.

Структурная схема ЭВМ

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1983
Скачать документ

IAEAAEAIEA

IAEAAEAIEA \o 1. NO?OEOO?IAss NOAIA YAI. IIEIEAIEss YAI 3

2. NENOAIU N*ENEAIEss. 4

3. A?EOIAOE*ANEEA AeAENOAEss IAAe AeAIE*IUIE *ENEAIE 6

3.1 Au/eoaiea n i?eiaiaieai ia?aoiiai eiaea. 6

3.2 Ia?aciaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiaea. 7

4. OCEU YAI. 7

5. NOIIAOI? 8

6. IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIUE NOIIAOI? 9

7. A?EOIAOEEI – EIAE*ANEIA ONO?IENOAI (AEO) 10

8. AeAOEO?AOI? 12

9. I?AIA?ACIAAOAEE N OeEO?IAIE EIAeEEAOeEAE 14

10. I?AIA?ACIAAOAEUe EIAeA 8421 A 2421 15

11. I?IA?AIIE?OAIAss EIAE*ANEAss IAO?EOeA (IEI) 16

12. IAEAIEEAATHUEE NOIIAOI? 17

13. INIIAIUA IEE?II?IOeANNI?IUA EIIIEAEOU 18

14. OEIIAAss NO?OEOO?A IA?AAAOUAATHUAE *ANOE II 21

15. IEE?I YAI IA AACA II E580 22

16. OI?IAOU EIIAIAe E NIINIAU AAe?ANAOeEE 24

17. OeAIO?AEUeIUE I?IOeANNI?IUE YEAIAIO E580 26

18. NENOAIA NAI?A AeAIIUO IA AACA II E580 27

19. OeAIO?AEUeIUE I?IOeANNI?IUE YEAIAIO (OeIY) E589 29

20. AEIE IEE?II?IA?AIIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss (AIO). 30

21. NO?OEOO?IAss NOAIA E I?EIOeEI AeAENOAEss AEIEA

IEE?II?IA?AIIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss (AIO) 32

22. AEIE I?EI?EOAOIIAI I?A?UAAIEss (AII) 34

23. NOAIA ONEI?AIIIAI IA?AIINA (NOI) 35

24. NOAIA IAeII?AC?ssAeIIAI NOIIAOI?A N OI?IE?IAAIEAI

OeEO?U IA?AIINA A NOI 36

25. I?AAIECAOeEss IAIssOE YAI 37

26. IINOIssIIUA CAIIIEIATHUEA ONO?IENOAA (ICO) 39

27. AIAOIEA CAIIIEIATHUEA ONO?IENOAA (ACO) 40

27.1 Iaoiae caiene aac aica?aoa e ioeth 41

27.2 Oaciaay iiaeoeyoeey. 41

27.3 *anoioiay iiaeoeyoeey. 42

28. ONO?IENOAA AAIAeA – AUAIAeA EIOI?IAOeEE 42

29. AUAIAe EIOI?IAOeEE IA AeENIEAE 43

30. AUAIAe EIOI?IAOeEE IA OAEAOAEI 45

31. EIOA?OAEN 46

32. IAIAI AeAIIUIE IAAEAeO IIA?AOEAIIE IAIssOUeTH E

IA?EOA?EEIUIE ONO?IENOAAIE (IO) 48

33. IAIAI AeAIIUIE II I?A?UAAIEssI 51

34. NIAOeEAEECE?IAAIIUA ONO?IENOAA EIOA?OAENA. AOeI 53

35. AOeI N IA?AOIIE NAssCUeTH (IN) 54

36. AOeI NEAAessUAAI OEIA. 55

37. OeAI N NOIIE?IAAIEAI IAI?ssAEAIEss IA IIA?AOeEIIIII

ONEEEOAEA (IO). 55

38. I?EIAIAIEA IEE?I YAI A NENOAIAO AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIIAI

OI?AAEAIEss (NAO) 56

39. NOAIA NOIIE?IAAIEss IAI?ssAEAIEss IA AOOAITHAOI?A

NII?IOEAEAIEE 58

40. I?EIAIAIEA IEE?I YAI A I?EAI?AO (NIAEO?IOIOIIAO?) 58

41. I?IA?AIIIIA IAANIA*AIEA (II) YAI. 60

42. IIA?AOeEIIIAss NENOAIA YAI 61

43. IEE?II?IOeANNI?IUE EIIIEAEO E 1804. 62

44. ANNAIAEA? E580 66

1. NO?OEOO?IAss NOAIA YAI. IIEIEAIEss YAI

Nicaeaii 4 iieieaiey YAI:

1. 1946 a. nicaeaiea iaoeiu YIEAE ia yeaeo?iiiuo eaiiao. Caiiieiathuea
ono?ienoaa (CO) auee iino?iaiu ia yeaeo?iiiuo. eaiiao, yeaeo?iiii –
eo/aauo o?oaeao (YEO) e eeieyo caaea?aeee.

2. 60-a aiaeu. YAI iino?iaiu ia o?aicenoi?ao, CO ia o?aicenoi?ao,
eeieyo caaea?aeee e oa??eoiauo na?aea/ieeao.

3. 70-a aiaeu. YAI iino?iaiu ia eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoaiao (EIN). CO ia
EIN.

4. Ia/aei nicaeaaaoueny n 1971 a. n ecia?aoaieai iee?ii?ioeanni?a (II).
Iino?iaiu ia iniiaa aieueoeo eioaa?aeueiuo noai (AEN) e naa?o AEN
(NAEN).

Iyoia iieieaiea YAI no?ieony ii i?eioeeio /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa,
oi?aaeyaony aieinii, eniieuecoaony iiaay oaoiieiaey ia iniiaa a?naieaea
aaeeey.

YAI i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e ioia?aaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia ia?aaioee. Aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e aeieaeia auoue iaienaia
i?ia?aiia.

Ai a?aiy ?aoaiey caaea/e i?ia?aiia e iia?aiaeu (/enea, iaae eioi?uie
i?iecaiaeeony iia?aoeee) iaoiaeyony a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe (ICO).
Auno?iaeaenoaea ICO niecia?eii n auno?iaeaenoaeai AEO. A i?ioeanna
?aoaiey caaea/e AEO iinoiyiii acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ICO, ia?aaeaaay a ICO
i?iiaaeooi/iua e eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou e iieo/ay ec ICO iia?aiaeu
aeaenoaey anao /anoae YAI i?e ?aoaiee caaea/e inouanoaeyaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia, au?aaaouaaaiuo ono?ienoaii
oi?aaeaiey a niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiie, caienaiiie a ICO.

ICO i?aaeiacia/aii aeey o?aiaiey noaiaea?oiuo i?ia?aii, oaeeo eae sin e
cos, eiinoaio NEIAIE 112 \f “Symbol” , a.

Nouanoaoao aua naa?o ICO (NICO), eioi?ia iaeaaeaao iaeui iauaiii e
aunieei auno?iaeaenoaeai. NICO i?eiaiyaony aeey e?aoeia?aiaiiiai
o?aiaiey iia?aiaeia e i?iiaaeooi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Ea/anoai YAI ii?aaeaeyaony: iauaiii ICO (o.a. eiee/anoaii iaeiia?aiaiii
o?aieiuo a ICO aeaie/iuo neia); auno?iaeaenoaeai, ii?aaeaeyaiui
eiee/anoaii iia?aoeee a nae. Iinea auiieiaiey caaea/e, i?ia?aiia e
?acoeueoaou /a?ac ono?ienoai auaiaea caienuaathony ai aiaoiaa CO. A
ea/anoaa aiaoieo CO eniieuecothony iaaieoiay eaioa, aeaeee iaaieoiue
aeene, iaaieoiue aa?aaai, ia?oieaioa, ia?oiea?ou. I?ia?aiia aaiaeeony a
ICO n aiaoieo CO eee n eeaaeaoo?u /a?ac ono?ienoai aaiaea.

2. NENOAIU N*ENEAIEss.

Iniiaaieai nenoaiu n/eneaiey iacuaatho. /enei, a aeaea noaiaiae
eioi?iai iiaeao auoue caienaii ethaia /enei a aeaiiie nenoaia n/eneaiey.
Nenoaiu n/eneaiey, i?eiaiyaiua a YAI, i?eaioe?iaaiu ia aeaie/ioth
nenoaio, o.e. iniiaie YAI yaeyaony o?eaaa?, eiathuee aeaa onoie/eauo
ninoiyiey.

A aeanyoe/iie nenoaia n/eneaiey iniiaaieai yaeyaony. 10 e aeey caiene
/enae eniieuecotho neiaieu 0…9.A aeaie/iie nenoaia iniiaaieai
yaeyaony. 2. Aeey caiene /enae eniieuecothony neiaieu 0 e 1.

Aeey ia?aaiaea /enea ec aeanyoe/iie nenoaiu a aeaie/ioth iaaei
iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeaeeoue ia aeaa e ?acoeueoao caienuaaoue ni?aaa
iaeaai, ia/eiay n iineaaeiaai /anoiiai, aeeth/ay inoaoee io aeaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 1

10 2 8 16

0 00 0 0

1 01 1 1

2 10 2 2

3 11 3 3

4 100 4 4

5 101 5 5

6 110 6 6

7 111 7 7

8 1000 10 8

9 1001 11 9

10 1010 12 A

11 1011 13 B

12 1100 14 C

13 1101 15 D

14 1110 16 E

15 1111 17 F

16 10000 20 10

A ainueia?e/iie nenoaia iniiaaieai yaeyaony. 8. Aeey caiene /enae
eniieuecotho neiaieu 0…7. Ethaia /enei iiaeao auoue caienaii eae noiia
noaiaiae 8. Aeey ia?aaiaea /enea ec aeanyoe/iie nenoaiu a ainueia?e/ioth
iaaei iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeaeeoue ia 8.

Aeey ia?aaiaea /enea ec aeaie/iie nenoaiu a ainueia?e/ioth, ioaeii
ion/eouaaoue ni?aaa iaeaai ii o?e ?ac?yaea aeaie/iiai /enea e
caienuaaoue eaaeaeoth a?oiio ec o?ao ?ac?yaeia n iiiiuueth neiaieia
0…7.

Iniiaaieai a oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iie nenoaia yaeyaony 16, aeey caiene /enae
eniieuecothony neiaieu 0…9 e A…F. Aeey ia?aaiaea ec aeanyoe/iie
nenoaiu a oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/ioth, iaaei iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeaeeoue ia 16:

A ethaie nenoaia n/eneaiey aa iniiaaiea caienuaaaony eae 10. Aeey
ia?aaiaea /enea ec aeaie/iie nenoaiu a oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/ioth, ioaeii
ion/eouaaoue ni?aaa iaeaai ii 4 ?ac?yaea aeaie/iiai /enea e caienuaaoue
eaaeaeoth a?oiio ?ac?yaeia n iiiiuueth neiaieia ec Oaaeeoeu 1, a eioi?ie
i?aaenoaaeaiu niioiioaiey iaaeaeo /eneaie a ?acee/iuo nenoaiao
n/eneaiey.

3. A?EOIAOE*ANEEA AeAENOAEss IAAe AeAIE*IUIE *ENEAIE

A i?eioeeia iaoeia oiaao oieueei noiie?iaaoue. Ana inoaeueiua
a?eoiaoe/aneea aeaenoaey naiaeyony e a?eoiaoe/aneie iia?aoeee
noiie?iaaiey, eiae/aneei iia?aoeeyi naeaeaa i?e oiiiaeaiee e aeaeaiee.
Au/eoaiea caiaiyaony noiie?iaaieai a aeiiieieoaeueiii eee ia?aoiii
eiaea.

Noiie?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ii i?aaeeai noiie?iaaiey ii iiaeoeth 2.

0 NEIAIE 197 \f “Symbol” 0 = 0

0 NEIAIE 197 \f “Symbol” 1 = 1

1 NEIAIE 197 \f “Symbol” 0 = 1

1 NEIAIE 197 \f “Symbol” 1 = 0 e 1 ia?aiin a noa?oee ?ac?yae.

3.1 Au/eoaiea n i?eiaiaieai ia?aoiiai eiaea.

I?yiie eiae iieiaeeoaeueiiai /enea niaiaaeaao n aai ia?aoiui e
aeiiieieoaeueiui eiaeii. Ia?aoiue eiae io?eoeaoaeueiiai /enea ia?acoaony
eiaa?neae aaeeieoe a ioee e ioeae a aaeeieoeu. Anee eie-ai ?ac?yaeia
oiaiueoaaiiai e au/eoaaiiai ?aciia, oi neaaa aeiienuaathony ioee a
i?yiii eiaea oae, /oiau eie-ai ?ac?yaeia auei iaeeiaeiai.

Niaea?aeeiia ciaeiauo ?ac?yaeia :

0.- aeey iieiae.

1.- aeey io?eoe.

Anee ?acoeueoao iieo/aaony io?eoeaoaeueiue, aai ioaeii i?aia?aciaaoue a
i?yiie eiae; niaea?aeeiia ciaeiaiai ?ac?yaea ia eiaa?oe?oaony. Anee a
ciaeiaii ?ac?yaea iaaethaeaaony ia?aiieiaiea ?ac?yaeiie naoee, oi
aaeeieoea ia?aiieiaiey aeiaaaeyaony e ieaaeoaio ?ac?yaeo, a caoai
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae e i?yiiio eiaeo.

3.2 Ia?aciaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiaea.

Aeiiieieoaeueiue eiae ia?acoaony ec i?yiiai eiaea eiaa?neae e
aeiaaaeaieai aaeeieoeu e ieaaeoaio ?ac?yaeo. Anee ?acoeueoao iieo/eeny
io?eoeaoaeueiui, oi /oiau iieo/eoue i?yiie eiae iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue
eiaa?neth, a caoai aeiaaaeoue aaeeieoeo e ieaaeoaio ?ac?yaeo. Aaeeieoea
ia?aiieiaiey ciaeiaiai ?ac?yaea i?e eniieueciaaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eiaea ioa?anuaaaony.

4. OCEU YAI.

Oceu YAI eeanneoeoee?othony ia :

1. eiiaeiaoeeiiiua – yoi oceu, auoiaeiua neaiaeu eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony
oieueei neaiaeii ia aoiaea, aeaenoaothuei a ianoiyuee iiiaio a?aiaie
(aeaoeo?aoi?). Auoiaeiie neaiae aeaoeo?aoi?a caaeneo oieueei io
aeaie/iiai eiaea, iiaeaiiiai ia aoiae a ianoiyuee iiiaio a?aiaie.
Eiiaeiaoeeiiiua oceu iacuaatho oaeaea aaoiiaoaie aac iaiyoe.

2. iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoiua (aaoiiaou n iaiyoueth) – yoi oceu, auoiaeiie
neaiae eioi?uo caaeneo ia oieueei io eiiaeiaoeee aoiaeiuo. neaiaeia,
aeaenoaothueo a ianoiyuee iiiaio a?aiaie, ii e io i?aaeuaeouaai
ninoiyiey ocea (n/ao/ee).

3. i?ia?aiie?oaiua oceu ooieoeeiie?otho a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeay
i?ia?aiia a ieo caienaia. Iai?eia?, i?ia?aiie?oaiay eiae/aneay iao?eoea
(IEI), eioi?ay a caaeneiinoe io i?iaeaeaiiie a iae i?ia?aiiu iiaeao
auiieiyoue ooieoeee noiiaoi?a, aeaoeo?aoi?a, ICO.

5. NOIIAOI?

Noiiaoi? iiaeao auoue iino?iai eae eiiaeiaoeeiiiay noaia –

iineaaeiaaoaeueiue noiiaoi? e eae

iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoiay noaia –

iaeaieeaathuee noiiaoi?. Noiiaoi? inouanoaeyao coiie?iaaiea oeeo?
?ac?yaeia neaaaaiuo e oeeo? ia?aiina ii i?aaeeai neiaeaiey ii iiaeoeth
2. ?aaioa noiiaoi?a no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaia a niioaaonoaee n oaaeeoeae:

ai bi Pi Si Pi+1

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

6. IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIUE NOIIAOI?

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue noiiaoi? inouanoaeyao noiie?iaaiea neaaa-aiuo e
oeeo? ia?aiina ii?ac?yaeii, ia/eiay n ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea. Iniiaie aai
noaiu yaeyaony iaeii?ac?yaeiue noiiaoi?. Noiie?i-aaiea i?iecaiaeeony a
iaeii?ac?yaeiii noiiaoi?a SM. Oeeo?u i-oiai ?ac?yaea neaaaaiiai e
oeeo?a ia?aiina ec ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea ia?aaeathony ia aoiae noiiaoi?a
iaeiia?aiaiii n i?eoiaeii oaeoiaiai eiioeuena. ?aaeno?u 1 e 2
eniieuecothony aeey i?eaia e o?aiaiey oeeo? i-oiai ?ac?yaea neaaaaiuo. A
D – o?eaaa?a o?aieony oeeo?a ia?aiina ec ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea. ?aaeno? 3
i?eieiaao e o?aieo oeeo?o i-oiai noiiu. N i?eoiaeii oaeoiaiai eiioeuena
ec ?aaeno?ia 1, 2 e D – o?eaaa?a ?ac?yaea neaaaaiuo e oeeo?a ia?aiina
iinooiaao ia aoiae iaeii?ac?yaeiiai noiiaoi?a. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaeno? 3
inaiaiaeaeaaony aeey i?eaia oeeo?u noiiu.

A ia?aeeaeueiii noiiaoi?a ana ?ac?yaeu iia?aiaeia noiie?othony
iaeiia?aiaiii, ii auno?iaeaenoaea nieaeaaony ca n/ao a?aiaie ia?aaea/e
oeeo?u ia?aiina ec ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea.

7. A?EOIAOEEI – EIAE*ANEIA ONO?IENOAI (AEO)

AEO i?aaeiacia/aii aeey auiieiaiey a?eoiaoe/aneeo e eiae/aneeo
iia?aoeee iaae iia?aiaeaie. AEO eeanneoeoee?othony neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

1. Ii niiniao aeaenoaee iaae iia?aiaeaie. Auaatho AEO
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai e ia?aeeaeueiiai aeaenoaey. A iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo AEO
aeaenoaey iaae iia?aiaeaie i?iecaiaeyony iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?ac?yae ca
?ac?yaeii ia/eiay n ieaaeoaai. A ia?aeeaeueiuo AEO ana ?ac?yaeu
iia?aiaeia ia?aaaouaathony iaeiia?aiaiii.

2. Ii aeaeo ia?aaaouaaaiuo /enae AEO iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue iia?aoeee
iaae aeaie/iuie /eneaie n oeene?iaaiiie eee ieaaathuae caiyoie e iaae
aeaie/ii – aeanyoe/iuie /eneaie.

Eaaeaeay aeanyoe/iay oeeo?a caienuaaaony /aou?ueiy ?ac?yaeaie
aeaie/iiai eiaea.

1971

0001 1001 0111 0001

AEO i?e aeaenoaee iaae aeaie/ii-aeanyoe/iuie /eneaie aeieaeiu
niaea?aeaoue noaio aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee. Noaia aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee
i?aia?acoao iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eaaeaeue
aeaie/ii-aeanyoe/iue ?ac?yae ia niaea?aeae oeeo?o aieueoa 9.

