoeiaie, iiaeeeth/aiiuie e
?aciui iiaenaoyi, oi iaoeia-ioi?aaeoaeue iinueaao iaeao a
niioaaonoaothuee oethc (oethc iiaeeeth/ai e iiaenaoe oaeaea eae iau/iue
ocae). Ioooaea iaeao iai?aaeyaony ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio ia?o?ooo /a?ac
nenoaio oethcia e iiaenaoae, iiea ia aeinoeaiao oethca, iiaeeeth/aiiiai
e oie aea iiaenaoe, /oi e iaoeia-iieo/aoaeue; oai iaeao iai?aaeyaony e
iieo/aoaeth. Iauaaeeiaiiay naoue iaania/eaaao aeaoaa?aiiiue na?aen

I?iaeaia aeinoaaee iaeaoia a oaeie nenoaia ?aoaaony iooai ?aaeecaoeee ai
anao oceao e oethcao iaaenaoaaiai i?ioieiea IP. Iaaenaoaaie o?iaaiue
yaeyaony ii nouanoao aaciaui yeaiaioii ai anae a?oeoaeoo?a i?ioieieia,
iaania/eaay aiciiaeiinoue noaiaea?oecaoeee i?ioieieia aa?oieo o?iaiae

2.2. No?oeoo?a naycae i?ioieieueiuo iiaeoeae

Eiae/aneay no?oeoo?a naoaaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ?aaeecothuaai
i?ioieieu naiaenoaa TCP/IP a eaaeaeii ocea naoe internet, ecia?aaeaia ia
?en 1. I?yiioaieueieee iaicia/atho ia?aaioeo aeaiiuo, a eeiee,
niaaeeiythuea i?yiioaieueieee, – iooe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Ai?eciioaeueiay
eeiey aieco ?enoiea iaicia/aao eaaaeue naoe Ethernet, eioi?ay
eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa i?eia?a oece/aneie n?aaeu; “i” – yoi o?aineaa?.
Ciae “*” – iaicia/aao IP-aae?an, a “@” – aae?an ocea a naoe Ethernet
(Ethernet-aae?an). Iiieiaiea yoie eiae/aneie no?oeoo?u yaeyaony iniiaie
aeey iiieiaiey anae oaoiieiaee internet. A aeaeueiaeoai iu aoaeai /anoi
nnueaoueny ia yoo noaio

——————————

| i?eeeaaeiua i?ioeannu |

| … \ | / … \ | / … |

| ——- ——- |

| | TCP | | UDP | |

| ——- ——- |

| \ / |

| —— |

| ——- | IP | |

| | ARP | -*—- |

| ——- | |

| \ | |

| ——– |

| | ENET | |

| —@—- |

| | |

————|—————–

————i——–eaaaeue Ethernet

?en.1. No?oeoo?a i?ioieieueiuo iiaeoeae a ocea naoe TCP/IP

2.3. Oa?ieiieiaey

Aaaaeai ?yae aaciauo oa?ieiia, eioi?ua iu aoaeai eniieueciaaoue a
aeaeueiaeoai

Ae?aeaa? yoi i?ia?aiia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii acaeiiaeaenoaothuay n naoaaui
aaeaioa?ii. Iiaeoeue yoi i?ia?aiia, acaeiiaeaenoaothuay n ae?aeaa?ii,
naoaauie i?eeeaaeiuie i?ia?aiiaie eee ae?oaeie iiaeoeyie. Ae?aeaa?
naoaaiai aaeaioa?a e, aiciiaeii, ae?oaea iiaeoee, niaoeeoe/iua aeey
oece/aneie naoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, i?aaeinoaaeytho naoaaie eioa?oaen
aeey i?ioieieueiuo iiaeoeae naiaenoaa TCP/IP

Iacaaiea aeiea aeaiiuo, ia?aaeaaaaiiai ii naoe, caaeneo io oiai, ia
eaeii o?iaia noaea i?ioieieia ii iaoiaeeony. Aeie aeaiiuo, n eioi?ui
eiaao aeaei naoaaie eioa?oaen, iacuaaaony eaae?ii; anee aeie aeaiiuo
iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo naoaaui eioa?oaenii e iiaeoeai IP, oi ii iacuaaaony
IP-iaeaoii; anee ii iaaeaeo iiaeoeai IP e iiaeoeai UDP, oi
UDP-aeaoaa?aiiie; anee iaaeaeo iiaeoeai IP e iiaeoeai TCP, oi
TCP-naaiaioii (eee o?ainii?oiui niiauaieai); iaeiiaoe, anee aeie aeaiiuo
iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia naoaauo i?eeeaaeiuo i?ioeannia, oi ii iacuaaaony
i?eeeaaeiui niiauaieai

Yoe ii?aaeaeaiey, eiia/ii, ianiaa?oaiiu e iaiieiu. E oiio aea iie
iaiythony io ioaeeeaoeee e ioaeeeaoeee. Aieaa iiae?iaiua ii?aaeaeaiey
iiaeii iaeoe a RFC-1122, ?acaeae 1.3.3

2.4. Iioiee aeaiiuo

?anniio?ei iioiee aeaiiuo, i?ioiaeyuea /a?ac noae i?ioieieia,
ecia?aaeaiiue ia ?en 1. A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey i?ioieiea TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol – i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae),
aeaiiua ia?aaeathony iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii e iiaeoeai TCP.
Oeie/iui i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii, eniieuecothuei i?ioieie TCP, yaeyaony
iiaeoeue FTP (File Transfer Protocol – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia). Noae
i?ioieieia a yoii neo/aa aoaeao FTP/TCP/IP/ENET. I?e eniieueciaaiee
i?ioieiea UDP (User Datagram Protocol i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaoaa?aii), aeaiiua ia?aaeathony iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii e
iiaeoeai UDP. Iai?eia?, SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol –
i?inoie i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey naoueth) iieuecoaony o?ainii?oiuie oneoaaie
UDP. Aai noae i?ioieieia auaeyaeeo oae: SNMP/UDP/IP/ENET

Iiaeoee TCP, UDP e ae?aeaa? Ethernet yaeythony ioeueoeieaeni?aie n x 1

Aeaenoaoy eae ioeueoeieaeni?u, iie ia?aeeth/atho ianeieueei aoiaeia ia
iaeei auoiae. Iie oaeaea yaeythony aeaioeueoeieaeni?aie 1 x n. Eae
aeaioeueoeieaeni?u, iie ia?aeeth/atho iaeei aoiae ia iaeei ec iiiaeo
auoiaeia a niioaaonoaee n iieai oeia a caaieiaea i?ioieieueiiai aeiea
aeaiiuo (?en 2)

Eiaaea Ethernet-eaae? iiiaaeaao a ae?aeaa? naoaaiai eioa?oaena Ethernet,
ii iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai eeai a iiaeoeue ARP (Address Resolution
Protocol – aae?aniue i?ioieie), eeai a iiaeoeue IP (Internet Protocol –
iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie). Ia oi, eoaea aeieaeai auoue iai?aaeai
Ethernet-eaae?, oeacuaaao cia/aiea iiey oeia a caaieiaea eaae?a

Anee IP-iaeao iiiaaeaao a iiaeoeue IP, oi niaea?aeaueany a iai aeaiiua
iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu eeai iiaeoeth TCP, eeai UDP, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony
iieai “i?ioieie” a caaieiaea IP-iaeaoa

Anee UDP-aeaoaa?aiia iiiaaeaao a iiaeoeue UDP, oi ia iniiaaiee cia/aiey
iiey “ii?o” a caaieiaea aeaoaa?aiiu ii?aaeaeyaony i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia,
eioi?ie aeieaeii auoue ia?aaeaii i?eeeaaeiia niiauaiea. Anee
TCP-niiauaiea iiiaaeaao a iiaeoeue TCP, oi auai? i?eeeaaeiie i?ia?aiiu,
eioi?ie aeieaeii auoue ia?aaeaii niiauaiea, inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa
cia/aiey iiey “ii?o” a caaieiaea TCP-niiauaiey

Ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea aeaiiuo a ia?aoioth noi?iio inouanoaeyaony
aeiaieueii i?inoi, oae eae ec eaaeaeiai iiaeoey nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei
iooue aiec. Eaaeaeue i?ioieieueiue iiaeoeue aeiaaaeyao e iaeaoo naie
caaieiaie, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai iaoeia, i?eiyaoay iaeao, auiieiyao
aeaioeueoeieaene?iaaiea

1 2 3 …. n | 1 2 3 …. n ^

\ | | / | \ | | / |

—————– iioie ——————- iioie

| ioeueoeieaeni? | aeaiiuo | aeaioeueoeieaeni? | aeaiiuo

—————– | ——————- |

| | ^ |

v V | |

1 1

?en.2. Ioeueoeieaeni? n x 1 e aeaioeueoeieaeni? 1 x n

Aeaiiua io i?eeeaaeiiai i?ioeanna i?ioiaeyo /a?ac iiaeoee TCP eee UDP,
iinea /aai iiiaaeatho a iiaeoeue IP e ioooaea – ia o?iaaiue naoaaiai
eioa?oaena

Oioy oaoiieiaey internet iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiiai ?acee/iuo n?aae ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo, caeanue iu aoaeai i?aaeiieaaaoue eniieueciaaiea Ethernet, oae
eae eiaiii yoa n?aaea /aua anaai neoaeeo oece/aneie iniiaie aeey
IP-naoe. Iaoeia ia ?en 1 eiaao iaeio oi/eo niaaeeiaiey n Ethernet.
Oanoeaaeoiue Ethernet-aae?an yaeyaony oieeaeueiui aeey eaaeaeiai
naoaaiai aaeaioa?a e ?aniiciaaony ae?aeaa?ii

Iaoeia eiaao oaeaea /aou?aoaaeoiue IP-aae?an. Yoio aae?an iaicia/aao
oi/eo aeinooia e naoe ia eioa?oaena iiaeoey IP n ae?aeaa?ii. IP-aae?an
aeieaeai auoue oieeaeueiui a i?aaeaeao anae naoe Internet

?aaioathuay iaoeia anaaaea ciaao naie IP-aae?an e Ethernet-aae?an

2.5. ?aaioa n ianeieueeeie naoaauie eioa?oaenaie

Iaoeia iiaeao auoue iiaeeeth/aia iaeiia?aiaiii e ianeieueeei n?aaeai
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Ia ?en 3 iieacaia iaoeia n aeaoiy naoaauie
eioa?oaenaie Ethernet. Caiaoei, /oi iia eiaao 2 Ethernet-aae?ana e 2
IP-aae?ana

Ec i?aaenoaaeaiiie noaiu aeaeii, /oi aeey iaoei n ianeieueeeie naoaauie
eioa?oaenaie iiaeoeue IP auiieiyao ooieoeee ioeueoeieaeni?a n x m e
aeaioeueoeieaeni?a m x n (?en 4)

———————————

| i?eeeaaeiua i?ioeannu |

| … \ | / …. \ | / … |

| ——- ——- |

| | TCP | | UDP | |

| ——- ——- |

| \ / |

| —— |

| ——- | IP | ——- |

| | ARP | -*–*- | ARP | |

| ——- | | ——- |

| \ | | / |

| ——– ——– |

| | ENET | | ENET | |

| —@—- —@—- |

| | | |

———-|———|————

| |

| —i—————

————–i—- Ethernet 2

Ethernet 1

?en.3. Ocae naoe TCP/IP n aeaoiy naoaauie eioa?oaenaie

1 2 3 …. n | 1 2 3 …… n ^

\ | | / | \ | | / |

—————– iioie ——————- iioie

| ioeueoeieaeni? | aeaiiuo | aeaioeueoeieaeni? | aeaiiuo

—————– | ——————- |

/ | | … \ V / | | ….. \ |

1 2 3 m 1 2 3 m

?en.4. Ioeueoeieaeni? n x m e aeaioeueoeieaeni? m x n

Oaeei ia?acii, ii inouanoaeyao ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea aoiaeiuo e auoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo a iaieo iai?aaeaieyo. Iiaeoeue IP a aeaiiii neo/aa neiaeiaa, /ai
a ia?aii i?eia?a, oae eae iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua iaaeaeo naoyie.
Aeaiiua iiaoo iinooiaoue /a?ac ethaie naoaaie eioa?oaen e auoue
?ao?ainee?iaaiu /a?ac ethaie ae?oaie naoaaie eioa?oaen. I?ioeann
ia?aaea/e iaeaoa a ae?oaoth naoue iacuaaaony ?ao?aineyoeeae IP-iaeaoa.
Iaoeia, auiieiythuay ?ao?aineyoeeth, iacuaaaony oethcii

Eae iieacaii ia ?en 5, ?ao?ainee?oaiue iaeao ia ia?aaeaaony iiaeoeyi TCP
eee UDP. Iaeioi?ua oethcu aiiaua iiaoo ia eiaoue iiaeoeae TCP e UDP

3. Ethernet

A yoii ?acaeaea iu e?aoei ?anniio?ei oaoiieiaeth Ethernet

Eaae? Ethernet niaea?aeeo aae?an iacia/aiey, aae?an enoi/ieea, iiea oeia
e aeaiiua. ?acia? aae?ana a Ethernet – 6 aaeo. Eaaeaeue naoaaie aaeaioa?
eiaao naie Ethernet-aae?an. Aaeaioa? eiio?iee?oao iaiai eioi?iaoeeae,
i?ienoiaeyuee a naoe, e i?eieiaao aae?aniaaiiua aio Ethernet-eaae?u, a
oaeaea Ethernet-eaae?u n aae?anii “FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF” (a 16-?e/iie
nenoaia), eioi?ue iaicia/aao “anai”, e eniieuecoaony i?e
oe?ieiaauaoaeueiie ia?aaea/a

