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Noia?eiiiuethoa?u : i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa

?aoa?ao nooaeaioa 5 eo?na

Aao/eia 1998 aiae Aia?aua oa?iei “noia?YAI” aue eniieueciaai a ia/aea
60-o aiaeia, eiaaea a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia Eeeeiieneiai oieaa?neoaoa (NOA)
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeieoi?a Ae. Neioieea i?aaeeiaeeea eaeath ?aaeecaoeee
ia?aie a ie?a ia?aeeaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu. I?iaeo, iieo/eaoee
iacaaiea SOLOMON, aace?iaaeny ia i?eioeeia aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee, eioi?ue
aue noi?ioee?iaai aua Aeae. oii Iaeiaiii, e eiioeaioeee iao?e/iie
ia?aeeaeueiie a?oeoaeoo?u, i?aaeeiaeaiiie N. Oiaa?ii a ia/aea 50-o
aiaeia.

Aeaei a oii, /oi aieueoeinoai noia?eiiiuethoa?ia aeaiiino?e?oao
ii?aaeathuoth aiia?aaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeaaiaea?y eiaiii yoiio
(aaeoi?iiio) aeaeo ia?aeeaeecia. Ethaie i?ia?aiieno, ?ac?aaaouaay
i?ia?aiiu ia i?eau/iuo ycueao aunieiai o?iaiy, iaaa?iyea iaiaeiie?aoii
noaeeeaaeny n oae iacuaaaiuie oeeeeaie DO. Ii iaei eoi caaeoiuaaeny,
eaeie iioaioeeae oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe caeeth/aaony a yoeo
/anoi eniieuecoaiuo iia?aoi?ao. Ecaanoiue niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe nenoai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey Ae.Eioo iieacae, /oi oeeeeu DO caieiatho iaiaa 4%
eiaea i?ia?aii ia ycuea FORTRAN, ii o?aaotho aieaa iieiaeiu n/aoiiai
a?aiaie caaea/e.

Eaeay aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee oeeeeia oaeiai ?iaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a
nenoaio eiiaiae eiiiuethoa?a aaiaeeony aaeoi?iay iia?aoeey, eioi?ay
?aaioaao ni anaie yeaiaioaie aaeoi?ia-iia?aiaeia. I?e yoii ?aaeecothony
n?aco aeaa aiciiaeiinoe onei?aiey au/eneaiee: ai-ia?auo, nie?auaaony
/enei auiieiyaiuo i?ioeanni?ii eiiaiae iauaeoiiai eiaea, iineieueeo
ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ia?an/aoa eiaeaenia e i?aaiecaoeee oneiaiiai
ia?aoiaea e, ai-aoi?uo, ana iia?aoeee neiaeaiey yeaiaioia
aaeoi?ia-iia?aiaeia iiaoo auoue auiieiaiu iaeiia?aiaiii a neeo
ia?aeeaeecia ia?aaioee.

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue aua iaeio iniaaiiinoue aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee, naycaiioth
n eiee/anoaii yeaiaioa?iuo iia?aoeee oeeeea : /ai aieueoa ia?aeeaeueiuo
iia?aoeee aoiaeeo a aaeoi?ecoaiue oeeee, oai iuooeiaa auea?uo a nei?inoe
auiieiaiey au/eneaiee, oae eae nie?auaaony aeiey iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
a?aiaiiuo cao?ao ia auai?eo, aeaoeo?aoeeth e caione ia eniieiaiea
aaeoi?iie eiiaiaeu.

Ia?aie noia?YAI, eniieuecothuae i?aeiouanoaa aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee, auea
ILLIAC IV (SIMD a?oeoaeoo?a). A ia/aea 60-o aiaeia a?oiia ana oiai aea
Neioieea, iauaaeeiaiiay a Oeaio? ia?aaeiauo au/eneeoaeueiuo oaoiieiaee
i?e Eeeeiieneii oieaa?neoaoa, i?enooieea e i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa aaeoi?iie noia?YAI n iao?e/iie no?oeoo?ie. Ecaioiaeaiea iaoeiu
acyea ia naay oe?ia Burroughs Corp. Oaoie/aneay noi?iia i?iaeoa aei neo
ii? ii?aaeaao naiae ianooaaiinoueth : nenoaia aeieaeia auea ninoiyoue ec
/aou?ao eaaae?aioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aeeth/ae a naay 64
i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioa (IY) e 64 iiaeoey iaiyoe, iauaaeeiaiiuo
eiiiooaoi?ii ia aaca naoe oeia aeia?eoa. Ana IY eaaae?aioa ia?aaaouaatho
aaeoi?ioth eino?oeoeeth, eioi?oth ei iai?aaeyao i?ioeanni? eiiaiae,
i?e/ai eaaeaeue auiieiyao iaeio yeaiaioa?ioth iia?aoeeth aaeoi?a,
aeaiiua aeey eioi?ie nio?aiythony a naycaiiii n yoei IY iiaeoea iaiyoe.
Oaeei ia?acii, iaeei eaaae?aio ILLIAC IV niiniaai iaeiia?aiaiii
ia?aaioaoue 64 yeaiaioa aaeoi?a, a any nenoaia ec /aou?ao eaaae?aioia –
256 yeaiaioia. A 1972 a. ia?aay nenoaia ILLIAC IV auea onoaiiaeaia a
enneaaeiaaoaeueneii oeaio?a NASA a Yeina. ?acoeueoaou aa yenieoaoaoeee a
yoie i?aaiecaoeee iieo/eee iaiaeiicia/ioth ioeaieo. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
eniieueciaaiea noia?eiiiuethoa?a iicaieeei ?aoeoue ?yae neiaeiaeoeo
caaea/ ay?iaeeiaieee, n eioi?uie ia iiaee ni?aaeoueny ae?oaea YAI.
Aeaaea naiay nei?inoiay YAI aeey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee oiai a?aiaie –
Control Data CDC 7600, eioi?oth, e neiao neacaoue, i?iaeoe?iaae
“iao?ea?o noia?YAI” Naeio? E?ae , iiaea iaania/eoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia aieaa 5 MFLOPS, oiaaea eae ILLIAC IV
aeaiiino?e?iaaea n?aaeithth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?eia?ii a 20 MFLOPS.
N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ILLIAC IV oae e ia auea aeiaaaeaia aei iieiie
eiioeao?aoeee ec 256 IY; i?aeoe/anee ?ac?aaio/eee ia?aie/eeenue eeoue
iaeiei eaaae?aioii. I?e/eiaie yaeeenue ia noieueei oaoie/aneea
neiaeiinoe a ia?aueaaiee /enea i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia nenoaiu, neieueei
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n i?ia?aiie?iaaieai iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo
i?ioeanni?iuie yeaiaioaie /a?ac eiiiooaoi? iiaeoeae iaiyoe. Ana iiiuoee
?aoeoue yoo caaea/o n iiiiuueth nenoaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
iioa?iaee iaoaea/o, a ?acoeueoaoa eaaeaeia i?eeiaeaiea o?aaiaaei ?o/iiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey ia?aaea/ eiiiooaoi?a, /oi e ii?iaeeei
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua iocuau iieueciaaoaeae.

Anee au ?ac?aaio/eeai ILLIAC IV oaeaeinue i?aiaeieaoue i?iaeaiu
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey iao?eoeu i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia, oi, aa?iyoii,
?acaeoea au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee iioei au niaa?oaiii ae?oaei iooai e
naaiaeiy aeiieie?iaaee au eiiiuethoa?u n iao?e/iie a?oeoaeoo?ie. Iaeiaei
ie a 60-o aiaeao, ie iicaeiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia e oieaa?naeueiia
?aoaiea aeaoo oaeeo i?eioeeieaeueiuo i?iaeai, eae i?ia?aiie?iaaiea
ia?aeeaeueiie ?aaiou ianeieueeeo nioai i?ioeanni?ia e i?e yoii
iaania/aiea ieieioia cao?ao n/aoiiai a?aiaie ia iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo
ieie, oae e ia auei iaeaeaii. Iio?aaiaaeinue aua i?eia?ii 15 eao oneeee
?acee/iuo oe?i ii ?aaeecaoeee noia?YAI n iao?e/iie a?oeoaeoo?ie, /oiau
iinoaaeoue ieii/aoaeueiue aeeaaiic: eiiiuethoa?u aeaiiiai oeia ia a
ninoiyiee oaeiaeaoai?eoue oe?ieee e?oa iieueciaaoaeae e eiatho aanueia
ia?aie/aiioth iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey, /anoi a ?aieao iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo aeaeia caaea/.

Ii ia?a inaiaiey n?aaenoa naa?onei?inoiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo ?ac?ua
iaaeaeo niaa?oainoaiaaieai iaoiaeia aaeoi?ecaoeee i?ia?aii, o.a.
aaoiiaoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey a i?ioeanna eiiieeyoeee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ycueiauo eiino?oeoeee a aaeoi?ioth oi?io, e
/?acau/aeiie neiaeiinoueth i?ia?aiie?iaaiey eiiiooaoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeaiiuo iaaeaeo i?ioeanni?iuie yeaiaioaie i?eaae e aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeie
?aaeoeee iieueciaaoaeae a ioiioaiee iao?e/iuo noia?YAI – oe?ieiio e?oao
i?ia?aiienoia o?aaiaaeanue aieaa i?inoay e “i?ic?a/iay” a?oeoaeoo?a
aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee n aiciiaeiinoueth eniieueciaaiey noaiaea?oiuo ycueia
aunieiai o?iaiy oeia FORTRAN. ?aoaiea auei iaeaeaii a eiioea 60-o
aiaeia, eiaaea oe?ia Control Data, n eioi?ie a oi a?aiy nio?oaeie/ae
E?ae, i?aaenoaaeea iaoeio STAR-100, iniiaaiioth ia aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iii
i?eioeeia ia?aaioee aeaiiuo. Ioee/ea aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie oaoiieiaee io
a?oeoaeoo?u iao?e/iuo YAI caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aianoi iiiaeanoaa
i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia, auiieiythueo iaeio e oo aea eiiaiaeo iaae
?aciuie yeaiaioaie aaeoi?a, i?eiaiyaony aaeeinoaaiiue eiiaaea?
iia?aoeee, i?eioeei aeaenoaey eioi?iai iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao
eeanne/aneiio eiiaaea?o aaoiiiaeeueiuo caaiaeia Oi?aea. Aeaaea oaeay
a?oae/iay ii nia?aiaiiui iiiyoeyi noia?YAI, eae STAR-100, iieacaea
i?aaeaeueioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia o?iaia 50 MFLOPS. I?e yoii
nouanoaaiii, /oi aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iua noia?YAI cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea
naieo iao?e/iuo “?iaenoaaiieeia”. E i?eia?o, ?ac?aaioea e i?iecaiaenoai
ILLIAC IV iaioeenue a 40 iei. aeiee. i?e ?anoiaeao ia yenieoaoaoeeth
ii?yaeea 2 iei. aeiee. a aiae, oiaaea eae ?uii/iay noieiinoue ia?auo
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia oe?i CRAY e Control Data iaoiaeeeanue a i?aaeaeao 10
– 15 iei. aeiee., a caaeneiinoe io iauaia iaiyoe, ninoaaa ia?eoa?eeiuo
ono?ienoa e ae?oaeo iniaaiiinoae eiioeao?aoeee nenoaiu.