I?e caiene /enea n oeene?iaaiiie caiyoie caiyoay oeene?oaony iinea
ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea, anee /enei oeaeia, e ia?aae noa?oei, anee /enei
iaiueoa 1.

I?e caiene /enae n ieaaathuae caiyoie auaeaeyaony oeaeay /anoue,
eioi?ay iacuaaaony iaioennie, e iieacaoaeue noaiaie, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoao iieiaeaiea caiyoie.

37 e 0.37 – n oeene?iaaiiie caiyoie

37*10^-2 – n ieaaathuae caiyoie

3. Ii i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaee iaae iia?aiaeaie ?acee/atho aei/iua e
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua AEO

A aei/iuo AEO ioaeaeueiua aeiee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aeaenoaee iaae
aeaie/ii-aeanyoe/iuie /eneaie, ioaeaeueii aeey aeaenoaee iaae /eneaie n
oeene?iaaiiie caiyoie, ioaeaeueii n ieaaathuae caiyoie.

A iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiuo AEO iaeie e oa aea aeiee ia?aaaouaatho /enea n
oeene?iaaiiie caiyoie, ieaaathuae caiyoie e aeaie/ii-aeanyoe/iua /enea.

Iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiia AEO

Eeaiaiu E1 e E2 iauaaeeiytho noiiaoi?u 1,2 e 3 aeey aeaenoaee iaae
/eneaie n oeene?iaaiiie caiyoie.

Aeey aeaenoaee iaae /eneaie n ieaaathuae caiyoie eeaiai E2
iauaaeeiyao noiiaoi?u 2 e 3 aeey ia?aaioee iaioenn, a eeaiai E1
ioniaaeeiyao ia?aue noiiaoi? io aoi?iai. Noiiaoi? 1 ia?aaaouaaao
ii?yaeee.

4. Ii no?oeoo?a AEO auaatho n iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie naycyie e
iiiainayciuie. AEO n iaiin?aaenoaaiiie naycueth A iiiainayciuo AEO
aoiaeu e auoiaeu ?aaeno?ia i?eaiieeia e enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee
iiaeniaaeeiythony e iaeiie oeia. ?ani?aaeaeaiea aoiaeiuo e auoiaeiuo
neaiaeia i?ienoiaeeo iiae aeaenoaeai oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia.

A AEO n iaiin?aaenoaaiiie naycueth aoiae ?aaeno?a i?eaiieea naycai n
auoiaeii ?aaeno?a enoi/ieea iia?aiaeia e ?aaeno?a, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aaioea.

Iai?eia?, a yoie noaia noiie?iaaiea i?ienoiaeeo oae: iia?aiaeu
iiaeathony a ?aaeno? 1. ?aaeno? 2 yaeyaony iaeaieeaathuei noiiaoi?ii eee
aaoiiaoii n iaiyoueth. Ii noiie?oao neaaaaiua, iinooiathuea a ?aciua
iiiaiou a?aiaie e ia?aaeaao ?acoeueoao a ?aaeno? 3.

Oiiiaeaiea a yoii AEO i?ienoiaeeo oae: iiiaeeiia iiiauatho a ?aaeno? 4,
iiiaeeoaeue – a ?aaeno? 1. ?aaeno?u 2 e 3 yaeythony e?iia oiai
naeaeaathueie

?aaeno?aie. A caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeeiiai ?ac?yaea iiiaeeoaey,
iiiaeeiia naeaeaaaony ia iaeei ?ac?yae, anee iiiaeeoaeue niaea?aeeo 1, e
ia aeaa, anee iiiaeeoaeue niaea?aeeo 0. Yoe /anoiua i?iecaaaeaiey
noiie?othony a ?aaeno?a 2.

8. AeAOEO?AOI?

Aeaoeo?aoi? i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?aia?aciaaiey aeaie/iiai eiaea ia
aoiaea a oi?aaeythuee neaiae ia iaeiii ec auoiaeia. Anee aoiaeia n oi
auoiaeiuo oei aeieaeii auoue N = 2^n.

X1 X2 X3 Z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

A caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa ?ac?yaeia aoiaeiiai /enea e io eiee/anoaa
aoiaeia yeaiaioia, ia eioi?uo iino?iai aeaoeo?aoi?. Aeaoeo?aoi?u iiaoo
auoue eeiaeiua, o eioi?uo ana ia?aiaiiua O1, O2, O3 iiaeathony ia aoiae
iaeiia?aiaiii.

Eo auno?iaeaenoaea aieueoa, ii aieaa 3-o ia?aiaiiuo iaeiia?aiaiii
iiaeaoue iaeuecy, iiyoiio /aua i?eiaiythony iiiaieaneaaeiua
aeaoeo?a-oi?u. Eiee/anoai yeaiaioia a eaaeaeii neaaeothuai ?ac?yaea
aieueoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai.

Ia aoiae ia?aiai eaneaaea iiaeaaony iaeei neia, ia aoiae neaaeothuaai
eaneaaea aoi?ie neia e ?acoeueoaou eiiuethieoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiuo a
ia?aii eaneaaea.

I?inoaeoee eeiaeiue aeaoeo?aoi? iiaeii iino?ieoue ia aeeiaeiie
iao?eoea:

A yoie noaia eniieuecoaony io?eoeaoaeueiay eiaeea. I?e iiaea/a “1” ia
aiiae aeeiaea ii cae?uaaaony. Anee cae?uou ana 3 aeeiaea,
iiaeniaaeeiaiiua e iaeiie ai?ec. eeiee oi ia yoie eeiee iioaioeeae -A,
niioaaonoaothuee o?iaith “1”.

Iiiaieaneaaeiue aeaoeo?aoi? iiaeii i?aaieciaaoue aio oaeei ia?acii:

Aeaa eeiaeiuo aeaoeo?aoi?a ia?aaaouaatho ii 2 neiaa. A iineaaeiai
eaneaaea ia?acothony eiiuthieoeee auo. neaiaea ia?aiai eaneaaea.
Iiiaieaneaaeiua aeaoeo?aoi?u iaeaaeatho iaiueoei auno?iaeaenoaeai.

9. I?AIA?ACIAAOAEE N OeEO?IAIE EIAeEEAOeEAE

Noaia ono?iaia oae, /oi oi?aaeythuee. neaiae = 1 aaneo niioaaonoaothuee
yeaiaio Z (Zn niioa Yn). I?aia?aciaaoaeue ?aaioaao a niioaaonoaee n
oaaeeoeae:

aeany-oe/i. “8421”

cinoiyiea ye-oia Z1-Z7 (Y1 – Y7)

X4 X3 X2 X1 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

4 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

6 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

7 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Noaia i?aia?aciaaoaey n oeeo?iaie eiaeeeaoeeae :

10. I?AIA?ACIAAOAEUe EIAeA 8421 A 2421

Eiae 2421 ia?acoaony ec eiaea 8421. Aei 4-o ii iiaoi?yao eiae 8421, a
aeaeueoa ia?acoaony eae eiaa?ney aeiiieiaiey aei 9-e. Eiae 8421 yaeyaony
aeaie/ii-aeanyoe/iui eiaeii, aaea eiyooeoeeaiou 8,4,2 e 1 yaeythony
aaniauie eiyooeoeeaioaie, o.a. niioaaonoaotho “noieiinoe” eaaeaeiai
?ac?yaea. Ni/aoaiey: 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, 1111

yaeythony cai?auaiiuie. I?aia?aciaaoaee eiaeia i?eiaiythony a nenoaiao
eioa?oaenia.

8421

2421

X4 X3 X2 X1 Y4 Y3 Y2 Y1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

11. I?IA?AIIE?OAIAss EIAE*ANEAss IAO?EOeA

(IEI)

IEI yaeyaony oceii YAI, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioi?iai ii?aaea-eyaony
i?ia?aiiie, caienaiiie a iaai. IEI iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa
aeaoeo?aoi?a ICO, iai?eia? a II E580, a ea/anoaa ICO oi?aaeythuae
iaiyoe.

I?e caiene i?ia?aiiu a IEI i?iaeeaathony ieaaeea i?aaeio?aieoaee,
niaaeeiythuea o?aicenoi?u IAeI n oeiaie iao?eoeu. Iao?eoea I1
iacu-aaaony iao?eoeae eiiuthieoeee. Ia ai?eciioaeueiua oeiu iiaeathony
ia?aiaiiua. Ia aa?oeeaeueiuo oeiao ia?acothony eiiuthieoeee. Ia

aa?oeeaeueiuo oeiao iiyaeyaony aaeeie/iue neaiae oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
ana o?aicenoi?u, aeeth/aiiua a oceu iao?eoeu e iiaeniaaeeiaiiua e yoie
oeia cae?uou. A oceao iao?eoeu aeeth/athony o?aicenoi?u IAeI.

I?iaeeaaiea i?ia?aiiu a niioaaonoaee n iacia/aieai iao?eoeu ninoieo a
oii, /oi i?iaeeaaaony ieaaeee i?aaeio?aieoaeue e o?aicenoi?,
iiaeniaaeeiyaony e oceo iao?eoeu. Anee ia aoiaeu o?aicenoi?ia iiaeaoue
ioee, oi iie aoaeoo cae?uou. Iao?eoea I2 iacuaaaony iao?eoeae
aeecuthieoeee. Ia aa ai?eciioaeueiuo oeiao iiyaeyaony neaiae a oii
neo/aa, anee nieiaoue neaiae /a?ac eiaa?oi?.

12. IAEAIEEAATHUEE NOIIAOI?

Iaeaieeaathuee noiiaoi? yaeyaony aaoiiaoii n iaiyoueth, o.a. neaaaaiua
iiaoo i?eoiaeeoue iii/a?aaeii a i?iecaieueiua iiiaiou a?aiaie e
caiiieiaoueny a eeieyo caaea?aeee eee a o?eaaa?ao. Iaeaieeaathuee.
noiiaoi? i?eiaiyaony a aneio?iiiuo ono?ienoaao, a eioi?uo neaaaaiua ia
i?eaycaiu e oaeoai oaeoiaiai aaia?aoi?a.

N i?eoiaeii neaaaaiiai ai=1 yeaiaio “EEE” onoaiaaee-aaaony a “1”,
o?eaaa? onoaiaa-eeaaaony. a “1”. Anee bi=1 e i?eoiaeeo /a?ac eaeia-oi
a?aiy iinea ai, oi iii caiiieiaaony a eeiee caaea?aeee e

iaeiia?aiaiii bi ii?ieeaeuaaao o?eaaa? a “0”. Ia eiaa?niii auoiaea
o?eaaa?a onoaiaaeeaaaony “1”, neaaeiaaoaeueii ia aoi?oth noaio “E”
iiaeathony aeaa aaeeieoeu, neaaeiaaoaeueii ia auoiaea aoi?ie noaiu “EEE”
oi?ie?oaony oeeo?a ia?aiina a noa?oee ?ac?yae, ?aaiay “1”. Anee Pi=0, oi
oeeo?a noiiu, eioi?ay nieiaaony n i?yiiai auoiaea o?eaaa?a, ?aaia “0”.
Anee Pi=1, oi noiia Si=1.

ai bi Pi Si Pi+1

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

13. INIIAIUA IEE?II?IOeANNI?IUA EIIIEAEOU.

Nia?aiaiiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u (II)

II auiieiyao ooieoeee i?ioeanni?a YAI, o.a. oi?aaeyao i?ioeannii
oi?aaeyao i?ioeannii auiieiaiey iia?aoeee e auiieiyao eo. II iiaeao
auoue ?aaeeciaai ia iaeiii eee ianeieueeeo e?enoaeeao. Iau/ii i?ioeanni?
niaea?aeeo AEO, oi?aaeythuoth iaiyoue. II auae?aao eiiaiaeo ec iaiyoe,
aeaoeo?e?oao, auiieiyao aa, i?iecaiaeeo a?eoiaoe/aneea e eiae/aneea
iia?aoeee, iieo/aao aeaiiua ec ono?ienoa aaiaea e iinueaao eo ia
ono?ienoaa auaiaea. II aianoa n iaiyoueth e eaiaeaie aaiaea – auaiaea
yaeyaony YAI.

II iiaoo auoue iaeiie?enoaeueiua, iiiaie?enoaeueiua e
naeoeeiie?iaaiiua. Iaeiie?enoaeueiua II ecaioaaeeaathony ia iniiaa IAeI
– oaoiieiaee, a naeoeeiie?iaaiiua e iiiaie?enoaeueiua – ia iniiaa
aeiiey?iuo o?aicenoi?ia.

IAeI – o?aicenoi?u iio?aaeytho iaiueoa yia?aee, ii iaeaaeatho iaiueoei
auno?iaeaenoaeai ii n?aaiaieth n aeiiey?iuie o?aicenoi?aie. A
iaeiie?enoaeueiii II ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, iia?aoeeiiiay /anoue e
ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeciaaiu ia iaeiii e?enoaeea, a a
iiiaie?enoaeueiii – ia ?aciuo e?enoaeeao. A naeoeeiie?iaaiiuo ono?ienoai
oi?aaeaiey, oi?aaeythuay iaiyoue e AEO ?aaeeciaaiu ia iaeiii e?enoaeea,
ii iaeie ?ac?yaeiinoe. Aeey oaaee/aiey ?ac?yaeiinoe neaaeoao
iauaaeeiyoue a ia?aeeaeue ianeieueei II.

II, eae ooieoeeiiaeueiia ono?ienoai YAI oa?aeoa?ecoaony oi?iaoii
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e eiiaiae, eiee/anoaii eiiaiae, iaoiaeii aae?anaoeee
aeaiiuo, /eneii aioo?aiieo ?aaeno?ia iauaai iacia/aiey (?II),
aiciiaeiinoyie i?aaiecaoeee e aae?anaoeee noaea, ia?aiao?aie iaiyoe,
iino?iaieai nenoai i?a?uaaiey i?ia?aiiu, nenoaiaie aaiaea – auaiaea,
nenoaiaie eioa?oaena.

na?ey aaciaay

oaoiieiaey ?ac?yae /enei AEN

eee EN

E536 ? IAeI 8 12

E580 n IAeI 8 3

E581 n IAeI 16 4

E584 EE 4n 3

E586 n IAeI 16 4

E587 E IAeI 4n 4

E588 E IAeI 16 3

E589 OOE AeO 2n 8

E1800 YNE 4n 8

E1801 n IAeI 16 2

E1810 n IAeI 16 3

E1883 n IAeI 8n 4

E?1802 OOEO 8n 11

E?1804 OOEO 4n 4

II ioiineony e /eneo i?ia?aiie?oaiuo ono?ienoa YAI. II, auiieiythuee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iee?iiia?aoeee, iaeaaeaao aieueoae eiae/aneie e
ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeaeinoueth, /ai aeanoei caeiiiooe?iaaiiua i?ioeanni?u
YAI. Eciaiyy niaea?aeeiia ICO e IEI, iiaeii iano?aeaaoueny ia auiieiaiea
o?aaiaaiee eiie?aoiie caaea/e. II – eiiieaeo – yoi iaai? AEN,
ooieoeeiiaeueii nii?yaaaiuo e i?eiaiyaiuo aeey iino?iaiey iee?iYAI. A
II – eiiieaeoao E587, E588 ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeciaaii ia iniiaa
IEI. A II – eiiieaeoa E580 eiaaony AEN, a eioi?ie ?aaeeciaai
oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?, ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey e ?II.

Oi?aaeythuay iaiyoue, niaea?aeauay iee?ii?ia?aiio ec 78 eiiaiae,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeey aeaiiiai II, ?aaeeciaaia ia IEI e iaoiaeeony a
iaeiie AEN n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii e ono?ienoaii oi?aaeaiey. A II
eiiieaeoa E589 ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey no?ieony a aeaea iee?ii?ia?aiiiiai
oi?aaeaiey ia aaca aoiaeyueo a eiiieaeo AEN. Yoi iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue
iio?aaeoaeth o?aaoaiue aio iaai? eiiaiae.

II – eiiieaeou E580, E586 niaea?aeao iaeiie?enoaeueiue II.
Iaeiie?enoaeueiua II i?eiaiythony a i?inoaeoeo ono?ienoaao oeeo?iaie
aaoiiaoeee e a ea/anoaa iee?ieiio?ieea?ia.

Eiio?ieea? – ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey aaiaeii – auaiaeii.
Iiiaie?enoaeueiua II – eiiieaeou E?1802 e naeoeeiie?iaaiiua E?1804
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iino?iaiey iee?iYAI e nenoai auno?iaeaenoaothuae
aaoiiaoeee. Na?ey E1806, iino?iaiiay ii EIII-oaoiieiaee oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony a ?aaeeioaoie/aneii iai?oaeiaaiee noaeia. Iia eiaao
nii?yaeaiea n aiaoiae iaiyoueth ia aeanoeeo aeeneao n iiiiuueth
eiio?ieea?a, niaaeeiythuaai 4 aeenea

I?eiaiaiea II :

1. Ano?iaiiua nenoaiu eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey. II ano?aeaathony a
iai?oaeiaaiea, ia eiiieaeoothony aiaoieie ono?ienoaaie e niaea?aeao
niaoe. ioeueo oi?aaaiey e ICO oi?aaeythuaa i?ia?aiiie

2. Eieaeueiua nenoaiu iaeiieaiey e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Eieaeueiua
– o.a. ?aniieiaeaiiua ia ?aai/ai ianoa nenoaiu iaeiieaiey e ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee, inouanoaeythuea eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea niaoeeaeenoia e
?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Eieaeueiua nenoaiu, iiaeeeth/aiiua e aieueoei YAI n
aieueoei iauaiii iaiyoe, /oi iicaieyao nicaeaoue aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth
nenoaio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey.

3. ?ani?aaeaeaiiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey neiaeiuie iauaeoaie. A
?ani?aaeaeaiiuo nenoaiao noaiu ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e II ?aniieaaathony
aaeece enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee (aeaeaaoaee e o.ae.). Iie naycaiu n
oeaio?aeueiie nenoaiie ia?aaioee e iaeiieaiey aeaiiuo.

4. ?ani?aaeaeaiiua nenoaiu ia?aeeaeueiuo au/eneaiee. A oii neo/aa,
anee iicaieyao aeai?eoi ?aoaiey caaea/e, ianeieueei i?ioeanni?ia
i?iaiaeyo auiieiaiey aeaiiie caaea/e.

II e iee?iYAI eniieuecothony a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeioaoie/aneei
iai?oaeiaaieai noaeia. Iee?i YAI ?aoaao iaaeaaoeeiiiua caaea/e,
?aniiciaao oeaee, ?aoaao iia?aoeaii – oaoie/aneea caaea/e, auiieiyao
aaoiiaoe/aneia neaaeaiea ca oeaeueth e o.ae.

14. OEIIAAss NO?OEOO?A IA?AAAOUAATHUAE *ANOE II

A – aeeoioeyoi?

