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Структура и реализация макроязыков

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Einoeooo Yeaeo?iieee e Iaoaiaoeee

eaoaae?a NAI?

?aoa?ao

Oaia III

?ac?aaioea iauaai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey

Caaeaiea 3.2

Au ?ac?aaaouaaaoa iae?iycue aeey nenoaiu. Iainioeoa yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey iae?in?aaenoa. Eaeea oeiu iae?in?aaenoa aeiioneathony
aaoei iae?iycueii? Noi?ioee?oeoa iaoiaeu iino?iaiey i?ia?aiiu,
ia?aaaouaathuae iae?iycue

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

Caeoeaaa E. A.

Nooaeaio:

Iiaeue/aiei N. A.

IAE?IssCUE E IAE?II?IOeANNI?

Iia?aoi?, ?aaioathuee a eaeie-eeai nenoaia, /anoi ano?a/aaony n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiaoi?youe iaeioi?ua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaee
iiiai ?ac? Oaeay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iiaeao, iai?eia?, ninoiyoue ec
aaiaea iaeioi?ie oaenoiaie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, iaaeaoee ii?aaeaeaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eeaaeo, auiieiaiee iaeiioeiiiai ?yaea eaeeo-eeai
a?eoiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo /anoi iiaeii
ainiieueciaaoueny aiia?aoii iae?ieiiaiae.

Iae?ieiiaiaeu (/anoi iacuaaaiua iae?i eee iae?in) yaeythony
iaeiino?i/iuie nie?auaieyie aeey a?oiiu eiiaiae. Eniieuecoy
iae?ieiiaiaeo, i?ia?aiieno ii nouanoao ii?aaeaeyao iaeio “eiiaiaeo” aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeioi?ie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae.

Ii?aaeaeyy niioaaonoaothuea iae?ieiiaiaeu, iia?aoi? iiaeao oaeiaiui aeey
naay ia?acii aaiaeeoue naie nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy,
ia caaioynue i no?oeoo?a nenoaiu. Ii iiaeao aeinoeaiooue e?aoeinoe e
i?inoiou oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie, ia oa?yy i?e yoii iniiaiuo i?aeiouanoa
eniieueciaaiey enoiaeiie nenoaiu, oaeie, eae iai?eia? ycue annaiaea?a.
E?oiiua iae?iiia?aoeee oi?iuatho iieueciaaiea, ioeaaeeo e iiaeeoeeaoeeth
i?ia?aii, e iaeaa/atho noaiaea?oecaoeeth. Iiiaea ?ac?aaio/ee
au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei eniieuecotho iae?ieiiaiaeu aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee
ninoaaeaiey “iiaeoiaeyueo” iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai a i?ioeanna, iacuaaaiii
aaia?aoeeae nenoaiu

IAE?IEIIAIAeU

A naiae i?inoaeoae oi?ia iae?ieiiaiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nie?auaiea
aeey iaicia/aiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee

?anniio?ei neaaeothuee iaai? eiiaiae, acyoue ec iae?iycuea IDE aeey
Borland C++ aa?nee 3.1 (TEMC). ?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth i?ia?aiio,
iaienaiioth n iiiiuueth yoeo iia?aoeee

I?eia? 1

.

.

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SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

.

.

.

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

.

.

.

A i?eaaaeaiiie i?ia?aiia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiiaiae

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

ano?a/aaony aeaaaeaeu.

Aiia?ao iae?ieiiaiae iicaieyao i?enaieoue yoie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiy
e eniieueciaaoue yoi eiy aianoi iaa. Iiaeii oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue
iaeioi?ue iae?iycue, iicaieythuee ?anniao?eaaoue aeaiioth eiino?oeoeeth,
eae ii?aaeaeaiea e a aeaeueiaeoai eniieueciaaoue yoi ii?aaeaeaiea.

Oaeoe/anee, iae?ii?ioeanni? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioaeaeueiue ycueiaie
i?ioeanni? ni naiei nianoaaiiui ycueii.