——- ——-

| TCP | | UDP |

——- ——-

\ /

———-

| |

| IP |

| ____ |

| / \ |

———-

/ \

aeaiiua aeaiiua

iinooiatho ioi?aaeythony

ionthaea nthaea

?en 5 I?eia? iaaenaoaaie ?ao?aineyoeee iaeaoa iiaeoeai IP

Ethernet ?aaeecoao iaoiae IAeEI/IN (iiiaeanoaaiiue aeinooi n eiio?ieai
ianouae e iaia?oaeaieai noieeiiaaiee). Iaoiae IAeEI/IN i?aaeiieaaaao,
/oi ana ono?ienoaa acaeiiaeaenoaotho a iaeiie n?aaea, a eaaeaeue iiiaio
a?aiaie iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue oieueei iaeii ono?ienoai, a i?eieiaoue iiaoo
ana iaeiia?aiaiii. Anee aeaa ono?ienoaa iuoathony ia?aaeaaaoue
iaeiia?aiaiii, oi i?ienoiaeeo noieeiiaaiea ia?aaea/, e iaa ono?ienoaa
iinea neo/aeiiai (e?aoeiai) ia?eiaea iaeeaeaiey iuoathony aiiaue
auiieieoue ia?aaea/o

3.1. Aiaeiaey n ?acaiai?ii

Oi?ioae aiaeiaeae acaeiiaeaenoaeyi a n?aaea Ethernet iiaeao neoaeeoue
?acaiai? a?oiiu aaaeeeauo ethaeae a iaaieueoie oaiiie eiiiaoa. I?e yoii
aiaeiaeae yeaeo?e/aneei neaiaeai a eiaeneaeueiii eaaaea neoaeao caoeiaua
aieiu a eiiiaoa

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae neuoeo ?a/ue ae?oaeo ethaeae (eiio?ieue ianouae). Ana
ethaee a eiiiaoa eiatho iaeeiaeiaua aiciiaeiinoe aanoe ?acaiai?
(iiiaeanoaaiiue aeinooi), ii ieeoi ia aiai?eo neeoeii aeieai, oae eae
ana aaaeeeau. Anee /aeiaae aoaeao iaaaaeeea, oi aai iii?inyo aueoe (o a.
oaeaeyo ec naoe). Ana iie/ao, iiea eoi-oi aiai?eo. Anee aeaa /aeiaaea
ia/eiatho aiai?eoue iaeiia?aiaiii, oi iie n?aco iaia?oaeeaatho yoi,
iineieueeo neuoao ae?oa ae?oaa (iaia?oaeaiea noieeiiaaiee). A yoii
neo/aa iie caiieeatho e aeaeoo iaeioi?ia a?aiy, iinea /aai iaeei ec ieo
aiiaue ia/eiaao ?acaiai?. Ae?oaea ethaee neuoao, /oi aaaeaony ?acaiai?,
e aeaeoo, iiea ii eii/eony, a caoai iiaoo ia/aoue aiai?eoue naie.
Eaaeaeue /aeiaae eiaao nianoaaiiia eiy (aiaeia oieeaeueiiai
Ethernet-aae?ana) Eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea eoi-ieaoaeue ia/eiaao aiai?eoue,
ii iacuaaao ii eiaie oiai, e eiio ia?auaaony, e naia eiy, iai?eia?,
“Neooae Iaoy, yoi Aiae?ae, . ey-ey-ey . ” Anee eoi-oi oi/ao ia?aoeoueny
ei anai, oi ii aiai?eo: “Neooaeoa ana, yoi Aiae?ae, . ey-ey-ey . ”
(oe?ieiaauaoaeueiay ia?aaea/a)

4. I?ioieie ARP

A yoii ?acaeaea iu ?anniio?ei oi, eae i?e iinueea IP-iaeaoa
ii?aaeaeyaony Ethernet-aae?an iacia/aiey. Aeey ioia?aaeaiey IP-aae?ania
a Ethernet-aae?ana eniieuecoaony i?ioieie ARP (Address Resolution
Protocol – aae?aniue i?ioieie). Ioia?aaeaiea auiieiyaony oieueei aeey
ioi?aaeyaiuo IP-iaeaoia, oae eae oieueei a iiiaio ioi?aaee nicaeathony
caaieiaee IP e Ethernet

4.1. ARP-oaaeeoea aeey i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania

I?aia?aciaaiea aae?ania auiieiyaony iooai iienea a oaaeeoea. Yoa
oaaeeoea, iacuaaaiay ARP-oaaeeoeae, o?aieony a iaiyoe e niaea?aeeo
no?iee aeey eaaeaeiai ocea naoe. A aeaoo noieaoeao niaea?aeaony IP- e
Ethernet-aae?ana. Anee o?aaoaony i?aia?aciaaoue IP-aae?an a
Ethernet-aae?an, oi euaony caienue n niioaaonoaothuei IP-aae?anii. Ieaea
i?eaaaeai i?eia? oi?iuaiiie ARP-oaaeeoeu

———————————————

| IP-aae?an Ethernet-aae?an |

———————————————

| 223.1.2.1 08:00:39:00:2F:C3 |

| 223.1.2.3 08:00:5A:21:A7:22 |

| 223.1.2.4 08:00:10:99:AC:54 |

———————————————

Oaae.1. I?eia? ARP-oaaeeoeu

I?eiyoi ana aaeou 4-aaeoiiai IP-aae?ana caienuaaoue aeanyoe/iuie
/eneaie, ?acaeaeaiiuie oi/eaie. I?e caiene 6-aaeoiiai Ethernet-aae?ana
eaaeaeue aaeo oeacuaaaony a 16-?e/iie nenoaia e ioaeaeyaony aeaiaoi/eai

ARP-oaaeeoea iaiaoiaeeia iioiio, /oi IP-aae?ana e Ethernet-aae?ana
auae?athony iacaaeneii, e iao eaeiai-eeai aeai?eoia aeey i?aia?aciaaiey
iaeiiai a ae?oaie. IP-aae?an auae?aao iaiaaeaea? naoe n o/aoii
iieiaeaiey iaoeiu a naoe internet. Anee iaoeio ia?aiauatho a ae?oaoth
/anoue naoe internet, oi aa IP-aae?an aeieaeai auoue eciaiai.
Ethernet-aae?an auae?aao i?iecaiaeeoaeue naoaaiai eioa?oaeniiai
iai?oaeiaaiey ec auaeaeaiiiai aeey iaai ii eeoeaicee aae?aniiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Eiaaea o iaoeiu caiaiyaony ieaoa naoaaiai aaeaioa?a, oi
iaiyaony e aa Ethernet-aae?an

4.2. Ii?yaeie i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania

A oiaea iau/iie ?aaiou naoaaay i?ia?aiia, oaeay eae TELNET, ioi?aaeyao
i?eeeaaeiia niiauaiea, iieuecoynue o?ainii?oiuie oneoaaie TCP. Iiaeoeue
TCP iinueaao niioaaonoaothuaa o?ainii?oiia niiauaiea /a?ac iiaeoeue IP.
A ?acoeueoaoa ninoaaeyaony IP-iaeao, eioi?ue aeieaeai auoue ia?aaeai
ae?aeaa?o Ethernet. IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey ecaanoai i?eeeaaeiie
i?ia?aiia, iiaeoeth TCP e iiaeoeth IP. Iaiaoiaeeii ia aai iniiaa iaeoe
Ethernet-aae?anianoa iacia/aiey. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eneiiiai
Ethernet-aae?ana eniieuecoaony ARP-oaaeeoea

4.3. Cai?inu e ioaaou i?ioieiea ARP

Eae aea caiieiyaony ARP-oaaeeoea? Iia caiieiyaony aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeoeai
ARP, ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Eiaaea n iiiiuueth nouanoaothuae
ARP-oaaeeoeu ia oaeaaony i?aia?aciaaoue IP-aae?an, oi i?ienoiaeeo
neaaeothuaa:

1) Ii naoe ia?aaeaaony oe?ieiaauaoaeueiue ARP-cai?in.

2) Enoiaeyuee IP-iaeao noaaeony a i/a?aaeue.

Eaaeaeue naoaaie aaeaioa? i?eieiaao oe?ieiaauaoaeueiua ia?aaea/e.
Ana

ae?aeaa?u Ethernet i?iaa?ytho iiea oeia a i?eiyoii Ethernet-eaae?a e
ia?aaeatho ARP-iaeaou iiaeoeth ARP. ARP-cai?in iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue
oae: “Anee aao IP-aae?an niaiaaeaao n oeacaiiui, oi niiaueoa iia aao
Ethernet-aae?an”

Iaeao ARP-cai?ina auaeyaeeo i?eia?ii oae:

———————————————————–

| IP-aae?an ioi?aaeoaey 223.1.2.1 |

| Ethernet-aae?an ioi?aaeoaey 08:00:39:00:2F:C3 |

———————————————————–

| Eneiiue IP-aae?an 223.1.2.2 |

| Eneiiue Ethernet-aae?an |

———————————————————–

Oaae.2. I?eia? ARP-cai?ina

Eaaeaeue iiaeoeue ARP i?iaa?yao iiea eneiiiai IP-aae?ana a iieo/aiiii
ARP-iaeaoa e, anee aae?an niaiaaeaao n aai nianoaaiiui IP-aae?anii, oi
iinueaao ioaao i?yii ii Ethernet-aae?ano ioi?aaeoaey cai?ina. ARP-ioaao
iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue oae: “Aea, yoi iie IP-aae?an, aio niioaaonoaoao
oaeie-oi Ethernet-aae?an”. Iaeao n ARP-ioaaoii auaeyaeeo i?eia?ii oae:

———————————————————–

| IP-aae?an ioi?aaeoaey 223.1.2.2 |

| Ethernet-aae?an ioi?aaeoaey 08:00:28:00:38:A9 |

———————————————————–

| Eneiiue IP-aae?an 223.1.2.1 |

| Eneiiue Ethernet-aae?an 08:00:39:00:2F:C3 |

———————————————————–

Oaae.3. I?eia? ARP-ioaaoa

Yoio ioaao iieo/aao iaoeia, naeaeaaoay ARP-cai?in. Ae?aeaa? yoie iaoeiu
i?iaa?yao iiea oeia a Ethernet-eaae?a e ia?aaeaao ARP-iaeao iiaeoeth
ARP. Iiaeoeue ARP aiaeece?oao ARP-iaeao e aeiaaaeyao caienue a naith
ARP-oaaeeoeo

Iaiiaeaiiay oaaeeoea auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

———————————————

| IP-aae?an Ethernet-aae?an |

———————————————

| 223.1.2.1 08:00:39:00:2F:C3 |

| 223.1.2.2 08:00:28:00:38:A9 |

| 223.1.2.3 08:00:5A:21:A7:22 |

| 223.1.2.4 08:00:10:99:AC:54 |

———————————————

Oaae.4. ARP-oaaeeoea iinea ia?aaioee ioaaoa

4.4. I?iaeieaeaiea i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania

Iiaay caienue a ARP-oaaeeoea iiyaeyaony aaoiiaoe/anee, nionoy ianeieueei
ieeeenaeoiae iinea oiai, eae iia iio?aaiaaeanue. Eae au iiiieoa, ?aiaa
ia oaaa 2 enoiaeyuee IP-iaeao aue iinoaaeai a i/a?aaeue. Oaia?ue n
eniieueciaaieai iaiiaeaiiie ARP-oaaeeoeu auiieiyaony i?aia?aciaaiea
IP-aae?ana a Ethernet-aae?an, iinea /aai Ethernet-eaae? ia?aaeaaony ii
naoe

Iieiinoueth ii?yaeie i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ania auaeyaeeo oae:

1) Ii naoe ia?aaeaaony oe?ieiaauaoaeueiue ARP-cai?in.

2) Enoiaeyuee IP-iaeao noaaeony a i/a?aaeue.

3) Aica?auaaony ARP-ioaao, niaea?aeauee eioi?iaoeeth i niioaaonoaee IP-
e Ethernet-aae?ania. Yoa eioi?iaoeey caiineony a ARP-oaaeeoeo.

4) Aeey i?aia?aciaaiey IP-aae?ana a Ethernet-aae?an o IP-iaeaoa,
iinoaaeaiiiai a i/a?aaeue, eniieuecoaony ARP-oaaeeoea.