NE – n/ao/ee eiiaiae

?E – ?aaeno? eiiaiae

?AI – ?aaeno? aae?ana iaiyoe

?AeI – ?aaeno? aeaiiuo iaiyoe

I?ioeann auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu ninoieo ec 2-o oeeeeia: oeeeea auai?ee e
eniieieoaeueiiai oeeeea. Oeeee auai?ee ia/eiaaony ni n/eouaaiey ec
n/ao/eea eiiaiae iiia?a y/aeee ICO, niaea?aeauae eiae eiiaiaeu. Iinea
n/eouaaiey niaea?aeeiia n/ao/eea eiiaiae n?aco oaaee/eaaaony ia 1. Iiia?
y/aeee ICO ia?aaeaaony /a?ac ?aaeno? aae?ana iaiyoe e aae?anioth oeio a
aeaoeo?aoi? ICO.

Aeaoeo?aoi? ICO auae?aao y/aeeo ICO, niaea?aeauoth eiae eiiaiaeu. Eiae
eiiaiaeu n/eouaaaony ec ICO e /a?ac oeio aeaiiuo ia?aaeaaony a ?aaeno?
aeaiiuo iaiyoe. Ec ?aaeno?a aeaiiuo iaiyoe eiae eiiaiaeu ia?aaeaaony a
?aaeno? eiiaiae aaea ii o?aieony aei eiioea auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu e /a?ac
aeeoioeyoi? eiae eiiaiaeu ia?aaeaaony a AEO. AEO aiaeece?oao eiae
eiiaiaeu e anee ia ioaeii aeiiieieoaeueiiai ia?auaiey e iaiyoe
ia?aoiaeeo e eniieieoaeueiiio oeeeeo.

Anee aea ioaeii aeiiieieoaeueiia ia?auaiea e iaiyoe, oi II ia?aoiaeeo
ei aoi?iio iaoeiiiio oeeeeo, eioi?ue oae aea ia/eiaaony n oeeeea
auai?ee. II cai?aoeaaao a ICO aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiiua e auiieiyao
eiiaiaeu.

Eiiaiaeu iiaoo auiieiyoueny ca 1,2 eee 3 iaoeiiuo oeeeea. A eaaeaeii
iaoeiiii oeeeea i?ienoiaeeo oieueei iaeii ia?auaiea e iaiyoe. Auiieiaiea
eiiaiaeu i?ienoiaeeo iiae oi?aaeaieai neaiaeia, au?aaaouaaaiuo
ono?ienoaii oi?aaeaiey. I?e auiieiaiee eiiaiaeu AEO acaeiiaeaenoaoao n
?II. ?II eniieuecothony aeey e?aoeia?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey iia?aiaeia e
?acoeueoaoia.

O?eaaa?u ninoiyiey neaiaeece?otho i neaaeothueo ninoiyieyo II:
iaioeaiea aeeoioeyoi?a, niaea?aeeiia ciaeiaiai ?ac?yaea, ia?aiieiaiea
?ac?yaeiie naoee, oeeo?u ia?aiinia ec 8-ai e 4-ai ?ac?yaeia,
niaea?aeeiia ?ac?yaea eiio?iey ia /aoiinoue e ia/aoiinoue. Aae?aniay
oeia yaeyaony iaeiiiai?aaeaiiie, a oeia aeaiiuo – aeaoiai?aaeaiiie. NOAE
– iniaue aeae iaiyoe, ?anoe?ythuee ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe II.
Iai?eia? i?e auiieiaiee i?a?uaathuae i?ia?aiiu a NOAE iiiauaaony iiia?
eiiaiaeu aica?aoa e ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey iineaaeiae eiiaiaeu ia?aae
ia?aoiaeii e auiieiaieth i?a?uaathuae i?ia?aiiu.

15. IEE?I YAI IA AACA II E580

*oiau iino?ieoue iee?iYAI iaaei aeiiieieoue II AENaie iaiyoe, OAA
eioa?oaena, i?e/ai iie aeieaeiu nii?yaaoueny n II ii aoiaeiui e auo.
neaiaeai, ii i?eiyoiio eiaeo aeey aeaiiiai II. I?e auiieiaiee i?ia?aiiu,
i?ia?aiia o?aieony a ICO. Anee iaai? aeaenoaee II i?e auiieiaiee
i?ia?aiiu ia?aie/ai e iaeiiia?acai, eae iai?eia? a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey
noaieia n *IO, oi i?ia?aiia o?aieony a ICO. Anee iauai iaiyoe ICO
iaaeinoaoi/ai, oi i?ia?aiia iiaeao o?aieony ai aiaoiai caiiieiathuai
ono?ienoaa, iai?eia? a iaaieoiii iineoaea eioi?iaoeee.

I?ioeann auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu II naycai n oaeoaie aaia?aoi?a oaeoiauo
eiioeuenia (AOE). II ?aaioaao a neio?iiiii ?aaeeia. AOE nicaeaao aeaa
eiioeueniuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe O1 e O2 aiieeooaeie 12 A e /anoioie
2IAoe. A oaeoa t1 eiioeueniie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe O1 n/ao/ee eiiaiae II
iinueaao /a?ac oeio aae?ana iiia? y/aeee ICO, ICO eee OAA, niaea?aeaueo
eiae eiiaiaeu. A oaeoa t2 II aeaeao neaiae “aioiaiinoe” io ICO. Yoio
neaiae icia/aao, /oi aeaoeo?aoi? ICO aua?ae ioaeioth y/aeeo e eiae
eiiaiaeu n/eoai. Anee neaiae “aioiaiinoue” ia i?eoiaeeo, oi oaeo t2
iiaoi?yaony aei oao ii?, iiea neaiae ia i?eaeao. A oaeoa t3 II i?eieiaao
eiae eiiaiaeu e ia?aaeaao aai a AEO. A oaeoa t4 eiae eiiaiaeu
aiaeece?oaony e anee iaioaeii aeiiieieoaeueiia ia?auaiea e iaiyoe, oi a
oaeoa t5 eiiaiaea auiieiyaony. Anee oaeia ia?auaiea iaiaoiaeeii, oi
oaeoii t4 caeai/eaaaony 1-e iaoeiiue oeeee. Ia/eiaaony 2-ie iaoeiiue
oeeee oaeoii t1, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo ia?auaiea e iaiyoe. A oaeoa t2
aoi?iai iao. oeeeea II aeaeao neaiaea aioiaiinoe io ICO e a oaeoa t3
auiieiyao eiiaiaeo. A eaaeaeii iaoeiiii oaeoa i?ienoiaeeo oieueei iaeii
ia?auaiea e iaiyoe. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue O2 eniieuecoaony aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey neio?ieiioeuenia ia oiia eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony no?ia
ninoiyiey.

16. OI?IAOU EIIAIAe E NIINIAU AAe?ANAOeEE

Oi?iao eiiaiaeu ii?aaeaeyaony ?ac?yaeiinoueth II. O II E580, eioi?ue
yaeyaony 8-ie ?ac?yaeiui, iaeiiaaeoiaua eiiaiaeu eiatho oi?iao 8
?ac?yaeia, 2-o aaeoiaua -16, 3-o aaeoiaua -24. Eiiaiaea aeieaeia
niaea?aeaoue eiae iia?aoeee, aae?an ia?aiai e aoi?iai iia?aiaea, aae?an
?acoeueoaoa, aae?an neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu. II E580 yaeyaony 8-ie
?ac?yaeiui, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii nie?aoeoue eie-ai aeaiiuo,
niaea?aeaueony a eiaea eiiaiaeu. Iaeei ec iia?aiaeia anaaaea iiiauaaony
a aeeoioeyoi?, iiyoiio aai aae?an ia oeacuaaaony. ?acoeueoao iiiauatho
ii aae?ano iaeiiai ec iia?aiaeia, aae?an oiaea ia oeacuaatho. Aae?an
neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu oi?ie?oaony aeiaaaeaieai aaeeieoeu e niaea?aeeiiio
n/ao/eea eiiaiae, o.e. eiiaiaea i?ia?aiiu caienuaaaony a
iineaaeiaaoaeiuo y/aeeao ICO. Eiae eiiaiaeu aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue eiae
iia?aoeee e aae?an 1-ai ec iia?aiaeia. Eie-ai iia?aoeee cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoa /ai eie-ai eiiaiae. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi iia?aiae iiaeao
auoue iiiauai a ?II, y/aeeo ICO eee niaea?aeeony a naiie eiiaiaea. A II
E580 eniieuecothony neaaeothuea niiniau aae?anaoeee iia?aiaea:

1. I?yiay, i?e eioi?ie a eiaea eiiaiaeu oeacuaaaony iiia? ?II,
niaea?aeauaai iia?aiae:

iiaiiieea

eiiaiaeu eiaeiaay

eiiaeiaoeey auiieiyaiay

iia?aoeey

MOV C, D 01 001 010 C NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (D)

ADD D 10 000 010 A NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (A)+(D)

Ia?aay eiiaiaea – eiiaiaea ia?anueee niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a D a ?aaeno?
C . ?aaeno?u iauaai iacia/aiey: B, C, D, E, H, L, y/aeea iaiyoe I e
aeeoioeyoi? A i?e ia?auaiee e iei eiatho iiia?a:

01 – eiae iia?aoeee

001 – iiia? ?aaeno?a N

010 – iiia? ?aaeno?a A

B 000

C 001

D 010

E 011

H 100

L 101

M 110

A 111

Aoi?ay eiiaiaea – neiaeaiea niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a D n niaea?aeeiui
aeeoioeyoi?a e ?acoeueoao iiiauaaony a aeeoioeyoi?.

10000 – eiae iia?aoeee

010 – iiia? ?aaeno?a D

2. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay aae?anaoeey

Iia?aiae oeacuaaaony ai aoi?ii, eee ai aoi?ii e o?aoueai aaeoao
eiiaiaeu.

a. Neiaeaiea ADI B1 11 000 110 A NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (A)+(B2)

B2 01 001 100 (B2)=4C (16)

a. Ia?anueea MVID B1 00 010 110 D NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (B2)

B2 01 001 110 (B2)=4E (16)

a. Caa?ocea LXID B1 00 010 011 D NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (B3); E
NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (B2)

B2 01 100 101 (B2)=65 (16)

B3 10 100 101 (B3)=A5 (16)

3. Einaaiiay aae?anaoeey

A eiaea eiiaiaeu oeacuaaaony iiia? ?aaeno?a ?II, niaea?aeauaai iiia?
y/aeee ICO, niaea?aeauae iia?aiae :

LDAX B 00 001 010 A NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” [(BC)]

STAX B 00 000 010 [(BC)] NEIAIE 172 \f “Symbol” (A)

17. OeAIO?AEUeIUE I?IOeANNI?IUE YEAIAIO E580

II E580 – iaeiie?enoaeueiue, 8-ie ?ac?yaeiue, iniiaai ia i?eioeeia
oi?aaeaiey aeanoeie eiaeee. ?II A, C, D, E, H, L, ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey
e iia?aoeeiiiay /anoue ?aaeeciaaiu a iaeiii e?enoaeea. 6 ?aaeno?ia
iauaai iacia/aiey e aeeoioeyoi? yaeythony i?ia?aiiii aeinooiiuie, o.a.
i?e iaienaiee i?ia?aiiu i?ia?aiieno iiaeao e iei ia?auaoueny. ?aaeno?u
W, Z e aooa?iua ?aaeno?u yaeythony i?ia?aiiii iaaeinooiiuie, o.a. iie
o/anoaotho a auiieiaiee i?ia?aiiu, ii i?ia?aiieno e iei ia?aoeoueny ia
iiaeao. ?II yaeythony 8-ie ?ac?yaeiuie. Anee iia?aoeee niaa?oathony iaae
16-oe ?ac?yaeiuie iia?aiaeaie, oi ?II iauaaeeiythony iiia?ii. ?aaeno?u
oeacaoaey noaea, n/ao/ee eiiaiae e ?aaeno? aae?ana yaeythony 16-oe
?ac?yaeiuie. Oeacaoaeue noaea niaea?aeeo iiia? aa?oiae caiyoie y/aeee
noaea. I?e caiene eioi?iaoeee a noae niaea?aeeiia oeacaoaey noaea
oiaiueoaaony ia 1, a i?e n/eouaaiee oaaee/eaaaony ia 1. N/ao/ee eiiaiae
niaea?aeeo iiia? y/aeee ICO, niaea?aeauae neaaeothuoth eiiaiaeo. I?e
n/eouaaiee ec n/ao/eea eiiaiae iiia?a y/aeee eiiaiae niaea?aeeiia
n/ao/eea oaaee/. ia 1.

?aaeno? aae?ana neoaeeo aeey ia?aaea/e niaea?aeeiiai n/ao/eea eiiaiae
/a?ac oeio aae?ana e aooa? aae?ana a ICO.

Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey niaea?aeeo ?aaeno? eiiaiae, aeaoeo?aoi? eiiaiae e
oi?aaeythuaa ono?ienoai, a eioi?ia aoiaeeo IEI, niaea?aeauay
oi?aaeythuoth iaiyoue.

Oi?aaeythuay iaiyoue niaea?aeeo iee?ii?ia?aiiu anao 78-ie eiiaiae aeey
aeaiiiai II. AEO aeiiieiyaony noaiie aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee aeey
aeaenoaee iaae aeaie/ii-

aeanyoe/iuie /eneaie. I?e aeaenoaeyo iaae aeaie/ii – aeanyoe/iuie o.a.
i?e eniieueciaaiee eiaea 8421 iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiay eiiaeiaoeey 1001
(o.a.9), ii i?e eniieueciaaiee 4-o aeaie/iuo ?ac?yaeia iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiia /enei 1111 (o.a.15). Noaia aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee ioieiaao 6
e oi?ie?oao oeeo?o ia?aiina a noa?oee ?ac?yae. Ia oi?aaeythuaa
ono?ienoai iinooiatho iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe O1 e O2 oaeoiaiai aaia?aoi?a,
neaiae aioiaiinoe io ICO, ICO eee OAA e i?eaio eee ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo.
Neaiae cai?ina ia i?a?uaaiea io aiaoieo caiiieiathueo ono?ienoa. Neaiaeu
caoaaoa, na?ina oae aea oi?ie?othony ACO. II oi?ie?oao neaiae
?ac?aoaiea i?a?uaaiey e i?iaeieaeaao auiieiyoue oaeouoth eiiaiaeo e ii
ieii/aiee oaeouae eiiaiaeu II ia?aoiaeeo e oaeiaeaoai?aieth cai?ina i
i?a?uaaiee. Neaiae iaeeaeaiey, noi?ie?iaaiiue II icia/aao, /oi ii aeaeao
neaiaea aioiaiinoe io ICO, ICO eee ACO. ?aaeno? i?eciaeia yaeyaony 5-oe
?ac?yaeiui. Ii neaiaeece?oao i neaaeothuai ninoiyiee II – iaioeaiea,
ia?aiieiaiee ?ac?yaeiie naoee, niaea?aeeiia ciaeiaiai ?ac?yaea,
niaea?aeeiia ?ac?yaea eiio?iey ia /aoiinoue – ia/aoiinoue e oi?ie?iaaiea
oeeo?u ia?aiina ec 8-ai e 4-ai ?ac?yaea.

18. NENOAIA NAI?A AeAIIUO IA AACA II E580

Yoa nenoaia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ii?ina 8-ie
aiaeiaiauo aeao/eeia e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee a ICO. Ii?in aeao/eeia
i?aia?aciaaiey aiaeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee a oeeo?iaoth, caienue eioi?iaoeee
a ICO i?iecaiaeeony iiae oi?aaeaieai II.

Iiia? ii?aoeaaaiiai aeao-/eea oi?ie?oaony a iaeiii ec ?II, a iniiaiii a
?aaeno?a A. A 8-ie ?ac?yaeiii ?aaeno?a a 5-oe noa?oeo ?ac?yaeao
caienuaathony aaeeieoeu, a a o?ao ieaaeoeo ?ac?yaeao – iiia? aeao/eea.
Ia?aiia/aeueii a ?aaeno?a A caienaii /enei F8 a 16-oe?e/iie nenoaia
en/eneaiey:

11111000=F8

001

010

I?e ii?ina eaaeaeiai aeao/eea niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?a A oaaee/eaaaony ia
1. I?e ii?ina iineaaeiaai aeao/eea a ?aaeno?a caienuaaaony /enei FF =
11111111.

Aeiaaaeaiea neaaeothuae 1 iaioeyao ?aaeno? A. Ia auoiaea o?eaaa?a ioey
TZ iiyaeyaony 1. Iiia? y/aeee ICO, a eioi?oth aeieaeai auoue caienai
?a-coeueoao ii?ina aeao/eea, niaea?aeeony a ia?a ?II, iai?eia?, a
?aaeno?ao HL.

Aeai?eoi ?aaiou nenoaiu nai?a aeaiiuo:

iai?eia? aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi ia?aay caiyoay y/aeea ICO eiaao iiia? 1350
a oanoiaaeoeaoe?e/iie nenoaia. A iaa aoaeao iiiauai ?acoeueoao ii?ina
1-ai aeao/eea n iiia?ii 000. *a?ac aeeoioeyoi? e oeio aeaiiuo iiia?
aeao/eea iiaeaaony ia ono?ienoai auaiaea 1 (OA1). OA1 iiaeaao iiia?
aeao/eea ia eiiiooaoi?. Eiiiooaoi? ii?aoeaaao ioaeiue aeao/ee e
ia?aaeaao aiaeiaiaue neaiae ia AOeI. AOeI i?aia?acoao aiaeia. neaiae a
oeeo?iaie e ia?aaeaao oeeo?iaie neaiae ia OAA1. Anee a ia?aii oaeoa
eiioeueniie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe O1 II ia?aaeaao iiia? aeao/eea, oi ai
aoi?ii oaeoa ii iaeeaeaao i?eoiaea neaiaea ieii/aiey i?aia?aciaaiey io
AOeI. Neaiae ieii/aiey ?aaiue 1 ia?aaeaaony /a?ac OAA2, /a?ac oeio
aeaiiuo a aeeoioeyoi?. Iaee/ea neaiaea ieii/aiey aeeoioeyoi? i?iaa?yao
iia?aoeeae oeeeee/aneiai naeaeaa ai?aai. Anee neaiae ieii/aiey i?eoae,
oi i?e naeaeaa ai?aai 1 ec ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea aeeoioeyoi?a ia?aaeaaony a
o?eaaa? naeaeaa ON, o?eaaa? naeaeaa ii?ieeaeuaaaony a ninoiyiea 1 e
aeaiiua ec ono?ienoaa aaiaea 1 ii oeia aeaiiuo ia?aaeathony a
aeeoioeyoi?, a ec iaai a y/aeeo ICO. Niaea?aeeiia ia?u ?aaeno?ia HL e
?aaeno?a A oaaee/eaaaony. ia 1, i?e yoii oi?ie?oaony iiia? neaaeothuaai
aeao/eea e iiia? y/aeee, eoaea aeieaeai auoue iiiauai neaaeothuee
?acoeueoao.