Oi?iaou iae?iii?aaeaeaiee a ?acee/iuo nenoaiao iiaeao ioee/aoueny ae?oa
io ae?oaa. A aeaiiii neo/aa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiiaiae,
ii?aaeaeythuay iae?ieiiaiaeo eiaao neaaeothuee oi?iao

MACRO

—————–

—————–

—————–

END;

Inaaaeieiiaiaea MACRO – ia?aay no?iea ii?aaeaeaiey – ii?aaeaeyao
neaaeothuee ca iae eaeaioeoeeaoi?, eae eiy iae?ieiiaiaeu. Aneaae ca yoie
no?ieie ?aniieaaaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiiaiae, iacuaaaiuo “oaeii
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey”. Ii?aaeaeaiea caeai/eaaaony no?ieie n
inaaaeieiiaiaeie END.

Anee iae?ieiiaiaea ii?aaeaeaia, oi eniieueciaaiea eiaie niioaaonoaothuae
iae?ieiiaiaeu a ea/anoaa iiaiiieee eiaea a i?ia?aiia yeaeaaeaioii
eniieueciaaieth niioaaonoaothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae. Anee
iiaoi?ythuaeny iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae aeaoue eiy “MacPageUp”, oi
iao i?eia? iiaeii aoaeao ia?aienaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Enoiaeiue oaeno

?anoe?aiea enoiaeiiai oaenoa

MACRO MacPageUp

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

END;

.

.

.

MacPageUp

.

.

.

MacPageUp

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.

.

.

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.

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

.

.

.

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

.

.

.

A aeaiiii neo/aa iae?ii?ioeanni? caiaiyao eaaeaeoth iae?ieiiaiaeo
(iae?iaucia) no?ieaie:

SetPrevPos;

FixScreenPos;

PageScreenUp;

FixCursorPos;

Oaeie i?ioeann caiaiu iacuaaaony ?anoe?aieai iae?ieiiaiaeu. Caiaoei, /oi
naii iae?iii?aaeaeaiea ia iiyaeyaony a ?anoe?aiee enoiaeiiai oaenoa.
Ii?aaeaeaiea nio?aiyaony iae?ii?ioeanni?ii. Aoiaeaeaiea a enoiaeioth
i?ia?aiio eiaie iae?ieiiaiaeu eae iiaiiieee iia?aoeee iacuaaaony
iae?iauciaii.

IIA?AOI?U IAE?IEIIAIAe

Aiia?ao iae?ieiiaiae a oii aeaea, eae ii aue iienai aei neo ii?,
iicaieyao iiaenoaaeyoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae aianoi
iae?iauciaia, i?e/ai ana ia?auaiey e iae?iii?aaeaeaieth aoaeoo caiaiaiu
eaeaioe/iuie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoyie eiiaiae. Oaeie aiia?ao iaaeinoaoi/ii
aeaie: a iae?iauciaa iao n?aaenoa iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue eiaeu, eioi?ua aai
caiaiytho. Nouanoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoae iae?in?aaenoa
aeinoeaaaony aeiaaaeaieai iia?aiaeia (ia?aiao?ia) iae?ieiiaiae.

?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth i?ia?aiio:

I?eia? 2:

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.

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SetPrevPos;

MoveToMark(1);

CenterFixScreenPos;

.

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SetPrevPos;

MoveToMark(2);

CenterFixScreenPos;

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.

A aeaiiii neo/aa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae i/aiue iioiaee, ii ia
aaniethoii eaeaioe/iu. A ia?aie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eniieuecoaony
iia?aiae “1”, a ai aoi?ii – iia?aiae “2”. Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi iie
auiieiytho iaeio e oo aea iia?aoeeth n ia?aiaiiui ia?aiao?ii, eee
iia?aiaeii. Oaeie ia?aiao? iacuaatho “iia?aiaeii iae?ieiiaiaeu” eee
“oi?iaeueiui ia?aiao?ii”, e ii iau/ii iauyaeyaony a oie aea no?iea, aaea
e eiy iae?ina. A neo/aa ?aaiou n ycueii iae?iannaiaea?a, ii iau/ii
iiia/aaony neiaieii &, /oi ioee/aao aai eae neiaie iae?iycuea io
neiaieia annaiaea?a. A iaoai neo/aa, oe?ia Ai?eaiae ia i?aaeoniio?aea a
naiai iae?iycuea ?aaiou n iae?iiia?aiaeaie, iaeiaei iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi anee au iae?iii?aaeaeaiey a ycuea TEMC iiaee au
ia?aaaouaaoue iiaeiaioth neooaoeeth, oi oi?iao iae?iii?aaeaeaiey iia au
auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

MACRO ()

—————–

—————–

—————–

END;

aaea yoi ia?a/eneaiea /a?ac caiyooth anao iia?aiaeia
iae?ina.