5) Ethernet-eaae? ia?aaeaaony ii naoe Ethernet.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, anee n iiiiuueth ARP-oaaeeoeu ia oaeaaony n?aco
inouanoaeoue i?aia?aciaaiea aae?ania, oi IP-iaeao noaaeony a i/a?aaeue,
a iaiaoiaeeiay aeey i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeey iieo/aaony n iiiiuueth
cai?inia e ioaaoia i?ioieiea ARP, iinea /aai IP-iaeao ia?aaeaaony ii
iacia/aieth

Anee a naoe iao iaoeiu n eneiiui IP-aae?anii, oi ARP-ioaaoa ia aoaeao e
ia aoaeao caiene a ARP-oaaeeoea. I?ioieie IP aoaeao oie/oiaeaoue
IP-iaeaou, iai?aaeyaiua ii yoiio aae?ano. I?ioieieu aa?oiaai o?iaiy ia
iiaoo ioee/eoue neo/ae iia?aaeaeaiey naoe Ethernet io neo/ay ionoonoaey
iaoeiu n eneiiui IP-aae?anii

Iaeioi?ua ?aaeecaoeee IP e ARP ia noaayo a i/a?aaeue IP-iaeaou ia oi
a?aiy, iiea iie aeaeoo ARP-ioaaoia. Aianoi yoiai IP-iaeao i?inoi
oie/oiaeaaony, a aai ainnoaiiaeaiea aiceaaaaony ia iiaeoeue TCP eee
i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann, ?aaioathuee /a?ac UDP. Oaeia ainnoaiiaeaiea
auiieiyaony n iiiiuueth oaeiaooia e iiaoi?iuo ia?aaea/. Iiaoi?iay
ia?aaea/a niiauaiey i?ioiaeeo oniaoii, oae eae ia?aay iiiuoea oaea
aucaaea caiieiaiea ARP-oaaeeoeu

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eaaeaeay iaoeia eiaao ioaeaeueioth ARP-oaaeeoeo
aeey eaaeaeiai naiaai naoaaiai eioa?oaena

5. Iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie IP

Iiaeoeue IP yaeyaony aaciaui yeaiaioii oaoiieiaee internet, a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoueth IP yaeyaony aai oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia. I?ioieie IP
eniieuecoao yoo oaaeeoeo i?e i?eiyoee anao ?aoaiee i ia?o?ooecaoeee
IP-iaeaoia. Niaea?aeaiea oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia ii?aaeaeyaony
aaeieieno?aoi?ii naoe. Ioeaee i?e onoaiiaea ia?o?ooia iiaoo
caaeiee?iaaoue ia?aaea/e

*oiau iiiyoue oaoieeo iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, ioaeii iiiyoue oi,
eae eniieuecoaony oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia. Yoi iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeii aeey
oniaoiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey e nii?iaiaeaeaiey IP-naoae

5.1. I?yiay ia?o?ooecaoeey

Ia ?en 6 iieacaia iaaieueoay IP-naoue, ninoiyuay ec 3 iaoei: A, B e C

Eaaeaeay iaoeia eiaao oaeie aea noae i?ioieieia TCP/IP eae ia ?en 1.
Eaaeaeue naoaaie aaeaioa? yoeo iaoei eiaao naie Ethernet-aae?an.
Iaiaaeaea? naoe aeieaeai i?enaieoue iaoeiai oieeaeueiua IP-aae?ana

A B C

| | |

————–i——i——i——

Ethernet 1

IP-naoue “development”

?en.6. I?inoay IP-naoue

Eiaaea A iinueaao IP-iaeao B, oi caaieiaie IP-iaeaoa niaea?aeeo a iiea
ioi?aaeoaey IP-aae?an ocea A, a caaieiaie Ethernet-eaae?a niaea?aeeo a
iiea ioi?aaeoaey Ethernet-aae?an A. E?iia yoiai, IP-caaieiaie niaea?aeeo
a iiea iieo/aoaey IP-aae?an ocea B, a Ethernet-caaieiaie niaea?aeeo a
iiea iieo/aoaey Ethernet-aae?an B

—————————————————–

| aae?an ioi?aaeoaeue iieo/aoaeue |

—————————————————–

| IP-caaieiaie A B |

| Ethernet-caaieiaie A B |

—————————————————–

Oaae.5. Aae?ana a Ethernet-eaae?a, ia?aaeathuai IP-iaeao io A e B

A yoii i?inoii i?eia?a i?ioieie IP yaeyaony eceeoanoaii, eioi?ia iaei
/oi aeiaaaeyao e oneoaai, i?aaeinoaaeyaiui naoueth Ethernet. Iaeiaei
i?ioieie IP o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ia nicaeaiea, ia?aaea/o e
ia?aaioeo IP-caaieiaea. Eiaaea a iaoeia B iiaeoeue IP iieo/aao IP-iaeao
io iaoeiu A, ii niiinoaaeyao IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey ni naiei e, anee
aae?ana niaiaaeatho, oi ia?aaeaao aeaoaa?aiio i?ioieieo aa?oiaai o?iaiy

A aeaiiii neo/aa i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee A n B eniieuecoaony i?yiay
ia?o?ooecaoeey

5.2. Einaaiiay ia?o?ooecaoeey

Ia ?en 7 i?aaenoaaeaia aieaa ?aaeenoe/iay ea?oeia naoe internet. A
aeaiiii neo/aa naoue internet ninoieo ec o?ao naoae Ethernet, ia aaca
eioi?uo ?aaioatho o?e IP-naoe, iauaaeeiaiiua oethcii D. Eaaeaeay
IP-naoue aeeth/aao /aou?a iaoeiu; eaaeaeay iaoeia eiaao naie nianoaaiiua
IP- e Ethernet-aae?ana

—– D ——-

A B C | | | E F G

| | | | | | | | |

—-i—–i—–i—–i– | –i—–i—–i—–i—

Ethernet 1 | Ethernet 2

IP-naoue “development” | IP-naoue “accounting”

|

| H I J

| | | |

i—-i—–i—–i———-

Ethernet 3 IP-naoue “fuctory”

?en.7. Naoue internet, ninoiyuay ec o?ao IP-naoae

Ca eneeth/aieai D ana iaoeiu eiatho noae i?ioieieia, aiaeiae/iue
iieacaiiiio ia ?en 1. Oethc D niaaeeiyao ana o?e naoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaao o?e IP-aae?ana e o?e Ethernet-aae?ana. Iaoeia D
eiaao noae i?ioieieia TCP/IP, iioiaeee ia oio, /oi iieacai ia ?en 3, ii
aianoi aeaoo iiaeoeae ARP e aeaoo ae?aeaa?ia, ii niaea?aeeo o?e iiaeoey
ARP e o?e ae?aeaa?a Ethernet. Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iaoeia D eiaao
oieueei iaeei iiaeoeue IP

Iaiaaeaea? naoe i?enaaeaaao eaaeaeie naoe Ethernet oieeaeueiue iiia?,
iacuaaaiue IP-iiia?ii naoe. Ia ?en 7 IP-iiia?a ia iieacaiu, aianoi ieo
eniieuecothony eiaia naoae

Eiaaea iaoeia A iinueaao IP-iaeao iaoeia B, oi i?ioeann ia?aaea/e eaeao
a i?aaeaeao iaeiie naoe. I?e anao acaeiiaeaenoaeyo iaaeaeo iaoeiaie,
iiaeeeth/aiiuie e iaeiie IP-naoe, eniieuecoaony i?yiay ia?o?ooecaoeey,
ianoaeaeaaoayny a i?aaeuaeouai i?eia?a

Eiaaea iaoeia D acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaoeiie A, oi yoi i?yiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea. Eiaaea iaoeia D acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaoeiie E, oi yoi
i?yiia acaeiiaeaenoaea. Eiaaea iaoeia D acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaoeiie H, oi
yoi i?yiia acaeiiaeaenoaea. Yoi oae, iineieueeo eaaeaeay ia?a yoeo iaoei
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiie IP-naoe

Iaeiaei, eiaaea iaoeia A acaeiiaeaenoaoao n iaoeiaie, aeeth/aiiuie a
ae?oaoth IP-naoue, oi acaeiiaeaenoaea oaea ia aoaeao i?yiui. Iaoeia A
aeieaeia eniieueciaaoue oethc D aeey ?ao?aineyoeee IP-iaeaoia a ae?oaoth
IP-naoue. Oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea iacuaaaony “einaaiiui”

Ia?o?ooecaoeey IP-iaeaoia auiieiyaony iiaeoeyie IP e yaeyaony i?ic?a/iie
aeey iiaeoeae TCP, UDP e i?eeeaaeiuo i?ioeannia

Anee iaoeia A iinueaao iaoeia E IP-iaeao, oi IP-aae?an e Ethernet-aae?an
ioi?aaeoaey niioaaonoaotho aae?anai A. IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey
yaeyaony aae?anii E, ii iineieueeo iiaeoeue IP a A iinueaao IP-iaeao
/a?ac D, Ethernet-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey yaeyaony aae?anii D

—————————————————-

| aae?an ioi?aaeoaeue iieo/aoaeue |

—————————————————-

| IP-caaieiaie A E |

| Ethernet-caaieiaie A D |

—————————————————-

Oaae.6. Aae?ana a Ethernet-eaae?a, niaea?aeauai IP-iaeao io A e E (aei
oethca D)

Iiaeoeue IP a iaoeia D iieo/aao IP-iaeao e i?iaa?yao IP-aae?an ianoa
iacia/aiey. Ii?aaeaeea, /oi yoi ia aai IP-aae?an, oethc D iinueaao yoio
IP-iaeao i?yii e E

—————————————————-

| aae?an ioi?aaeoaeue iieo/aoaeue |

—————————————————-

| IP-caaieiaie A E |

| Ethernet-caaieiaie D E |

—————————————————-

Oaae.7. Aae?ana a Ethernet-eaae?a, niaea?aeauai IP-iaeao io A e E (iinea
oethc D)

Eoae, i?e i?yiie ia?o?ooecaoeee IP- e Ethernet-aae?ana ioi?aaeoaey

niioaaonoaotho aae?anai oiai ocea, eioi?ue iineae IP-iaeao, a IP- e
Ethernet-aae?ana ianoa iacia/aiey niioaaonoaotho aae?anai iieo/aoaey.
I?e einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee IP- e Ethernet-aae?ana ia ia?acotho oaeeo
ia?

A aeaiiii i?eia?a naoue internet yaeyaony i/aiue i?inoie. ?aaeueiua naoe
iiaoo auoue ai?acaei neiaeiaa, oae eae iiaoo niaea?aeaoue ianeieueei
oethcia e ianeieueei oeiia oece/aneeo n?aae ia?aaea/e. A i?eaaaeaiiii
i?eia?a ianeieueei naoae Ethernet iauaaeeiythony oethcii aeey oiai,
/oiau eieaeeciaaoue oe?ieiaauaoaeueiue o?aoee a eaaeaeie naoe

5.3. I?aaeea ia?o?ooecaoeee a iiaeoea IP

Auoa iu iieacaee, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e ia?aaea/a niiauaiee, a oaia?ue
?anniio?ei i?aaeea eee aeai?eoi ia?o?ooecaoeee

Aeey ioi?aaeyaiuo IP-iaeaoia, iinooiathueo io iiaeoeae aa?oiaai o?iaiy,
iiaeoeue IP aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue niinia aeinoaaee – i?yiie eee
einaaiiue – e aua?aoue naoaaie eioa?oaen. Yoio auai? aeaeaaony ia
iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia iienea a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia

Aeey i?eieiaaiuo IP-iaeaoia, iinooiathueo io naoaauo ae?aeaa?ia,
iiaeoeue IP aeieaeai ?aoeoue, ioaeii ee ?ao?ainee?iaaoue IP-iaeao ii
ae?oaie naoe eee ia?aaeaoue aai ia aa?oiee o?iaaiue. Anee iiaeoeue IP
?aoeo, /oi IP-iaeao aeieaeai auoue ?ao?ainee?iaai, oi aeaeueiaeoay
?aaioa n iei inouanoaeyaony oaeaea, eae n ioi?aaeyaiuie IP-iaeaoaie

Aoiaeyuee IP-iaeao ieeiaaea ia ?ao?ainee?oaony /a?ac oio aea naoaaie
eioa?oaen, /a?ac eioi?ue ii aue i?eiyo

?aoaiea i ia?o?ooecaoeee i?eieiaaony aei oiai, eae IP-iaeao ia?aaeaaony
naoaaiio ae?aeaa?o, e aei oiai, eae i?ienoiaeeo ia?auaiea e ARP-oaaeeoea

5.4. IP-aae?an

Iaiaaeaea? naoe i?enaaeaaao IP-aae?ana iaoeiai a niioaaonoaee n oai, e
eaeei IP-naoyi iie iiaeeeth/aiu. Noa?oea aeou 4-o aaeoiiai IP-aae?ana
ii?aaeaeytho iiia? IP-naoe. Inoaaoayny /anoue IP-aae?ana – iiia? ocea
(oino-iiia?). Aeey iaoeiu ec oaae.. 1 n IP-aae?anii 223.1.2.1 naoaaie
iiia? ?aaai 223.1.2, a oino-iiia? – 1. Iaiiiiei, /oi IP-aae?an ocea
eaeaioeoeoee?oao oi/eo aeinooia iiaeoey IP e naoaaiio eioa?oaeno, a ia
anth iaoeio

Nouanoaotho 5 eeannia IP-aae?ania, ioee/athueany eiee/anoaii aeo a
naoaaii iiia?a e oino-iiia?a. Eeann aae?ana ii?aaeaeyaony cia/aieai aai
ia?aiai ieoaoa

A oaae. 8 i?eaaaeaii niioaaonoaea eeannia aae?ania cia/aieyi ia?aiai
ieoaoa e oeacaii eiee/anoai aiciiaeiuo IP-aae?ania eaaeaeiai eeanna

0 8 16 24 31

—————————————————

Eeann A |0| iiia? naoe | iiia? ocea |

—————————————————

—————————————————

Eeann B |10| iiia? naoe | iiia? ocea |

—————————————————

—————————————————

Eeann C |110| iiia? naoe | iiia? ocea |

—————————————————

—————————————————

Eeann D |1110| a?oiiiaie aae?an |

—————————————————

—————————————————

Eeann E |11110| ca?aca?ae?iaaii |

—————————————————

?en.8. No?oeoo?a IP-aae?ania

——————————————————-

| Eeann Aeeaiacii cia/aiee Aiciiaeiia Aiciiaeiia |

| ia?aiai ieoaoa eie-ai naoae eie-ai oceia |

——————————————————-

| A 1 – 126 126 16777214 |

| B 128-191 16382 65534 |

| C 192-223 2097150 254 |

| D 224-239 – 2**28 |

| E 240-247 – 2**27 |

——————————————————-

Oaae.8. Oa?aeoa?enoeee eeannia aae?ania

Aae?ana eeanna A i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey eniieueciaaiey a aieueoeo naoyo
iauaai iieueciaaiey. Iie aeiioneatho aieueoia eiee/anoai iiia?ia oceia.
Aae?ana eeanna B eniieuecothony a naoyo n?aaeiaai ?acia?a, iai?eia?,
naoyo oieaa?neoaoia e e?oiiuo eiiiaiee. Aae?ana eeanna C eniieuecothony
a naoyo n iaaieueoei /eneii eiiiuethoa?ia. Aae?ana eeanna D
eniieuecothony i?e ia?auaieyo e a?oiiai iaoei, a aae?ana eeanna E
ca?aca?ae?iaaiu ia aoaeouaa