19. OeAIO?AEUeIUE I?IOeANNI?IUE YEAIAIO (OeIY) E589

II. eiiieaeo E589 iino?iai ii i?eioeeio iee?ii?ia?aiiiiai oi?aaeaiey,
o.a. iaeei e oio aea iaai? iee?inoai auiieiyao ?aciua ooieoeee i?e
?aoaiee caaea/e a caaeneiinoe io iee?ii?ia?aiiu, caienaiiie a ICO.
Iee?i-i?ioeanni?iue eiiieaeo E589 yaeyaony iiiainaeoeeiiiui, o.a.
eaaeaeay 2-o ?ac?yaeiay naeoeey oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?iiai yeaiaioa
niaea?aeeo AEO e ?II. O.e. II yaeyaony 2-o ?ac?yaeiui, oi aeey ia?aaioee
iiiai?ac?yaeiuo aeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeii iauaaeeieoue a ia?aeeaeue ianeieueei
OeIY. OeIY E580 yaeyaony aneio?iiiui ono?ienoaii. Neio?iiece?othuee
neaiae “N” iaiaoiaeei oieueei aeey ioe?uaaiey o?eaaa?ia ?II.

Ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?iecaiaeeony a AEO. Aeaiiua a AEO
iinooiatho /a?ac ioeueoeieaeni?u A e A. Aeey a?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony ?aaeno?u iauaai iacia/aiey R0…R9,
aeeoioeyoi? e ?aaeno? “O”, aeeceee ii ooieoeeyi e aeeoioeyoi?o. Auai?
?aaeno?a, ia eioi?ue ia?aaeaaony eioi?iaoeey, inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth
aeaioeueoeieaeni?a. Eioi?iaoeey n ?aaeno?ia ia?aaeaaony /a?ac
ioeueoeieaeni?. Ioeueoeieaeni? A ia?aaeaao ia aoiae AEO eee aeaiiua n
oeiu aeaiiuo I0 I1 eee n auo. aeeoioeyoi?a. eee n iaeiiai ec ?II.
Ioeueoeieaeni? A ia?aaeaao ia aoiae AEO ii?ac?yaeiua eiiuthieoeee
aeaiiuo n aiaoiae oeiu A2 A0 e oeiu E1 E0 eee aeaiiuo n auo.
aeeoioeyoi?a. E1 E0 eee eiinoaiou n E1 E0. Oeia E1 E0 neoaeeo aeey
auaeaeaiey eee ianee?iaaiey (cai?aoa) eaeiai – eeai ?ac?yaea aeaiiuo n
auo. aeeoioeyoi?a. eee n oeiu A1 A0.

?aaioa OeIY inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee IE OeIY F6…F0, eioi?ay
yaeyaony. /anoueth IE iee?i YAI. O.e. aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiuo AEO
iauaaeeiythony ia?aeeaeueii, oi AEO aeieaeii oi?ie?iaaoue neaiaeu
naeaeaa ai?aai (aoiaeiie – NI1, auoiaeiie – NI0) e neaiae ia?aiina
(aoiaeiie – N1, auoiaeiie – N0).

Neaiaeu X e Y oi?aaeytho noaiie onei?aiiiai ia?aiina, a eioi?ie
oi?ie?oaony oeeo?a ia?aiina iaeiia?aiaiii n ia?aciaaieai noiiu ?ac?yaeia
/enae.

Auoiaeiie aooa? AA3 ioe?uo oieueei i?e iiaea/a oeeo?u ia?aiina, a
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo ioe?uo auo. aooa? AA4. Auoiaeiua aeaiiua ec 2-o
?ac?yaeiiai ?aaeno?a aae?ana e 2-o ?ac?yaeiiai aeeoioeyoi?a ia?aaeathony
/a?ac auo. aooa?u 1 e 2 ia oeio aae?ana A1 A0 e ia oeio aeaiiuo Ae1 Ae0
oieueei i?e iiaea/a neaiaeia ?ac?aoaiey auaea/e aae?ana AA e auaea/e
aeaiiuo AAe.

I?e iaee/ee aunieiai o?iaiy neio?i neaiaea (1) o?eaaa?u ioe?uou aeey
i?eaia eioi?iaoeee. Ia io?eoeaoaeueiii. o?iioa neio?ineaiaea i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo n auoiaeiuo o?eaaa?ia.

20. AEIE IEE?II?IA?AIIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss (AIO).

No?oeoo?a iee?ieiiaiae.

Ec ICO a aeie iee?ii?ia?aiiiiai oi?aaeaiey (AIO) iinooiaao eiae
eiiaiaeu, niaea?aeauee aae?an ia?aie iee?ieiiaiaeu (IE) iee?ii?ia?aiiu
auiieiaiey aeaiiie eiiaiaeu. Yoa iee?ii?ia?aiia caienaia a oi?aaeythuae
iaiyoe, aoiaeyuae a ninoaa ono?ienoaa oi?aaeaiey. Ii oeacaiiiio aae?ano
n/eouaaaony ec oi?aaeythuae iaiyoe IE aeey anaai iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai
ono?ienoaa. Yoa IE niaea?aeeo IE N?I AIO, iee?ieiiaiaeo ICO, IE
ono?ienoaa aaiaea – auaiaea.

IE

OeIY IE

AIO IE

II IE

OAA …

Noi?ie?iaaiiua IE ia?aaeathony ia niioaaonoaothuea oceu
iee?ii?i-oeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa. AIO neoaeeo aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aae?ana
neaaeothuae IE. Anee iao ieeaeeo oneiaiuo ia?aoiaeia, oi neaaeothuay IE
n/eouaaaony ec neaaeothuae y/aeee ICO, ia eioi?ii i?aaieciaaia
oi?aaeythuay iaiyoue. IE AIO niaea?aeeo iiea oneiaiuo ia?aoiaeia
OA6…OA0, a eioi?ii caienuaaaony aae?an neaaeothuae IE; iiea oi?aaeaiey
i?eciaeaie OO3…OO0 e iiea oi?aaeaiey caa?oceie iee?ieiiaiaeu CI.

Iiea oi?aaeaiey i?eciaeaie oeacuaaao aeae ia?aoiaea: oneiaiue,
aaconeiaiue e niinia oi?ie?iaaiey aae?ana neaaeothuae IE i?e iaee/ee
oneiaiiai ia?aoiaea. Oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu aeey oi?aaeaiey i?eciaeaie –
yoi neaiae ia?aiina e neaiae naeaeaa ai?aai. I?e iaee/ee a iiea
oi?aaeaiey caa?oceie CI = 1, aae?an IE caa?oaeaaony a ?aaeno? aae?ana
IE. IE AIO:

Iiea oneiaiuo ia?aoiaeia YA6 … YA0 Iiea oi?aaeaiey i?eciaeaie OO3 …
OO0 Iiea oi?aaeaiey caa?oceie CI

IE iia?aoeeiiiiai ono?ienoaa niaea?aeeo eiae iee?iiia?aoeee F6…F4,
iiia? ?aaeno?a iauaai iacia/aiey F3…F0, eioi?ue yaeyaony i?eaiieeii
eee enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee. Ianee?othuee neaiae E, a iauai neo/aa
yaeyaony aeaoo?ac?yaeiui, AA – neaiae ?ac?aoaiey auaea/e aae?ana e AAe –
neaiae ?ac?aoaiey auaea/e aeaiiuo. IE IO:

F6…F4

F3…F0

K

BA

AAe

21. NO?OEOO?IAss NOAIA E I?EIOeEI AeAENOAEss

AEIEA IEE?II?IA?AIIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss (AIO)

Ia aoiaeu K7…K0 AIO iiaeaaony eiae eiiaiaeu, eioi?ue yaeyaony
aae?anii ia?aie iee?ieiiaiaeu (IE) iee?ii?ia?aiiu auiieiyaiie eiiaiaeu.

Ii neaiaeo CI=1 aae?an ia?aie eiiaiaeu caa?oaeaaony a ?aaeno?
aae?ana IE. ?aaeno? iicaieyao aae?aniaaoue 4-o ?ac?yaeiue iiia?
eieiiee (16 eieiiie) e 5-oe ?ac?yaeiue. iiia? no?iee (32 no?iee).

Eiae E7…E0 – 8-ie ?ac?yaeiue, iiyoiio ia?aiia/aeueii a noa?oai
?ac?yaea iiia?a no?iee caienuaaaony 0. Oaeay ?ac?yaeiinoue ?aaeno?a
aae?ana IE iicaieyao aae?aniaaoue 512 y/aae ICO, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
16-oe eieiieao e 32-o no?ieao.

A ia?aie IE AIO niaea?aeeony niinia oi?ie?iaaiey aae?ana
neaaeothuae IE. Iiey OA6…OA0 ia?aie IE iiaeathony ia eiae/aneoth noaio
ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana neaaeothuae IE. Noi?ie?iaaiiue noaiie aae?an
iiaeaaony a ?aaeno? aae?ana IE e /a?ac auoiaeiua aooa?u 1 e 2 ia
aae?anioth oeio, naycuaathuoth AIO n oi?aaeythuae iaiyoueth.

N/eouaaiea iiia?a eieiiee n auo. aooa?a 1 i?ienoiaeeo i?e iiaea/a ia
aoiae “iauee no?ia” aaeeieoeu.

N/eouaaiea iiia?a no?iee /a?ac auoiaeiie aooa? 2 i?ienoiaeeo i?e
iiaea/a “1” ia aoiaeu “iauee no?ia” e “?ac?aoaiea no?iee”. Eiiaiaea
AIO a iiea OA6…OA0 a noa?oeo ?ac?yaeao niaea?aeeo aeae ia?aoiaea, a a
ieaaeoeo iiia? no?iee eee noieaoea. Iai?eia? ia?aay eiiaiaea JCC –
eiiaiaea aaconeiaiiai ia?aoiaea a oaeouae eieiiea niaea?aeeo a ?ac?yaeao
OA6 e OA5 oeacaiey aeaea ia?aoiaea, a inoaeueiuo ?ac?yaeao iiia?
no?iee, iiia? eieiiee ia eciaiyaony. Aoi?ay eiiaiaea JZR – eiiaiaea
aaconeiaiiai ia?aoiaea a ioeaaoth no?ieo. A ?ac?yaeao OA6…OA4
oeacuaaaony aeae ia?aoiaea, a inoaeueiuo ?ac?yaeao – iiia? eieiiee, a a
aae?ana no?iee oeacuaaaony ioeaaay no?iea. Anee i?e auiieiaiee eiiaiaeu
JZR i?eoiaeei e y/aeea n aae?anii (0,15), o.a. ioeaaay no?iea, 15-ay
eieiiea, au?aaaouaaaony neaiae no?ia ?ac?aoaiey i?a?uaaiey. Yoio neaiae
iiaeaaony ia aeie i?ei?eoaoiiai i?a?uaaiey (AII), e anee aei yoiai
iinooiee cai?in ia i?a?uaaiea, oi auoiae no?ie AIO ioeeth/aaony io ICO
e ia ICO iiaeaaony iiia? ia?aie no?iee ia?aie eiiaiaeu i?a?uaathuae
eiiaiaeu. Anee cai?ina ia i?a?uaaiea ia auei, i?iaeieaeaao auiieiyoueny
iniiaiay i?ia?aiia e ia aoiaeu E7…E0 iiaeaaony eiae neaaeothuae
eiiaiaeu.

I?eciaee o/anoaotho a oi?ie?iaaiee aae?ana neaaeothuae IE i?e
oneiaiuo ia?aoiaeao. I?eciaee, oaeea eae naeaea ai?aai e oeeo?a
ia?aiina iiaeathony io oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?iiai yeaiaioa (OeIY)
ii aaeeiie oeia ia aoiae O o?eaaa?a i?eciaeia. A iiea i?eciaeia
niaea?aeeony neaiae OO0…OO1, ii eioi?ui i?eciae caienuaaaony a
?aaeno? i?eciaeia e neaiaeu OO2 OO3, ii eioi?ui i?eciae n/eouaaaony ec
?aaeno?a i?eciaeia /a?ac auoiaeiie aooa? 3 ia auoiae Oa, n eioi?iai iie
iiaeathony ia aoiae OeIY.

A o?aoueae eiiaiaea oneiaiiai ia?aoiaea JFL ii niaea?aeeiiio o?eaaa?a
i?eciaeia ieaaeoee ?ac?yae iiia?a eieiiee ?aaai niaea?aeeiiio o?eaaa?a
i?eciaeia.

22. AEIE I?EI?EOAOIIAI I?A?UAAIEss (AII)

Eaaeaeie eiiaiaea niioaaonoaoao iee?ii?ia?aiia, ninoiyuay ec
ioaeaeueiuo iee?ieiiaiae (IE). Ia aoiaeu E7…E0 AIO iiaeaaony eiae
eiiaiaeu, eioi?ue yaeyaony aae?anii ia?aie IE iee?ii?ia?aiiu aeaiiie
eiiaiaeu a oi?aaeythuae iaiyoe. 1-ay IE niaea?aeeo oeacaiey, eae
oi?ie?iaaoue aae?an aoi?ie IE. Yoio aae?an oi?ie?oaony eiae/aneie
noaiie ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana neaaeothuae IE. Iineaaeiyy IE eaaeaeie
iee?ii?ia?aiiu niaea?aeeo oeacaiea JZR i ia?aoiaea a ioeaaoth no?ieo
15-ie eieiiee. Ii yoiio aae?ano niaea?aeeony IE, a iiea CI eioi?ie
niaea?aeeony “1”. E yoiio a?aiaie ia aoiaeao E7…E0 iinooiaao eiae
neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu, eioi?ue ii neaiaeo CI=1 caa?oaeathony a ?aaeno?
aae?ana IE (?AIE). Oae i?ienoiaeeo auiieiaiea i?ia?aiiu a ionoonoaea
i?a?uaaiee.

Ia auoiaea i?a?uaaiey (I?) AII oi?ie?oaony neaiae, i?e yoii
onoaiaaeeaaaony oaeie o?iaaiue, /oi ioeueoeieaeni? I ia?aaeaao iiia?
no?iee n auoiaea AIO ia aoiae Ano? ICO. I?e auiieiaiee JZR (ia?aoiae
ii aae?ano (0,15) ) oi?ie?oaony neaiae no?ia ?ac?aoaiey i?a?uaaiey
?aaiue “1”, eioi?ue iiaeaaony ia aoiae AII. Anee ai a?aiy auiieiaiey
oaeouae i?ia?aiiu iinooiee cai?in ia i?a?uaaiea, oi iee?ii?ioeanni?,
auiieiea oaeouoth eiiaiaeo ia?aaeaao a noae iiia? neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu
(eiiaiaea aica?aoa) e ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey oaeouae eiiaiaeu.

I?e iaee/ee “1” ia aoiaea no?ia ?ac?aoaiey i?a?uaaiey (N?I) e
cai?ina ia aoiaea cai?ina (CI), AII ia auoiaea i?a?uaaiey au?aaaouaaao
neaiae, ioeeth/athuee ioeueoeieaeni? I io auoiaea IA1..IA4 iiaeaao iiia?
no?iee a ICO n auoiaea eiae i?a?uaaiey (EI) AII.

Ia?aay IE ia?aie i?a?uaathuae eiiaiaeu niaea?aeeo eiae aae?ana (31,15),
aaea 15 – iiia? eieiiee, eioi?ue nio?aieeny i?e auiieiaiee iineaaeiae IE
oaeouae eiiaiaeu, a 31 = 11111(2) iiia? no?iee a 15-ie eieiiea, eioi?ue
ia?acoaony iiaea/ae +5A /a?ac ?acenoi? ia aoiaeu Ano? ICO. Aeie AII
niaea?aeeo niaoeeaeueiue aeie o?iaiy i?ei?eoaoa. I?ei?eoao eiaee?oaony
3-o ?ac?yaeiui eiaeii. I?aeiouanoai eiaao ono?ienoai n aieaa ieceei
o?iaiai i?ei?eoaoa. Anee iinooiee cai?in n?aco io ianeieueeeo
ono?ienoa, oi ono?ienoai n?aaiaiey i?ei?eoaoa auyaeyao aieaa ieceee
o?iaaiue e yoio cai?in oaeiaeaoai?yaony ia?aui. Ii ieii/aiee
i?a?uaaiey i?ia?aiiu iineaaeiyy IE, eioi?ie yaeyaony JZR (ia?aoiae ii
aae?ano (0,15) ) ii neaiaeo CI = 1 caa?oaeaaony i/a?aaeiay eiiaiaea
iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu.

23. NOAIA ONEI?AIIIAI IA?AIINA (NOI)

I?aaeiacia/aia aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeeo?u onei?aiiiai ia?aiina
ia?aeeaeueii n noiie?iaaieai iia?aiaeia a OeIY. Oeeo?a ia?aiina
oi?ie?oaony a NOI a oii neo/aa, anee ai e bi ?aaiu 1. OeIY a yoii neo/aa
au?aaaouaaao neaiae Yi = ai bi = 1. Eee anee iaeei ec iia?aiaeia e
oeeo?a ia?aiina ec ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea ?aaiu aaeeieoea, oi :

A oii neo/aa, anee Xi e Pi ?aaiu 1, oeeo?a ia?aiina a noa?oee ?ac?yae –
1.

Oneiaea oi?ie?iaaiey oeeo?u ia?aiina :

24. NOAIA IAeII?AC?ssAeIIAI NOIIAOI?A N OI?IE?IAAIEAI OeEO?U IA?AIINA A
NOI

Oeeo?a ia?aiina iinooiaao ii iauaio aoiaeo ia?aiina e naeaeaa ai?aai n
auoiaea ?aaeno?a i?eciaeia AIO. Oeeo?a ia?aiina iiaeaaony a noaio
onei?aiiiai ia?aiina e a ieaaeoee ?ac?yae ieaaeoaai OeIY. A aeaiiie
noaia iauaaeeiaiu 8 OeIY aeey ia?aaioee 16-oe ?ac?yaeiuo aeaiiuo. Naeaea
ai?aai ia?aaeaaony neaiciui ia?aiinii iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie
i?ioeanni?iuie yeaiaioaie. Oeeo?a ia?aiina oi?ie?oaony a NOI
iaeiia?aiaiii n noiie?iaaieai iia?aiaeia a OeIY. Naeaea ai?aai ec
ieaaeoaai ?ac?yaea e oeeo?a ia?aiina ec noa?oaai ?ac?yaea noa?oaai OeIY
ia?aaeaaony ia iauaaeeiaiiue auoiae ia?aiina, eioi?ue niaaeeiyaony n
aoiaeii i?eciaeia AIO. Iineaaeiyy oeeo?a ia?aiina iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny
eae a iineaaeiai OeIY, oae e a NOI, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie neaiae
iiaeaaony ia aoiae ?ac?aoaiea ia?aiina (?I). Anee ?I = 1, oi oeeo?a
ia?aiina nieiaaony n auoiaea NOI, a anee ?I = 0, oi n OeIY.

Ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey NOI a?aiy auaea/e ia?aiina N9 ec noa?oaai ?ac?yaea
noa?oaai OeIY nie?auaaony aei 20 in.