I?aaeuaeouay i?ia?aiia a oaeii neo/aa iiaeao auoue ia?aienaia
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Enoiaeiue oaeno

?anoe?aiea enoiaeiiai oaenoa

MACRO MacGoto(labelno)

SetPrevPos;

MoveToMark(labelno);

CenterFixScreenPos;

END;

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MacGoto(1)

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MacGoto(2)

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SetPrevPos;

MoveToMark(1);

CenterFixScreenPos;

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SetPrevPos;

MoveToMark(2);

CenterFixScreenPos;

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Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iae?ieiiaiaea iiaeao eiaoue e aieaa iaeiiai
iia?aiaea. Eaaeaeue iia?aiae aeieaeai i?e yoii niioaaonoaiaaoue
oi?iaeueiiio ia?aiao?o a no?iea ii?aaeaeaiey eiaie iae?ina.

?anniio?ei neaaeothuee i?eia?:

I?eia? 3:

.

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ScrollScreenDown;

ScrollScreenLeft(0);

FixCursorPos;

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ScrollScreenUp;

ScrollScreenLeft(1);

FixCursorPos;

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A aeaiiii neo/aa iia?aiaeu a enoiaeiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoyo eiiaiae
?acee/iu, eae e eiiaiaeu. Yoa i?ia?aiia iiaeao auoue ia?aienaia oae:

Enoiaeiue oaeno

?anoe?aiea enoiaeiiai oaenoa

MACRO MacMove(cmd,left)

cmd;

ScrollScreenLeft(left);

FixCursorPos;

END;

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MacMove(ScrollScreenDown,0)

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MacMove(ScrollScreenUp,1) .

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ScrollScreenDown;

ScrollScreenLeft(0);

FixCursorPos;

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ScrollScreenUp;

ScrollScreenLeft(1);

FixCursorPos;

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Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiuo niiniaa caaeaiey
iia?aiaeia. Ia?aue niinia – iiceoeeiiiue iieacai a auoanoiyuai i?eia?a.
Nouanoaoao oaeaea niinia oeacaiey n i?eiaiaieai eeth/aauo iia?aiaeia,
eioi?ue iicaieyao ia?auaoueny e oi?iaeueiui iia?aoi?ai, eae ii eiaiai
oae e ii iiceoeee. Nnueaynue ia oi?iaeueiua iia?aoi?u a ii?aaeaeaiee
MacMove iiaeii oaeaea eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuee aucia:

MacMove(cmd=ScrollScreenUp,left=1)

ONEIAIIA IAE?I?ANOE?AIEA

Eiiaaea aicieeatho iio?aaiinoe eciaiyoue ii?yaeie eiiaiae
iae?i?anoe?aiey aioo?e iae?ina.

?anniio?ei neaaeothuoth i?ia?aiio:

I?eia? 4:

.

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ScrollScreenLeft(1);

LiteralChar(‘-‘);

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ScrollScreenDown;

ScrollScreenLeft(2);

LiteralChar(‘*’);

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A yoii i?eia?a ia oieueei ia?aiao?u, ii e eiee/anoai eiiaiae –
ia?aiaiiay aaee/eia. Yoa i?ia?aiia iiaeao auoue caienaia neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

.

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MACRO Mac1(p1,left,chr)

IF p1==1 THEN

ScrollScreenDown;

ENDIF

ScrollScreenLeft(2);

LiteralChar(‘*’);

END

.