Iaeioi?ua IP-aae?ana yaeythony auaeaeaiiuie e o?aeoothony ii-iniaiio

——————————

| ana ioee | Aeaiiue ocae

——————————

——————————

| iiia? naoe | ana ioee | Aeaiiay IP-naoue

——————————

——————————

| ana ioee | iiia? ocea | Ocae a aeaiiie (eieaeueiie) IP-naoe

——————————

——————————

| ana aaeeieoeu | Ana oceu a aeaiiie (eieaeueiie)
IP-naoe

——————————

——————————

| iiia? naoe | ana aaeeieoeu | Ana oceu a oeacaiiie IP-naoe

——————————

——————————

| 127 | /oi-ieaoaeue (/anoi 1) | “Iaoey”

——————————

?en.9. Auaeaeaiiua IP-aae?ana

Eae iieacaii ia ?en 9, a auaeaeaiiuo IP-aae?anao ana ioee niioaaonoaotho
eeai aeaiiiio oceo, eeai aeaiiie IP-naoe, a IP-aae?ana, ninoiyuea ec
anao aaeeieoe, eniieuecothony i?e oe?ieiaauaoaeueiuo ia?aaea/ao. Aeey
nnueie ia anth IP-naoue a oeaeii eniieuecoaony IP-aae?an n ioeaaui
iiia?ii ocea. Iniaue niune eiaao IP-aae?an, ia?aue ieoao eioi?iai ?aaai
127. Ii eniieuecoaony aeey oanoe?iaaiey i?ia?aii e acaeiiaeaenoaey
i?ioeannia a i?aaeaeao iaeiie iaoeiu. Eiaaea i?ia?aiia iinueaao aeaiiua
ii IP-aae?ano 127.0.0.1, oi ia?acoaony eae au “iaoey”. Aeaiiua ia
ia?aaeathony ii naoe, a aica?auathony iiaeoeyi aa?oiaai o?iaiy, eae
oieueei /oi i?eiyoua. Iiyoiio a IP-naoe cai?auaaony i?enaaeaaoue iaoeiai
IP-aae?ana, ia/eiathueany ni 127

5.5. Auai? aae?ana

I?aaeaea /ai au ia/iaoa eniieueciaaoue naoue n TCP/IP, au aeieaeiu
iieo/eoue iaeei eee ianeieueei ioeoeeaeueiuo naoaauo iiia?ia.
Auaeaeaieai iiia?ia (eae e iiiaeie ae?oaeie aii?inaie) caieiaaony DDN
Network Information Center (NIC). Auaeaeaiea iiia?ia i?iecaiaeeony
aanieaoii e caieiaao ieiei iaaeaee. Au iiaeaoa iieo/eoue naoaaie iiia?
aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, aeey /aai i?aaeiacia/aia aaoa naoue. Aeaaea
anee aaoa naoue ia eiaao nayce n iauaaeeiaiiie naoueth Internet,
iieo/aiea oieeaeueiiai iiia?a aeaeaoaeueii, oae eae a yoii neo/aa anoue
aa?aioey, /oi a aoaeouai i?e aeeth/aiee a Internet eee i?e iiaeeeth/aiee
e naoe ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeee ia aicieeiao eiioeeeoa aae?ania

Iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo ?aoaiee, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue i?e onoaiiaea
naoe, caeeth/aaony a auai?a niiniaa i?enaiaiey IP-aae?ania aaoei
iaoeiai. Yoio auai? aeieaeai o/eouaaoue ia?niaeoeao ?inoa naoe. Eia/a a
aeaeueiaeoai aai i?eaeaony iaiyoue aae?ana. Eiaaea e naoe iiaeeeth/aii
ianeieueei nioai iaoei, eciaiaiea aae?ania noaiiaeony ii/oe iaaiciiaeiui

I?aaiecaoeee, eiathuea iaaieueoea naoe n /eneii oceia aei 126, aeieaeiu
cai?aoeaaoue naoaaua iiia?a eeanna C. I?aaiecaoeee n aieueoei /eneii
iaoei iiaoo iieo/eoue ianeieueei iiia?ia eeanna C eee iiia? eeanna B.
Oaeiaiui n?aaenoaii no?oeoo?ecaoeee naoae a ?aieao iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee
yaeythony iiaenaoe

5.6. Iiaenaoe

Aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai naoe internet iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaii ia
iaia?anaeathueany iiaei?ino?ainoaa – “iiaenaoe”, n eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo
iiaeii ?aaioaoue eae n iau/iie naoueth TCP/IP. Oaeei ia?acii aaeeiay
IP-naoue i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao no?ieoueny eae iauaaeeiaiea iiaenaoae. Eae
i?aaeei, iiaenaoue niioaaonoaoao iaeiie oece/aneie naoe, iai?eia?,
iaeiie naoe Ethernet

Eiia/ii, eniieueciaaiea iiaenaoae iaiaycaoaeueii. Iiaeii i?inoi
iacia/eoue aeey eaaeaeie oece/aneie naoe naie naoaaie iiia?, iai?eia?,
iiia? eeanna C. Iaeiaei oaeia ?aoaiea eiaao aeaa iaaeinoaoea. Ia?aue, e
iaiaa nouanoaaiiue, caeeth/aaony a ionoie o?aoa naoaauo iiia?ia. Aieaa
na?ueaciue iaaeinoaoie ninoieo a oii, /oi anee aaoa i?aaiecaoeey eiaao
ianeieueei naoaauo iiia?ia, oi iaoeiu aia aa aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
caiene i ia?o?ooao aeinooia e eaaeaeie ec yoeo IP-naoae. Oaeei ia?acii,
no?oeoo?a IP-naoe i?aaiecaoeee noaiiaeony aeaeeiie aeey anaai ie?a. I?e
eaeeo-eeai eciaiaieyo a IP-naoe eioi?iaoeey i ieo aeieaeia auoue o/oaia
a eaaeaeie ec iaoei, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo ia?o?oou aeinooia e aeaiiie
IP-naoe

Iiaenaoe iicaieytho ecaaaeaoue yoeo iaaeinoaoeia. Aaoa i?aaiecaoeey
aeieaeia iieo/eoue iaeei naoaaie iiia?, iai?eia?, iiia? eeanna B.
Noaiaea?ou TCP/IP ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o IP-aae?ania. Aeey IP-aae?ania
eeanna B ia?aua aeaa ieoaoa yaeythony iiia?ii naoe. Inoaaoayny /anoue
IP-aae?ana iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eae oaiaeii. Iai?eia?, au iiaeaoa
?aoeoue, /oi o?aoee ieoao aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoue iiia? iiaenaoe, a
/aoaa?oue ieoao – iiia? ocea a iae. Au aeieaeiu iienaoue eiioeao?aoeeth
iiaenaoae a oaeeao, ii?aaeaeythueo ia?o?ooecaoeeth IP-iaeaoia. Yoi
iienaiea yaeyaony eieaeueiui aeey aaoae i?aaiecaoeee e ia aeaeii aia aa.
Ana iaoeiu aia aaoae i?aaiecaoeee aeaeyo iaeio aieueooth IP-naoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oieueei ia?o?oou aeinooia
e oethcai, niaaeeiythuei aaoo IP-naoue n inoaeueiui ie?ii. Eciaiaiey,
i?ienoiaeyuea a IP-naoe i?aaiecaoeee, ia aeaeiu aia aa. Au eaaei iiaeaoa
aeiaaaeoue iiaoth iiaenaoue, iiaue oethc e.o.i.

5.7. Eae iacia/aoue iiia?a naoae e iiaenaoae

Iinea oiai, eae ?aoaii eniieueciaaoue iiaenaoe eee iiiaeanoai IP-naoae,
au aeieaeiu ?aoeoue, eae iacia/aoue ei iiia?a. Iau/ii yoi aeiaieueii
i?inoi. Eaaeaeie oece/aneie naoe, iai?eia?, Ethernet eee Token Ring,
iacia/aaony ioaeaeueiue iiia? iiaenaoe eee iiia? naoe. A iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo eiaao niune iacia/aoue iaeiie oece/aneie naoe ianeieueei
iiaenaoaauo iiia?ia. Iai?eia?, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eiaaony naoue
Ethernet, ioaaouaathuay o?e caeaiey. ssnii, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee /enea
iaoei, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e yoie naoe, i?eaeaony aa ?acaeaeeoue ia
ianeieueei ioaeaeueiuo naoae Ethernet. Aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaiyoue IP-aae?ana, eiaaea yoi i?iecieaeao, iiaeii
ca?aiaa auaeaeeoue aeey yoie naoe o?e iiaenaoaauo iiia?a – ii iaeiiio ia
caeaiea. (Yoi iieacii e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ia ieaie?oaony oece/aneia
aeaeaiea naoe

I?inoi oaeay aae?anaoeey iicaieyao n?aco ii?aaeaeeoue, aaea iaoiaeeony
oa eee eiay iaoeia ) Iaeiaei i?aaeaea, /ai auaeaeyoue o?e ?acee/iuo
iiaenaoaauo iiia?a iaeiie oece/aneie naoe, ouaoaeueii i?iaa?ueoa, /oi
ana aaoe i?ia?aiiu niiniaiu ?aaioaoue a oaeie n?aaea

Au oaeaea aeieaeiu aua?aoue “ianeo iiaenaoe”. Iia eniieuecoaony naoaaui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai aeey auaeaeaiey iiia?a iiaenaoe ec IP-aae?ania.
Aeou IP-aae?ana, ii?aaeaeythuea iiia? IP-naoe, a ianea iiaenaoe aeieaeiu
auoue ?aaiu 1, a aeou, ii?aaeaeythuea iiia? ocea, a ianea iiaenaoe
aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu 0. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, noaiaea?ou TCP/IP
ii?aaeaeytho eiee/anoai ieoaoia, caaeathueo iiia? naoe. *anoi a
IP-aae?anao eeanna B o?aoee ieoao eniieuecoaony aeey caaeaiey iiia?a
iiaenaoe. Yoi iicaieyao eiaoue 256 iiaenaoae, a eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo
iiaeao auoue aei 254 oceia. Ianea iiaenaoe a oaeie nenoaia ?aaia
255.255.255.0. Ii, anee a aaoae naoe aeieaeii auoue aieueoa iiaenaoae, a
a eaaeaeie iiaenaoe ia aoaeao i?e yoii aieaa 60 oceia, oi iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue ianeo 255.255.255.192. Yoi iicaieyao eiaoue 1024 iiaenaoe
e aei 62 oceia a eaaeaeie. (Iaiiiiei, /oi iiia?a oceia 0 e “ana
aaeeieoeu” eniieuecothony iniaui ia?acii )

Iau/ii ianea iiaenaoe oeacuaaaony a oaeea noa?oiaie eiioeao?aoeee
naoaaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. I?ioieieu TCP/IP iicaieytho oaeaea
cai?aoeaaoue yoo eioi?iaoeeth ii naoe

5.8. Eiaia

Ethaeyi oaeiaiaa iacuaaoue iaoeiu ii eiaiai, a ia /eneaie. Iai?eia?, o
iaoeiu ii eiaie alpha iiaeao auoue IP-aae?an 223.1.2.1. A iaeaiueeeo
naoyo eioi?iaoeey i niioaaonoaee eiai IP-aae?anai o?aieony a oaeeao
“hosts” ia eaaeaeii ocea. Eiia/ii, iacaaiea oaeea caaeneo io eiie?aoiie
?aaeecaoeee. A aieueoeo naoyo yoa eioi?iaoeey o?aieony ia na?aa?a e
aeinooiia ii naoe

Ianeieueei no?ie ec oaeea “hosts” iiaoo auaeyaeaoue i?eia?ii oae:

223.1.2.1 alpha

223.1.2.2 beta

223.1.2.3 gamma

223.1.2.4 delta

223.1.3.2 epsilon

223.1.4.2 iota

A ia?aii noieaoea – IP-aae?an, ai aoi?ii – iacaaiea iaoeiu A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaeeu “hosts” iiaoo auoue iaeeiaeiau ia anao oceao.
Caiaoei, /oi i ocea delta a yoii oaeea anoue anaai iaeia caienue, oioy
ii eiaao o?e IP-aae?ana (?en 11). Ocae delta aeinooiai ii ethaiio ec
yoeo IP-aae?ania. Eaeie ec ieo eniieuecoaony, ia eiaao cia/aiey. Eiaaea
ocae delta iieo/aao IP-iaeao e i?iaa?yao IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey, oi
ii iiiciaao ethaie ec o?ao naieo IP-aae?ania

IP-naoe oaeaea iiaoo eiaoue eiaia. Anee o aan anoue o?e IP-naoe, oi oaee
“networks” iiaeao auaeyaeaoue i?eia?ii oae:

223.1.2 development

223.1.3 accounting

223.1.4 factory

A ia?aie eieiiea – naoaaie iiia?, ai aoi?ie – eiy naoe

A aeaiiii i?eia?a alpha yaeyaony oceii iiia? 1 a naoe development, beta
yaeyaony oceii iiia? 2 a naoe development e.o.ae.