25. I?AAIECAOeEss IAIssOE YAI

Iaiyoue YAI i?aaieciaaia ii ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoea, o.a. ono?ienoaa
iaeaaeathuea aieueoei iauaiii iaiyoe iaeaaeatho iaiueoei
auno?iaeaenoaeai. Iaeaieueoei auno?iaeaenoaeai iaeaaeatho NICO (naa?o
ICO). Iie iau/ii ?aaeecothony ia ?aaeno?ao, iiyoiio a II NICO iacuaaaony
?II. Iauai iaiyoe NICO i/aiue iae. Iau/ii iaiyoueth iaoeiu iacuaatho
ICO. Auno?iaeaenoaea ICO aeieaeii auoue ia iaiueoa /ai auno?iaeaenoaea
yeaeo?iiiuo noai iia?aoeeiiiie /anoe, iaiyoe aeieaeii auoue aeinoaoi/ii
aeey caiene i?ia?aiiu ?aoaaiie caaea/e, a oae aea enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo,
i?iiaaeooi/iuo e eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia. Aiaoiea caiiieiathuea ono?ienoaa
iaeaaeatho i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiui iauaiii iaiyoe e iaeiaiueoei
auno?iaeaenoaeai. ICO ia nio?aiyao eioi?iaoeeth i?e ioeeth/aiee ieoaiey.
Nouanoaotho ICO, eioi?ua nio?aiytho eioi?iaoeeth i?e ioeeth/aiee
ieoaiey. ICO ?aaioatho oieueei a ?aaeeia /oaiey, a ICO a ?aaeeia /oaiey
e caiene. Nouanoaotho ia?ai?ia?aiie?oaiua ICO (IICO), eioi?ua nio?aiytho
eioi?iaoeeth i?e ioeeth/aiee ieoaiey e aeiioneatho caienue eioi?iaoeee.
I?e yoii a?aiy caiene ai iiiai ?ac aieueoa a?aiaie n/eouaaiey.
N/eouaaiea eioi?iaoeee ec ICO iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue n ?ac?ooaieai
eioi?iaoeee eee aac.

I?e ?ac?ooaiee eioi?iaoeee i?e n/eouaaiee iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoaeueiia
a?aiy ia ainnoaiiaeaiea eioi?iaoeee. A?aiy n/eouaaiey ninoieo ec a?aiaie
iienea aae?ana, a?aiaie nianoaaiiiai n/eouaaiey e a?aiaie ?aaaia?aoeee
(ainnoaiiaeaiey) n/eoaiiie eioi?iaoeee. ICO ?aaeecoaony ia iee?inoaiao.
Yeaiaio iaiyoe ?aaeeciaai ia o?eaaa?ao. O?eaaa? iiaeao auoue iino?iai ia
aeiiey?iuo e oieiiey?iuo o?aicenoi?ao.

Ii oeia aae?ana (OA) a ?aaeno? aae?ana iinooiaao n – ?ac?yaeiue
aeaie/iue eiae aae?ana. n1 ?ac?yae eniieuecoaony aeey caiene iiia?a
no?iee, a n2 – aeey caiene iiia?a noieaoea. Aeaoeo?aoi?u no?ie e
noieaoeia au?aaaouaatho oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu ia niioaaonoaothueo
auoiaeao. Iiae aeaenoaeai yoeo oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia i?ienoiaeeo auai?
aae?anoaiiai yeaiaioa iaiyoe, anee ia aoiaea auai?a e?enoaeea (AE)
aeaoeo?aoi?a no?ie “1”, oi ICO iaoiaeeony a ?aaeeia o?aiaiey. Anee ia AE
“0”, oi ICO iaoiaeeony eee a ?aaeeia /oaiey, eee a ?aaeeia caiene.
Ii?iaeueiui yaeyaony ?aaeei /oaiey. Eioi?iaoeey iinooiaao /a?ac
oneeeoaeue /oaiey (O*) e auoiaeiie o?eaaa?.

?aaeei caiene iaania/eaa-aony iiaea/ae neaiaea ?ac?aoaiey caiene (?C)
ia oneeeoaeue caiene (OC). Eioi?iaoeey /a?ac o?eaaa? e OC iiaeaaony ia
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oeaie 1 e 0. O?eaaa?u ?aaeeciaaiu ia IAeI –
o?aicenoi?ao.

O?aicenoi?u VT2 e VT4 yaeythony iaa?oceie o?eaaa?a. Iai?yaeaiea caoai? –
enoie yoeo o?aicenoi?ia eiaao ioeaaia cia/aiea, iiyoiio iie anaaaea
ioe?uou. O?eaaa? ?aaeeciaai ia VT1 e VT3. A iai caienaia “1”, anee VT1
cae?uo. I?e niaiaaeaiee neaiaeia io aeaoeo?aoi?a no?ie e noieaoeia
o?eaaa? aioia e caiene eee n/eouaaieth eioi?iaoeee. Oi?aaeythuee neaiae
n auoiaea aeaoeo?aoi?a noieaoeia aeaenoaoao ia VT7 e VT8. Oi?aaeythuee
neaiae n auoiaea aeaoeo?aoi?a no?ie aicaeaenoaoao ia VT5 e VT6.

Caienue “1” i?iecaiaeeony a oii neo/aa, anee ia eioi?iaoeeiiioth oeaiue
(EOe) ioey iinooiaao eiae/aneee “0”. Aeey caiene “0” eiae/aneee “0”
iiaeaaony a EOe1.

A ?aaeeia /oaiey ninoiyiea o?eaaa?a ia?aaeaaony /a?ac ioe?uoua VT5-VT8
a eioi?iaoeeiiiua oeaie. Anee yeaiaio iaiyoe o?aieo “1”, oi o?iaaiue “1”
iinooiaao a EOe1, a anee “0”, oi o?iaaiue eiae/aneie “1” iinooiaao a
EOe0.

26. IINOIssIIUA CAIIIEIATHUEA ONO?IENOAA

(ICO)

Ioee/aaony io ICO oai, /oi a iaai eioi?iaoeey caienuaaaony iaeiie?aoii.
Aeey ICO aiciiaeai oieueei ?aaeei /oaiey. Eioi?iaoeey ec ICO n/eouaaaony
iineiaii. A iaeiie no?iea caienuaaaony ianeieueei neia. Auai? neiaa a
no?iea i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth naeaeoi?a. Naeaeoi? nia?ai ia VT0 –
VT7. Aooa? aaiaea – auaiaea nia?ai ia iiiaiyieooa?iuo o?aicenoi?ao IO1 –
IO4. Aaiae e auaiae eiaeia neia i?iecaiaeeony n iaeieo e oao aea
auoiaeia: 1, 2, 3, 4. O.e. aaiae i?iecaiaeeony iaeiie?aoii, oi ana
inoaeueiia a?aiy yoe aoiaeu eniieuecothony aeey auaiaea.

Ia aeaoeo?aoi? no?ie ia?a-aeaaony 5-oe ?ac?yaeiue iiia? no?iee,
niaea?aeauee ainaiue /aou?ao ?ac-?yaeiuo neia. N aeaoeo?aoi?a neia iiia?
neiaa ia?aaeaaony ia naeaeoi?. Iai?eia?, ionoue aua?aia (1) no?iea e (0)
neiai. Iaiaoiaeeii caienaoue ni aoi?iai aoiaea “1”. O?aicenoi? IO2
ioe?iaony. Oie yoiai o?aicenoi?a i?ioaeaao /a?ac ?acenoi? R”i e
cae?uaaao 2-ie o?aicenoi? a aua?aiiie “/aoaa?ea”. Oaeei ia?acii
ninoiyiea o?aicenoi?a ii?aaeaeyaony caienaiiui ?ac?yaeii: i?e caiene “1”
– cae?uo, i?e caiene “0” – ioe?uo. Caoai iiauoatho iai?yaeaiea
eieeaeoi?iiai ieoaiey iaeiieoaey. *a?ac ioe?uoue o?aicenoi? iioa/ao
iiauoaiiue oie, eioi?ue i?iaeaeao ia?aiu/eo, eioi?ay ecaioiaeaia ec
ieo?iia n nii?ioeaeaieai a ianeieueei aeanyoeia Ii. Aeey eo i?iaeeaaiey
aeinoaoi/ai oie 20-30 iA. Ia?aae caienueth neia iii?iia iai?yaeaiea,
iiaeaaaaiia ia iiiaiyieooa?iua o?aicenoi? oaaee/eaaaony n oai, /oiau
o?aicenoi? iaoiaeeeny a ninoiyiee, aeeceii e cae?uoiio. I?e /oaiee
eioi?iaoeee oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo auai? neiaa e anee ia?aiu/ea a
o?aicenoi?a ia i?iaeaeaia, oi oie yoiai o?aicenoi?a nicaeaao iaaeaiea
iai?yaeaiey ia Ro, eioi?ia cae?uaaao iiiaiyieooa?iue o?aicenoi?.
Ninoiyiea iiiaiyieooa?iiai o?aicenoi?a ii?aaeaeyao eiae ia auoiaea.
Oaeei ia?acii i?ia?aiio i?iaeeaaao iieueciaaoaeue.

27. AIAOIEA CAIIIEIATHUEA ONO?IENOAA (ACO)

ACO aianoa n ono?ienoaaie aaiaea – auaiaea ioiinyony e ia?eoa?eeiui
ono?ienoaai. Ia?eoa?eeiua ono?ienoaa iaania/eaatho iauaiea /aeiaaea n
iaoeiie. ?aiueoa ?ieue ACO auiieiyee ia?oiea?ou e ia?oieaiou. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecothony iaaieoiua iineoaee eioi?iaoeee: iaaieoiua
eaiou e aeenee. Iaaieoiay eaioa ioiineony e caiiieiathuei ono?ienoaai n
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aeinooiii e iaiyoe. Iaaieoiua aeenee ioiinyony e
caiiieiathuei ono?ienoaai n i?iecaieueiui aeinooiii, o.a iiaeii
caienuaaoue e n/eouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth n?aco ii caaeaiiiio aae?ano. I?e
caiene eioi?iaoeey iaiineony ia iaaieoiue iineoaeue, aeaeaeoueeny iiae
aieiaeie caiene. A niioaaonoaee n caienaiiui eiaeii i?ienoiaeeo
iaiaaie/eaaiea yeaiaioa?iuo o/anoeia iaaieoiie iiaa?oiinoe. I?e
n/eouaaiee a iaiioea n/eouaaiey iaaiaeeony YAeN i?e ia?ana/aiee
iaaieoiie aieiaeie a?aieoe yeaiaioa?iuo o/anoeia. A iaaieoiuo eaioao
eioi?iaoeey caienuaaaony ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iai?aaeaieth aeaeaeaiey. Aeey
caiene eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony iaoiaeu caiene aac aica?aoa e ioeth e
oaciaie iiaeoeyoeee. Aeey caiene eioi?iaoeee ia iaaieoiua aeenee
eniieuecoaony iaoiae /anoioiie iiaeoeyoeee.

27.1 Iaoiae caiene aac aica?aoa e ioeth

ninoieo a oii, /oi iiey?iinoue neaiaea iaiyaony oieueei i?e caiene “1”,
neaaeiaaoaeueii a iaiioea n/eouaaiey iaaiaeeony YAeN oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee n/eouaaaony aaeeie/iue neaiae. Iaee/ea eiioeuena ethaie
iiey?iinoe a iaiioea n/eouaaiey icia/aao “1”, a ionoonoaea eiioeuena
“0”. Yoio iaoiae iaania/eaaao iaaunieoth ieioiinoue caiene 8 e 32
aeo/ii. I?e n/eouaaiee aiciiaeia ioeaea, eiaaea ionoonoaea eioi?iaoeee
aoaeao i?eiyoi ca “0”. *oiau ecaaaeaoue yoie ioeaee iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeaaaoue neio?ieiioeuenu ii niaoeeaeueiie aei?iaeea. Anee anoue
oieueei neio?ieiioeuen – “0”, a anee neio?ieiioeuen e aua iaeei
eiioeuen, oi caienuaaaony “1”.

27.2 Oaciaay iiaeoeyoeey.

Iaoiae oaciaie iiaeoeyoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi “1” e “0” ia?aaeathony
?aciie oacie, iai?eia? “1” – ia?aiaae io ieieioia e iaeneioio, a “0” –
iaiai?io. A ono?ienoaa aini?iecaaaeaiey anoue niaoeeaeueiue aeie,
aiaeece?othuee, eaeie neaaeothuee ciae aeieaeai auoue caienai. Anee
aeieaeiu auoue caienaiu aeaa iaeeiaeiauo ciaea, oi a na?aaeeia oaeoa
aeaeaaony aeiiieieoaeueiue ia?aiaae n oai, /oiau nia/aea neaaeothuaai
oaeoa aue ioaeiue ia?aiaae. ?aniiciiaaiea aaeeieoe e ioeae i?iecaiaeeony
ii eiioeuenai aia/aea oaeoa. Anee caienaia “1”, oi a iaiioea n/eouaaiey
a ia/aea oaeoa eiioeuen io?eoeaoaeueiue. Yoio iaoiae yaeyaony
naiineio?iiece?othueiny, o.e. a ia/aea eaaeaeiai oaeoa anoue eiioeuen –
iieiaeeoaeueiue eee io?eoeaoaeueiue. Ieioiinoue caiene 32 e 63 aeo/ii.

27.3 *anoioiay iiaeoeyoeey (*I).

I?e *I “1” ia?aaeaaony neaiaeii n /anoioie a 2 ?aca aieueoa, /ai i?e
ia?aaea/e “0”. Yoio iaoiae yaeyaony naiineio?iiece?othueiny, o.e. a
ia/aea eaaeaeiai oaeoa anoue eiioeuen. I?e yoii iaoiaea iaania/eaaaony
aunieay ieioiinoue caiene 63 aeo/ii. ?aniiciiaaiea “1” i?ienoiaeeo i?e
iaee/ee eiioeuena a na?aaeeia oaeoa.

28. ONO?IENOAA AAIAeA – AUAIAeA EIOI?IAOeEE

1. Ono?ienoaa aaiaea

i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aaiaea aeaiiuo e i?ia-?aii, a oaeaea aeey aianaiey
eni?aaeaiee a i?ia?aiio e aeaiiua, o?aiyueany a iaiyoe YAI.
Iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaaaoiiaoe-/aneea (?o/iua) e aaoiiaoe/aneea.
Aaoi-iaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?ecothony oai, /oi a ieo eioi?iaoeey aaiaeeony n
i?iiaaeooi/iiai iineoaey eioi?iaoeee: n ia?oieaio, ia?oiea?o, iaaieoiuo
iineoaeae, n iaia/aoaiiuo oaenoia e a?aoeeia, n /aeiaa/aneie ?a/e. Eo
auno?iaeaenoaea auoa, /ai o ?o/iuo. ?o/iua ono?ienoaa ioee/athony
iaiueoei auno?iaeaenoaeai, ii iicaieytho ei??aeoe?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth a
i?ioeanna aaiaea. E iei ioiinyony ?acee/iua eeaaeaoo?u, ioeueou
oi?aaeaiey.

2. Ono?ienoaa auaiaea

Neoaeao aeey auaiaea ec YAI eioi?iaoeee, ?acoeueoaoia ia?aaioee aeaiiuo,
ioia?aaeay aa a aeaea oaaeeoe, oaenoia, a?aoeeia. Iie ?acaeaeythony ia :

– ono?ienoaa auaiaea ia i?iiaaeooi/iue eee iaoeiiue iineoaeue
(ia?oiea?ou, ia?oieaiou, iaaieoiua iineoaee)

– ono?ienoaa aeey auaiaea e oeenaoeee eioi?iaoeee a aeaea oaenoia,
a?aoeeia, oaaeeoe (ia/aoathuaa ono?ienoai, a?aoiiino?ieoaeue,
aeenieae).

– ono?ienoaa auaiaea eioi?iaoeee ai aiaoithth n?aaeo (OeAI, auaiae ia
eeieth

nayce)

29. AUAIAe EIOI?IAOeEE IA AeENIEAE

Aeenieae yaeyaony iaeaieaa oaeiaiui ono?ienoaii iauaiey /aeiaaea n
iaoeiie. Ii iicaieyao iaae?aoue eioi?iaoeeth ia eeaaeaoo?a, aunaa/eaaoue
aa ia ye?aia, caienuaaoue aa a iaiyoue iaoeiu, eni?aaeyoue aaaaeaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Naycue YAI e aeenieay inouanoaeyaony /a?ac aeie
eioa?oaena. Eioi?iaoeey, iaa?aiiay ia ciaeiaie eeaaeaoo?a /a?ac aeie
eioa?oaena caienuaaaony a iaiyoue YAI. Eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay aeieaeia
auoue auaaaeaia ia ye?ai /a?ac aeie eioa?oaena caienuaaaony a aooa?iii
CO (ACO). Iauai ACO ?aaai eiee/anoao ciaeia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
iaeiia?aiaiii aunaa/aiu ia ye?aia. Iinea oiai, eae ACO iieiinoueth
caa?oaeaii, aeenieae ia?aoiaeeo a aaoiiiiiue ?aaeei ?aaiou. Eiae ciaea,
caienaiiiai a ACO, yaeyaony eiiaiaeie, ii eioi?ie ec ICO iee?ii?ia?aii
n/eouaaaony iee?ii?ia?aiia aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaiiiai ciaea.
Iee?ieiiaiaea yoie iee?ii?ia?aiiu iiaeaaony ia ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey
eo/ii, eioi?ia i?aia?acoao yoe iee?ieiiaiaeu a aiaeiaiaua neaiaeu,
oi?aaeythuea ioeeiiythueie nenoaiaie YEO. Nouanoaotho aeaa niiniaa
?acaa?oee eo/a ia ye?aia YEO:

1. ooieoeeiiaeueiue; i?e yoii eo/ ia?aiauaaony a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai
ciaeiianoa, o.a. i?i/a?/eaaao ciae ca ciaeii

2. ?ano?iaue; i?e yoii eo/ aeaeaaaony ii no?i/eai e aunaa/eaaao
eaaeaeue ciae iineieii. Eiee/anoai aunaa/eaaaiuo ciaeia iiaeao auoue io
128 aei 4000 e caaeneo io oeia ye?aia.

Aeenieae iicaieyao eni?aaeyoue aaaaeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth n iiiiuueth
ia?ea?a e naaoiaiai ia?a. Ia?ea? niaiauatho ni ciaeii, eioi?ue ioaeii
eni?aaeoue e ia ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeaaeaoo?a iaaeeiatho eiiieo
“NOE?AIEA”. A y/aeea ACO oie/oiaeaaony yoio ciae. Caoai iaae?aaony
ioaeiue e iaaeeiatho ia eiiieo “AICA?AO”.

Eiiaoe naaoiaiai ia?a, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony oioiaeeiae, iiaeaiaeeony e
oiio ciaeo, eioi?ue ioaeii oie/oiaeeoue. Ii neaiaeo naaoiaiai ia?a
ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao eii?aeeiaou ciaea ia ye?aia e a ACO.
Ii yoiio aae?ano eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue eciaiaia eee oie/oiaeaia.

Aeey iieo/aiey iaia?oeathuaai ecia?aaeaiey ia anao ye?aiao ia YEO
aeie oi?aaeaiey aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue nei?inoue aini?iecaaaeaiey 50
neiaieia a nae.