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Mac1(1,2,’-’)

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Mac1(0,1,’*’)

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ScrollScreenLeft(1);

LiteralChar(‘-‘);

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ScrollScreenDown;

ScrollScreenLeft(2);

LiteralChar(‘*’);

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Eiiaeiaoeey IF…THEN…ELSE yaeyaony iae?iiaoeaie eee neiaieaie
neaaeiaaiey e ia iiyaeythony a auoiaeiii oaenoa iae?ii?ioeanni?a. A
iae?iycuea oaeaea iiaoo auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu inaaaeieiiaiaeu oneiaiiai e
aaconeiaiiai ia?aoiaea ia inaaaei-iaoeo, n eioi?ie iae?ii?ioeanni?
i?iaeieaeeo ia?aaioeo oaenoa i?ia?aiiu. Oi/ii oae aea, eae e a neo/aa
auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu, iia?aoi?u ia?aoiaeia neoaeao aeey oeacaiey
auiieiaiey iia?aoi?ia i?ia?aiiu, iia?aoi?u iae?i-ia?aoiaeia neoaeao aeey
oeacaiey ii?yaeea eiiieeyoeee oaenoa i?ia?aiiu. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
a i?ioeanna ?anoe?aiey iieo/aoue eiie?aoiua aa?eaiou
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae eiiaiae, niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiiio neo/ath
i?eiaiaiey iae?ieiiaiaeu. Auiieiaiea ia?aoiaeia e i?iaa?ie aioo?e
auiieiyaiiai eiaea oaaee/eaaao aai ?acia? e a?aiy auiieiaiey, a oi
a?aiy, eae i?iaa?ea e ia?aoiaeu a iae?inao i?ienoiaeyo ia noaaeee
eiiieeyoeee e iiyoiio ia o?aaotho cao?ao a?aiaie i?e auiieiaiee eiaea.
Yoa aiciiaeiinoue ecae?aoaeueiie auai?ee ioaeiuo /anoae oaenoa yaeyaony
iaeiei ec naiuo iiuiuo n?aaenoa a nenoaiiii i?ia?aiie?iaaiee.

IAE?IAUCIAU AIOO?E IAE?III?AAeAEAIEss

Iineieueeo iae?iii?aaeaeaiey yaeythony, ii nooe, “nie?auaieyie” aeey
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae, oi iieaciui naienoaii auea au
aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue oaeea “nie?auaiey” aioo?e naieo
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee.

I?eia? 5:

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MACRO Mac1

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

END

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MACRO Mac2

Mac1

Mac1

END

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.

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Aioo?e iae?iii?aaeaeaiey Mac2 aeaaaeaeu i?ienoiaeeo nnueea ia
iae?iii?aaeaeaiea Mac1. Yoi iiiiaei iai oiaiueoeoue aeeeio
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey Mac2 e naeaeaei aai aieaa eaaeei aeey iiieiaiey. Oaeia
eniieueciaaiea iae?in?aaenoa i?eaiaeeo e iae?i?anoe?aieyi ia ianeieueeeo
o?iaiyo aeiaeaiiinoe, iai?eia?:

Enoiaeiue oaeno ?anoe?aiea enoiaeiiai oaenoa (o?iaaiue 1) ?anoe?aiea
enoiaeiiai oaenoa (o?iaaiue 2)

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MACRO Mac1

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

END

MACRO Mac2

Mac1

Mac1

END

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Mac2

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MACRO Mac2

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

END

Mac2

.

.

.

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

SetPrevPos;

CursorCharRight;

.

.

.

Iae?iauciau, aioo?e iae?iii?aaeaeaiee iiaoo aeeth/aoue ianeieueei
o?iaiae. Iai?eia?, eiiaiaea Mac2 iiaea au auoue auiieiaia aioo?e
ae?oaiai iae?iii?aaeaeaiey. Oaeoe/anee, oaeea n?aaenoaa, eae
iae?i-ia?aoiaeu aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ethaia /enei ?ac ia?auaoueny e
ethaiio iae?iii?aaeaeaieth, e aeaaea e naiiio naaa. Oaeea auciau
iacuaathony ?aeo?neaiuie.