Iieacaiiue auoa oaee hosts oaeiaeaoai?yao iio?aaiinoe iieueciaaoaeae, ii
aeey oi?aaeaiey naoueth internet oaeiaiaa eiaoue iacaaiey anao naoaauo
eioa?oaenia. Iaiaaeaea? naoe, aiciiaeii, caiaieo no?ieo, ioiinyuothny e
delta:

223.1.2.4 devnetrouter delta

223.1.3.1 accnetrouter

223.1.4.1 facnetrouter

Yoe o?e no?iee oaeea hosts caaeatho eaaeaeiio IP-aae?ano ocea delta
neiaieueiua eiaia. Oaeoe/anee, ia?aue IP-aae?an eiaao aeaa eiaie:
“devnetrouter” e “delta”, eioi?ua yaeythony neiiieiaie. Ia i?aeoeea eiy
“delta” eniieuecoaony eae iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiia eiy iaoeiu, a inoaeueiua
o?e eiaie – aeey aaeieieno?e?iaaiey naoe

Oaeeu hosts e networks eniieuecothony eiiaiaeaie aaeieieno?e?iaaiey e
i?eeeaaeiuie i?ia?aiiaie. Iie ia ioaeiu nianoaaiii aeey ?aaiou naoe
internet, ii iaeaa/atho aa eniieueciaaiea

5.9. IP-oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia

Eae iiaeoeue IP ociaao, eaeie eiaiii naoaaie eioa?oaen ioaeii
eniieueciaaoue aeey ioi?aaeaiey IP-iaeaoa? Iiaeoeue IP inouanoaeyao
iiene a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia. Eeth/ii iienea neoaeeo iiia? IP-naoe,
auaeaeaiiue ec IP-aae?ana ianoa iacia/aiey IP-iaeaoa

Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia niaea?aeeo ii iaeiie no?iea aeey eaaeaeiai ia?o?ooa

Iniiaiuie noieaoeaie oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia yaeythony iiia? naoe, oeaa
i?yiie eee einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee, IP-aae?an oethca e iiia? naoaaiai
eioa?oaena. Yoa oaaeeoea eniieuecoaony iiaeoeai IP i?e ia?aaioea
eaaeaeiai ioi?aaeyaiiai IP-iaeaoa

A aieueoeinoaa nenoai oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia iiaeao auoue eciaiaia n
iiiiuueth eiiaiaeu “route”. Niaea?aeaiea oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia
ii?aaeaeyaony iaiaaeaea?ii naoe, iineieueeo iaiaaeaea? naoe i?enaaeaaao
iaoeiai IP-aae?ana

5.10. Iiae?iaiinoe i?yiie ia?o?ooecaoeee

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii, eae i?ienoiaeeo ia?o?ooecaoeey a iaeiie
oece/aneie naoe

————- ————-

| alpha | | beta |

| 223.1.2.1 | | 223.1.2.2 |

| 1 | | 1 |

————- ————-

| |

——i———————–i——-

Ethernet 1

IP-naoue “development” 223.1.2

?en.10. Iaeia oece/aneay naoue

Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea alpha auaeyaeeo oae:

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| development i?yiay 1 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.9. I?eia? oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia

A aeaiiii i?inoii i?eia?a ana oceu naoe eiatho iaeeiaeiaua oaaeeoeu
ia?o?ooia

Aeey n?aaiaiey ieaea i?aaenoaaeaia oa aea oaaeeoea, ii aianoi iacaaiey
naoe oeacai aa iiia?

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| 223.1.2 i?yiay 1 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.10. I?eia? oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia n iiia?aie naoae

5.11. Ii?yaeie i?yiie ia?o?ooecaoeee

Ocae alpha iinueaao IP-iaeao oceo beta. Yoio iaeao iaoiaeeony a iiaeoea
IP ocea alpha, e IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey ?aaai IP-aae?ano beta
(223.1.2.2). Iiaeoeue IP n iiiiuueth ianee iiaenaoe auaeaeyao iiia? naoe
ec IP-aae?ana e euao niioaaonoaothuoth aio no?ieo a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia.
A aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeoiaeeo ia?aay no?iea

Inoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey a iaeaeaiiie no?iea oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi iaoeiu
yoie naoe aeinooiiu iai?yioth /a?ac eioa?oaen iiia? 1. N iiiiuueth
ARP-oaaeeoeu auiieiyaony i?aia?aciaaiea IP-aae?ana a niioaaonoaothuee
Ethernet-aae?an, e /a?ac eioa?oaen 1 Ethernet-eaae? iinueaaony oceo beta

Anee i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia iuoaaony iineaoue aeaiiua ii IP-aae?ano,
eioi?ue ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo naoe development, oi iiaeoeue IP ia niiaeao
iaeoe niioaaonoaothuoth caienue a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia. A yoii neo/aa
iiaeoeue IP ioa?anuaaao IP-iaeao. Iaeioi?ua ?aaeecaoeee i?ioieiea
aica?auatho niiauaiea ia ioeaea “Naoue ia aeinooiia”

5.12. Iiae?iaiinoe einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei aieaa neiaeiue ii?yaeie ia?o?ooecaoeee a IP-naoe,
ecia?aaeaiiie ia ?en 11

Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea alpha auaeyaeeo oae:

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| development i?yiay 1 |

| accounting einaaiiay devnetrouter 1 |

| factory einaaiiay devnetrouter 1 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.11. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea alpha

————-

| delta |

————- | 223.1.2.4 | ————-

| alpha | | 223.1.4.1 | | epsilon |

| 223.1.2.1 | | 223.1.3.1 | | 223.1.3.2 |

| 1 | | 1 2 3 | | 1 |

————- ————- ————-

| | | | |

——i——————o- | -i—————–i———

Ethernet 1 | Ethernet 2

IP-naoue “development” | IP-naoue “accounting”

223.1.2 | 223.1.3

|

| ————-

| | iota |

| | 223.1.4.2 |

| | 1 |

| ————-

| |

—i———-i——————-

Ethernet 3

IP-naoue “factory”

223.1.4

?en.11. Iiae?iaiay noaia o?ao naoae

Oa aea oaaeeoea n IP-aae?anaie aianoi iacaaiee

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| 223.1.2 i?yiay 1 |

| 223.1.3 einaaiiay 223.1.2.4 1 |

| 223.1.4 einaaiiay 223.1.2.4 1 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.12. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea alpha (n iiia?aie)

A noieaoea “oethc” oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia ocea alpha oeacuaaaony IP-aae?an
oi/ee niaaeeiaiey ocea delta n naoueth development

5.13. Ii?yaeie einaaiiie ia?o?ooecaoeee

Ocae alpha iinueaao IP-iaeao oceo epsilon. Yoio iaeao iaoiaeeony a
iiaeoea IP ocea alpha, e IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey ?aaai IP-aae?ano
ocea epsilon (223.1.3.2). Iiaeoeue IP auaeaeyao naoaaie iiia? ec
IP-aae?ana (223.1.3) e euao niioaaonoaothuoth aio no?ieo a oaaeeoea
ia?o?ooia. Niioaaonoaea iaoiaeeony ai aoi?ie no?iea

Caienue a yoie no?iea oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi iaoeiu o?aaoaiie naoe
aeinooiiu /a?ac oethc devnetrouter. Iiaeoeue IP a ocea alpha
inouanoaeyao iiene a ARP-oaaeeoea, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyao
Ethernet-aae?an, niioaaonoaothuee IP-aae?ano devnetrouter. Caoai
IP-iaeao, niaea?aeauee IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey epsilon, iinueaaony
/a?ac eioa?oaen 1 oethco devnetrouter

IP-iaeao i?eieiaaony naoaaui eioa?oaenii a ocea delta e ia?aaeaaony
iiaeoeth IP. I?iaa?yaony IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey, e, iineieueeo ii ia
niioaaonoaoao ie iaeiiio ec nianoaaiiuo IP-aae?ania delta, oethc ?aoaao
?ao?ainee?iaaoue IP-iaeao

Iiaeoeue IP a ocea delta auaeaeyao naoaaie iiia? ec IP-aae?ana ianoa
iacia/aiey IP-iaeaoa (223.1.3) e euao niioaaonoaothuoth caienue a
oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea delta auaeyaeeo oae:

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| development i?yiay 1 |

| accounting i?yiay 3 |

| factory i?yiay 2 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.13. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea delta

Oa aea oaaeeoea n IP-aae?anaie aianoi iacaaiee

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc iiia? |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee eioa?oaena |

———————————————————-

| 223.1.2 i?yiay 1 |

| 223.1.3 i?yiay 3 |

| 223.1.4 i?yiay 2 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.14. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ocea delta (n iiia?aie)

Niioaaonoaea iaoiaeeony ai aoi?ie no?iea. Oaia?ue iiaeoeue IP iai?yioth
iinueaao IP-iaeao oceo epsilon /a?ac eioa?oaen iiia? 3. Iaeao niaea?aeeo
IP- e Ethernet-aae?ana ianoa iacia/aiey ?aaiua epsilon

Ocae epsilon i?eieiaao IP-iaeao, e aai iiaeoeue IP i?iaa?yao IP-aae?an
ianoa iacia/aiey. Ii niioaaonoaoao IP-aae?ano epsilon, iiyoiio
niaea?aeauaany a IP-iaeaoa niiauaiea ia?aaeaaony i?ioieieueiiio iiaeoeth
aa?oiaai o?iaiy

6. Onoaiiaea ia?o?ooia

Aei neo ii? iu ?anniao?eaaee oi, eae eniieuecoaony oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia
aeey ia?o?ooecaoeee IP-iaeaoia. Ii ioeoaea aa?aony eioi?iaoeey a naiie
oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia? A aeaiiii ?acaeaea iu ?anniio?ei iaoiaeu,
iicaieythuea iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ei??aeoiinoue oaaeeoe ia?o?ooia

6.1. Oeene?iaaiiua ia?o?oou

I?inoaeoee niinia i?iaaaeaiey ia?o?ooecaoeee ninoieo a onoaiiaea
ia?o?ooia i?e caionea nenoaiu n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo eiiaiae. Yoio
iaoiae iiaeii i?eiaiyoue a ioiineoaeueii iaeaiueeeo IP-naoyo, a
iniaaiiinoe, anee eo eiioeao?aoeee ia /anoi iaiythony

Ia i?aeoeea aieueoeinoai iaoei aaoiiaoe/anee oi?ie?oao oaaeeoeu
ia?o?ooia. Iai?eia?, UNIX aeiaaaeyao caiene i IP-naoyo, e eioi?ui anoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue aeinooi. Noa?oiaue oaee iiaeao niaea?aeaoue eiiaiaeu

ifconfig ie0 128.6.4.4 netmask 255.255.255.0

ifconfig ie1 128.6.5.35 netmask 255.255.255.0

Iie iieacuaatho, /oi nouanoaotho aeaa naoaauo eioa?oaena, e
onoaiaaeeaatho eo IP-aae?ana. Nenoaia iiaeao aaoiiaoe/anee nicaeaoue
aeaa caiene a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia:

———————————————————-

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc eioa?oaen |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee |

———————————————————-

| 128.6.4 i?yiay ie0 |

| 128.6.5 i?yiay ie1 |

———————————————————-

Oaae.15. Aaoiiaoe/anee nicaeaaaaiua caiene

Yoe caiene ii?aaeaeytho, /oi IP-iaeaou aeey eieaeueiuo iiaenaoae 128.6.4
e 128.6.5 aeieaeiu iinueaoueny /a?ac oeacaiiua eioa?oaenu

A noa?oiaii oaeea iiaoo auoue eiiaiaeu, ii?aaeaeythuea ia?o?oou aeinooia
e ae?oaei IP-naoyi. Iai?eia?,

route add 128.6.2.0 128.6.4.1 1

route add 128.6.6.0 128.6.5.35 0

Yoe eiiaiaeu iieacuaatho, /oi a oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia aeieaeiu auoue
aeiaaaeaiu aeaa caiene. Ia?aue aae?an a eiiaiaeao yaeyaony IP-aae?anii
naoe, aoi?ie aae?an oeacuaaao oethc, eioi?ue aeieaeai eniieueciaaoueny
aeey aeinooia e aeaiiie IP-naoe, a o?aoee ia?aiao? yaeyaony iao?eeie.
Iao?eea iieacuaaao, ia eaeii “?annoiyiee” iaoiaeeony iienuaaaiay
IP-naoue. A aeaiiii neo/aa iao?eea – yoi eiee/anoai oethcia ia iooe
iaaeaeo aeaoiy IP-naoyie. Ia?o?oou n iao?eeie 1 e aieaa ii?aaeaeytho
ia?aue oethc ia iooe e IP-naoe. Ia?o?oou n iao?eeie 0 iieacuaatho, /oi
ieeaeie oethc ia ioaeai – aeaiiue ia?o?oo caaeaao aeiiieieoaeueiue
naoaaie iiia? eieaeueiie IP-naoe

Oaeei ia?acii, eiiaiaeu, i?eaaaeaiiua a i?eia?a, aiai?yo i oii, /oi aeey
aeinooia e IP-naoe 128.6.2 aeieaeai eniieueciaaoueny oethc 128.6.4.1, a
IP-naoue 128.6.6 – yoi i?inoi aeiiieieoaeueiue iiia? aeey oece/aneie
naoe, iiaeeeth/aiiie e eioa?oaeno 128.6.5.35

———————————————————

| naoue oeaa aeaea oethc eioa?oaen |

| ia?o?ooecaoeee |

———————————————————

| 128.6.2 einaaiiay 128.6.4.1 ie0 |

| 128.6.6 i?yiay ie1 |

———————————————————

Oaae.16. Caiene, aeiaaaeyaiua a oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia

Iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ia?o?oo ii oiie/aieth, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea IP-aae?an ianoa iacia/aiey ia ano?a/aaony a oaaeeoea
ia?o?ooia yaii. Iau/ii ia?o?oo ii oiie/aieth oeacuaaao IP-aae?an oethca,
eioi?ue eiaao aeinoaoi/ii eioi?iaoeee aeey ia?o?ooecaoeee IP-iaeaoia ni
anaie aiciiaeiuie aae?anaie iacia/aiey

Anee aaoa IP-naoue eiaao anaai iaeei oethc, oiaaea ana, /oi ioaeii
naeaeaoue, – yoi onoaiiaeoue aaeeinoaaiioth caienue a oaaeeoea
ia?o?ooia, oeacaa yoio oethc eae ia?o?oo ii oiie/aieth. Iinea yoiai
iiaeii ia caaioeoueny i oi?ie?iaaiee ia?o?ooia a ae?oaeo oceao.
(Eiia/ii, nai oethc o?aaoao aieueoa aieiaiey )