Aoi?ie nouanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoueth aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie a?oeoaeoo?u
yaeyaony oi, /oi eiiaaea? iia?aoeee eiaao anaai iaeei aoiae, ii eioi?iio
iinooiatho iia?aiaeu, e iaeei auoiae ?acoeueoaoa, oiaaea eae a iao?e/iuo
nenoaiao nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aoiaeia ii aeaiiui a i?ioeanni?iua
yeaiaiou e iiiaeanoai auoiaeia ec ieo. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, a eiiiuethoa?ao
n eiiaaea?iie ia?aaioeie aeaiiua anao ia?aeeaeueii eniieiyaiuo iia?aoeee
auae?athony e caienuaathony a aaeeioth iaiyoue, a nayce n /ai ioiaaeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eiiiooaoi?a i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia, noaaoai eaiiai
i?aoeiiaaiey i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iao?e/iuo noia?YAI.

Neaaeothuee oaea? ii iiceoeeyi noia?YAI n iao?e/iie a?oeoaeoo?ie iaianee
aeaa iaoeiu oe?iu Control Data Corp. – CYBER-203 e CYBER-205. Ieeiaay
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia?aie ninoaaeea 100, a aoi?ie – oaea 400 MFLOPS.

CRAY-1 niaa?oaao ia?aai?io Aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iue noia?eiiiuethoa?
STAR-100 e iaoeiu na?ee CYBER- 200, ia?acii aiai?y, yaeeenue oieueei
“iieaeaoiii” aeey iao?e/iie a?oeoaeoo?u. Iieaooe?othuee oaea? aue
iaianai a 1974 a., eiaaea E?ae, e oiio a?aiaie iieeioaoee ei?ii?aoeeth
CDC e iniiaaaoee nianoaaiioth oe?io Cray Research, iauyaee i auionea
CRAY-1 – aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie noia?YAI, noaaoae yiioaeueiui niauoeai a
ie?a au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. Yoa iaeiaaaa?eoiay iaoeia (aa aunioa
iaiiiai i?aainoiaeeo n?aaeiee /aeiaa/aneee ?ino, a caieiaaiay
i?ioeanni?ii ieiuaaeue /ooue aieueoa 2,5 ea.i), eiaea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 160 MFLOPS e aieinoue iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe 64 Iaaeo.
Iinea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiie i?iaiie yenieoaoaoeee a Ein-Aeaiinneie
eaai?aoi?ee, aaea iiaeiea iieo/eea naiua aunieea iocuau i?ia?aiienoia e
iaoaiaoeeia, Cray Research iaeaaeeea na?eeiue auione iaoei CRAY-1,
eioi?ua aeoeaii ?aneoiaeenue a NOA. Ethaiiuoii, /oi aaeieieno?aoeey NOA
a aeieaeiie noaiaie ioeaieea no?aoaae/aneoth oeaiiinoue CRAY-1 e
eiio?iee?iaaea iinoaaee yoiai eiiiuethoa?a aeaaea a ae?oaeanoaaiiua
ainoaea?noaa. Iiyaeaiea CRAY-1 aucaaei eioa?an ia oieueei o
iieueciaaoaeae, ioaeaeathueony a n?aaenoaao naa?onei?inoiie ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo, ii e o niaoeeaeenoia ii a?oeoaeoo?a noia?eiiiuethoa?ia. Aeey
iiiaeo iaiaeeaeaiiui (a aeey ?ac?aaio/eeia CYBER-205 aeaaea iai?eyoiui)
noae oio oaeo, /oi n aieueoeinoaii caaea/ iaeaiueeee eiiiuethoa? CRAY-1
ni?aaeyeny auno?aa, /ai cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeyuee aai ii aaaa?eoai e
ieeiaie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe CYBER-205. Oae, i?e oanoe?iaaiee ia iaeaoa
?aoaiey eeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee LINPACK Aeaeae Aeiiaa??a ec Iaoeeiiaeueiie
eaai?aoi?ee a A?aiiia ioeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue CRAY-1S a i?aaeaeao
12 – 23 MFLOPS a caaeneiinoe io niiniaa i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, oiaaea eae
CYBER-205 iieacae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eeoue 8,4 MFLOPS. Iauyniaiea
iaoeinue, eae oieueei aniiiieee i caeiia Aiaeaea (G.Amdahl), eioi?ue
ecaanoiue a?oeoaeoi? nenoaiu IBM/360 noi?ioee?iaae a 1967 a. a aeaea
neaaeothuaai iinooeaoa: “I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu
ii?aaeaeyaony naiui iaaeeaiiui aa eiiiiiaioii”. I?eiaieoaeueii e
aaeoi?iui noia?YAI ia?aaeien Aiaeaea i?aeiieyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.
Ethaay caaea/a, auiieiyaiay a noia?YAI, ninoieo ec aeaoo acaeiinaycaiiuo
/anoae – aaeoi?iuo eiiaiae, naaia?e?iaaiiuo eiiieeyoi?ii i?e
aaeoi?ecaoeee enoiaeiie i?ia?aiiu, e neaey?iuo iia?aoeee, eioi?ua
eiiieeyoi? ia noiae ia?aaanoe a aaeoi?ioth oi?io. Anee i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa noia?eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue oiaao iaeeiaeiai auno?i i?iecaiaeeoue
neaey?iua e aaeoi?iua iia?aoeee, oi ia?aaeien Aiaeaea “ia n?aaaouaaao” e
oaeay nenoaia n ?aaiie nei?inoueth aoaeao auiieiyoue caaea/e ethaie
noaiaie aaeoi?ecaoeee. Ii naii niaie, /oi neaey?iay ia?aaioea caieiaao
aieueoa a?aiaie, iethn ei anaio CRAY-1 i?e oeeeea 12,5 in iaeaaeaao
aieueoei auno?iaeaenoaeai neaey?iie ia?aaioee ii n?aaiaieth n
eiiiuethoa?ii CYBER-205, o eioi?iai oeeee ?aaai 20 in.

Nouanoaoao aua iaeia i?e/eia, ii eioi?ie CRAY-1 i?aainoiaeeo CYBER-205
ii nei?inoe ?aoaiey aieueoeinoaa i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/. Aia?aua a i?aeoeea
naa?onei?inoiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, a aiciiaeii, e aiiaua a
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea CRAY-1 aue ?ac?aaioai eae eiiiuethoa? n
iieiinoueth caeii/aiiie a?oeoaeoo?ie “?aaeno?-?aaeno?”. Ana iia?aoeee
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, eioi?ua auiieiyao oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni? yoie
iaoeiu, auae?atho iia?aiaeu e caienuaatho ?acoeueoaou au/eneaiee,
eniieuecoy ia iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue, eae yoi auei naeaeaii a CYBER-205 e
aieaa ?aiieo noia?eiiiuethoa?ao, a niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
yoie oeaee i?ia?aiiii-aae?anoaiua ?aaeno?u. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie
a?oeoaeoo?u a CRAY-1 auei aaaaeaii i?eioeeieaeueiia iiaoanoai –
aaeoi?iua ?aaeno?u, eioi?ua aae?aniaaeenue eiiaiaeaie oeaio?aeueiiai
i?ioeanni?a iiaeiaii iau/iui ?aaeno?ai aeaiiuo, ii iiaee caiiiieoue aei
64 yeaiaioia aaeoi?a eaaeaeue i?e 64- ?ac?yaeiii oi?iaoa ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia. Anoanoaaiii, /oi ii n?aaiaieth n CYBER-205 eaaeaeay
ioaeaeueiay aaeoi?iay eiiaiaea a CRAY-1 auiieiyeanue auno?aa, iineieueeo
iia?aoeee oeia “?aaeno?-?aaeno?” ioee/athony io iia?aoeee oeia
“iaiyoue-iaiyoue” iaiueoeie a?aiaiiuie cao?aoaie ia /oaiea iia?aiaeia e
caienue ?acoeueoaoa. Iaeiaei ?aoathuea i?aeiouanoaa CRAY-1 ia?aae
noia?YAI CDC e iao?e/iuie noia?eiiiuethoa?aie ii?aaeaeythony ia noieueei
eo/oae naaeaine?iaaiiinoueth iieacaoaeae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, neieueei
i?inoioie e oaeianoaii yenieoaoaoeee, a oaeaea aunieei ea/anoaii
nenoaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. I?e ?ac?aaioea naiae ia?aie
noia?YAI E?ae i?eiye ai aieiaiea oi aaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
aieueoeinoai nouanoaothueo iaeaoia i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii iaienaii ia
ycueao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai oeia, /aua anaai ia ycuea FORTRAN. Iiyoiio a
ninoaa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey CRAY-1 aue aeeth/ai eioaeeaeooaeueiue
FORTRAN-eiiieeyoi? CFT, niiniaiue iaia?oaeeaaoue ia?aeeaeeci a
i?ia?aiiao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aeaenoaey e i?aia?aciauaaoue eo a
aaeoi?eciaaiiue eiae. Anoanoaaiii, /oi i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea ana
eiathuaany o iieueciaaoaey i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea n iacia/eoaeueiuie
aei?aaioeaie iiaeao auoue ia?aianaii ia noia?YAI.