30. AUAIAe EIOI?IAOeEE IA OAEAOAEI

A enoiaeiii ninoiyiee oie i?ioaeaao /a?ac iaiioeo yeaeo?iiaaieoa
i?eaiieea e ia?aaeao/eea oaeaoaeia. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey eiioeuena
inoaiiaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?eaaa?, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a aaeeie/iii
ninoiyiee aei i?eoiaea eiioeuena ia/aea ia/aoe. Oie, i?ioaeathuee /a?ac
iaiioeo yeaeo?iiaaieoa i?eoyaeaaao yei?ue e na?aea/ieeo. N i?eoiaeii
eiioeuena ia/aea ia/aoe o?eaaa? ii?ieeaeuaaaony a ioeaaia ninoiyiea,
cae?uaay oneeeoaeue iiuiinoe. I?e yoii

oi?ie?oaony ioeaaie ioneiaie eiioeuen. Aeeeoaeueiinoue eiioeuena ionea
20 ien, eae e o ?aai/eo eiioeuenia i?e ia?aaea/a neiaieia.

Iiae aeaenoaeai eiioeuena ionea iaanoi/eaaaony iaiioea yeaeo?iiaaieoa.
ssei?ue ioeeiaao io na?aea/ieea, i?eaiaey a aioiaiinoue iaai?iua eeiaeee
ia/aoe neiaieia. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey eiioeuena ia/aoe oi?ie?oao eiioeuen
ia/aoe n aeeeoaeueiinoueth, ?aaiie iyoe aeeeoaeueiinoyi ?aai/eo
eiioeuenia i?e ia?aaea/a 5 – oe ?ac?yaeiiai eiaea. Eiioeuen ia/aoe
iiaeaaony ia noaio “E”, ia aoi?ie aoiae eioi?ie iiaeaaony eiae neiaiea
ec ?aaeno?a. Eiae neiaiea ii?ac?yaeii aia?aae ieaaeoei ?ac?yaeii.
?aai/ea eiioeuenu, niioaaonoaothuea “1” ioe?uaatho oneeeoaeue iiuiinoe,
niioaaonoaothuea “0” – cae?uaatho, niioaaonoaaiii i?eoyaeaay eee
ioioneay yei?ue io na?aea/ieea. I?e yoii yei?ue oi?aaeyao iaai?ii
eeiaae.

Ii ieii/aiee eiioeuena ia/aoe oi?ie?oaony eiioeuen inoaiiaa. Yoio
eiioeuen niioaaonoaoao eiae/aneie “1”, aeeeoaeueiinoueth a 1.5 ?aca
aieueoa aeeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai eiioeuena. Iaa?aiiue ciae ai a?aiy
eiioeuena inoaiiaa ia/aoaaony ia aoiaaeiie eaioa. O.e. eia?oeeiiiinoue
iaoaie/aneeo /anoae aieueoa, /ai o yeaeo?iiiuo, oi aeeeoaeueiinoue
eiioeuena inoaiiaa aieueoa, /ai ?aai/aai.

Eiae ciaea iiaeaaony ec eaiaea nayce a ia?aeeaeueiii eiaea, a ec
?aaeno?a – a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey eiioeuena naeaeaa
oi?aaeyao iineaaeiaaoaeueiui ia?aiauaieai noa?oeo ?ac?yaeia a
iai?aaeaiee ieaaeoeo.

Oaeaoaei yaeyaony iaoaie/aneei ciaeiia/aoathuei ono?ienoaii, eioi?ia
auaiaeeo eioi?iaoeeth ia aoiaaeioth eaioo, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
iaania/eaaao aeeeoaeueiia nio?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee.

31. EIOA?OAEN

Ono?ienoaa au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu niaaeeiythony ae?oa n ae?oaii n
iiiiuueth oieoeoee?iaaiiuo nenoai nayce, iacuaaaiuo eioa?oaenii.
Eioa?oaen i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio oei, niaeanothueo ono?ienoa,
aeai?eoiia iaania/e-aathueo naycue anao /anoae YAI iaaeaeo niaie. Io
oa?aeoa?enoee eioa?oaena caaeneo auno?iaeaenoaea e iaaeaaeiinoue YAI.
Eioa?oaen aeieaeai auoue noaiaea?oece?iaai n oai, /oiau ii iaania/eaae
naycue i?ioeanni?a e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe n ethaui ia?eoa?eeiui
ono?ienoaii (IO). Iaiaoiaeeiia i?aia?aciaaiea oi?iaoa aeaiiuo aeieaeii
i?iecaiaeeoueny a IO. Aeai?eoiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioa?oaena e
oi?aaeythuaai neaiaea oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue noaiaea?oece?iaaiu. Noaiu
eioa?oaena iau/ii ?aniieaaathony a naieo naycuaaaiuo ono?ienoaao.

Oeiu eioa?oaena:

1. Eioa?oaen ICO – /a?ac iaai i?iecaiaeeony iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo
ICO e i?ioeanni?ii, iaaeaeo ICO e eaiaeaie aaiaea – auaiaea. Aaaeouei a
iaiaia aeaiiuie, o.a. ia/eiathuei iia?aoeeth iaiaia, yaeyaony i?ioeanni?
e eaiaeu aaiaea – auaiaea, a eniieieoaeai – ICO. Yoio eioa?oaen yaeyaony
auno?iaeaenoaothuei. Eioi?iaoeey /a?ac iaai ia?aaeaaony neiaaie e
iieoneiaaie.

2. Eioa?oaen n i?ioeanni?ii – /a?ac iaai i?ienoiaeeo iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo i?ioeanni?ii e eaiaeaie aaiaea – auaiaea. Aaaeouee
– i?ioeanni?, eniieieoaeue – eaiaeu. Eioa?oaen yaeyaony
auno?iaeaenoaothuei. Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae /a?ac iaai i?ienoiaeeo neiaaie e
iieoneiaaie.

3. Eioa?oaen aaiaea – auaiaea. *a?ac iaai i?ienoiaeeo iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo eaiaeaie aaiaea – auaiaea e ono?ienoaaie oi?aaeaiey
IO. Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae i?iecaiaeeony aaeoaie. Aai auno?iaeaenoaea
iaiueoa, /ai o ia?auo aeaoo oeiia.

4. Eioa?oaen ia?eoa?eeiuo aiia?aoia (IA). *a?ac iaai i?ienoiaeeo
iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ono?ienoaaie oi?aaeaiey IA e naieie IA. Ii ia
iiaeao auoue noaiaea?oece?iaai, o.e. IA i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu.

Eioa?oaenu iiaoo auoue iaeiinayciuie e iiiainayciuie.

I?e iaeiinayciii eioa?oaena iauea aeey anao ono?ienoa oeiu
eniieuecothony anaie ono?ienoaaie, iiaeeeth/aiiuie e aeaiiiio
eioa?oaeno, ia iniiaa ?acaeaeaiey a?aiaie.

I?e iiiainayciii eioa?oaena iaeii ono?ienoai naycuaaaony n ae?oaeie
ono?ienoaaie ii ianeieueeei iacaaeneiui iaaeno?aeyi.

Iaeiinayciue eioa?oaen i?eiaiyaony a iaeuo e iee?i YAI, a iiiainayciue
– a n?aaeieo e aieueoeo YAI. Iiiainayciue eioa?oaen oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai,
/oi eaaeaeia ono?ienoai niaaaeaaony iaeiie auoiaeiie iaaeno?aeueth aeey
auaea/e eioi?iaoeee e ianeieueeeie aoiaeiuie aeey i?eaia eioi?iaoeee io
ae?oaeo ono?ienoa.

I?e iaeni?aaiinoe eaeie – eeai aoiaeiie oeiu eee nii?yaeaiiuo n iae
niaeanothueo ono?ienoa, ieacuaaaony ioeeth/aiiui oieueei iaeii
ia?eoa?eeiia ono?ienoai. Eioa?oaen aaoiiaoe/anee ii?aaeaeyao iaeni?aaiia
IO e auae?aao eni?aaiua e iacaiyoua iaaeno?aee. II a caaeneiinoe io
caaeaiiie i?ia?aiiu auae?aao iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ii?ina aeao/eeia,
o.a. au?aaaouaaao oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ii aua?aiiiio
eaiaeo e inouanoaeyao nai? e ia?aaioeo aeaiiuo.

Ii oeeo?iaiio eaiaeo nayce neaiae iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ia?aeeaeueii
eee iineaaeiaaoaeueii. Ia?aeeaeueiay ia?aaea/a oeeo?iaiai neaiaea
o?aaoao ioaeaeueiua eeiee aeey eaaeaeiai ?ac?yaea, ii yaeyaony aieaa
auno?iaeaenoaothuae. I?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/a oeeo?iaua neaiaeu
ia?aaeathony iineaaeiaaoaeueii ii iaeiie eeiee nayce. Ii niiniao
ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ai a?aiaie eioa?oaen iiaeao auoue neio?iiiue e
aneio?iiiue. Neio?iiiue oa?aeoa?ai iinoiyiiie a?aiaiiie i?eayceie, a
aneio?iiiue – aac iinoiyiiie a?aiaiiie i?eaycee. I?e neio?iiiie
ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo neio?iiece?othuea neaiaeu II caaeatho a?aiaiiie
eioa?aae, a oa/aiee eioi?iai n/eouaaaony eioi?iaoeey n iaeiiai aeao/eea.
A?aiaiiie eioa?aae ii?aaeaeyaony iaeaieueoei a?aiaiai caaea?aeee a
nenoaia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e iaeneiaeueiui a?aiaiai i?aia?aciaaiey
aiaeiaiaiai neaiaea a oeeo?iaie. Aneio?iiiay ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaee/eai oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia: “Aioiaiinoue e iaiaio”,
au?aaaouaaaiue aeao/eeii enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee; “Ia/aei iaiaia”, “Eiiaoe
iaiaia”, “Eiio?ieue iaiaia”, au?aaaouaaaiua II. I?e oaeie i?aaiecaoeee
iaiaia aaoiiaoe/anee onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aoeeiiaeueiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
nei?inoueth ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e aaee/eiaie caaea?aeee neaiaeia a eaiaea
nayce.

32. IAIAI AeAIIUIE IAAEAeO IIA?AOEAIIE IAIssOUeTH E

IA?EOA?EEIUIE ONO?IENOAAIE (IO)

1. I?ia?aiiii oi?aaeyaiue iaiai aeaiiuie. A yoii neo/aa ia?aaea/a
aeaiiuo io IO a iaiyoue e ia?aoii i?iecaiaeeony /a?ac II a niioaaonoaee
n iee?ii?ia?aiiie, caienaiiie a ICO, II ?oeiaiaeeo iaiaiii e iia?aoeey
iaiaia i?ienoiaeeo oae aea, eae e iia?aoeey iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu.
Iia?aoeey aaiaea – auaiaea aeoeaece?oaony oaeouae eiiaiaeie i?ia?aiiu
eee cai?ina io IO. I?e i?ia?aiiiii oi?aaeaiee ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo
i?ioeanni? “ioaeaeaaony” io auiieiaiey iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu ia ana a?aiy
iia?aoeee aaiaea – auaiaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii nieaeaaony
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue YAI. Aeey aaiaea aeiea aeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeii
neeoeii iiiai iia?aoeee, oaeeo eae i?aia?aciaaiea oi?iaoia, aae?anaoeey
a iaiyoe, ii?aaeaeaiea ia/aea e eiioea aeiea aeaiiuo. A ?acoeueoaoa
nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo nieaeaaony. Aeaoeo?aoi? ii?aaeaeyao iiia?
IO, n eioi?ui aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai aeaiiuie a niioaaonoaee n
i?ia?aiiie. Ioeueoeieaeni? ia?aaeaao aeaiiua io iaeiiai ec IO
niioaaonoaothuaai iiia?a /a?ac II a ICO. Iinea oiai, eae aeaoeo?aoi?
ii?aaeaeee iiia? IO e II iineae cai?in ia iaiaia aeaiiuie, II aeaeao
neaiaea aioiaiinoe io IO. Aeaioeueoeieaeni? ia?aaeaao aeaiiua ec ICO ia
iaeii ec IO.

2. Iaiai aeaiiuie n eniieueciaaieai i?yiiai aeinooia e iaiyoe (IAeI).
I?e yoii II inaiaiaeaeaaony io o/anoey a iaiaia aeaiiuie. ICO
naycuaaaony n II e n aiia?aoo?ie, ?oeiaiaeyuae iaiaiii aeaiiuo ?aciuie
oeiaie. Iaiaiii aeaiiuie iieiinoueth oi?aaeytho n iiiiuueth aiia?aoiuo
n?aaenoa. Eieoeeaoi?ii iaiaia aeaiiuie yaeyaony

IO, eioi?ia iinueaao cai?in ia iaiaia aeaiiuie ia oeaaeie cai?ina IAeI.
Oeaaeie cai?ina aeoeaece?oao aeie IAeI. Aeie IAeI iinueaao a iaiyoue
neaiae /oaiey eee caiene e ii?aaeaeyao y/aeeo ICO, n eioi?ie ia/iaony
iaiai aeaiiuie. Aeie IAeI iinueaao yoe neaiaeu, iinea oiai, eae iieo/eo
io II neaiae iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey. ?aaeno? aeaiiuo ia?aaeaao aeaiiua ec ICO
a IO e ec IO a ICO. I?e IAeI i?ioeanni? inaiaiaeaeaaony io oi?aaeaiey
iia?aoeeyie aaiaea – auaiaea e iiaeao ia?aeeaeueii auiieiyoue iniiaioth
i?ia?aiio. IAeI iaania/eaaao aieaa aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea e aieaa
aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ?aaiou YAI.

33. IAIAI AeAIIUIE II I?A?UAAIEssI

I?a?uaaiea ?aaiou II ii cai?ino aiaoieo ono?ienoa ono?aiyao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue auiieiaiey II iayo-oaeoeaiuo iia?aoeee ii i?iaa?ea
aioiaiinoe aiaoieo ono?ienoa e iaiaio aeaiiuie e nieaeaao cao?aou
a?aiaie ia iaeeaeaiea aioiaiinoe ia?eoa?eeiiai ono?ienoaa e iaiaio.
I?a?uaaiey iaiaoiaeeiu i?e iaiaia aeaiiuie n aieueoei /eneii aneio?iiii
?aai-oathueo aiaoieo ono?ienoa. I?a?uaa-aiay i?ia?aiia aeieaeia
niaea?aeaoue eiiaiaeo EI a ia/aea o/anoea iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu, aaea
aeiioneathony

i?a?uaaiey.

Aeaeu cai?inia ia i?a?uaaiea auaatho:

1. iaianee?oaiua – eioi?ua ?aaeecothony aiia?aoii e iinooiatho a II
ii ioaeaeueiie oeia oi?aaeaiey. Iaianee?oaiua cai?inu iaeaaeatho
iaeaunoei i?e-i?eoaoii. E iei ioiinyony cai?inu io noai ieoaiey e
eiio?iey i?aaeeueiinoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Nieaeaiea o?iaiy ieoaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoue iioa?e eioi?iaoeee. Noaiu eiio?iey ieoaiey
iiaeatho cai?in i?a?uaaiey e niaa?oatho ia?aoiae e iiaei?ia?aiia
aaa?eeiie ia?acaiene a ICO n aaoa?aeiui ieoaieai eee ai aiaoiaa CO. A
aeiea ieoaiey i?aaeoniio?aiu aieinoiua oeeueo?u, eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaatho o?iaaiue ieoaiey ia a?aiy, aeinoaoi/iia aeey
ia?acaiene.

2. ianee?oaiua cai?inu iinooiatho io aiaoieo ono?ienoa. A aeiea
oi?aaeaiey II anoue o?eaaa? ?ac?aoaiey i?a?uaaiey. Yoio o?eaaa? ii
eiiaiaea EI onoaiaaeeaaaony a aaeeie/iia ninoiyiea a eiioea o/anoea
iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony eiiaiaea DI aeiee?iaee
i?a?uaaiee, ii eioi?ie o?eaaa? onoaiaaeeaaaony a ioeaaia ninoiyiea.
Ninoiyiea o?eaaa?a auaeaaony ia auoiae II, eioi?ue iacuaaaony
“?AC?AOAIEA I?A?UAAIEE”, e anee ia yoii auoiaea “1”, oi cai?in
i?eieiaaony. Iiiaio iiyaeaiey cai?ina ia naycai n auiieiaieai iniiaiie
i?ia?aiiu. II i?iaeieaeaao auiieiyoue oaeouoth eiiaiaeo iniiaiie
i?ia?aiiu. Ii aeieaeai caiiiieoue ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey yoie eiiaiaeu e
iiia? eiiaiaeu aica?aoa e i?enooieoue e auiieiaieth i?a?uaathuae
i?ia?aiiu. Ia auoiae II “IIAeOAA?AEAeAIEA I?A?UAAIEss” ia?aaeaaony
neaiae i oii, /oi a aeaiiii oeeeea i?iecaiaeeony i?eai iaeiiai aaeoa
eiiaiaeu. Eiiaiaea RST ia/eiaao oaeiaeaoai?aiea cai?ina ia i?a?uaaiea;
ii yoie eiiaiaea a noae caienuaaaony ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu
iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu e iiia? eiiaiaeu aica?aoa.

I?a?uaathuay i?ia?aiia ia/eiaaony n eiiaiaeu RESTART (RST), ii eioi?ie
ec noaea ia?aaeaaony iiia? eiiaiaeu aica?aoa e ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey
iineaaeiae eiiaiaeu ia?aae i?a?uaaieai. Ia?aae eiiaiaeie RET aeieaeia
auoue eiiaiaea niyoey cai?aoa ia i?a?uaaiea – EI, eia/a o?eaaa? aoaeao a
ioea e iaeia e oa aea i?a?uaathuay i?ia?aiia aoaeao auiieiyoueny
aaneiia/ii.

34. NIAOeEAEECE?IAAIIUA ONO?IENOAA

EIOA?OAENA. AOeI

E niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui ono?ie-noaai eioa?oaena ioiinyony AOeI, OeAI,
i?aia?aciaaoaee eiaeia. Niaoee-aeece?iaaiiua ono?ienoaa i?aia?a-cotho
eioi?iaoeeth e aeaeo, oaeiaiiio aeey aini?eyoey aeaiiie iaoeiu (yoi
aeaeatho AOeI e i?aia?aciaaoaee eiaeia). OeAI i?aia?acoao

eioi?iaoeeth e aeaeo, oaeiaiiio aeey aini?eyoey ia?eoa?eeiui
ono?ienoaii. I?aia?aciaaiea aiaeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee a oeeo?iaoth iniiaaii
ia oai?aia Eioaeueieeiaa: ethaie aiaeiaiaue neaiae iiaeao auoue caienai
a aeene?aoiie oi?ia e eioi?iaoeey ia aoaeao iioa?yia, anee oaa
eaaioiaaiey NEIAIE 68 \f “Symbol” t aoaeao aua?ai ec oneiaey:

, aaea F max – iaeneiaeueiay /anoioa niaeo?a ia?aaeaaaaiiai neaiaea.