Neaaeothuea ?acaeaeu iinayuaiu IP-naoyi, aaea anoue ianeieueei oethcia

6.2. Ia?aiai?aaeaiea ia?o?ooia

Aieueoeinoai yenia?oia ii iaaenaoaaiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth ?aeiiaiaeotho
inoaaeyoue ?aoaiea i?iaeai ia?o?ooecaoeee oethcai. Ieioi eiaoue ia
eaaeaeie iaoeia aieueooth oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?e
eaeeo-eeai eciaiaieyo a IP-naoe i?eoiaeeony iaiyoue eioi?iaoeeth ai anao
iaoeiao. Iai?eia?, i?e ioeeth/aiee eaeiai-ieaoaeue eaiaea nayce aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou ioaeii aeaeaoue, iiea eoi-oi caiaoeo
yoi eciaiaiea a eiioeao?aoeee IP-naoe e aianao eni?aaeaiey ai ana
oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia

I?inoaeoee niinia iiaeaea?aeaiey aaeaeaaoiinoe ia?o?ooia caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi eciaiaiea oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia eaaeaeie iaoeiu auiieiyaony ii
eiiaiaeai oieueei iaeiiai oethca. Yoio oethc aeieaeai auoue onoaiiaeai
eae ia?o?oo ii oiie/aieth. (A IN UNIX yoi aeaeaaony eiiaiaeie “route add
default 128.6.4.27.1”, aaea 128.6.4.27 yaeyaony IP-aae?anii oethca ) Eae
auei iienaii auoa, eaaeaeay iaoeia iinueaao IP-iaeao oethco ii
oiie/aieth a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ia iaoiaeeo eo/oaai ia?o?ooa. Iaeiaei,
eiaaea a IP-naoe anoue ianeieueei oethcia, yoio iaoiae ?aaioaao ia oae
oi?ioi. E?iia oiai, anee oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia eiaao oieueei iaeio caienue
i ia?o?ooa ii oiie/aieth, oi eae eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea oethcu, anee yoi
aieaa auaiaeii? Ioaao ninoieo a oii, /oi aieueoeinoai oethcia niiniaiu
auiieiyoue “ia?aiai?aaeaiea” a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iie iieo/atho
IP-iaeaou, aeey eioi?uo nouanoaotho aieaa auaiaeiua ia?o?oou.
“Ia?aiai?aaeaiea” yaeyaony niaoeeaeueiui oeiii niiauaiey i?ioieiea ICMP
(Internet Control Message Protocol – i?ioieie iaaenaoaauo oi?aaeythueo
niiauaiee). Niiauaiea i ia?aiai?aaeaiee niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth,
eioi?oth iiaeii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue oae: “A aoaeouai aeey IP-aae?ana XXXX
eniieuecoeoa oethc YYYY, a ia iaiy”. Ei??aeoiua ?aaeecaoeee TCP/IP
aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoue niiauaiey i ia?aiai?aaeaiee aeey aeiaaaeaiey
caienae a oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia. I?aaeiieiaeei, oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ia/aea
auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

——————————————————–

| aae?an oeaa aeaea oethc eioa?oaen |

| iacia/aiey ia?o?ooecaoeee |

——————————————————–

| 127.0.0 i?yiay lo0 |

| 128.6.4 i?yiay pe0 |

| default einaaiiay 128.6.4.27 pe0 |

——————————————————–

Oaae.17. Oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia a ia/aea ?aaiou

Yoa oaaeeoea niaea?aeeo caienue i eieaeueiie IP-naoe 128.6.4 e ia?o?oo
ii oiie/aieth, oeacuaathuee oethc 128.6.4.27. Aeiionoei, /oi nouanoaoao
oethc 128.6.4.30, eioi?ue yaeyaony eo/oei iooai aeinooia e IP-naoe
128.6.7. Eae ei ainiieueciaaoueny? I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ioaeii iinueaoue
IP-iaeaou ii IP-aae?ano 128.6.7.23. Ia?aue IP-iaeao iieaeao ia oethc ii
oiie/aieth, oae eae yoi aaeeinoaaiiue iiaeoiaeyuee ia?o?oo, iienaiiue a
oaaeeoea. Iaeiaei oethc 128.6.4.27 ciaao, /oi nouanoaoao eo/oee ia?o?oo,
i?ioiaeyuee /a?ac oethc 128.6.4.30. (Eae ii ociaao ia yoii, iu nae/an ia
?anniao?eaaai. Nouanoaoao aeiaieueii i?inoie iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey eo/oaai
ia?o?ooa ) A yoii neo/aa oethc 128.6.4.27 aica?auaao niiauaiea
ia?aiai?aaeaiey, aaea oeacuaaao, /oi IP-iaeaou aeey ocea 128.6.7.23
aeieaeiu iinueaoueny /a?ac oethc 128.6.4.30. Iiaeoeue IP ia
iaoeia-ioi?aaeoaea aeieaeai aeiaaaeoue caienue a oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia:

——————————————————–

| aae?an oeaa aeaea oethc eioa?oaen |

| iacia/aiey ia?o?ooecaoeee |

——————————————————–

| 128.6.7.23 einaaiiay 128.6.4.30 pe0 |

——————————————————–

Oaae.18. Iiaay caienue a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia

Ana iineaaeothuea IP-iaeaou aeey ocea 128.6.7.23 aoaeoo iineaiu i?yii
/a?ac oeacaiiue oethc

Aei neo ii? iu ?anniao?eaaee niiniau aeiaaaeaiey ia?o?ooia a
IP-oaaeeoeo, ii ia niiniau eo eneeth/aiey. *oi neo/eony, anee oethc
aoaeao aueeth/ai? Oioaeinue au eiaoue niinia aica?aoa e ia?o?ooo ii
oiie/aieth iinea oiai, eae eaeie-eeai ia?o?oo ?ac?ooai. Iaeiaei, anee
oethc auoae ec no?iy eee aue aueeth/ai, oi ii oaea ia iiaeao iineaoue
niiauaiea ia?aiai?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio aeieaeai nouanoaiaaoue iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oethcia, n eioi?uie aaoa iaoeia naycaia
iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Eo/oee niinia iaia?oaeaiey ia?aaioathueo oethcia
iniiaai ia auyaeaiee “ieioeo” ia?o?ooia. Iiaeoeue TCP iiaeaea?aeeaaao
?acee/iua oaeia?u, eioi?ua iiiiaatho aio ii?aaeaeeoue ?ac?ua
niaaeeiaiey. Eiaaea neo/aaony naie, oi iiaeii iiiaoeoue ia?o?oo eae
“ieioie” e aa?iooueny e ia?o?ooo ii oiie/aieth. Aiaeiae/iue iaoiae
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny i?e ia?aaioea ioeaie oethca ii oiie/aieth. Anee
aeaa oethca ioia/aiu eae oethcu ii oiie/aieth, oi iaoeia iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue eo ii i/a?aaee, ia?aeeth/aynue iaaeaeo ieie i?e
aicieeiiaaiee naiaa

6.3. Neaaeaiea ca ia?o?ooecaoeeae

Caiaoei, /oi niiauaiey ia?aiai?aaeaiey ia iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny naieie
oethcaie. Ia?aiai?aaeaiea – yoi i?inoi niinia iiiaauaiey iau/iiai ocea i
oii, /oi ioaeii eniieueciaaoue ae?oaie oethc. Naie oethcu aeieaeiu
eiaoue iieioth ea?oeio i iieiaeaiee aeae a naoe internet e oiaoue
au/eneyoue iioeiaeueiua ia?o?oou aeinooia e eaaeaeie iiaenaoe. Iau/ii
iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho yoo ea?oeio, iaiaieaaynue eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo
niaie. Aeey yoie oeaee nouanoaotho ianeieueei niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioieieia
ia?o?ooecaoeee. Iaeei ec niiniaia, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai oceu iiaoo
ii?aaeaeyoue aeaenoaothuea oethcu, ninoieo a neaaeaiee ca iaiaiii
niiauaieyie iaaeaeo ieie. Aeey aieueoeinoaa i?ioieieia ia?o?ooecaoeee
nouanoaoao i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, iicaieythuaa iau/iui oceai
inouanoaeyoue oaeia neaaeaiea. I?e yoii ia oceao iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
iieiay ea?oeia iieiaeaiey aeae a naoe internet oi/ii oaeaea, eae yoi
aeaeaaony a oethcao. Aeeiaie/aneay ei??aeoe?iaea oaaeeoeu ia?o?ooia
iicaieyao iinueaoue IP-iaeaou ii iioeiaeueiui ia?o?ooai

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaeaiea ca ia?o?ooecaoeeae a iaeioi?ii niunea “?aoaao”
i?iaeaio iiaeaea?aeaiey ei??aeoiinoe oaaeeoe ia?o?ooia. Iaeiaei
nouanoaotho ianeieueei i?e/ei, ii eioi?ui yoio iaoiae i?eiaiyoue ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony. Iaeaieaa na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oi, /oi i?ioieieu
ia?o?ooecaoeee iiea aua iiaeaa?aathony /anoui ia?aniio?ai e eciaiaieyi.
Iiyaeythony iiaua i?ioieieu ia?o?ooecaoeee. Yoe eciaiaiey aeieaeiu
o/eouaaoueny a i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee anao iaoei

Ianeieueei aieaa niaoeeaeueiay i?iaeaia naycaia n aacaeeneiauie ?aai/eie
noaioeeyie. Ii naiae i?e?iaea aacaeeneiaua iaoeiu neeueii caaenyo io
naoe e io oaee-na?aa?ia, n eioi?uo iie inouanoaeytho caa?oceo i?ia?aii,
e aaea ?aniieaaaaony eo iaeanoue naiieiaa. Eniieiaiea i?ia?aii,
neaaeyueo ca oe?ieiaauaoaeueiuie ia?aaea/aie a naoe, ia aacaeeneiauo
iaoeiao naycaii n aieueoeie o?oaeiinoyie. I?ioieieu ia?o?ooecaoeee
iino?iaiu a iniiaiii ia oe?ieiaauaoaeueiuo ia?aaea/ao. Iai?eia?, ana
naoaaua oethcu iiaoo oe?ieiaauaoaeueii ia?aaeaaaoue niaea?aeaiea naieo
oaaeeoe ia?o?ooia /a?ac eaaeaeua 30 naeoiae. I?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua neaaeyo
ca oaeeie ia?aaea/aie, aeieaeiu auoue caa?oaeaiu ia aacaeeneiaua
noaioeee /a?ac naoue. Ia aeinoaoi/ii caiyoie iaoeia i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua
ia eniieuecothony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo naeoiae, iau/ii ioi?aaeythony a
iaeanoue naiieiaa. Iiyoiio i?ia?aiiu, neaaeyuea ca ia?o?ooecaoeeae,
aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie iaoiaeyony a naiieiaa. Eiaaea iie aiiaue
aeoeaece?othony, aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny iiaeea/ea ec naiieiaa. Eae
oieueei iinueaaony oe?ieiaauaoaeueiia niiauaiea, ana iaoeiu
aeoeaece?otho i?ia?aiiu, neaaeyuea ca ia?o?ooecaoeeae. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi iiiaea aacaeeneiaua noaioeee aoaeoo auiieiyoue iiaeea/eo ec
naiieiaa a iaeii e oiaea a?aiy. Iiyoiio a naoe aicieeiao a?aiaiiay
ia?aa?ocea. Oaeei ia?acii, eniieiaiea i?ia?aii, i?ineooeaathueo
oe?ieiaauaoaeueiua ia?aaea/e, ia aacaeeneiauo ?aai/eo noaioeeyo i/aiue
iaaeaeaoaeueii

6.4. I?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai

I?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaeyaony aeueoa?iaoeaiui iaoiaeii,
iicaieythuei oethcai i?eieiaoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua ?aoaiey i
ia?o?ooecaoeee. Ii i?eiaiyaony a naoyo n oe?ieiaauaoaeueiie ia?aaea/ae,
aaea aeey ioia?aaeaiey IP-aae?ania a naoaaua aae?ana eniieuecoaony
i?ioieie ARP eee aio iiaeiaiue. Caeanue iu aiiaue aoaeai i?aaeiieaaaoue,
/oi eiaai aeaei n naoueth Ethernet

Ai iiiaii iaoiae, ?aaeecoaiue i?ioieieii ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai,
aiaeiae/ai eniieueciaaieth ia?o?ooia ii oiie/aieth e niiauaiee
ia?aiai?aaeaiey. Ii i?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai ia cao?aaeaaao
oaaeeoe ia?o?ooia, ana aeaeaaony ia o?iaia aae?ania Ethernet. I?ioieie
ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eeai aeey ia?o?ooecaoeee
IP-iaeaoia ei anai naoyi, eeai oieueei a eieaeueiie naoe, eeai a
eaeie-oi eiiaeiaoeee iiaenaoae. I?iua anaai i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue aai
eniieueciaaiea i?e ?aaioa ni anaie aae?anaie

*oiau eniieueciaaoue i?ioieie, ioaeii iano?ieoue ocae oae, eae aoaeoi
ana iaoeiu a ie?a iiaeeeth/aiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aaoae eieaeueiie naoe
Ethernet. A IN UNIX yoi aeaeaaony eiiaiaeie “route add default
128.6.4.2.0”, aaea 128.6.4.2 – IP-aae?an aaoaai ocea. Eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, iao?eea 0 aiai?eo i oii, /oi ana IP-iaeaou, eioi?ui
iiaeoiaeeo aeaiiue ia?o?oo, aeieaeiu iinueaoueny iai?yioth ii eieaeueiie
naoe

Eiaaea ioaeii iineaoue IP-iaeao oceo a eieaeueiie naoe Ethernet, aaoa
iaoeia aeieaeia ii?aaeaeeoue Ethernet-aae?an yoiai ocea. Aeey yoiai iia
eniieuecoao ARP-oaaeeoeo. Anee a ARP-oaaeeoea oaea anoue caienue,
niioaaonoaothuay IP-aae?ano ianoa iacia/aiey, oi ec iaa i?inoi aa?aony
Ethernet-aae?an, e eaae?, niaea?aeauee IP-iaeao, ioi?aaeyaony. Anee
oaeie caiene iao, oi iinueaaony oe?ieiaauaoaeueiue ARP-cai?in. Ocae n
eneiiui IP-aae?anii iacia/aiey i?eieiaao aai e a ARP-ioaaoa niiauaao
naie Ethernet-aae?an. Yoe aeaenoaey niioaaonoaotho iau/iiio i?ioieieo
ARP, iienaiiiio auoa