E?iia aaeoi?ecaoeee oeeeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee, a eiiieeyoi?a CFT
noia?eiiiuethoa?a CRAY-1 auei aaaaeaii aua iaeii i?eioeeieaeueiia
iiaoanoai – aaoiiaoe/aneee iiene a enoiaeiie i?ia?aiia e iino?iaiea
iiiaieiiaaea?iuo oeaii/ae. Nooue aai caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: anee a
i?ia?aiia ano?a/athony aeaa naycaiiua aaeoi?iua iia?aoeee (o.a.
?acoeueoao ia?aie neoaeeo iia?aiaeii aoi?ie), oi a ioee/ea io neo/ay
naycaiiuo neaey?iuo iia?aoeee, eiaaea auiieiaiea aoi?ie iia?aoeee
ia/eiaaony oieueei iinea caaa?oaiey i?aaeuaeouae, iaa aaeoi?iua eiiaiaeu
iiaoo ia?aaaouaaoueny i?aeoe/anee ia?aeeaeueii, /oi oaeaaeaaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu.

A oeaeii CRAY-1 i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae oi, eae iaaei ni/aoaoue i?inoioo e
yooaeoeaiinoue oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee a iaeanoe aiia?aoiiai e i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey noia?eiiiuethoa?a n i?inoioie e oaeianoaii aai
eniieueciaaiey e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey a i?eau/iie aeey
aieueoeinoaa ?ac?aaio/eeia n?aaea “eeanne/aneeo” iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
ycueia oeia FORTRAN.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy, niaoeeaeenou ec Fujitsu, Hitachi e Nippon
Electric (NEC) a ei?ioeea n?iee noiaee auaeaoue ianoiyuee ioaao E?ath ec
oanoe iiaeaeae noia?YAI, iaei onooiathueo CRAY-1 ii iniiaiui
oa?aeoa?enoeeai, a eia a /ai e i?aainoiaeyueo naie aia?eeaineee
i?ioioei.

Aeaei a oii, /oi a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia ssiiiey aeeth/eeanue a aiieo
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia, iauyaea i ia/aea ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiu
nicaeaiey YAI naa?oaunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo
eniieieoaeae yoie i?ia?aiiu auee aua?aiu o?e aaaeouea eiiiuethoa?iua
oe?iu ssiiiee. Ei?ii?aoeey NEC ia?aciaaea niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea n
Honeywell iiae iacaaieai Honeywell-NEC Supercomputers (HNS), a oe?ia
Fujitsu noiaea caeeth/eoue niaeaoaiea n Aeaeeiii Aiaeaeii, eioi?ue e
oiio a?aiaie ooae ec IBM e iniiaae nianoaaiioth eiiiaieth Amdahl Corp.
Ieiaeii yoiai nithca noaea iaoeia AMDAHL V/6, ioe?uaoay y?o
eiiiuethoa?ia ia aieueoeo eioaa?aeueiuo noaiao e canoaaeaoay ana?ueac
iiaieiiaaoueny ?oeiaiaenoai IBM, eiaaea auynieeinue, /oi
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee AMDAHL V/6 ia inoaaeytho na?ueaciuo
oainia ia iiaaaeo ie iaeiiio ec eiiiuethoa?ia IBM oiai a?aiaie. Iaeaaeay
oaoiieiaeae e iiuoii ?ac?aaioee YAI ia AEN, eioi?uo aia?eeaioeu a oo
ii?o ia eiaee, oae eae CYBER-200 e CRAY-1 auee ?ac?aaioaiu ia
iee?inoaiao n?aaeiae noaiaie eioaa?aoeee, yiiineea oe?iu iioee a
ianooieaiea ia o?iioa noia?eiiiuethoa?ia.

A ia/aea 80-o aiaeia naao oaeaeaee n?aco o?e naiaenoaa noia?YAI
yiiineiai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e/ai eaaeaeue noia?eiiiuethoa? ec No?aiu
Ainoiaeyuaai Nieioea eiae naith a?oeoaeoo?ioth ecthieieo. Ai-ia?auo, ai
anao yiiineeo noia?YAI ii n?aaiaieth n CRAY-1 auei oaaee/aii /enei
neaey?iuo e aaeoi?iuo ?aaeno?ia (iai?eia?, NEC SX ?aniieaaaao 256
neaey?iuie e 256 aaeoi?iuie ?aaeno?aie i?ioea ainueie ?aaeno?ia iaieo
oeiia a CRAY-1). Ca n/ao yoiai oaeaeinue nieceoue iaa?oceo ia
iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue nenoaiu, a oaeaea, /oi cia/eoaeueii nouanoaaiiaa,
iieo/eoue aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey yooaeoeaiie aaeoi?ecaoeee i?ia?aii.
Aua iaeii eioa?aniia iiaoanoai aaaee ?ac?aaio/eee noia?YAI naiaenoaa NEC
SX, iauaaeeiea aaeoi?ioth a?oeoaeoo?o “?aaeno?-?aaeno?” n i?eioeeiii
iiiaieiiaaea?iie ia?aaioee, ?aiaa ?aaeeciaaiiii a noia?eiiiuethoa?ao
STAR-100, CYBER-203 e CYBER-205 oe?iu Control Data.

I?aaaea, caeanue neaaeoao ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa : ai-ia?auo,
iiiaieiiaaea?iay ia?aaioea o?aaoao onoaiiaee aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiaeoeae,
/oi oaaee/eaaao noieiinoue oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a, ai-aoi?uo,
eniieiaiea iaeiie aaeoi?iie eiiaiaeu ia ianeieueeeo ia?aeeaeueiuo
eiiaaea?ao i?eaiaeeo e aic?anoaieth aeiee iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo
cao?ao ia caione eiiaiaeu, iiaeaioiaeo iia?aiaeia e caienue ?acoeueoaoa.
Iai?eia?, anee eiiaaea?, auiieiythuee iaeio yeaiaioa?ioth iia?aoeeth ca
iyoue oaeoia, caiaieoue ia /aou?a oaeeo aea eiiaaea?a, oi i?e aeeeia
aaeoi?ia a 100 yeaiaioia aaeoi?iay eiiaiaea onei?yaony anaai a 3,69, a
ia a 4 ?aca. Yooaeo “ionoaaaiey” ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe io
oaaee/aiey /enea eiiaaea?ia iniaaiii caiaoai, eiaaea i?ioeanni?
cao?a/eaaao cia/eoaeueiia a?aiy ia iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo eiiaaea?ii e
iaiyoueth. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia auei aeieaeiui ia?acii ioeaiaii i?e
?ac?aaioea CYBER-205, e a ?acoeueoaoa a?oeoaeoo?a “iaiyoue-iaiyoue”
aeaiiie iiaeaee ianoieueei oooaeoeea aeeiaie/aneea ia?aiao?u /aou?ao
eiiaaea?ia aa aaeoi?iiai i?ioeanni?a, /oi aeey aeinoeaeaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, aeeceie e 200 MFLOPS, iio?aaiaaeanue i/aiue
aunieay noaiaiue aaeoi?ecaoeee i?ia?aii (ii?yaeea 1 oun. yeaiaioia a
aaeoi?a), o.a. iioaioeeaeueii naiay iiuiay noia?YAI 70-o aiaeia ?aaeueii
iiaea yooaeoeaii ia?aaaouaaoue oieueei ia?aie/aiiue eeann caaea/.
Eiia/ii, iiaeiaiue i?in/ao iaaaoeaii io?aceeny ia ?uii/iie noaeueaa
CYBER-205 e ia anae i?ia?aiia noia?YAI eiiiaiee Control Data. Iinea
CYBER-205 oe?ia CDC i?ae?aoeea iiiuoee inaiaiey ?uiea noia?YAI.

Eniieueciaaiea a noia?eiiiuethoa?ao NEC SX a?oeoaeoo?u “?aaeno?-?aaeno?”
iicaieeei iaeo?aeeciaaoue iaaeinoaoee iiiaieiiaaea?iie ia?aaioee, e
iiaeaeue NEC SX-2 n 16 aaeoi?iuie eiiaaea?aie noaea ia?aie noia?YAI,
i?aiaeieaaoae ?oaaae a ieeeea?ae iia?aoeee n ieaaathuae oi/eie ca
naeoiaeo – aa ieeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ninoaaeea 1,3 GFLOPS. Oe?ia
Hitachi iioea ii ae?oaiio iooe. A noia?eiiiuethoa?ao na?ee S-810 noaaea
auea naeaeaia ia ia?aeeaeueiia auiieiaiea n?aco oanoe aaeoi?iuo eiiaiae.
Aeaeaa Hitachi, i?iaeieaeaao eeieth yoiai naiaenoaa iiaeaeyie S-810/60 e
S-810/80; iineaaeiyy caieiaao aeinoieiia o?aouea ianoi ii ?acoeueoaoai
oanoe?iaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia iaeaoa LINPACK, onooiay oieueei
a?aiaeai ec CRAY e NEC. Ioiineoaeueioth eiiia?/aneoth noaaeeueiinoue
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia Hitachi iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi iie, eae e
noia?YAI oe?iu Fujitsu, iieiinoueth niaianoeiu n nenoaiie IBM/370 ii
neaey?iui iia?aoeeyi. Yoi iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue i?ia?aiiu, nicaeaiiua ia
IBM VS FORTRAN e a noaiaea?oa ANSI X3.9 (FORTRAN 77), a oaeaea
eniieueciaaoue noaiaea?oioth iia?aoeeiiioth n?aaeo MVS TSO/SPF e
aieueoeinoai nenoaiiuo ?anoe?aiee IBM, aeeth/ay oi?aaeaiea
aaiaeii/auaiaeii aeey IBM-niaianoeiuo aeeneiauo e eaioi/iuo iaeiieoaeae.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yiiineea noia?YAI oe?i Hitachi e Fujitsu ia?auie a
ie?a noia?eiiiuethoa?ia eniieueciaaee ae?oaeanoaaiiue eioa?oaen aeey
iieueciaaoaeae iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a oi a?aiy au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaiu – IBM/370.