IAE?III?AAeAEAIEss A IAE?III?AAeAEAIEssO

Iu ?anniao?eaaee iae?ieiiaiaeu, eae iaiauaiiua nie?auaiey aeey
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiiaiae. I?aaenoaaeyaony ?acoiiui ?ac?aoeoue
eniieueciaaiea a oaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey ethauo aeiionoeiuo neioaenenii
i?aaeeiaeaiee, a oii /enea e ae?oaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii, iaeiaei, iiieiaoue, /oi aioo?aiiaa iae?iii?aaeaeaiea ia
aoaeao ii?aaeaeaii aei oao ii?, iiea ia i?iecieaeao aucia aiaoiaai
iae?ina. Yoi – neaaenoaea iaoiaea ?aaeecaoeee iae?iii?aaeaeaiee.
Iai?eia?, ionoue iieueciaaoaeue oi/ao ii?aaeaeeoue a?oiio
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee aeey ia?auaiey e iiaei?ia?aiiai n iiiiuueth eaeie-oi
noaiaea?oece?iaaiiie aucuaathuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. I?eaaaeaiiue
ieaea i?eia? ii?aaeaeyao iae?ieiiaiaeo DEFINE, eioi?ay i?e oeacaiee a
ea/anoaa aa iia?aiaea eiaie iiaei?ia?aiiu ii?aaeaeyao niioaaonoaothuee
yoiio eiaie iae?in. Ioaeaeueiua aaia?e?oaiua iae?iii?aaeaeaiey iieo/atho
eiaia naycaiiuo n ieie iiaei?ia?aii.

I?eia? 6:

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.

.

IANRO DEFINE sub

…….

…….

MACRO sub(param)

……

……

sub(param)

……

……

END

……

……

END

Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao ia?aoeoueny e yoiio iae?iii?aaeaeaieth neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

DEFINE(cos)

ii?aaeaeyy oaeei ia?acii iiaia iae?iii?aaeaeaiea n eiaiai cos, e
eioi?iio aiineaaenoaee iiaeii ia?auaoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

cos(o)

e iae?ii?ioeanni? naaia?e?oao niioaaonoaothuoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
auciaa ooieoeee.

?AAEECAOeEss

Oaeei ia?acii, iaie aue iienai aa?eaio ?aaeecaoeee iae?iycuea.
?anniio?ei iaoiae ?aaeecaoeee iae?iycuea. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a aicueiai
eeanne/aneee ycue iae?iannaiaea?a.

IINOAIIAEA CAAeA*E

Ethaie i?ioeanni? iae?ieiiaiae aeieaeai ?aoaoue neaaeothuea /aou?a
iniiaiua caaea/e:

?aniiciaaaoue iae?iii?aaeaeaiey. I?ioeanni? iae?ieiiaiae aeieaeai
?aniiciaaaoue iae?iii?aaeaeaiey, auaeaeyaiua niioaaonoaothueie
inaaaeieiiaiaeaie. A ycuea iae?iannaiaea?a yoeie inaaaeiiia?aoi?aie
yaeythony inaaaeieiiaiaeu MACRO e MEND. Yoa caaea/a iiaeao auoue
oneiaeiaia oai, /oi aioo?e iae?iii?aaeaeaiee iiaoo ano?a/aoueny oaeaea
ae?oaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey. Eiaaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey aeiaeaiu, eae auei
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii auoa, iae?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai i?aaeeueii
?aniiciaaaoue aeiaeaiey e niiinoaaeoue ia/aei e eiiaoe iae?ina. Aanue
aeiaeaiiue oaeno, aeeth/ay e ae?oaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao
ioaeaeueioth iae?ieiiaiaeo.

Caiiieiaoue iae?iii?aaeaeaiey. I?ioeanni? aeieaeai caiiiieoue
ii?aaeaeaiey iae?ieiiaiae, eioi?ua aoaeoo aiineaaenoaee eniieueciaaoueny
aeey ?anoe?aiey iae?iauciaia

?aniiciaaaoue auciau. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea e ?aniiciaaaoue iae?iauciau,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua a aeaea iiaiiie/aneiai eiaea iia?aoeee. Yoi
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi eiaia iae?ieiiaiae ia?aaaouaathony ia oao aea naiuo
iniiaaieyo, eae e iaeei ec eiaeia iia?aoeee.