A aeaiiie noaia i?ienoiaeeo i?iiaaeooi/iia i?aia-?aciaaiea iai?yaeaiey
Uao a aeeeoaeueiinoue eiioeuena o?eaaa?a, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue
ii?aaeaeyao eiee/anoai eiioeuenia aaia?aoi?a eiioeueniie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe (AEI) ni n/eoaiiuo n/ao/eeii. N/ao/ee auaeaao
?acoeueoao a aeaie/iii eiaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii iieacaiey n/ao/eea
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu Uao. Oaeoiaue eiioeuen caioneaao aaia?aoi? eeiaeii
eciaiythuaainy iai?yaeaiey (AEEI) e iaioeyao n/ao/ee. A aeaoo
eiiia?aoi?ao E1 e E2 i?ienoiaeeo n?aaiaiea iai?yaeaiey AEEI n “0” e n
Uao.

Eiaaea o?iaaiue iai?yaeaiey AEEI ?aaai “0”, oi ia auoiaea E1
au?aaaouaaaony neaiae, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaao o?eaaa? a aaeeie/iia
ninoiyiea. Ia noaio “E” iiaeaaony aaeeie/iue neaiae n auoiaea o?eaaa?a
e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiioeuenia n auoiaea AEI. Eiioeuenu AEI
iiaeathony ia n/ao/ee, eioi?ue eo n/eoaao. Eiaaea iai?yaeaiea “ieeu”
noaiao ?aaiui Uao, neaiae n auoiaea E2 “ii?ieeiao” o?eaaa? a ioeaaia
ninoiyiea, eiioeuenu /a?ac noaio “E” ia i?ioiaeyo, n/ao i?ae?auaaony.
Eiee/anoai i?ioaaeoeo eiioeuenia i?iii?oeeiiaeueii Uao. O.e. iai?yaeaiea
“ieeu” no?iai aiai?y ia yaeyaony eeiaeiui, iniaaiii ia ia/aeueiii
o/anoea, oi oi/iinoue i?aia?aciaaiey ia aaeeea. Aieueooth oi/iinoue
iaania/eaatho AOeI n IN e AOeI neaaeyuaai oeia.

35. AOeI N IA?AOIIE NAssCUeTH (IN)

OeAI au?aaaouaaao iai?yaeaiea IN. Yoi iai?yaeaiea eiaao nooiai/aooth
oi?io. N i?eoiaeii oaeoiaiai eiioeuena n/ao/ee ia/eiaao n/eoaoue io
aaia?aoi?a eiioeueniie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe (AEI). N/ao i?ae?auaaony i?e
iiaea/a ioeaaiai neaiaea n auo. eiiia?aoi?a. Yoio neaiae au?aaaouaaaony
a oii neo/aa, anee iai?yaeaiea IN aieueoa eee ?aaii Uao. Eiee/anoai
nin/eoaiiuo eiioeuenia i?iii?oeeiiaeueii Uao a aeaie/iii eiaea.

36. AOeI NEAAessUAAI OEIA.

AOeI n IN i?aia?acoao a aeaie/iue eiae oieueei aic?anoathuaa Uao. AOeI
neaaeyuaai oeia i?aia?acoao a oeeo?iaie neaiae eae aic?anoathuaa, oae e
oauaathuaa iai?yaeaiea. A yoie noaia i?eiaiyaony ?aaa?neaiue n/ao/ee.
Eiaaea ia auo. eiiia?aoi?a (E) aaeeie/iue neaiae (Uao > Uin) n/ao/ee
iaoiaeeony a ?aaeeia i?yiiai n/aoa. Eiaaea Uao NEIAIE 163 \f “Symbol”
Uin, ia auoiaea E – “0” e n/ao/ee ia?aoiaeeo a ?aaeei ia?aoiiai n/aoa.

37. OeAI N NOIIE?IAAIEAI IAI?ssAEAIEss IA IIA?AOeEIIIII

ONEEEOAEA (IO).

OeAI i?aia?acoao eioi?iaoeeth a aeaie/iii eiaea a iai?a?uaioth. Ia aai
auoiaea oi?ie?oaony nooiai/aoia iai?yaeaiea. Oi/iinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey
caaeneo io oaaa eaaioiaaiey e aaee/eiu “nooiaiueee”. Ie oaa
eaaioiaaiey, ie aaee/eio “nooiaiueee” iaeuecy oiaiueoeoue ieaea
oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae noaiu. Noaiu OeAI iiaoo no?ieoueny n
noiie?iaaieai iai?yaeaiey eee oiea ia IO eee eae aooaithaoi?
nii?ioeaeaiee.

A yoie noaia o?eaaa?u ia?acotho ?aaeno?, a eioi?ue caiineony aeaie/iue
eiae /enea. Eiyooeoeeaio ia?aaea/e IO aeey auoiaea eaaeaeiai o?eaaa?a
yaeyaony acaaoaiiui a niioaaonoaee n ?ac?yaeii /enea, o?aieiiai a
o?eaaa?a:

Iai?yaeaiea n auoiaea o?eaaa?a n-iiai ?ac?yaea ia?aaeaaony ia auoiae
oneeeoaey n eiyooeoeeaioii ia?aaea/e:

o.a. ii a 2 ?aca aieueoa, /ai eiyooeoeeaio Kn-1. Neaaeothuee aaniaie
eiyooeoeeaio n-iiai ?ac?yaea a 2 ?aca aieueoa aaniaiai eiyooeoeeaio n-1
?ac?yaea. Anee n/eoaoue, /oi o?iaaiue “1” niioaaonoaoao A, a o?iaaiue
“0” – 0, oi:

aaea N – aeanyoe/iia cia/aiea i?aia?acoaiiai aeaie/iiai /enea,
caienaiiiai a ?aaeno?a.

A – iai?yaeaiea ieoaiey o?eaaa?a, niioaaonoaothuaa eiae/aneie “1”

Aaee/eia nooiaiueee ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai “1” e ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa
iai?yaeaiey ieoaiey.

IAAeINOAOIE: ianoaaeeueiia ieoaiea o?eaaa?a e iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi/iiai
iiaeai?a aieueoiai /enea iiieiaeia nii?ioeaeaiee ia aoiaea IO.

38. I?EIAIAIEA IEE?I YAI A NENOAIAO AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIIAI OI?AAEAIEss
(NAO)

I?eia?ii NAO iiaeii n/eoaoue iiaeii n/eoaoue noaiie n *IO. NAO aeieaeia
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eaeie – eeai ia?aiao? ia caaeaiiii o?iaia. A ea/anoaa
?aaoee?oaiiai ia?aiao?a iiaeao auoue oaie ?acaiey ?acoea.

Caaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aoiaeiia aicaeaenoaea O, eioi?ia a NAO
iacuaaaony aoiaeiui aicaeaenoaeai. Ia iauaeo oi?aaeaiey aicaeaenoaoao
aiciouathuaa aicaeaenoaea A, eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eciin ?aaeouaai
eino?oiaioa e aeeyiea iaoa?eaea caaioiaee. Auoiaeiay aaee/eia Y
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaenoaeoaeueiia cia/aiea oaea ?acaiey. Yoi
aeaenoaeoaeueiia cia/aiea n iiiiuueth aeao/eea ninoiyiey iauaeoa
i?aia?acoaony a yeaeo?e/aneee neaiae. Eiio?ieea? i?aia?acoao aiaeiaiaue
neaiae a oeeo?iaie e ia?aaeaao a oi?aaeythuoth iee?i YAI. A iaiyoue
iee?i YAI oaeaea ia?aaeaaony caaeaiiia cia/aiea ?aaoee?oaiiai ia?aiao?a
a aeaie/iii eiaea. YAI n?aaieaaao yoe cia/aiey e au?aaaouaaao
oi?aaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea.

E?oa caaea/, ?aoaaiuo YAI a aeaiiie nenoaia e iaai? aeaenoaee,
i?aaeienuaaaiuo noaieo, ia?aie/ai. Iiyoiio aeey YAI ia o?aaoaony
aieueoiai iauaia iaiyoe, i?ia?aiia iiaeao auoue caienaia a ICO e ia
o?aaoaony naoe ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa. Aeinoaoi/ii oieueei eeaaeaoo?u e
aeenieay.

Oi?aaeythuee neaiae, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue neaiaeo ?anniaeaniaaiey,
iiaeaaony ia eioa?oaen aeiea nayce n iauaeoii, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo
i?aia?aciaaiea oeeo?iaiai neaiaea a aiaeiaiaue. Eniieieoaeueiue iaoaieci
(yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeue) a niioaaonoaee n oi?aaeythuei neaiaeii
aicaeaenoaoao ia iauaeo oaeei ia?acii, /oiau naanoe ioeaeo
?anniaeaniaaiey e “0”.

Yoi NAO, i?eiaiyaiay a iaeiii oeaoa, iiaeao auoue naycaia n aieueoie
YAI, i?eiaiyaiie aeey oi?aaeaiey oeaeui caaiaeii. A yoii neo/aa iia
iiaeeeth/aaony /a?ac eaiaeu nayce e aieueoie YAI, niaaaeaiiie aieueoei
eiee/anoaii ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa e eiathuae aieueoie iauai iaiyoe.

39. NOAIA NOIIE?IAAIEss IAI?ssAEAIEss

IA AOOAITHAOI?A NII?IOEAEAIEE

Aeinoieinoaii aeaiiie noaiu yaeyaony oi, /oi a iae eniieuecothony
?acenoi?u oieueei aeaoo iiieiaeia. Aaee/eia nooiaiueee
i?iii?oeei-iaeueia A/3 e ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei iai?y-aeaieai
noaaeeueiiai enoi/ieea A e ia caaeneo io auoiaeiiai iai?yaeaiey
o?eaaa?a.

O?eaaa?u ia?acotho ?aaeno?, a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony aeaie/iay
eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue i?aia?aciaaia a aiaeiaiaoth oi?io.
Ia auoiaea o?eaaa?a, i?yiii e eiaa?niii, iaoiaeyony eeth/e. Eeth/ Ee1
iaoiaeeony ia i?yiii auoiaea o?eaaa?a. Ia aoi?ie aoiae eeth/a iiaeaaony
iai?yaeaiea noaaeeueiiai enoi/ieea.

A oii neo/aa, anee a o?eaaa?a caienaia 1, oi iai?yaeaiea enoi/ieea A
i?eeeaaeuaaaony e R1. Anee caienai 0, oi eeth/ Ee1 cae?uo e ioeaaie
iioaioeeae /a?ac eeth/ Ee1′ i?eeeaaeuaaaony e R1.

A niioaaonoaee n caienaiiui /eneii au?aaaouaaaony auoiaeiia
iai?yaeaiea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia A/8:

aaea N – aeanyoe/iia /enei

40. I?EIAIAIEA IEE?I YAI A

I?EAI?AO (NIAEO?IOIOIIAO?)

Niaeo?ioioiiao? i?eiaiyaony aeey ea/anoaaiiiai e eiee/anoaaiiiai
aiaeeca ninoaaa aeeaeeiai e i?ic?a/iiai oaa?aeiai ia?acoea. I?eioeei aai
aeaenoaey iniiaai ia oii, /oi naaoiaie eo/ ii ?aciiio iiaeiuaaony
aauanoaii, a caaeneiinoe io aai ninoaaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii eiyooeoeeaio
iiaeiuaiey aeey ?aciuo aauanoa aoaeao ?acee/iui. Iee?i YAI auiieiyao a
yoii i?eai?a neaaeothuea ooieoeee: aaoiiaoecaoeey i?ioeanna ecia?aiey;
yeni?ann ia?aaioeo ?acoeueoaoia ecia?aiey; iiauoaiea oi/iinoe i?eai?a;
iaeaa/aao iauaiea iia?aoi?a n i?eai?ii.

A iaiyoe iee?i YAI caienaiu eiyooeoeeaiou iiaeiuaiey ?acee/iuo aauanoa,
i?ia?aiia eniuoaiee e i?ia?aiia oi?aaeaiey ono?ienoaii iiaea/e ia?acoea
(OII). Iiiio?iiaoi? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaia?aoi?, enioneathuee naaoiaua
aieiu n caaeaiiie i?ia?aiiie /anoioie. Naaoioeeueo? iiaeiuaao ana
iaoathuea eieaaaiey e?iia iaeiiai o?aaoaiie /anoiou. Yoio eo/, i?ioiaey
/a?ac ia?acaoe, iiaeiuaaony a caaeneiinoe io aai ninoaaa. I?eaiiee
eceo/aiey i?eieiaao yoe eieaaaiey, aiieeooaea eioi?uo caaeneo io
eiyooeoeeaioa iiaeiuaiey e au?aaaouaaao neaiae, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue
eciaiaieth aiieeooaeu. Iee?i – ooieoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoeue (IOI) AOeI
i?aia?acoao aiaeiaiaue neaiae a oeeo?iaoth oi?io e ia?aaeaao oeeo?iaie
neaiae a iee?i YAI. Iee?i YAI n?aaieaaao iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou n
caienaiiuie a iaiyoe e ii?aaeaeyao ninoaa aauanoaa. Iia?aoi? iiaeao
iaae?aoue i?ia?aiio ecia?aiee n iiiiuueth eeaaeaoo?u e auaiaeeoue
eioi?iaoeeth ia naiiienaoe, oaaei, ia oaeaa?aoiue aiia?ao. Aeie ?o/iie
ei??aeoe?iaee iicaieyao iia?aoi?o aiineoue eciaiaiey a i?ia?aiio.

41. I?IA?AIIIIA IAANIA*AIEA (II) YAI.

Ninoieo ec iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu (IN) e i?ia?aii iieueciaaoaey. IN
ninoieo ec ooeeeo, aeaeeioaee iiaei?ia?aii, ycueiauo o?aineyoi?ia,
i?ia?aiiu – eiiiiiiaueea, ?aaeaeoi?a, iiieoi?a, caa?oc/eea.

Iaienaiea i?ia?aiiu ia/eiaaony n iinoaiiaee caaea/e e n nicaeaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee. Caoai ieoaony aeai?eoi, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iioaaiaoth i?ioeaaeo?o ?aoaiey caaea/e. I?ia?aiia ieoaony ia ycuea
aunieiai o?iaiy. sscuee aunieiai o?iaiy ia naycaiu n a?oeoaeoo?ie
aeaiiie iaoeiu.

I?ia?aiia, iaienaiiay ia ycuea aunieiai o?iaiy iacuaaaony enoiaeiui
iiaeoeai. I?ia?aiia – o?aineyoi? i?aia?acoao enoiaeiue iiaeoeue
i?ia?aiio ia ycuea iaoeiiuo eiaeia iacuaaaony iauaeoiui iiaeoeai.
Iaoeiiue eiae aeey eaaeaeie iaoeiu naie. I?ia?aiia – ?aaeaeoi?
eniieuecoaony aeey aaiaea oaenoa i?ia?aiiu a YAI e aa iineaaeothuaai
?aaeaeoe?iaaiey. I?ia?aiia – eiiiiiiauee naycuaaao iauaeoiua iiaeoee,
yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii o?aineyoeee i?ia?aii e iiaei?ia?aii n/eoaiiuo
ec aeaeeioaee iiaei?ia?aii. I?ia?aiia -ioeaae/ee iicaieyao auiieiyoue
i?ia?aiio ii iaeiie eee ianeieueeei eiiaiaeai ca iaeei oaa, /oi
iicaieyao i?ia?aiienoo i?iaa?youe ?acoeueoao auiieiaiey ioaeaeueiuo
/anoae i?ia?aiiu.

Aeey aaiaea i?ia?aiiu n eeaaeaoo?u eee ACO, eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiia,
iacuaaaiay caa?oc/eeii. A aa ooieoeee aoiaeeo iia?aoeey /oaiey eee
caiene ii caaeaiiiio aae?ano iaiyoe, a oae aea auiieiaiea ?aaio ii
ioeaaeea e ianeoaeeaaieth i?ia?aii. A iineaaeiai neo/aa i?ia?aiia –
caa?oc/ee iacuaaaony iiieoi?ii. Iia iiaeao auoue caienaia a iaiyoue
iaoeiu, oiaaea iia iacuaaaony ?aceaeaioiie. Auiieiaiea caa?ocee
i?ia?aiiu a iaiyoue ia/eiaaony n ia?aaea/e oi?aaeaiey ii ia?aiio aae?ano
i?ia?aiiu.

42. IIA?AOeEIIIAss NENOAIA YAI

I?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea au/eneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.
Iia oi?aaeyao aaiaeii – auaiaeii, caa?oceie i?ia?aiiu aeaiiuo a iaiyoue,
o?aineyoeeae i?ia?aiiu e aeaiiuo a iaoeiiua eiaeu, oi?aaeyao auiieiaieai
i?ia?aii.

A caaeneiinoe io iaoeiu iaeioi?ua iia?aoeee auiieiythony aiia?aoii, a
iaeioi?ua i?ia?aiiii. Aeey iieueciaaoaey yoi cia/aiey ia eiaao, o.e. ii
ia?auaaony e ae?ooaeueiie iaoeia. IN oae aea ioaeia aeey oi?aaeaiey
oaeeaie. Oaeeii iacuaaaony iieiaiiaaiiay niaieoiiinoue iaeii?iaeiie
eioi?iaoeee, ?aciauaiiie ia aiaoiai iineoaea e eiathuay ii?aaeaeaiiia
ooieoeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea. A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu aanue
iiieoi? eee aai /anoue caienuaathony a ICO. A yoii neo/aa ii iacuaaaony
?aceaeaioiui. Inoaeueiay /anoue iiieoi?a aaiaeeony a iaiyoue YAI ii ia?a
iaaeiaiinoe. Anee iaaeiaiinoue a iae ioiaaeaao oi ICO io iaa
inaiaiaeaeaaony.

Iinea aeeth/aiey ieoaiey e caiene a iaiyoue iiieoi?a YAI i?enooiaao e
auiieiaieth i?ia?aiiu. Caienue a iaiyoue iiieoi?a inouanoaeyaony eeai
aaoiiaoe/anee eeai ii eiiaiaea iieueciaaoaey. E nenoaiiui i?ia?aiiai
ioiinyony oae aea i?ia?aiiu ianeoaeeaaiey IO eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
?aaeeciaaiu aeaoiy niiniaaie: ooieoeeiiaeueiue e eiae/aneee. Aeey
nicaeaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiiu i?ia?aiieno aeieaeai ciaoue
i?eioeei aeaenoaey e iniaaiiinoe IO. Yoi cao?oaeiyao ?aaioo
i?ia?aiienoa, iiyoiio ia ooieoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia auiieiythony oieueei
eiiaiaeu aioiaiinoe e iaiaio aeaiiuie e eiiaiaeu i?a?uaaiee. Ai anao
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo eniieuecotho niaoeeaeueiua i?a?uaathuea i?ia?aiiu,
iacuaaaiua ae?aeaa?aie. Ae?aeaa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ia?aiio ia?auaiey
e eiie?aoiiio IO. A i?ia?aiia aaiaea – auaiaea i?ia?aiieno caienuaaao
iiia? IO e eioi?iio iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny. Ii yoiio iiia?o i?ienoiaeeo
aucia niioaaonoaothuaai ae?aeaa?a.