Iaoene yiiineeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aue aia/aoeythuei, ii ooo N. E?ae
iaiineo naiaa?aiaiiue eiio?oaea? – a 1982 a. ia ?uiea iiyaeeanue ia?aay
iiaeaeue naiaenoaa noia?eiiiuethoa?ia CRAY X-MP, a aeaoiy aiaeaie iicaea
a Eeaa?ii?neie iaoeeiiaeueiie oece/aneie eaai?aoi?ee ei. Eio?aina aue
onoaiiaeai ia?aue yecaiiey? noia?YAI CRAY-2. Iaoeiu io Cray Research
iia?aaeeee eiieo?aioia a aeaaiii – iie iciaiaiiaaee ca?iaeaeaiea iiaiai
iieieaiey YAI naa?oaunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, a eioi?uo
aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iue ia?aeeaeeci aeiiieiyeny ioeueoei?ioeanni?iie
ia?aaioeie. E?ae i?eiaiee a naieo eiiiuethoa?ao iai?aeeia?iua ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Nio?aiea a CRAY-2 e CRAY X-MP
a?oeoaeoo?o e no?oeoo?iua ia?aaioee CRAY- 1, ii nie?ooee eiieo?aioia
n?aco ia aeaoo o?iioao: aeinoea ?aei?aeii iaeie aeeeoaeueiinoe iaoeiiiai
oeeeea (4,1 in ) e ?anoe?ee ia?aeeaeeci nenoaiu ca n/ao
ioeueoei?ioeanni?iie ia?aaioee. A eoiaa Cray Research nio?aieea ca niaie
caaiea aaniethoiiai /aiieiia ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe: CRAY-2
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea ieeiaoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 2 GFLOPS, iaiaiaa NEC
SX-2 – naioth auno?oth yiiineoth noia?YAI – a iieoi?a ?aca. Aeey ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu iioeiecaoeee iaoeiiiai oeeeea E?ae iioae aeaeueoa yiiioeaa,
eioi?ua oaea aeaaeaee oaoiieiaeae ECL-AEN, iicaieeaoae a Fujitsu VP
aeinoe/ue aeeeoaeueiinoe iaoeiiiai oeeeea a 7,5 in. Iiieii oiai /oi a
CRAY-2 auee eniieueciaaiu auno?iaeaenoaothuea ECL-noaiu, eiino?oeoeaiia
?aoaiea aeieia OeI iaania/eaaei iaeneiaeueioth ieioiinoue iiioaaea
eiiiiiaioia. Aeey ioeaaeaeaiey oaeie oieeaeueiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
auaeaeyea ie iiiai ie iaei 195 eAo, auea eniieueciaaia oaoiieiaey
iia?oaeaiey iiaeoeae a ea?aeae ooi?a – niaoeeaeueiue aeeaeeee oeaaeaaaio
i?iecaiaenoaa aia?eeaineie oe?iu 3M.

Aoi?ia ?aaiethoeeiiiia ?aoaiea, ?aaeeciaaiiia a noia?eiiiuethoa?a CRAY-
2, caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi iauai iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe aue aeiaaaeai aei 2
Aaaeo. N.E?ath oaeaeinue auiieieoue e?eoa?ee aaeaine?iaee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e aieinoe iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ii Oeeiio: “Eaaeaeiio
ieeeeiio iia?aoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?a aeieaeii
niioaaonoaiaaoue ia iaiaa 1 Iaaeo aieinoe iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe”. Nooue
i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oeie/iua caaea/e aeae?i- e
ay?iaeeiaieee, yaea?iie oeceee, aaieiaee, iaoai?ieiaee e ae?oaeo
aeenoeeieei, ?aoaaiua n iiiiuueth noia?YAI, o?aaotho ia?aaioee
cia/eoaeueiiai iauaia aeaiiuo aeey iieo/aiey ?acoeueoaoia i?eaieaiie
oi/iinoe. Enoanoaaiii, i?e oaeeo iauaiao au/eneaiee ioiineoaeueii iaeay
aieinoue iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe aucuaaao eioaineaiue iaiai n aeeneiaie
iaiyoueth, /oi a iieiii niioaaonoaee n caeiiii Aiaeaea aaaeao e ?aceiio
nieaeaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu.

Ana-oaee iiaue ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue noia?eiiiuethoa?a CRAY-2
ii?aaeaeyeny ia noieueei naa?oiaeie aeeeoaeueiinoueth iaoeiiiai oeeeea e
naa?oaieueoie aieinoueth iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, neieueei
ioeueoei?ioeanni?iie a?oeoaeoo?ie, caeinoaiaaiiie o ae?oaie ?ac?aaioee
Cray Research – naiaenoaa iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo noia?YAI CRAY X-MP. Aai o?e
aaciaua iiaeaee – X-MP/1, X-MP/2 e X-MP/4 – i?aaeeaaaee iieueciaaoaeyi
iaeii-, aeaoo- eee /aou?aoi?ioeanni?ioth eiioeao?aoeeth nenoaiu n
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 410 MFLOPS ia i?ioeanni?. Niaeo? aeinooiiuo
aa?eaioia ?anoe?yeny ca n/ao aiciiaeiinoe onoaiiaee iaiyoe ?aciiai
iauaia (io 32 aei 128 Iaaeo ia nenoaio). Oaeie i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia ?uiie
iiaeoiae e iino?iaieth noia?eiiiuethoa?a aiineaaenoaee i?eian oe?ia Cray
Research iuooeiue eiiia?/aneee yooaeo. Ioeueoei?ioeanni?iay a?oeoaeoo?a
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia i?iecaiaenoaa CRAY auea ?ac?aaioaia n o/aoii
aeinoeaeaiee e iaaeinoaoeia iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo iyeio?aeiia, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue oe?iu IBM. A ioee/ea io “eeanne/aneeo” iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai
IBM, eioi?ua eniieuecotho aeey acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ioeannia iaoaieci
aeiaaeueiuo ia?aiaiiuo e naiaoi?ia a iauae iaiyoe, ioeueoei?ioeanni?iay
a?oeoaeoo?a CRAY i?aaeiieaaaao iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?ioeanni?aie
/a?ac niaoeeaeueiua eeanoa?iua ?aaeno?u, e?iia oiai, aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ioeannia a a?oeoaeoo?a CRAY i?aaeoniio?aiu
aiia?aoii-?aaeeciaaiiua naiaoi?iua oeaaeee, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony,
na?anuaathony e aiaeece?othony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo eiiaiae, /oi
oaeaea onei?yao iaaei?ioeanni?iue iaiai e a eoiaa oaaee/eaaao nenoaiioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo iiaoanoa eiyooeoeeaio
onei?aiey aeaooi?ioeanni?iie noia?YAI CRAY X-MP/2 ii ioiioaieth e
iaeiii?ioeanni?iie CRAY X-MP/1 ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 1,86.

A ioee/ea io naiaenoaa CRAY X-MP, iiaeaee eioi?iai ?aaioatho iiae
oi?aaeaieai iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu COS (Cray Operating System), CRAY-2
eiiieaeoiaaeanue iiaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie CX-COS, nicaeaiiie oe?iie
Cray Research ia aaca Unix System V.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia Control Data, “nioaaeoay n aeenoaioeee”
iinea iaoaea/e n iiaeaeueth CYBER-205 aiiaue iiyaeyaony ia ?uiea
nia?YAI. No?iai aiai?y, ca ?ac?aaioeo iiaie ainueiei?ioeanni?iie
noia?YAI acyeanue ETA Systems – aei/a?iyy oe?ia CDC, – iaeiaei a yoii
i?iaeoa aue caaeaenoaiaai i?aeoe/anee aanue iioaioeeae Control Data.
Aia/aea i?iaeo iiae iacaaieai ETA-10, iieo/eaoee iiaeaea?aeeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaa /a?ac eiio?aeou e aeioaoeee iioaioeeaeueiui
iieueciaaoaeyi aucaae iaeeaeaiea n?aaee niaoeeaeenoia ii naa?onei?inoiie
ia?aaioea. Aaaeue iiaay noia?YAI aeieaeia auea aeinoe/ue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe a 10 GFLOPS, o.a. a iyoue ?ac i?aacieoe CRAY-2 ii
nei?inoe au/eneaiee. Ia?aue ia?acaoe ETA-10 n iaeiei i?ioeanni?ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 750 MFLOPS aue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaai a 1988 a.,
iaeiaei aeaeueoa aeaea iioee ooaea. Ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea 1989 a. Control
Data iauyaeea i naa?ouaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee ETA Systems ec-ca
ia?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia inoaeny a noi?iia io i?iaeai naa?oaunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e
aeaaio eiiiuethoa?iiai ie?a – oe?ia IBM. Ia aeaeay onooiaoue naieo
iieueciaaoaeae eiieo?aioai ec Cray Research, eiiiaiey i?enooieea e
i?ia?aiia auionea noa?oeo iiaeaeae naiaenoaa IBM 3090 ni n?aaenoaaie
aaeoi?iie ia?aaioee (Vector Facility). Naiay iiuiay iiaeaeue yoie na?ee
– IBM 3090/VF-600S iniauaia oanoueth aaeoi?iuie i?ioeanni?aie e
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth aieinoueth 512 Iaaeo. A aeaeueiaeoai yoa eeiey
auea i?iaeieaeaia oaeeie iaoeiaie a?oeoaeoo?u ESA, eae IBM ES/9000-700
VF e ES/9000-900 VF, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?uo a iaeneiaeueiie
eiioeao?aoeee aeinoeaea 450 MFLOPS.

Aua iaeia ecaanoiay a eiiiuethoa?iii ie?a oe?ia – Digital Equipment
Corp. – a ieoya?a 1989 a. aiiine?iaaea iiaoth na?eth iyeio?aeiia n
aaeoi?iuie n?aaenoaaie ia?aaioee. Noa?oay iiaeaeue VAX 9000/440 iniauaia
/aou?ueiy aaeoi?iuie i?ioeanni?aie, iiauoathueie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
YAI aei 500 MFLOPS.