Auiieiyoue ?anoe?aiea iae?ieiiaiae e iiaenoaiiaeo oaeoe/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia. Aianoi oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia iae?iii?aaeaeaiey
iae?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai iiaenoaaeoue niioaaonoaothuea iia?aiaeu
iae?ieiiaiaeu. Yoio oaeno, a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao niaea?aeaoue eae
iae?ieiiaiaeu oae e iae?iii?aaeaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iae?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai ?aniiciaaaoue e ia?aaaouaaoue
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey e iae?ieiiaiaeu.

*oi aea eanaaony oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia, oi ooo ioaeii i?eiyoue
ianeieueei ?aoaiee. Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue – iiaoo ee iie ano?a/aoueny
a ea/anoaa eiaea iia?aoeee, eaeia neioaenen aeiionoeiuo ia?aiao?ia. A
?aciuo ?aaeecaoeeyo iae?iycueia iiaoo ano?a/aoueny ?aciua aa?eaiou
iaoiaeu ?aaeecaoeee iiaeiaiuo neooaoeee, iiyoiio iiaeii oieueei aeaoue
iaeioi?ua ?acoiiua aa?eaiou, iie?uaathuea aieueooth /anoue aiciiaeiuo
?aaeecaoeee. Oi?iaeueiua ia?aiao?u iiaoo ano?a/aoueny a
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee aaea oaiaeii, a oii /enea e a eiiaiaea e a eiaea
iia?aoeee. Iu oioei, /oiau auea iaania/aia aiciiaeiinoue eiieaoaiaoeee
oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia iae?iii?aaeaeaiey n oeene?iaaiiuie neiaieueiuie
no?ieaie. A oaeii neo/aa anoaao aii?in i iaeiai ?acaeaeeoaeueiii
neiaiea, iaania/eaathuai eiieaoaiaoeeth oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia e
caaeaiiuo iieueciaaoaeai neiaieueiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae.

Iai?eia?, anee ec iaeei ec ia?aiao?ia aeieaeai auoue niaaeeiai n ae?oaei
(macro[x,y] = xy), oi aiciiaeai neioaenen x&y, /oi icia/aao
eiieaoaiaoeeth oi?iaeueiiai ia?aiao?a x n oi?iaeueiui ia?aiao?ii y. Yoio
neo/ae ia aucuaaao aieueoeo o?oaeiinoae. Ai?acaei neiaeiae
ia?aaaouaaaony neo/ae, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iiaenoaiiaea ia?aiao?a
aioo?e neiaieueiie no?iee. A oaeii neo/aa aiciiaeiui auoiaeii aoaeao
eiieaoaiaoeey ii oiie/aieth aeaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueii ae?oa ca ae?oaii
eaeoueo neiaieueiuo no?ie, a oaeaea i?aia?aciaaiea oi?iaeueiiai
ia?aiao?a, caeeth/aiiiai a neiaee e neiaieueiie no?iea. Oaeei ia?acii,
anee iu oioei, /oiau a iae?ina oeao?e?iaaea no?iea aeaea
“blablabla[x]xxxxx”, aaea [x] aeieaeii caiaiyoueny oi?iaeueiui
ia?aiao?ii aiieia aiciiaeii caiaieoue no?ieo oaeiai aeaea no?ieie oeia
“blablabla”(x)”xxxxx”.

Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi iiiaeanoai caia/aoaeueiuo eaeae ii ?aaeecaoeee
iiaeiaiuo iae?iycueia ?aaeeciaaii a ycuea REXX, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiii ia
nenoaiiii o?iaia iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie OS/2 eiiiaiee IBM.

Oaeaea aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee oneiaiuo ia?aoiaeia aeieaeiu
au/eneyoueny iaeioi?ua a?eoiaoe/aneea au?aaeaiey (aicueiai a i?eia? oioy
au iaueiiaaiiuo n/ao/ee). Oaeei ia?acii /anoi ieacuaaaony iieaciie
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey inaaaei-ia?aiaiiuo a?aiaie eiiieeyoeee
aioo?e iae?inia.