Aeey ?anoe?aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae YAI a nenoaiiia
iaania/aiea YAI aoiaeeo i?ia?aiia ia?auaiey e aeaeeioaea iiaei?ia?aii.
Aeaeeioaea niaea?aeeo i?ia?aiiu noaiaea?oiuo ooieoeee, a oae aea
i?ia?aiiu aaiaea – auaiaea

43. IEE?II?IOeANNI?IUE EIIIEAEO E 1804.

I?ioeanni? – yoi oeeo?iaia ono?ienoai, aoiaeyuaa a YAI e auiieiythuaa
ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n caeiaeaiiie a YAI i?ia?aiiie.
I?ia?aiia iaoiaeeony a iaiyoe YAI e ninoieo ec ioaeaeueiuo eiiaiae,
iiiyoiuo aeey i?ioeanni?a. A eaaeaeie eiiaiaea niaea?aeaony naaaeaiey i
oii, ioeoaea acyoue enoiaeiua aeaiiua, eaeoth iia?aoeeth iaae ieie
auiieiyoue e eoaea iiianoeoue ?acoeueoao. I?ioeanni? ninoieo ec aeaoo
acaeiinaycaiiuo ono?ienoa: iia?aoeeii-iiai ono?ienoaa (IO) e
oi?aaeythuaai ono?ienoaa (OO).

IO i?aaeiacia/aii aeey auiieiaiey iia?aoeee. Iii aeeth/aao a naay a
ea/anoaa oceia ?aaeno?u, noiiaoi?u, eaiaeu ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee,
ioeueoeieaeni?u aeey eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia, aeaoeo?aoi?u e o.ae. OO
eii?aeeie?oao aeaenoaea oceia IO. OO au?aaaouaaao a ii?aaeaeaiiie
a?aiaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu, iiae aeaenoaeai
eioi?uo a oceao IO auiieiythony o?aaoaiua aeaenoaey. Aeaaiaea?y
aeinoeaeaieyi iee?iyeaeo?iieee, iaania/eaathuae a iaeiie iee?inoaia
oiaeiaeo aeanyoeia ouny/ yeaiaioia, oaeia neiaeiia oeeo?iaia
ono?ienoai, eae i?ioeanni?, ?ac?aoaaony a iaeiii eee

ianeieueeeo AEN. Neiai “aieueoea” ioiineony ia e oece/aneei ?acia?ai
noaiu, a e noaiaie eioaa?aoeee yeaiaioia noaiu.

?anniio?ei iino?iaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iee?ii?ioeanni?iie naeoeee
E1804AN1, ia aaca eioi?ie nicaeai i?ioeanni? na?eeii auioneaaiie
ieie-YAI NI – 1420.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?iay naeoeey (IIN) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie 4-o ?ac?yaeioth
naeoeeth, a eioi?ie aiciiaeiu o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea 4-o ?ac?yaeiuo
aeaiiuo. Iauaaeeiaieai ianeieueeeo naeoeee iiaeii iino?ieoue
iiiai?ac?yaeiia IO i?ioeanni?a.

AEIE AIOO?AIIAE IAIssOE (AAI). A aeiea eiaaony ?aaeno?iaia
caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai (?CO), niaea?aeauaa 16 4-o ?ac?yaeiuo
?aaeno?ia. Aae?ana ?aaeno?ia i?aaenoaaeythony 4-o ?ac?yaeiuie eiaeiauie
iia?aoeeyie. ?CO eiaao aeaa aae?aniuo aoiaea A3…A0 e A3…A0, ia
eioi?ua eioi?iaoeey iinooiaao ec eiiaiaeu.

Caaeaaay a iieyo eiiaiaeu aae?ana A3…A0 e A3…A0, iiaeii
iaeiia?aiaiii i?iecaiaeeoue /oaiea e auaea/o ia auoiaeu A e A ?CO
niaea?aeeiiai ethaie ia?u ?aaeno?ia. I?e niaiaaeaiee aae?ania A3…A0 e
A3…A0 ia iaa aoiaea A e A ?CO ia?aaeaaony niaea?aeeiia iaeiiai e oiai
aea ?aaeno?a. Auaeaiiia ia auoiaeu A e A niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?ia ?CO
i?eieiaaony niioaaonoaaiii a ?aaeno?u PrA e PrB. Aeaeaa yoe ?aaeno?u
neoaeao enoi/ieeaie iia?aiaeia, iaae eioi?uie auiieiythony iia?aoeee.
Caienue a ?CO a eaaeaeii oaeoiaii ia?eiaea iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue eeoue a
iaeei ec ?aaeno?ia, aae?an eioi?iai caaeaaony oeiie A3…A0.
Caienuaaaiua a ?CO aeaiiua iinooiatho ia aoiae ?CO n auoiaea a?aoiaoeei
– eiae/aneiai ono?ienoaa (AEO) /a?ac ocae naeaeaaoaey aeaiiuo AEO
(NAeA). Aeaiiua /a?ac NAeA iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny aac naeaeaa eeai ni
naeaeaii ia iaeei ?ac?yae aeaai e ai?aai. Oaeei ia?acii, ca iaeei
oaeoiaue ia?eiae ec ?CO iiaeao auoue auaeaii niaea?aeeiia aeaoo
?aaeno?ia, iaae ieie a AEO auiieiaia iaeioi?ay iia?aoeey, e iieo/aiiue
a AEO ?acoeueoao naeaeioo ai?aai eee aeaai e caienai a ?aaeno? ?CO.
Auaiaeu PR0 e PR3 a caaeneiinoe io iai?aaeaiey naeaeaa neoaeao aoiaeii
eee auoiaeii, /a?ac eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeony caienue cia/aiey a
inaiaiaeaeathueany i?e naeaeaa ?ac?yae e auaea/a niaea?aeeiiai
auaeaeaaaiiai ?ac?yaea. *oaiea ec ?aaeno?ia ?CO, aae?anoaiuo oeiaie
A3…A0 e A3…A0 i?ienoiaeeo i?e aunieii o?iaia oaeoiaiai neaiaea O.

Aoiae ?CO i?e yoii eiae/anee ioeeth/ai, e ?CO ia ?aaae?oao ia
iinooiathuoth ia aoiae eioi?iaoeeth. Auaeaaaaiua ec ?CO aeaiiua
i?eieiathony a ?aaeno?u iia?aiaeia PrA e PrB, iino?iaiiua ia i?inouo
o?eaaa?ao.

I?e ieceei o?iaia oaeoiaiai neaiaea (a?aiaiiie eioa?aae t2 – t3) aoiaeu
?aaeno?ia PrA e PrB eiae/anee ioeeth/athony io auoiaeia ?CO e ?aaeno?u
i?iaeieaeatho o?aieoue i?eiyooth eioi?iaoeeth. I?e yoii a ?aaeno? ?CO,
aae?anoaiue oeiie A3…A0, i?iecaiaeeony caienue ia?aaeaaaaiie /a?ac
NAeA eioi?iaoeee oaeei ia?acii, /oi /oaiea e caienue a ?CO ?acianaiu ai
a?aiaie.

AEIE ?AAI*AAI ?AAENO?A Q (A?). Aeie niaea?aeeo iaeeii/iue 4-o
?ac?yaeiue ?aaeno? Q, iino?iaiiue ia o?eaaa?ao D – oeia. Niaea?aeeiia
?aaeno?a iinoiyiii ia?aaeaaony a ocae AEO (a aeiea AAE). Caienue aea a
?aaeno? iiaeao i?iecaiaeeony ii iieiaeeoaeueiiio ia?aiaaeo oaeoiauo
eiioeuenia. Aeaiiua ia aoiae ?aaeno?a ia?aaeathony /a?ac ocae
naeaeaaoaey ?aaeno?a Q (CP), eioi?ue ?aaioaao aiaeiae/ii oceo NAeA aeiea
AAI, ia?aaeaaay caienuaaaiua a ?aaeno? aeaiiua aac naeaeaa eeai ni
naeaeaii ia iaeei ?ac?yae aeaai eee ai?aai. A ioee/ee io NAeA, /a?ac
eioi?ue ia?aaeaaony eeai ?acoeueoao iia?aoeee n auoiaea AEO eeai
niaea?aeeiia naiiai ?aaeno?a Q. Iineaaeiaa iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue
auiieiaiey naeaeaa niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a Q, i?iecaiaeeiiai
ia?aeeaeueii n iia?aoeeae a AEO.

AEIE A?EOIAOEEI – EIAE*ANEEE (AAE). AEO eiaao aeaa 4-o ?ac?yaeiuo
aoiaea R e S. Aeaiiua ia yoe aoiaeu iinooiatho n auoiaea naeaeoi?a
enoi/ieeia aeaiiuo (NEAe). E?iia yoeo aoiaeia AEO eiaao aoiae aeey
iiaea/e ia?aiina N0. Ia aoiae R AEO NEAe eiiiooe?oao eee auoiae ?aaeno?a
PrA aeiea AAI eee aiaoithth oeio aeaiiuo D3…D0 eeai ia?aaeaao ia
yoio aoiae ioeaaia cia/aiea. Ia aoiae 8 NEAe eiiiooe?otho iaeei ec o?ao
enoi/ieeia (PrA, PrB, PrQ) eee ia?aaeatho ioeaaia cia/aiea.

?acoeueoao iia?aoeee n auoiaea AEO, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, iiaeaaony ia
naeaeaaoaee NAeA e N? aeieia AAI e A?. E?iia oiai, ?acoeueoao iia?aoeee
iiaeaaony ia naeaeoi? auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo (NAAe), eioi?ue eiiiooe?oao a
auoiaeioth oeio O3…O0. Niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?a PrA aeiea AAI eeai auoiae
AEO. NAAe iino?iai ia yeaiaioao n o?aiy ninoiyieyie e oi?aaeyaony
neaiaeii A… Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee ia oeio O3…O0 i?iecaiaeeony i?e
oi?aaeythuai neaiaea A…= 0, i?e neaiaea A…= 1 NAAe ia?aaiaeeony a
o?aouea (aueeth/aiiia) ninoiyiea, e iee?inoaia IIN ioeeth/aaony io oeiu
O3…O0.

AEO eiaao auoiaeu, ia eioi?uo oi?ie?othony neaaeothuea i?eciaee
?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiiie eioi?iaoeee:

– Z – i?eciae ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoa (Z=1, anee ?acoeueoao ?aaai ioeth).

– F3 – noa?oee ?ac?yae ?acoeueoaoa, eioi?ue iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae ciaeiaue ?ac?yae.

– N4 – i?eciae ia?aiina (i?e auiieiaiee a?eoiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee N4=1,
anee aicieeaao ia?aiin ec noa?oaai ?ac?yaea).

– OVR – i?eciae ia?aauiieiaiey (i?e auiieiaiee a?eoiaoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee OVR = N3 + N4, aaea N3 – ia?aiin, ia?aaeaaaaiue a noa?oee
?ac?yae); anee /enea i?aaenoaaeythony ni ciaeiaui ?ac?yaeii, oi i?e

OVR = 1 eneaaeaaony ciaeiaue ?ac?yae, o.a. ?acoeueoao ieacuaaaony
ioeai/iui.

Iaicia/aiea neiaieii NEIAIE 197 \f “Symbol” – yoi iia?aoeey ii
?ac?yaeiiai noiie?iaaiey ii iiaeoeth 2 (yoo iia?aoeeth iacuaatho oae
aea iia?aoeeae “eneeth/athuaa eee” eee iia?aoeeae “ia?aaiicia/iinoe”).

AEIE OI?AAEAIEss (AO). Aeie i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?aia?aciaaiey
niaea?aeeiiai iiey eiaea iia?aoeee i8…i0 eiiaiaeu a nenoaio
oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia, iiae aeaenoaeai eioi?uo a oceao iee?inoaiu IIN
auiieiythony iia?aoeee.

44. ANNAIAEA? E580

Iinea oiai, eae i?ia?aiia iaienaia ia ycuea aunieiai o?iaiy iia
o?ainee?oaony a iaoeiiue eiae, ii i?ia?aiio iiaeii iaienaoue ia
annaiaea?a, eioi?ue oae aea eae e iaoeiiue eiae i?eaioe?iaai ia
a?oeoaeoo?o aeaiiie iaoeiu. Annaiaea?ii iacuaaaony i?ia?aiia –
o?aineyoi? n neiaiee/aneiai ycuea, eioi?ue iacuaaaony ycueii annaiaea?a.
sscue iacuaaaony neiaiee/aneei, iioiio /oi iia?aoeee a iai caienuaathony
a aeaea nie?auaiee aiaeeeneeo iacaaiee yoeo iia?aoeee.

?anniio?ei iia?aoeeth neiaeaiey 2-o 16-oe cia/iuo aeanyoe/iuo /enae,
caienaiiuo a aeaie/ii – aeanyoe/iii eiaea. *oiau neiaeeoue eo a 8-ie
?ac?yaeiii II iaaei iiaoi?eoue iia?aoeeth neiaeaiey 8 ?ac. Iaeei ec
?aaeno?ia eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa n/ao/eea. Aeaa ia?u ?aaeno?ia
eniieuecotho aeey oeacaiey aae?ania a ICO, a eioi?ii caienaiu neaaaaiua.
Neiaeaiea ia/eiaaony n ieaaeoeo ?ac?yaeia. Eaaeaeay aeanyoe/iay oeeo?a
caienuaaaony 4-iy ?ac?yaeaie, cia/eo a ia?aii oeeeea aoaeoo
neeaaeuaaoueny aeaa aeanyoe/iua oeeo?u.

Aeai?eoi ?aoaiey caaea/e auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea a iaiyoe aae?ana neaaaaiuo.

NA 100(H) – 107(H)

NB 108(H) – 10F(H)

2. Caa?oaeaai a aeeoioeyoi? aeaa ieaaeoeo aeanyoe/iuo ?ac?yaea /enea
NA, eioi?ua caienaiu ii aae?ano 100 (I)

3. Neeaaeuaaai niaea?aeeiia aeeoioeyoi?a e 2 ieaaeoeo aeanyoe/iuo
?ac?yaea /enea NB, caienuaaai ii aae?ano 108 (I)

4. Caienuaaai ?acoeueoao neiaeaiey ii aae?ano NA (100I)

5. Oaaee/eaaai niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?ia A e A ia 1, a niaea?aeeiia
n/ao/eea oiaiueoaai ia 1. A aeeoioeyoi? iiiauaaony niaea?aeeiia y/aeee
101H, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony a aeeoioeyoi?a n niaea?aeeiui y/aeee 109H. E
oae i?ienoiaeeo aei oao ii? iiea n/ao/ee ia iaioeeony.

I?e neiaeaiee aeaie/ii – aeanyoe/iuo /enae aeieaeia i?iaiaeeony
iia?aoeey DAA – aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee aeeoioeyoi?a: eioi?ay ninoieo a
oii: /oi anee i?e neiaeaiee iieo/eeanue cai?auaiiay eiiaeiaoeey, oi
aeiaaaeyaony oeeo?a 6, o.e. ia?aiin a 4-o ?ac?yaeiii aeaie/iii /enea
oi?ie?oaony ia oeeo?a 16, a a aeanyoe/iii – ia oeeo?a 10, oi aeiaaaeyy 6
iu oi?ie?oai oeeo?o ia?aiina a noa?oee ?ac?yae e ecaaaeyainy io
cai?auaiiie eiiaeiaoeee.

Eiiaiaea ia annaiaea?a niaea?aeeo 4 iiey, eioi?ua ioaeaeythony ae?oa io
ae?oaa i?iaaeii eee neiaieaie (: ; -) a caaeneiinoe io oeia YAI.

Ia?aia iiea iacuaaaony iaoeie eee eiaiai. Iii caiieiaii iaanaaaea, a
oieueei a neo/aa iiiaie?aoiiai ia?auaiey e yoie eiiaiaea.

Aoi?ia iiea – iiea iia?aoeee. Caiieiyaony anaaaea.

O?aouea iiea – iiea iia?aiaea. Nouanoaotho iia?aoeee (inoaiia, eiiaoe),
a eioi?uo iia?aiae ia oeacuaaaony.

*aoaa?oia iiea – iiea eiiiaioa?ey. Ia o?ainee?oaony a aeaie/iue eiae e
yaeyaony iiyniythuei.

I?EIA? I?IA?AIIU:

1. LXI D,NA

2. LXI D,NB

3. MVI C.8

4. XRA

5. LOOP: LDAX D

6. ADC M

7. DAA

8. STAX D

9. INX H

10. INX D

11. DCR C

12 JNZ LOOP

eii 1. eiiaiaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caa?ocee aae?ana NA a iaiyoue a
?aaeno?u D, E (caienue 100)

eii 2. eiiaiaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caa?ocee aae?ana 108(H) a ?aaeno?u H,L

eii 3. eiiaiaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ia?anueee /enea oeeeeia (8) a n/ao/ee,
eioi?ui yaeyaony ?aaeno? N

eii 4. iia?aoeey i/enoee eee iaioeaiey aeeoioeyoi?a. Eneeth/aao “EEE”
eee ceiaeaiea ii iiaeoeth aeaa niaea?aeeiiai aeeoioeyoi?a n naiei
niaie.

eii 5. eiaao eiy, o.e. e iae ia?auathony iaiaeiie?aoii a i?ioeanna
auiieiaiey

i?ia?aiiu. Ii yoie eiiaiaea i?ienoiaeeo caa?ocea a aeeoioeyoi?
niaea?aeeiiai y/aeee ICO, iiia? eioi?ie caienai a ?aaeno?ao D,E.
Eiiaiaea einaaiiie aae?anaoeee, o.a. a eiaea eiiaiaeu oeacuaaaony iiia?
?aaeno?a, niaea?aeauaai iiia? y/aeee ICO, niaea?aeauae iia?aiae. Ia
ia?aii oaaa yoi aoaeao y/aeea 100(I)

eii 6. niaea?aeeiia aeeoioeyoi?a, eioi?ia yaeyaony niaea?aeeiui y/aeee
100(I) ia ia?aii oaaa, neeaaeuaaaony n aaeoii NB, eioi?ue niaea?aeeony
a y/aeea 108(I). Aoeaa I icia/aao, /oi NB n/eouaaao ec y/aeee ICO

eii 7. eiiaiaea aeanyoe/iie ei??aeoeee

eii 8. STORE – eiiaiaea n einaaiiie aae?anaoeeae. ?acoeueoao
neiaeaiey iiiauaaony a y/aeeo ICO, iiia? eioi?ue caienai a ?aaeno?a D.

eii 9. Eie?aiaio – oaaee/aiea ia 1 niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a H

eii 10. Eie?aiaio – oaaee/aiea ia 1 niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a D

eii 11. Aeae?aiaio – oiaiueoaiea ia 1 niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a N
(n/ao/eea)

eii 12. Eiiaiaea oneiaiiai ia?aoiaea. Anee niaea?aeeiia n/ao/eea ia
iieue, oi

inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiae e iaoea LOOP.

NO? 2

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019