Aunieay noieiinoue noia?YAI e aaeoi?iuo iyeio?aeiia ieacaeanue ia ii
ea?iaio aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiio e?oao caeac/eeia, iioaioeeaeueii aioiauo
ainiieueciaaoueny eiiiuethoa?iuie oaoiieiaeyie ia?aeeaeueiuo au/eneaiee.
E eo /eneo ioiinyony iaeeea e n?aaeiea iao/iua oeaio?u e oieaa?neoaou, a
oaeaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiiaiee, eioi?ua ioaeaeathony a
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiie, ii n?aaieoaeueii iaaei?iaie au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieea.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeea e?oiiaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaee noia?YAI, eae Cray
Research, Fujitsu, Hitachi e NEC, yaii iaaeiioeaieee iio?aaiinoe
“n?aaeieo” iieueciaaoaeae, nin?aaeioi/eaoenue ia aeinoeaeaiee ?aei?aeiuo
iieacaoaeae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e, e niaeaeaieth, aua aieaa ?aei?aeiie
noieiinoe naieo ecaeaeee. Aanueia aeaeie ieacaeanue no?aoaaey Control
Data, eioi?ay iinea iaoaea/e n CYBER-205 iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeeea
auioneo iao/iuo eiiiuethoa?ia n?aaeiaai eeanna. Ia eiiaoe 1988 a.
i?iecaiaenoai iaoei oeia CYBER-932 aaeaia i?aauneei auione noa?oeo
iiaeaeae na?ee CYBER-900 e noia?YAI n ia?eie CDC. Iniiaiui eiieo?aioii
Control Data ia ?uiea iaeiaaaa?eoiuo ia?aeeaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia,
eioi?ua iieo/eee iauaa iacaaiea “ieie-noia?YAI”, noaea aoaeouee eeaea? a
ie?a ieie-noia?eiiiuethoa?ia oe?ia Convex Computer. A naieo ?ac?aaioeao
Convex ia?aie ?aaeeciaaea aaeoi?ioth a?oeoaeoo?o n iiiiuueth
naa?oaieueoeo eioaa?aeueiuo noai (NAEN) ii oaoiieiaee EIII. A
?acoeueoaoa iieueciaaoaee iieo/eee na?eth ioiineoaeueii iaaei?iaeo
eiiiuethoa?ia ii oeaia iaiaa 1 iei. aeiee., iaeaaeathueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth io 20 aei 80 MFLOPS. Ni?in ia yoe iaoeiu
i?aacioae ana iaeeaeaiey. ssaii ?eneiaaiiua eiaanoeoeee a i?ia?aiio
Convex iaa?ioeenue auno?ui e nieeaeiui aeioiaeii io aa ?aaeecaoeee.
Enoi?ey ?acaeoey noia?eiiiuethoa?ia iaeiicia/ii iieacuaaao, /oi a yoie
neiaeiaeoae iaeanoe eiaanoe?iaaiea aunieeo oaoiieiaee, eae i?aaeei,
aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao – iaaei oieueei, /oiau i?iaeo aue
aae?aniaai aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiio e?oao iieueciaaoaeae e ia niaea?aeae
neeoeii ?eneiaaiiuo oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee. Convex, eioi?ay, iieo/ea oaeia
i?aeiouanoai ia noa?oa, noaea oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny. Nia/aea iia
auionoeea ia ?uiie naiaenoai Convex C-3200, noa?oay iiaeaeue eioi?iai
C-3240 eiaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 200 MFLOPS, a caoai – naiaenoai
Convex C-3800, ninoiyuaa ec /aou?ao aaciauo iiaeaeae a iaeii-, aeaoo- ,
/aou?ao- e ainueiei?ioeanni?iie eiioeao?aoeee. Naiay iiuiay iaoeia yoie
na?ee Convex C-3880 eiaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, aeinoieioth “ianoiyuae”
noia?YAI 80-o aiaeia, e i?e oanoe?iaaiee ia iaeaoa LINPACK iaiaiaea ii
nei?inoe au/eneaiee oaeea nenoaiu, eae IBM ES/9000-900 VF, ETA-10P e
aeaaea CRAY-1S. Ioiaoei, /oi Cray Research, auioneaao ieie-noia?YAI CRAY
Y-EL, oaeaea ?aaeeciaaiioth ia oaoiieiaee EIII-NAEN. Yoio eiiiuethoa?
iiaeao iinoaaeyoueny a iaeii-, aeaoo- eee /aou?aoi?ioeanni?iie
eiioeao?aoeee e iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 133 MFLOPS ia
i?ioeanni?. Iauai iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
iiaeaeaiee caeac/eea a aeeaiaciia 256-1024 Iaaeo.

Aeiieie?iaaiea aaeoi?iuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?ia?aiiao e onoie/eaia iieiaeaiea “oea?y ai?u”, caiyoia Cray Research,
yaii ia ono?aeaaei noi?iiieeia MIMD-ia?aeeaeecia. Ia?aiia/aeueii a yoio
eeann auee aeeth/aiu iiiaii?ioeanni?iua iyeio?aeiu, a aiineaaenoaee e
iei aeiaaaeeenue noia?YAI o?aoueaai iieieaiey n ioeueoei?ioeanni?iie
no?oeoo?ie. E oa e ae?oaea iniiaaiu ia noi?ioee?iaaiiii oii Iaeiaiii
i?eioeeia oi?aaeaiey au/eneeoaeueiui i?ioeannii ii eiiaiaeai i?ia?aiiu,
eee oi?aaeaiey iioieii eiiaiae (Instruction Flow). Iaeiaei i?eia?ii n
na?aaeeiu 60-o aiaeia iaoaiaoeee noaee ianoaeaeaoue i?iaeaio ?acaeaiey
caaea/e ia aieueoia /enei ia?aeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
iiaeao ia?aaaouaaoueny iacaaeneii io ae?oaeo, a oi?aaeaiea auiieiaieai
anae caaea/e inouanoaeyaony iooai ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo io iaeiiai i?ioeanna
e ae?oaiio. Yoio i?eioeei, ecaanoiue eae oi?aaeaiea iioieii aeaiiuo
(Data Flow), a oai?ee auaeyaeeo i/aiue iiiaiiaauathuei. Oai?aoeee
DataFlow-ia?aeeaeecia i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi nenoaio iiaeii aoaeao
i?aaieciaaoue ec iaaieueoeo e iioiio aeaoaauo iaeiioeiiuo i?ioeanni?ia.
Aeinoeaeaiea naa?oaunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oeaeeeii aiceaaaeinue ia
eiiieeyoi?, inouanoaeythuee ?ania?aeeaeeaaiea au/eneeoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna, e IN, eii?aeeie?othuoth ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?ioeanni?ia.
Aiaoiyy i?inoioa i?eioeeia MIMD-ia?aeeaeecia aucaaea e aeecie iiiaeanoai
i?iaeoia.

Ec iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo ?ac?aaioie nenoai eeanna MIMD noieo oiiiyiooue IBM
RP3 (512 i?ioeanni?ia, 800 MFLOPS), Cedar (256 i?ioeanni?ia, 3,2 GFLOPS;
eiiiuethoa? iaeiieiaiiie oe?iu), nCUBE/10 (1024 i?ioeanni?a, 500 MFLOPS)
e FPS-T (4096 i?ioeanni?ia, 65 GFLOPS). E niaeaeaieth, ie iaeei ec yoeo
i?iaeoia ia caaa?oeeny iieiui oniaoii e ie iaeia ec oiiiyioouo nenoai ia
iieacaea iauyaeaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Aeaei a oii, /oi, eae e a
neo/aa n iao?e/iuie SIMD-noia?eiiiuethoa?aie, neeoeii iiiai oaoie/aneeo
e i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeai auei naycaii n i?aaiecaoeeae eiiiooaoi?a,
iaania/eaathuaai iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?ioeanni?aie. E?iia oiai,
i?ioeanni?u, ninoaaeythuea MIMD- nenoaio, ieacaeenue ia i?aeoeea ia
noieue oae iaeaiueeeie e aeaoaauie. Eae neaaenoaea, ia?aueaaiea eo /enea
i?eaiaeeei e oaeiio oaaee/aieth aaaa?eoia nenoaiu e oaeeeiaieth
iaaei?ioeanni?iuo naycae, /oi noaei niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii: i?e
nouanoaiaaaoai a eiioea 80-o aiaeia o?iaia yeaiaioiie aacu ?aaeecaoeey
MIMD-a?oeoaeoo?u ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiyaeaieth nenoai, niiniaiuo
eiieo?e?iaaoue n aaeoi?iuie noia?eiiiuethoa?aie.

Iai?aeeia?iia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu eiiiooaoeeiiiie naoe i?ioeanni?ia MIMD-
nenoaiu i?aaeeiaeeea iaei eiio ecaanoiay oe?ia Denelcor, eioi?ay
auiieieea ?ac?aaioeo iiiaii?ioeanni?iie iiaeaee HEP-1. Yoio
noia?eiiiuethoa? aue caaeoiai eae MIMD-nenoaia, niaea?aeauay io 1 aei 16
eniieieoaeueiuo i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia e aei 128 aaieia iaiyoe aeaiiuo
ii 8 Iaaeo eaaeaeue. Nenoaia ec 16 i?ioeanni?ia aeieaeia auea iaeaaeaoue
iaeneiaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 160 MFLOPS i?e ia?aeeaeueiie
ia?aaioea 1024 i?ioeannia (ii 64 i?ioeanna a eaaeaeii ec 16 IY).
Ethaiiuoiie a?oeoaeoo?iie iniaaiiinoueth HEP-1 auei oi, /oi
MIMD-ia?aaioea iiiaeanoaa i?ioeannia auiieiyeanue aac eniieueciaaiey
eiiiooaoeeiiiie naoe, eioi?oth caiaieea oae iacuaaaiay “aa?oooea
Oeeiia”.