AeAOI?INIIO?IAUE AEAI?EOI

Ia/iai n iaeioi?uo oi?iuathueo i?aaeiieiaeaiee. Aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi iao
iae?ii?ioeanni? ooieoeeiiaeueii iacaaenei io iniiaiiai eiiieeyoi?a e aai
oaeno aoaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny yoiio eiiieeyoi?o. Nia/aea ia ?ac?aoei
iae?iauciau e iae?iii?aaeaeaiey aioo?e iae?iii?aaeaeaiee.

Iae?ii?ioeanni?, eae e ycue annaiaea?a, i?iniao?eaaao e ia?aaaouaaao
no?iee oaenoa. Ii a ycuea ana no?iee naycaiu aae?anaoeeae – iaeia no?iea
iiaeao nnueaoueny ia ae?oaoth i?e iiiiue aae?ana eee eiaie, eioi?ia
aeieaeii auoue “ecaanoii” annaiaea?o. Aieaa oiai, aae?an i?enaaaaaaiue
eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie no?iea caaeneo io niaea?aeeiiai, eiee/anoaa e
aae?ania i?aaeoanoaothueo no?ie. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue iae?iii?aaeaeaiea,
eae aaeeiue iauaeo, oi iiaeii neacaoue, /oi no?iee iaoaai
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey ia oae neeueii acaeiinaycaiu. Iae?iii?aaeaeaiey ia
iiaoo nnueaoueny ia iauaeou aiaia yoiai iae?iii?aaeaeaiey.
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a oaea iae?iii?aaeaeaiey anoue no?iea INCR X, i?e/ai
ia?aae yoie eiiaiaeie ia?aiao? O iieo/ee cia/aiea 10. Iae?ii?ioeanni? ia
i?iecaiaeeo neioaene/aneee aiaeec, a i?iecaiaeeo i?inooth oaenoiaoth
iiaenoaiiaeo aianoi “O” iiaenoaaeyaony “10”.

Iao aeai?eoi aoaeao auiieiyoue 2 nenoaiaoe/aneeo i?iniio?a aoiaeiiai
oaenoa. A ia?aue i?ioiae aoaeoo aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu ana iae?iii?aaeaeaiey,
ai aoi?ie i?ioiae aoaeoo ioe?uou ana nnueee ia iae?inu. Oae aea, eae e
ycue annaiaea?a ia iiaeao auiieieoue nnueeo ia neiaie aei oiai iiiaioa,
eae ii ano?aoeo yoio neiaie, ycue iae?ieiiaiae ia iiaeao auiieieoue
?anoe?aiea aei oao ii?, iiea ia ano?aoeo niioaaonoaothuaa
iae?iii?aaeaeaiea. Ai a?aiy ia?aiai i?iniio?a i?iaa?yaony eaaeaeue eiae
iia?aoeee, iae?iii?aaeaeaiey caiiieiathony a oaaeeoea iae?iii?aaeaeaiee,
a eiiey enoiaeiiai oaenoa aac iae?iii?aaeaeaiee caiiieiaaony ai aiaoiae
iaiyoe, aeey eniieueciaaiey aa i?e aoi?ii i?ioiaea. Iiieii oaaeeoeu
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee ai a?aiy ia?aiai i?ioiaea aoaeao oaeaea oaaeeoea eiai,
ai aoi?ie i?ioiae iia aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey auaeaeaiey
iae?iiia?aoeee e ?anoe?aiey eo aei oaenoa niioaaonoaothuaai
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey.

AeAIIUA AeEss IA?AIAI I?INIIO?A

1. AOO – Aoiaeiie oaeno

2. AUO1 – Auoiaeiay eiiey oaenoa aeey eniieueciaaiey ai aoi?ie i?ioiae.

3. IAeO – oaaeeoea iae?iii?aaeaeaiee, a eioi?ie o?aiyony oaea
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee

4. IIO – oaaeeoea eiai, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey o?aiaiey eiai iae?ieiiaiae,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo a IIO

5. IAeON – n/ao/ee aeey oaaeeoeu IAeO

6. IION – n/ao/ee aeey oaaeeoeu IIO

7. AEA – iannea nienea ia?aiao?ia aeey iiaenoaiiaee eiaeaeniuo ia?ea?ia
aianoi oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia, ia?aae caiiieiaieai ii?aaeaeaiey.