I?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai iniiaai ia oii, /oi oethcu ?aaioatho eae
i?aaenoaaeoaee oaeaeaiiuo oceia. I?aaeiieiaeei, a iiaenaoe 128.6.5
eiaaony ocae 128.6.5.2 (ocae A ia ?en 12). Ii aeaeaao iineaoue IP-iaeao
oceo 128.6.4.194, eioi?ue iiaeeeth/ai e ae?oaie naoe Ethernet (ocae B a
iiaenaoe 128.6.4). Nouanoaoao oethc n IP-aae?anii 128.6.5.1,
niaaeeiythuee aeaa iiaenaoe (oethc R)

naoue 1 naoue 2

128.6.5 128.6.4

—-i—————-i— –i—————i——–

| | | |

————- ————- —————

| 128.6.5.2 | | 128.6.5.1 | | 128.6.4.194 |

| A | | 128.6.4.1 | | B |

————- | R | —————

————-

?en.12. Naoue, eniieuecothuay i?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai

Anee a ARP-oaaeeoea ocea A iao ia?o?ooa aeinooia e oceo B, oi ocae A
iinueaao ARP-cai?in oceo B. Oaeoe/anee iaoeia A ni?aoeaaao: “Anee
eoi-ieaoaeue ciaao Ethernet-aae?an ocea 128.6.4.194, niiaueoa iia aai”.
Ocae B ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue ia cai?in naiinoiyoaeueii. Ii iiaeeeth/ai e
ae?oaie naoe Ethernet e ieeiaaea aeaaea ia oaeaeeo yoio ARP-cai?in.
Iaeiaei oethc R iiaeao ?aaioaoue io aai eiaie. Oethc R ioaa/aao: “ss
caeanue, IP-aae?ano 128.6.4.194 niioaaonoaoao Ethernet-aae?an
2:7:1:0:EB:CD”, aaea 2:7:1:0:EB:CD a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony
Ethernet-aae?anii oethca. Yoi nicaeaao eeethceth, /oi ocae 128.6.4.194
iiaeeeth/ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii e oie aea eieaeueiie naoe Ethernet, /oi e
ocae A, e eiaao Ethernet-aae?an 2:7:1:0:EB:CD. Eiaaea ocae A caoi/ao
iineaoue iiaue IP-iaeao oceo B, ii eniieuecoao oeacaiiue
Ethernet-aae?an. Eaae?, niaea?aeauee IP-iaeao, iiiaaeao e oethco R, a ii
ia?ai?aaeo aai ii iacia/aieth

Caiaoei, /oi iieo/aiiue yooaeo oaeie aea, eae anee au a oaaeeoea
ia?o?ooia auea caienue

——————————————————–

| aae?an oeaa aeaea oethc eioa?oaen |

| iacia/aiey ia?o?ooecaoeee |

——————————————————–

| 128.6.4.194 einaaiiay 128.6.5.1 pe0 |

——————————————————–

ca eneeth/aieai oiai, /oi ia?o?ooecaoeey auiieiyaony ia o?iaia iiaeoey
ARP, a ia iiaeoey IP

Iau/ii ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooia, oae eae
a?oeoaeoo?a i?ioieieia TCP/IP i?aaeoniao?eaaao auiieiaiea ia?o?ooecaoeee
ia iaaenaoaaii o?iaia. Iaeiaei eiiaaea i?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai
i/aiue iieacai. Ii iiaeao iiii/ue a neaaeothueo neo/ayo:

1) a IP-naoe anoue ocae, eioi?ue ia oiaao ?aaioaoue n iiaenaoyie;

2) a IP-naoe anoue ocae, eioi?ue ia iiaeao niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii
?aaae?iaaoue ia niiauaiey ia?aiai?aaeaiey;

3) iaaeaeaoaeueii auae?aoue eaeie-eeai oethc eae ia?o?oo ii oiie/aieth;

4) i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia niiniaii ainnoaiaaeeaaoueny i?e naiyo ia
ia?o?ooao.

Eiiaaea i?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai auae?atho ec-ca oaeianoaa. Aeaei
a oii, /oi ii oi?iuaao ?aaioo ii ia/aeueiie onoaiiaea oaaeeoeu
ia?o?ooia. Aeaaea a i?inoaeoeo IP-naoyo o?aaoaony onoaiaaeeaaoue ia?o?oo
ii oiie/aieth, oi anoue eniieueciaaoue eiiaiaeo oeia “route add defailt
. ”, eae a IN UNIX. I?e eciaiaiee IP-aae?ana oethca yoo eiiaiaeo
i?eoiaeeony iaiyoue ai anao oceao. Anee aea eniieueciaaoue i?ioieie ARP
n i?aaenoaaeoaeai, o.a. a eiiaiaea onoaiiaee ia?o?ooa ii oiie/aieth
oeacaoue iao?eeo 0, oi i?e caiaia IP-aae?ana oethca eiiaiaeo ia/aeueiie
onoaiiaee iaiyoue ia i?eaeaony, oae eae i?ioieie ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai
ia o?aaoao yaiiai caaeaiey IP-aae?ania oethcia. Ethaie oethc iiaeao
ioaaoeoue ia ARP-cai?in

Aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeoue iieueciaaoaeae io iaycaoaeueiie ia/aeueiie
onoaiiaee ia?o?ooia, iaeioi?ua ?aaeecaoeee TCP/IP eniieuecotho i?ioieie
ARP n i?aaenoaaeoaeai ii oiie/aieth a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia iaoiaeyo
iiaeoiaeyueo caienae a oaaeeoea ia?o?ooia

7. I?ioieie UDP

I?ioieie UDP (User Datagram Protocol – i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaoaa?aii) yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaoo iniiaiuo i?ioieieia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaae IP. Ii i?aaeinoaaeyao i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannai
o?ainii?oiua oneoae, eioi?ua ia iiiaei ioee/athony io oneoa,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?ioieieii IP. I?ioieie UDP iaania/eaaao iaiaaeaaeioth
aeinoaaeo aeaoaa?aii e ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao niaaeeiaiee ec eiioea a
eiiaoe. E caaieiaeo IP-iaeaoa ii aeiaaaeyao aeaa iiey, iaeii ec eioi?uo,
iiea “ii?o”, iaania/eaaao ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo
?aciuie i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie, a ae?oaia iiea – “eiio?ieueiay noiia”
– iicaieyao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oeaeinoiinoue aeaiiuo

I?eia?aie naoaauo i?eeiaeaiee, eniieuecothueo UDP, yaeythony NFS
(Network File System – naoaaay oaeeiaay nenoaia) e SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol – i?inoie i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey naoueth)

7.1. Ii?ou

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie e iiaeoeai UDP
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac UDP-ii?ou. Ii?ou ioia?othony ia/eiay n ioey.
I?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann, i?aaeinoaaeythuee iaeioi?ua oneoae ae?oaei
i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannai (na?aa?), iaeeaeaao iinooieaiey niiauaiee a ii?o,
niaoeeaeueii auaeaeaiiue aeey yoeo oneoa. Niiauaiey aeieaeiu
niaea?aeaoue cai?inu ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa. Iie ioi?aaeythony
i?ioeannaie-eeeaioaie

Iai?eia?, na?aa? SNMP anaaaea iaeeaeaao iinooieaiee niiauaiee a ii?o
161. Anee eeeaio SNMP aeaeaao iieo/eoue oneoao, ii iinueaao cai?in a
UDP-ii?o 161 ia iaoeio, aaea ?aaioaao na?aa?. A eaaeaeii ocea iiaeao
auoue oieueei iaeei na?aa? SNMP, oae eae nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei
UDP-ii?o 161. Aeaiiue iiia? ii?oa yaeyaony iauaecaanoiui, oi anoue
oeene?iaaiiui iiia?ii, ioeoeeaeueii auaeaeaiiui aeey oneoa SNMP.
Iauaecaanoiua iiia?a ii?aaeaeythony noaiaea?oaie Internet

Aeaiiua, ioi?aaeyaiua i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii /a?ac iiaeoeue UDP,
aeinoeaatho ianoa iacia/aiey eae aaeeiia oeaeia. Iai?eia?, anee
i?ioeann-ioi?aaeoaeue i?iecaiaeeo 5 caienae a UDP-ii?o, oi
i?ioeann-iieo/aoaeue aeieaeai aoaeao naeaeaoue 5 /oaiee. ?acia?
eaaeaeiai caienaiiiai niiauaiey aoaeao niaiaaeaoue n ?acia?ii eaaeaeiai
i?i/eoaiiiai. I?ioieie UDP nio?aiyao a?aieoeu niiauaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiua
i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii. Ii ieeiaaea ia iauaaeeiyao ianeieueei niiauaiee
a iaeii e ia aeaeeo iaeii niiauaiea ia /anoe

7.2. Eiio?ieueiia noiie?iaaiea

Eiaaea iiaeoeue UDP iieo/aao aeaoaa?aiio io iiaeoey IP, ii i?iaa?yao
eiio?ieueioth noiio, niaea?aeauothny a aa caaieiaea. Anee eiio?ieueiay
noiia ?aaia ioeth, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi ioi?aaeoaeue aeaoaa?aiiu aa ia
iiaen/eouaae, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa ioaeii eaii?e?iaaoue. Anee aeaa
iiaeoey UDP acaeiiaeaenoaotho oieueei /a?ac iaeio naoue Ethernet, oi io
eiio?ieueiiai noiie?iaaiey iiaeii ioeacaoueny, oae eae n?aaenoaa
Ethernet iaania/eaatho aeinoaoi/ioth noaiaiue iaaeaaeiinoe iaia?oaeaiey
ioeaie ia?aaea/e. Yoi nieaeaao iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ?aaioie
UDP. Iaeiaei ?aeiiaiaeoaony anaaaea auiieiyoue eiio?ieueiia
noiie?iaaiea, oae eae aiciiaeii a eaeie-oi iiiaio eciaiaiey a oaaeeoea
ia?o?ooia i?eaaaeoo e oiio, /oi aeaoaa?aiiu aoaeoo iinueaoueny /a?ac
iaiaa iaaeaaeioth n?aaeo

Anee eiio?ieueiay noiia i?aaeeueiay (eee ?aaia ioeth), oi i?iaa?yaony
ii?o iacia/aiey, oeacaiiue a caaieiaea aeaoaa?aiiu. Anee e yoiio ii?oo
iiaeeeth/ai i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann, oi i?eeeaaeiia niiauaiea,
niaea?aeauaany a aeaoaa?aii, noaiiaeony a i/a?aaeue aeey i?i/oaiey. A
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo aeaoaa?aiia ioa?anuaaaony. Anee aeaoaa?aiiu
iinooiatho auno?aa, /ai eo oniaaaao ia?aaaouaaoue i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann,
oi i?e ia?aiieiaiee i/a?aaee niiauaiee iinooiathuea aeaoaa?aiiu
ioa?anuaathony iiaeoeai UDP

8. I?ioieie TCP

I?ioieie TCP i?aaeinoaaeyao o?ainii?oiua oneoae, ioee/athueany io oneoa
UDP. Aianoi iaiaaeaaeiie aeinoaaee aeaoaa?aii aac onoaiiaeaiey
niaaeeiaiee ii iaania/eaaao aa?aioe?iaaiioth aeinoaaeo n onoaiiaeaieai
niaaeeiaiee a aeaea aaeoiauo iioieia

I?ioieie TCP eniieuecoaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea o?aaoaony iaaeaaeiay
aeinoaaea niiauaiee. Ii inaiaiaeaeaao i?eeeaaeiua i?ioeannu io
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaoue oaeiaoou e iiaoi?iua ia?aaea/e aeey
iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie,
eniieuecothueie TCP, yaeythony FTP (File Transfer Protocol – i?ioieie
ia?aaea/e oaeeia) e TELNET. E?iia oiai, TCP eniieuecotho nenoaia
X-Window, rcp (remote copy – oaeaeaiiia eiie?iaaiea) e ae?oaea
“r-eiiaiaeu”. Aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe TCP aeathony ia aanieaoii.
?aaeecaoeey TCP o?aaoao aieueoie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?a e
aieueoie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe naoe. Aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a iiaeoey TCP
ai?acaei neiaeiaa no?oeoo?u iiaeoey UDP

I?eeeaaeiua i?ioeannu acaeiiaeaenoaotho n iiaeoeai TCP /a?ac ii?ou. Aeey
ioaeaeueiuo i?eeiaeaiee auaeaeythony iauaecaanoiua iiia?a ii?oia.
Iai?eia?, na?aa? TELNET eniieuecoao ii?o iiia? 23. Eeeaio TELNET iiaeao
iieo/aoue oneoae io na?aa?a, anee onoaiiaeo niaaeeiaiea n TCP-ii?oii 23
ia aai iaoeia

Eiaaea i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue TCP, oi iiaeoeue TCP
ia iaoeia eeeaioa e iiaeoeue TCP ia iaoeia na?aa?a ia/eiatho iauaoueny.
Yoe aeaa ieiia/iuo iiaeoey TCP iiaeaea?aeeaatho eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee
niaaeeiaiey, iacuaaaiiai ae?ooaeueiui eaiaeii. Yoio ae?ooaeueiue eaiae
iio?aaeyao ?ano?nu iaieo ieiia/iuo iiaeoeae TCP. Eaiae yaeyaony
aeoieaeniui; aeaiiua iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaeaaaoueny a iaieo
iai?aaeaieyo. Iaeei i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ieoao aeaiiua a TCP-ii?o, iie
i?ioiaeyo ii naoe, e ae?oaie i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann /eoaao eo ec naiaai
TCP-ii?oa