Iaiiiiei, /oi eaeay “aa?oooee Oeeiia” caeeth/aaony a i?aaiecaoeee
ioeueoei?ioeanni?a eae iaeeiaeiie nenoaiu, ninoiyuae ec a?oiiu
i?ioeanni?ia eiiaiae (I?E), eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo “aaaeao” naie iioie
eiiaiae, e iauaai aeey anao I?E iaai?a a?eoiaoe/aneeo ono?ienoa,
oeeeee/anee iiaeeeth/aaiuo e eaaeaeiio ec I?E aeey auiieiaiey eo
eiiaiae. Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi yooaeo “aa?oooee Oeeiia” ninoieo a
nie?auaiee iauaia, caieiaaiiai a?eoiaoe/aneeie ono?ienoaaie a
iiiaii?ioeanni?iie nenoaia, iineieueeo ia “a?eoiaoeeo” iiaeao
i?eoiaeeoueny aei 60% aiia?aoiuo ?ano?nia oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae no?oeoo?a HEP-1 i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony io
eeanne/aneie “aa?oooee Oeeiia” – oaeie aea oeeeee/aneee caione eiiaiae,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?aciui i?ioeannai, e oa aea iauea aeey iiiaeanoaa
i?ioeannia a?eoiaoe/aneea ono?ienoaa. Iaeiaei ia aoiaea eniieieoaeueiuo
ono?ienoa ia?aeeth/athony ia i?ioeanni?u eiiaiae, a i?ioeannu n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai iaoaiecia auai?ee, nio?aiaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey
neia ninoiyiey eaaeaeiai eniieiyaiiai i?ioeanna. Ai-aoi?uo, a HEP-1
i?eiaiythony eiiaaea?iua eniieieoaeueiua ono?ienoaa, /oi iicaieyao
a?eoiaoe/aneei ono?ienoaai ia?aaaouaaoue nouanoaaiii aieueoa iia?aoeee,
/ai i?ioioeiai iyeio?aeiia. Eacaeinue au, iaeiiaoe iaeaeaii ?aoaiea,
iauaaeeiythuaa aeinoieinoaa MIMD- a?oeoaeoo?u e eiiaaea?iie ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo (ionthaea iacaaiea “MIMD-eiiaaea?ecaoeey”) e e oiio aea
eneeth/athuaa iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie MIMD-no?oeoo?u – iaee/ea naoaaiai
eiiiooaoi?a i?ioeanni?ia. Iaeiaei iinea aeiaieueii oniaoiuo oanoia
noia?YAI HEP-1 e iaeia?eoaeueiuo iocuaia aiaeeoeeia caiouaiiue a
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeo neaaeothuae iiaeiaiie iaoeiu HEP-2 aue cae?uo ii
i?e/eia ionoonoaey caeacia. Iiaeiaii iiiaeanoao ae?oaeo i?iaeoia
nicaeaiey noia?eiiiuethoa?ia n MIMD- a?oeoaeoo?ie, i?ia?aiia HEP ia
iieo/eea iaeia?aiey iieueciaaoaeae ec-ca iaaeinoaoeia nenoaiiiai II.
Aeaei a oii, /oi a ioee/ea io aaeoi?iuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?ua
oniaoii ni?aaeythony n caaea/aie, i?aaenoaaeaiiuie ia noaiaea?oiuo
ycueao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai oeia, aeey yooaeoeaiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey
MIMD-nenoai iio?aaiaaeinue aaaaeaiea a iaeoiae niaa?oaiii iiauo ycueia
ia?aeeaeueiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

Anee i?iaeoe?iaueeai noia?eiiiuethoa?ia eeanna MIMD oaeanony ?ac?aoeoue
i?iaeaiu nenoaiiiai II, aeinooiiuo ycueia ia?aeeaeueiiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, a oaeaea eiiieeyoi?ia aeey yoeo ycueia, oi a ?acaeoee
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee iaaei iaeeaeaoue aanueia e?ooiai e
ae?aiaoe/aneiai iiai?ioa niauoee.

Iinea eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa iiaeaeae CRAY X-MP oe?ia Cray Research
auionoeea iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiia naiaenoai noia?eiiiuethoa?ia CRAY Y-MP,
iaeaaeathueo aieueoei /eneii i?ioeanni?ia (aei ainueie) e iiieaeaiiie
aeeeoaeueiinoueth iaoeiiiai oeeeea (6 in). Noa?oay iiaeaeue yoiai
naiaenoaa CRAY Y-MP/832 eiaea ieeiaoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 2666 MFLOPS
e caieiaea aeaaiaaeoeaooth iiceoeeth a ?aeoeiaa Aeae. Aeiiaa??a ii
?acoeueoaoai oanoe?iaaiey ia iaeaoa LINPACK.

Ia?aua aea iyoue iiceoeee i?eiaaeeaaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaeyi CRA Y-MP C90,
noa?oay iiaeaeue eioi?iai – 16-i?ioeanni?iay iaoeia CRAY Y-MP C90/16256
– eiaea iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue aieinoueth 2 Aaaeo e iiaea
aeaiiino?e?iaaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia o?iaia 16 GFLOPS. Ana 16
i?ioeanni?ia e iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue yoiai eiiiuethoa?a ?aciauaeenue a
iaeiie noieea aanueia ne?iiiuo ?acia?ia: 2,95×2,57×2,17 i3. Iiaenenoaia
aaiaea/auaiaea CRAY Y-MP C90 eiaea aei 256 eaiaeia n iauae i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoueth 13,6 Aaaeo/n, ano?iaiiue e?aiieaaue aeene aieinoueth 16
Aaaeo e iiaeaea?aeeaaea aeeneiaoth iaiyoue iauae aieinoueth aei 4 Oaaeo.
“Noia?ia?aiao?u” iiaeaee CRAY Y-MP C90 yooaeoii aeiiieiythony ?acaeoui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai, oeaio?aeueiui yae?ii eioi?iai yaeythony
eiiieeyoi?u CF77 Fortran, Cray Standard C Compiler, Cray ADA e Pascal.

I?eia?ii a yoi a?aiy Naeio? E?ae inoaaeyao iniiaaiioth ei oe?io Cray
Research e nicaeaao iiaoth eiiiaieth Cray Computer a oeaeyo ?ac?aaioee
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia iiaiai iieieaiey CRAY-3 e CRAY- 4. I?e/eiaie yoiai
oaaa noaee aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa: ai-ia?auo, ?oeiaiaenoai Cray Research
ia oioaei iiaeaa?aaoue oe?io oeiainiaiio e ii?aeueiiio ?eneo a neo/aa
iaoaea/e iiauo i?iaeoia, a ai-aoi?uo, nai E?ae i?aaeii/ae caieiaoueny
ieiia?neeie ?ac?aaioeaie, inoaaea aeey Cray Research caaea/o cae?aieaiey
?uii/iiai oniaoa oaea nicaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia. A ?acoeueoaoa,
inaiaiaeeaoenue io a?aiaie i?iaeoe?iaaiey CRAY-3 e CRAY-4, aai i?aaeiaa
aeaoeua nin?aaeioi/eeinue ia “oeeoiaea” aiia?aoiiai e i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey naiaenoaa CRAY Y-MP, a iiaia caiyeinue iieneii oaoie/aneeo
?aoaiee, iicaieythueo ea?aeeiaeueii iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie ia?aaioee. Aeaei a oii, /oi a eiioea 80-o aiaeia
E?ae noiae i?aaeoaaaeaoue neooaoeeth, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue a iaeanoe
aaeoi?iuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia e na?aaeeia 90-o: a?oeoaeoo?iua e
i?ia?aiiiua aiciiaeiinoe oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ca n/ao
iiiaii?ioeanni?iie ia?aaioee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e
eiiieeyoi?ia aeey noia?YAI yoiai eeanna ieacaeenue i?aeoe/anee
en/a?iaiu, a eo o?aaeeoeeiiiay yeaiaioiay aaca – ECL e BiCMOS AEN ni
noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee ii?yaeea 10 oun. aaioeeae ia e?enoaee – ia
iicaieyao i?aiaeieaoue ii?ia aeeeoaeueiinoe iaoeiiiai oeeeea a 2-3 in. A
iniiao i?iaeoa CRAY-3 auea caeiaeaia eaeay ia?aoiaea ia i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaoth yeaiaioioth aaco – AEN ia iniiaa a?naieaea aaeeey, eioi?ay
oai?aoe/anee iicaieyao iaania/eoue noaiaiinaeoiaeioth
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaoeiiiai oeeeea. Caoay eacaeanue aanueia
?eneiaaiiie, oai aieaa /oi a eiioea 80-o aiaeia a ie?a ia nouanoaiaaei
i?iiuoeaiii inaiaiiie oaoiieiaee aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeiaiie yeaiaioiie
aacu. Ai anyeii neo/aa i?iaeo CRAY-3 “caoi?iiceeny” eiaiii ec-ca
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ninoiyiey oaoiieiaee ?ac?aaioee e i?iecaiaenoaa
GaAs-iee?inoai, a oaeaea nai?ee ec ieo ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeae. Oai ia
iaiaa iinea i?eia?ii iyoe eao ?aaiou iaae i?iaeoii CRAY-3 “auoae a naao”
e n?aco ieacaeny a o?ieea ?aei?aeniaiia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, iaiaiaa
ana eiieo?e?othuea noia?eiiiuethoa?u ii oaeoiaie /anoioa.

I?eia?ii a na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia noiaoaaeoee oaii ?acaeoey
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia aue iioa?yi. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo i?e/ei neaaeoao
i?eaanoe neaaeothuea : ia?iiiue niaae ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey noia?YAI, eae ?acoeueoao i?ae?auaiey ‘oieiaeiie
aieiu’, iethn ionoonoaey ?uiea nauoa noia?iaoei, /oi iauyniyaony
iaee/eai aiieia iiaeoiaeyueo ieie-noia?YAI ai?acaei aieaa aeaoaauo e
aeinooiiuo. Aieueoeinoai i?iecaiaeeoaeae noa?athony ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoueny
ia nicaeaiee a?oeoaeoo? n ianniaui ia?aeeaeeciii (MPP).

1994a. Eiiiaiey Cray Computer niiaueea i auionea a ia?aie iieiaeia
neaaeothuaai aiaea noia?eiiiuethoa?a Cray-4 a /aou?ao- e
ainueiei?ioeanni?iuo eiioeao?aoeeyo. Oe?ia NEC i?aaenoaaeea ia
aia?eeaineii ?uiea naie noia?eiiiuethoa? SX-4, iinoaaee eioi?iai
ia/ioony a 1995 a. Auione ianniai-ia?aeeaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a NCube 3,
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaiiiai eiiiaieae NCube e i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia iao/iue
?uiie, iaia/ai ia II eaa?oae aoaeouaai aiaea.

1995a. Iiaeaeoe, naiui aia/aoeythuei niauoeai noae e?ao oe?iu Cray
Computer. Yoe iiainoe iaei aeey eiai ieacaeenue nth?i?ecii: ia
ninoaaeyei oaeiu nouanoaiaaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo aeieaia, iaeiieaoeony a
?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi Cray Computer ia niiaea i?iaeaoue ie iaeiiai
eiiiuethoa?a Cray-3 ca aeaa aiaea, i?ioaaeoeo ni aeiy i?aaenoaaeaiey
nenoaiu.

I?eia?ii a yoi aea a?aiy Cray Research iauyaeea i auionea iiaie na?ee
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia CRAY T90, a eioi?uo aia?aua ionoonoaotho eaaaeueiua
niaaeeiaiey. A yoeo nenoaiao, iieo/eaoeo ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee iacaaiea
Triton, eiee/anoai i?ioeanni?ia aa?uee?iaaeinue io 1 aei 32, a
iaeneiaeueiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeinoeaaea 60 ie?ae. iia?aoeee a
naeoiaeo. Ii n?aaiaieth n 16-i?ioeanni?iuie eiiiuethoa?aie CRAY C90,
auno?iaeaenoaea eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 16 Aoeiin, iiaua iaoeiu eiatho a 3-5
?ac eo/oaa niioiioaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue/noieiinoue.

A ssiiiee aea, Fujitsu i?aaenoaaeyao aeaa aaeoi?iuo ia?aeeaeueiuo
noia?eiiiuethoa?a ia aaca EIII-oaoiieiaee : VX e VPP iniauaiu
caiaoaioiaaiiuie AEN ia EIII-no?oeoo?ao, iauaiii iaiyoe 8 Aaaeo aeey
iiaeaee VX e 32 Aaaeo – aeey VPP300. I?e iaeneiaeueiie eiioeao?aoeee (16
i?ioeanni?ia) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue VPP300 ninoaaeyao 35,2 Aoeiin, a
iiaeaee VX i?e /aou?ao i?ioeanni?ao – 8,8 Aoeiin.

Eiiiaiey Parsytec Computer GmbH i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea ia?aoth nenoaio n
ianniaui ia?aeeaeeciii GC/Power Plus ia aaca RISC- i?ioeanni?ia PowerPC
601. Eiee/anoai i?ioeanni?iuo yeaiaioia a GC/Power Plus iiaeao iaiyoueny
io 32 aei 1024, i?e yoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ninoaaeyao io 2,5 aei 80
GFLOPS

A 1996 a. Cray ia/eiaao eiiia?/aneee auione iiaie iiaeaee ianooaae?oaiuo
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia CRAY T3E n ieeiaie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 1,2
TFLOPS. Iniiaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea, ia eioi?ie aeoeaioe?iaaee aieiaiea
?ac?aaio/eee, – ianooaae?oaiinoue, ia eiathuay aiaeiaia a enoi?ee
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia. Ieieiaeueiay eiioeao?aoeey, niaea?aeauay ainaiue
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia, aeiioneaao oaaee/aiea eo eiee/anoaa a 256 ?ac.
Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue oaeaea aeinoeaiooi
eeanoa?ecaoeeae nenoai.

Oai ia iaiaa, i?iaeoe?iaaiea MIMD iaoei ii-i?aaeiaio a aieueoae noaiaie
yaeyeinue eneonnoaii, i?aaaea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue yaiia aeaeaeaiea a yoi
iaeanoe. Oae, MIMD-noia?eiiiuethoa?o Paragon n ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
iaiyoueth, ?ac?aaioaiiiio Intel, oaeaeinue auaeeoue e aiieia oniaoii
nouanoaiaaoue (iino?iai ia eiiia?/aneeo iee?ii?ioeanni?ao io Intel ) : n
auno?iaeaenoaeai 140 Aoeiin onoaiiaeai a eaai?aoi?ee Sandia e 150
Aoeiin onoaiiaeai a Oak Ridge National Lab. Aua iaeiei i?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeoue nenoaia HP Exemplar SPP1600, eioi?ay auea iino?iaia ia
iee?ii?ioeanni?ao RISC PA-7200 e iniiaaia ia a?oeoaeoo?iii i?eioeeia
MIMD n ?acaeaeaieai iaiyoe.

Fujitsu auionaeao naiaenoai noia?eiiiuethoa?ia VPP700 Series. Eo
eiioeao?aoeey iiaeao ia?aueaaoueny io aaciaie, aeeth/athuae 8
i?ioeanni?iuo aeieia, aei 256- i?ioeanni?iie n niaieoiiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth a 500 Aoeiin. IBM i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoue naia
naiaenoai RS/6000 Scalable Powerparallel (SP). Iia no?ieo naie naiue
iiuiue ia?aeeaeueiue eiiiuethoa? n 472 i?ioeanni?aie e iaeneiaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth a 200 Aoeiin (i?aaiia/aeueii ieaie?iaaeinue, /oi
a ainueie ei?ionao ?acianoyony 512 oceia, a iauaa /enei i?ioeanni?ia
aeinoeaiao 4096).

Nionoy aiae, iiyoue aiiine?iaaea noia?eiiiuethoa? CRAY O3A-900 ia aieaa
auno?uo i?ioeanni?ao, /ai o i?aaeoanoaothuae iiaeaee CRAY O3A. Ca n/ao
yoiai aeinoeaiooa ?aei?aeiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 1,8 TFLOPS. Oiaaea
yoi aaeeinoaaiiay a ie?a nenoaia, iiuiinoue eioi?ie i?aauneea o?eeeeii
FLOPS. Iiaue noia?eiiiuethoa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia eeanoa? iiiaeanoaa
iacaaeneiuo oceia, a aaeeioth nenoaio n oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oi?aaeaieai e
neeueiinaycaiiuie i?ioeanni?iuie yeaiaioaie. Iaeneiaeueiia /enei
i?ioeanni?ia CRAY T3E-900 aeinoeaaao 2048.

1997a. iiaeao auoue ioia/ai, eae iiyaeaieai ei?ii?aoeee Sun
Microsystems ia ?uiea noia?eiiiuethoa?ia. I?aaeiinueeie aeey yoiai
neoaeeo auione iiaiai naiaenoaa Ultra-Sparc III, ia aaca eioi?iai Sun
ieaie?oao auionoeoue nenoaiu. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Sun
ioaeaea i?aaeii/oaiea SMP (neiiao?e/iie iiiaii?ioeanni?iie) a?oeoaeoo?a
: oae, coia?eiiiuethoa? UltraHPC iiaeao auoue neiioeao?e?iaai ia aaca 64
i?ioeanni?ia Ultrasparc II (250 Mhz) e niiniaai iaania/eaaoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aei 32 Gflops; a oi a?aiy, eae aieueoeinoai
i?iecaiaeeoaeae noia?YAI ‘eniiaaaeotho’ NUMA (a?oeoaeoo?a n
iaiaeii?iaeiui aeinooiii e iaiyoe).

A eae ianoiyo aeaea ni anai yoei a ?innee ? Iao aieueoiai nae?aoa e a
oii, /oi naaiaeiy eiiiuethoa?iay eiaeono?ey ?innee iaoiaeeony a
eiiaoiciii ninoiyiee.. E na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia a NNN? nouanoaiaaea
aeinoaoi/ii no?ieiay ainoaea?noaaiiay i?ia?aiia ii noia?eiiiuethoa?ai,
eioi?ay, iiieii oeiaine?iaaiey aeiaieueii oe?ieiai niaeo?a i?iaeoia,
aeeth/aea aeaenoaey ii iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa yeaiaioiie aacu e
iniauaieth caaiaeia iaiaoiaeeiui oaoiieiae/aneei iai?oaeiaaieai. A
neo/aa oniaoa yoie i?ia?aiiu a 1989 – 1991 aa. ia naao aeieaeai aue
iiyaeoueny oeaeue ?yae aiieia nia?aiaiiuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia n
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth io 100 MFLOPS aei 1,2 GFLOPS. E?iia oiai,
niaaoneay noia?eiiiuethoa?iay i?ia?aiia i?aaeiieaaaea cia/eoaeueiia
i?iaeaeaeaiea a iaeanoe MIMD-nenoai. No?iai aiai?y, e yoiio a?aiaie NNN?
oaea iaeaaeae eiiiuethoa?aie “Yeuea?on-2”, ia?aiao?u eioi?uo aiieia
niioaaonoaiaaee ii?aaeaeaieth “noia?YAI”. Oaai?eoii noia?eiiiuethoa?iie
i?ia?aiiu noae eieeaeoea ?ac?aaio/eeia yoie iaoeiu – Einoeooo oi/iie
iaoaieee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee ei. Eaaaaeaaa AI NNN? (EOIeAO),
ecaanoiue oaeeie caiiieiathueieny i?iaeoaie, eae “AYNI”, “*aaao” e
“Yeuea?on- 1”. Eiaiii a yoii einoeoooa auee caeiaeaiu aeaa (ec /aou?ao)
iniiaiuo i?iaeoa ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiu – “Yeuea?on-3” e
“Iiaeoeueiue eiiaaea?iue i?ioeanni?” (IEI). Iaeii iai?aaeaiea aicaeaaee
i?iaeo “Yeuea?on-3”, iniiaaiiue ia niaa?oaiii iiaie a?oeoaeoo?a oe?ieie
eiiaiaeu (Very Long Instruction Word, VLIW). A?oeoaeoo?a yoiai oeia
eioa?ania oai, /oi oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni? auae?aao ec iaiyoe e
caioneaao ia eniieiaiea n?aco ianeieueei iia?aoeee, oiaeiaaiiuo
eiiieeyoi?ii a iaeii eiiaiaeiia neiai. Ieeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
iieiie eiioeao?aoeee nenoaiu (16 i?ioeanni?ia) iaeeaeaeanue ia o?iaia 10
GFLOPS, /oi auei au nianai iaieioi. Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey
niaaoneeo noia?YAI i?aaeiieaaaei aeinoeaeaiea aieaa ne?iiiuo iieacaoaeae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (ieiei 1 GFLOPS ia i?ioeanni?) ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey
i?iaa?aiiiai i?aeoeeie i?eioeeia aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie ia?aaioee, ii aac
eiie?iaaiey ca?oaaaeiuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia. A EOIeAO ia?aeeaeueii n
VLIW-nenoaiie “Yeuea?on-3” noa?oiaae i?iaeo IEI iiae ioeoeeaeueiui
iacaaieai “Yeuea?on-3A”, eioi?ue i?aaeiieaaaeinue caaa?oeoue nicaeaieai
nenoaiu ec 2-20 i?ioeanni?ia, iaeaaeathuae noiia?iie ieeiaie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 2-10 GFLOPS. Iai?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioee
aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iuo noia?YAI i?eaeiaeueiie no?oeoo?u auei aua?aii e
aeey noia?eiiiuethoa?ia Aaeeiie nenoaiu. Aieiaiie einoeooo i?ia?aiiu “AN
YAI” – Iao/ii- enneaaeiaaoaeueneee oeaio? yeaeo?iiiie au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee (IEOeYAO) – a 1986 a. aiiine?iaae ia/aei i?iaeoa ii nicaeaieth
noia?eiiiuethoa?a AN1191 n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 1,2 GFLOPS. Oioy yoa
iaoeia ii naiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai e onooiaea “Yeuea?onai”, ii
iioaioeeaeueii aa eiino?oeoeaiua iniaaiiinoe iiaee ieacaoueny aanueia
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey iieueciaaoaeae. Ai-ia?auo, i?eaeiaeueiia ?aoaiea
nenoaiu ec /aou?ao neaey?iuo i?ioeanni?ia e iaeiiai iauaai aaeoi?iiai
i?ioeanni?a iicaieeei cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeoue caieiaaiue iauai: any
oeaio?aeueiay /anoue iaoeiu ?aciauaeanue a noieea, i?eia?ii ?aaiie ii
aaaa?eoai ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iyeio?aeio AN1066. Ai-aoi?uo, AN1191
?aaeeciauaaea ae?oaeanoaaiiue eioa?oaen iieueciaaoaey AN YAI (aa?ouee
ia/aei io IN oe?iu IBM) n i?eiaiaieai anaai ?aciiia?acey nenoaiiuo e
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aiiuo i?iaeoeoia. E iaeiiaoe, “eicu?iie ea?oie” AN1191
auea aicaeooiay nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey, eioi?ay ?acei nieaeaea cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai e yenieoaoaoeeth iaoeiu ii n?aaiaieth n aeeaeeinoiui
ioeaaeaeaieai “Yeuea?onia”.