I?ioieie TCP ?acaeaaao iioie aaeo ia iaeaou; ii ia nio?aiyao a?aieoe
iaaeaeo caienyie. Iai?eia?, anee iaeei i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann aeaeaao 5
caienae a TCP-ii?o, oi i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ia ae?oaii eiioea
ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea iiaeao auiieieoue 10 /oaiee aeey oiai, /oiau
iieo/eoue ana aeaiiua. Ii yoio aea i?ioeann iiaeao iieo/eoue ana aeaiiua
n?aco, naeaeaa oieueei iaeio iia?aoeeth /oaiey. Ia nouanoaoao
caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo /eneii e ?acia?ii caienuaaaiuo niiauaiee n iaeiie
noi?iiu e /eneii e ?acia?ii n/eouaaaiuo niiauaiee n ae?oaie noi?iiu

I?ioieie TCP o?aaoao, /oiau ana ioi?aaeaiiua aeaiiua auee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu i?eiyaoae eo noi?iiie. Ii eniieuecoao oaeiaoou e
iiaoi?iua ia?aaea/e aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiie aeinoaaee. Ioi?aaeoaeth
?ac?aoaaony ia?aaeaaaoue iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai aeaiiuo, ia aeiaeeaeaynue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia ?aiaa ioi?aaeaiiuo aeaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaaeaeo ioi?aaeaiiuie e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuie aeaiiuie nouanoaoao ieii oaea
ioi?aaeaiiuo, ii aua iaiiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo aeaiiuo. Eiee/anoai aaeo,
eioi?ua iiaeii ia?aaeaaaoue aac iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey, iacuaaaony ?acia?ii
ieia. Eae i?aaeei, ?acia? ieia onoaiaaeeaaaony a noa?oiauo oaeeao
naoaaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Oae eae TCP-eaiae yaeyaony
aeoieaeniui, oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aeey aeaiiuo, eaeoueo a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny aianoa n aeaiiuie, eaeoueie a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee. I?eaiieee ia iaaeo noi?iiao ae?ooaeueiiai
eaiaea auiieiytho oi?aaeaiea iioieii ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo aeey oiai,
/oiau ia aeiioneaoue ia?aiieiaiey aooa?ia

9. I?ioieieu i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy

Ii/aio nouanoaotho aeaa o?ainii?oiuo i?ioieiea TCP e UDP, a ia iaeei ec
ieo? Aeaei a oii, /oi iie i?aaeinoaaeytho ?aciua oneoae i?eeeaaeiui
i?ioeannai. Aieueoeinoai i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii iieuecothony oieueei
iaeiei ec ieo

Au, eae i?ia?aiieno, auae?aaoa oio i?ioieie, eioi?ue iaeeo/oei ia?acii
niioaaonoaoao aaoei iio?aaiinoyi. Anee aai ioaeia iaaeaaeiay aeinoaaea,
oi eo/oei iiaeao auoue TCP. Anee aai ioaeia aeinoaaea aeaoaa?aii, oi
eo/oa iiaeao auoue UDP. Anee aai ioaeia yooaeoeaiay aeinoaaea ii
aeeeiiiio e iaiaaeaaeiiio eaiaeo ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, oi eo/oa iiaeao
iiaeieoe i?ioieie TCP. Anee ioaeia yooaeoeaiinoue ia auno?uo naoyo n
ei?ioeeie niaaeeiaieyie, oi eo/oei iiaeao auoue i?ioieie UDP. Anee aaoe
iio?aaiinoe ia iiiaaeatho ie a iaeio ec yoeo eaoaai?ee, oi auai?
o?ainii?oiiai i?ioieiea ia ynai. Iaeiaei i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu iiaoo
ono?aiyoue iaaeinoaoee aua?aiiiai i?ioieiea. Iai?eia?, anee au aua?aee
UDP, a aai iaiaoiaeeia iaaeaaeiinoue, oi i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia aeieaeia
iaania/eoue iaaeaaeiinoue. Anee au aua?aee TCP, a aai ioaeii
ia?aaeaaaoue caiene, oi i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia aeieaeia anoaaeyoue
ia?ea?u a iioie aaeoia oae, /oiau iiaeii auei ?acee/eoue caiene

Eaeea aea i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu aeinooiiu a naoyo n TCP/IP?

Iauaa eo eiee/anoai aaeeei e i?iaeieaeaao iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaoueny

Iaeioi?ua i?eeiaeaiey nouanoaotho n naiiai ia/aea ?acaeoey internet.
Iai?eia?, TELNET e FTP. Ae?oaea iiyaeeenue iaaeaaii: X-Window, SNMP

I?ioieieu i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy i?eaioe?iaaiu ia eiie?aoiua i?eeeaaeiua
caaea/e. Iie ii?aaeaeytho eae i?ioeaaeo?u ii i?aaiecaoeee
acaeiiaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie,
oae e oi?io i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i?e oaeii acaeiiaeaenoaee. A yoii
?acaeaea iu ei?ioei iieoai iaeioi?ua ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ioieieia

9.1. I?ioieie TELNET

I?ioieie TELNET iicaieyao ianeoaeeaathuae iaoeia ?anniao?eaaoue ana
oaeaeaiiua oa?ieiaeu eae noaiaea?oiua “naoaaua ae?ooaeueiua oa?ieiaeu”
no?i/iiai oeia, ?aaioathuea a eiaea ASCII, a oaeaea iaania/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoue niaeaniaaiey aieaa neiaeiuo ooieoeee (iai?eia?, eieaeueiue
eee oaeaeaiiue yoi-eiio?ieue, no?aie/iue ?aaeei, aunioa e oe?eia ye?aia
e.o.ae.) TELNET ?aaioaao ia aaca i?ioieiea TCP. Ia i?eeeaaeiii o?iaia
iaae TELNET iaoiaeeony eeai i?ia?aiia iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeueiiai oa?ieiaea
(ia noi?iia iieueciaaoaey), eeai i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann a ianoaeeaathuae
iaoeia, e eioi?iio inouanoaeyaony aeinooi n oa?ieiaea

?aaioa n TELNET iioiaeeo ia iaai? oaeaoiiiiai iiia?a. Iieueciaaoaeue
iaae?aao ia eeaaeaoo?a /oi-oi a?iaea telnet delta e iieo/aao ia ye?aia
i?eaeaoaiea ia aoiae a iaoeio delta

I?ioieie TELNET nouanoaoao oaea aeaaii. Ii oi?ioi ii?iaiaai e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiai. Nicaeaii iiiaeanoai ?aaeecaoeee aeey naiuo ?aciuo
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai. Aiieia aeiionoeii, /oiau i?ioeann-eeeaio ?aaioae,
neaaeai, iiae oi?aaeaieai IN VAX/VMS, a i?ioeann-na?aa? iiae IN UNIX
System V

9.2. I?ioieie FTP

I?ioieie FTP (File Transfer Protocol – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia)
?ani?ino?aiai oaeaea oe?iei eae TELNET. Ii yaeyaony iaeiei ec noa?aeoeo
i?ioieieia naiaenoaa TCP/IP. Oaeaea eae TELNET ii iieuecoaony
o?ainii?oiuie oneoaaie TCP. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ?aaeecaoeee aeey
?acee/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai, eioi?ua oi?ioi acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo
niaie. Iieueciaaoaeue FTP iiaeao aucuaaoue ianeieueei eiiaiae, eioi?ua
iicaieytho aio iiniio?aoue eaoaeia oaeaeaiiie iaoeiu, ia?aeoe ec iaeiiai
eaoaeiaa a ae?oaie, a oaeaea neiie?iaaoue iaeei eee ianeieueei oaeeia

9.3. I?ioieie SMTP

I?ioieie SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – i?inoie i?ioieie
ia?aaea/e ii/ou) iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia?aaea/o niiauaiee (yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou)
iaaeaeo i?iecaieueiuie oceaie naoe internet. Eiay iaoaieciu
i?iiaaeooi/iiai o?aiaiey ii/ou e iaoaieciu iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe
aeinoaaee, i?ioieie SMTP aeiioneaao eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo
o?ainii?oiuo neoaea. Ii iiaeao ?aaioaoue aeaaea a naoyo, ia
eniieuecothueo i?ioieieu naiaenoaa TCP/IP. I?ioieie SMTP iaania/eaaao
eae a?oiie?iaaiea niiauaiee a aae?an iaeiiai iieo/aoaey, oae e
?aciiiaeaiea ianeieueeeo eiiee niiauaiey aeey ia?aaea/e a ?aciua
aae?ana. Iaae iiaeoeai SMTP ?aniieaaaaony ii/oiaay neoaeaa eiie?aoiuo
au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai

9.4. r-eiiaiaeu

Nouanoaoao oeaeay na?ey “r-eiiaiae” (io remote – oaeaeaiiue), eioi?ua
aia?aua iiyaeeenue a IN UNIX. Iie yaeythony aiaeiaaie iau/iuo eiiaiae
UNIX, ii i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaiou n oaeaeaiiuie iaoeiaie. Iai?eia?,
eiiaiaea rcp yaeyaony aiaeiaii eiiaiaeu cp e i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
eiie?iaaiey oaeeia iaaeaeo iaoeiaie. Aeey ia?aaea/e oaeea ia ocae delta
aeinoaoi/ii aaanoe

rcp file c delta:

Aeey auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu “cc file c” ia iaoeia delta iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue eiiaiaeo rsh:

rsh delta cc file c

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee aoiaea a oaeaeaiioth nenoaio i?aaeiacia/aia eiiaiaea
rlogin:

rlogin delta

Eiiaiaeu r-na?ee eniieuecothony aeaaiui ia?acii a nenoaiao, ?aaioathueo
iiae oi?aaeaieai IN UNIX. Nouanoaotho oaeaea ?aaeecaoeee aeey MS-DOS.
Eiiaiaeu ecaaaeytho iieueciaaoaey io iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaae?aoue ia?iee i?e
aoiaea a oaeaeaiioth nenoaio e nouanoaaiii iaeaa/atho ?aaioo

9.5. NFS

Naoaaay oaeeiaay nenoaia NFS (Network File System) aia?aua auea
?ac?aaioaia eiiiaieae Sun Microsystems Inc. NFS eniieuecoao o?ainii?oiua
oneoae UDP e iicaieyao iiioe?iaaoue a aaeeiia oeaeia oaeeiaua nenoaiu
ianeieueeeo iaoei n IN UNIX. Aacaeeneiaua ?aai/ea noaioeee iieo/atho
aeinooi e aeeneai oaee-na?aa?a oae, eae aoaeoi yoi eo eieaeueiua aeenee

NFS cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaao iaa?oceo ia naoue. Anee a naoe
eniieuecothony iaaeeaiiua eeiee nayce, oi io NFS iaei oieeo. Iaeiaei,
anee i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue naoe iicaieyao NFS ii?iaeueii ?aaioaoue, oi
iieueciaaoaee iieo/atho aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa. Iineieueeo na?aa? e
eeeaio NFS ?aaeecothony a yae?a IN, ana iau/iua ianaoaaua i?ia?aiiu
iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue n oaeaeaiiuie oaeeaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie
ia iiaeiiioe?iaaiiuo NFS-aeeneao, oi/ii oaeaea eae n eieaeueiuie oaeeaie

9.6. I?ioieie SNMP

I?ioieie SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol – i?inoie i?ioieie
oi?aaeaiey naoueth) ?aaioaao ia aaca UDP e i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
eniieueciaaiey naoaauie oi?aaeythueie noaioeeyie. Ii iicaieyao
oi?aaeythuei noaioeeyi niae?aoue eioi?iaoeeth i iieiaeaiee aeae a naoe
internet. I?ioieie ii?aaeaeyao oi?iao aeaiiuo, eo ia?aaioea e
eioa?i?aoaoeey inoathony ia oniio?aiea oi?aaeythueo noaioeee eee
iaiaaeaea?a naoe

9.7. X-Window

Nenoaia X-Window eniieuecoao i?ioieie X-Window, eioi?ue ?aaioaao ia aaca
TCP, aeey iiiaiieiiiiai ioia?aaeaiey a?aoeee e oaenoa ia ?ano?iauo
aeenieayo ?aai/eo noaioeee. X-Window – yoi ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai i?inoi
ooeeeoa aeey ?eniaaiey ieii; yoi oeaeay oeeinioey /aeiaaei-iaoeiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey

10. Acaeiicaaeneiinoue i?ioieieia naiaenoaa TCP/IP

Ieaea ia ?enoiea i?aaenoaaeaia noaia acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo i?ioieieaie
naiaenoaa TCP/IP

I?eeeaaeiie FTP TELNET SMTP TFTP DNS Neoaeaa a?aiaie Yoi

o?iaaiue | | | | | | |

————– ————————–

| |

O?ainii?oiue TCP GGP HMP EGP UDP

o?iaaiue | | | | |

——————————-

|

Iaaenaoaaie IP/ICMP

o?iaaiue |

————————————–

| | | |

Naoaaie Eieaeueiua ARPANET SATNET Iaeaoiay

o?iaaiue naoe ?aaeeinaoue

?en.13. No?oeoo?a acaeiinaycae i?ioieieia naiaenoaa TCP/IP

Iiae?iaiia iienaiea i?ioieieia iiaeii iaeoe a RFC, oaiaoe/aneee eaoaeia
eioi?uo i?eaaaeai a I?eeiaeaiee 1, a ninoiyiea noaiaea?oia io?aaeaii a
I?eeiaeaiee 2

A aeieoiaioaoeee ii TCP/IP oa?ieiu oethc (gateway) e IP-ia?o?ooecaoi?
(IP-router) /anoi eniieuecothony eae neiiieiu Iu ni/ee aiciiaeiui
eniieueciaaoue aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oa?iei “oethc”

SRI International, Room EJ210, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park,
California 94025, USA. Oae. 1-800-235-3155. E-mail: [email protected]

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