Anee a ?ac?aaioea noia?eiiiuethoa?a AN1191 eiaeaia?u IEOeYAO ioioee io
i?aeoeee iiaoi?aiey ca?oaaaeiuo i?ioioeiia, oi a iieiii niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii “nayoi ianoi ionoi ia auaaao” eaeay auno?iai aeinoeaeaiey
?acoeueoaoa ca n/ao iiaoi?aiey oaea i?ieaeaiiiai iooe ia iiaea ia iaeoe
naieo noi?iiieeia. Eieeaeoea niaoeeaeenoia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaaeaieea
A. A. Iaeueieeiaa i?eiyeny ca ?ac?aaioeo noia?YAI “Yeaeo?iieea NN AEN”,
eioi?ay aace?iaaeanue ia no?oeoo?iuo ?aoaieyo e nenoaia eiiaiae iaoei
CRAY. A i?eioeeia, yoi iai?aaeaiea oioy e i?aaeiieaaaao iinoiyiiia
ionoaaaiea io i?ioioeia (eoi-eoi, a ?inneeneea iieueciaaoaee oi?ioi
iuooeee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo iaoeiaie AN YAI e eiiiuethoa?aie IBM nia?aiaiiiai
o?iaiy), ii i?aeoe/anee “ia?a/aii ia oniao”, iniaaiii i?e aeaoaeueiii
eiie?iaaiee i?eaeiaea. Ai anyeii neo/aa Eeoae iieo/ee i/aiue iaieioea
noia?eiiiuethoa?u VH-1 e VH-2 ca n/ao eiie?iaaiey iaoei CRAY-1 e CRAY
X-MP.

Ana noia?eiiiuethoa?iua i?iaeou niaaoneiai ia?eiaea eniieueciaaee
iaeiioeiioth yeaiaioioth aaco – iao?e/iua aieueoea eioaa?aeueiua noaiu
ii oaoiieiaee ECL (yieooa?ii-naycaiiay eiaeea) ni noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee
1500 aaioeeae ia e?enoaee e auno?iaeaenoaeai ii?yaeea 0,5 in ia
aaioeeue. Eiia/ii, ii n?aaiaieth n nia?aiaiiuie aeinoeaeaieyie
iee?iyeaeo?iiiie oaoiieiaee yoe ia?aiao?u, iyaei aiai?y, ia aia/aoeytho,
ii aeey na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia iie auee “aiieia ia o?iaia” e ia ionoaaaee
io yeaiaioiie aacu yiiineeo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia Fujitsu, NEC eee Hitachi.

E niaeaeaieth, eiaiii ia ana yoi iaeiaeeeenue ecaanoiua niauoey 1991 –
1992 aa., e aianoi naiie aiooeoaeueiie ii?oeee auaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa
noia?eiiiuethoa?iua i?iaeou iieo/eee aia?oeth a aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo einoeoooaie e caaiaeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa “Yeuea?on-3A” e
“Yeaeo?iieea NN AEN” naaiaeiy nouanoaotho a aeaea iiuoiuo ia?acoeia,
caaa?oaiea i?iaeoa “Yeuea?on-3” neeueii caoyioeinue, a ?aaiou iaae
AN1191 caii?iaeaiu.

I?aaaea aiai?eoue i eii/eia ?inneeneeo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia iiea, ii-
aeaeeiiio, i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii. Aeaei ai?acaei neiaeiaa e cia/eoaeueii
ae?aiaoe/iaa, /ai iiaeao iieacaoueny. Ai-ia?auo, aua nouanoaotho aeaa
aaaeoueo eiiiuethoa?iuo oeaio?a ?innee – EOIeAO e IEOeYAO, eioi?ua a
i?eioeeia niiniaiu ni?aaeoueny n caaea/ae nicaeaiey noia?YAI, iethn a
iaieo einoeoooao iiea nio?aieeinue iaaieueoia, ii aiieia aeaaniiniaiia
yae?i iaeaieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Eiaaea a 1991 a. noaei
ynii, /oi i?iaeo AN1191 ia oaeanony caaa?oeoue ec-ca iaoaaoee n?aaenoa
ia ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiuo ia?acoeia noia?eiiiuethoa?a, auei i?eiyoi
?aoaiea i caii?aaeeaaiee i?iaeoa e ?acaa?ouaaiee ia aai iniiaa ?aaio ii
nicaeaieth naiaenoaa iaeiaaaa?eoiuo noia?eiiiuethoa?ia AN119O.O,
eniieuecothueo ana a?oeoaeoo?iua, no?oeoo?iua e aeaaea aieueooth /anoue
noaiioaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee AN1191 (a aaciauo iiaeaeyo yoiai naiaenoaa
eniieuecoaony 60 – 70% AEN, ?ac?aaioaiiuo aeey AN1191). A eoiaa anaai
/a?ac aiae – iaaieueoie eieeaeoea eiaeaia?ia caaa?oee i?iaeoe?iaaiea
ia?aie iiaeaee yoiai naiaenoaa – noia?neaey?iie ieie-noia?YAI AN1195. A
?acoeueoaoa yoeo oneeee ?iaeeeanue aeinoaoi/ii auno?ay (50 MFLOPS i?e
256 Iaaeo iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe) e aanueia eiiiaeoiay (aeey aa onoaiiaee
o?aaoaony iaiaa iaeiiai eaaae?aoiiai iao?a ieiuaaee) iaoeia, eioi?ay
auea aia?aua i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia ia aunoaaea “Eioi?iaoeea-93”. Caaa?oaia
?ac?aaioea e ia/aeinue ecaioiaeaiea aoi?ie aaciaie iiaeaee naiaenoaa
AN119O.O – aaeoi?iiai noia?eiiiuethoa?a AN1191.01, ieeiaay
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?iai ninoaaeyao 500 MFLOPS. Iaeiiaoe,
i?iaeoe?oaony aea?eaeiay nenoaia AN1191.10, iauaaeeiythuay aeinoieinoaa
aaeoi?ii-eiiaaea?iie e MPP-ia?aaioee. Aa ieieiaeueiay eiioeao?aoeey
iicaieeo iieo/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia o?iaia 2 GFLOPS. Ana iiaeaee
naiaenoaa AN119O.O i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaiou iiae Unix eee OS/2 e
neiino?oe?iaaiu a oae iacuaaaiii “ioeniii eniieiaiee.

Ai?i/ai, ?ac?aaio/eee AN119O.O io/aoeeai iiieiatho, /oi o eo aeaoeua
anoue “aoeeeaniaa iyoa” – onoa?aaoay yeaiaioiay aaca (ECL-/eiu ni
noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee 1500 aaioeeae ia e?enoaee). Iiyoiio a ?acaeoea
eaeae AN119O.O ia/aeenue ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth naiaenoaa
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia “AIO?” ia aaca EIII-iee?inoai ni noaiaiueth
eioaa?aoeee 200 oun. aaioeeae ia e?enoaee. Yoa i?ia?aiia ?ann/eoaia ia
o?e aiaea e aeieaeia caaa?oeoueny auioneii o?ao aaciauo iiaeaeae
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia, iicaieythueo no?ieoue ianooaae?oaiua au/eneeoaeueiua
nenoaiu n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth io 50 MFLOPS aei 20 GFLOPS.
Nouanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoueth anao aaciauo iiaeaeae naiaenoaa “AIO?”
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea aaeeiiai eiiieaeoa ec naie /eiia (ii nooe,
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia) e ?aciauaiea i?ioeanni?ia ia iaeiie ieaoa, iiaeiaiie
“iaoa?eineie” ieaoa ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
ia?a/eneaiiua iniaaiiinoe noia?eiiiuethoa?ia “AIO?” icia/atho
cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e yenieoaoaoeeth yoeo
iaoei, o.a. a eiia/iii n/aoa oiaiueoaiea eo ?uii/iie noieiinoe.

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