AeAIIUA AeEss AOI?IAI I?INIIO?A

1. AUO1 – Auoiaeiay eiiey oaenoa iinea ia?aiai i?ioiaea

2. AUO2 – Auoiaeiay eiiey oaenoa iinea aoi?iai i?ioiaea

3. IAeO – oaaeeoea iae?iii?aaeaeaiee, a eioi?ie o?aiyony oaea
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee

4. IIO – oaaeeoea eiai, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey o?aiaiey eiai iae?ieiiaiae,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo a IIO

5. IAeON – n/ao/ee aeey oaaeeoeu IAeO

6. IION – n/ao/ee aeey oaaeeoeu IIO

7. AEA – iannea nienea ia?aiao?ia aeey iiaenoaiiaee eiaeaeniuo ia?ea?ia
aianoi oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia, ia?aae caiiieiaieai ii?aaeaeaiey.

AEAI?EOI

Ieaea i?eaaaeaia oi?iaeueiay caienue niioaaonoaothueo aeai?eoiia
ia?aaioee iae?iii?aaeaeaiee aeaooi?iniio?iaui niiniaii.

Eaaeaeue ec aeai?eoiia inouanoaeyao iino?i/iue i?iniio? aoiaeiiai
oaenoa.

IA?AUE I?INIIO? – IAE?III?AAeAEAIEss: Aeai?eoi ia?aiai i?iniio?a
i?iaa?yao eaaeaeoth no?ieo aoiaeiiai oaenoa. Anee iia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie inaaaeiiia?aoeeth MACRO, oi ana neaaeothuea ca iae no?iee
caiiieiathony a aeeaeaeoeo naiaiaeiuo y/aeeao IAeO. Ia?aay no?iea
iae?iii?aaeaeaiey – yoi eiy naiiai iae?ina. Eiy caiineony a oaaeeoeo
eiai IIO n eiaeaenii yoie no?iee a IAeO. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea
iiaenoaiiaea iiia?ia oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia, aianoi eo eiai. Anee a
oa/aiea i?iniio?a ano?a/aaony eiiaiaea END, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi aanue
oaeno ia?aaioai, e oi?aaeaiea iiaeii ia?aaeaaaoue aoi?iio i?iniio?o aeey
ia?aaioee iae?ieiiaiae.

AOI?IE I?INIIO? – ?ANOE?AIEA IAE?IEIIAIAe: Aeai?eoi aoi?iai i?iniio?a
i?iaa?yao iiaiiie/aneee eiae eaaeaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Anee yoi eiy
niaea?aeeony a IIO, oi i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaioea iae?ii?aaeeiaeaiey ii
neaaeothuaio i?aaeeo: ec oaaeeoeu IIO aa?aony oeacaoaeue ia ia/aei
iienaiey iae?ina a IAeO. Iae?ii?ioeanni? aioiaeo iannea nienea AEA
niaea?aeauee oaaeeoeo eiaeaenia oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia e
niioaaonoaothueo iia?aiaeia iae?ieiiaiaeu. *oaiea i?iecaiaeeony ec IAeO,
iinea /aai a i?i/eoaiioth no?ieo iiaenoaaeythony iaiaoiaeeiua ia?aiao?u,
e iieo/aiiay oaeei ia?acii no?iea caienuaaaony a AUOO2. Eiaaea
ano?a/aaony aee?aeoeaa END, oaeno iieo/aiiiai eiaea ia?aaeaaony aeey
eiiieeyoeee annaiaea?o.

Ia?aue i?iniio?

Ia/aei aeai?eoia

IAeON = 0

IION = 0

OEAA AUOIAeA = 0

oeeee iiea (OEAA AUOIAeA == 0) {

/oaiea neaaeothuae no?iee AOO

anee !(iia?aoeey MACRO) {

auaiae no?iee a AUOO1

anee (iia?aoeey END) OEAA AUOIAeA = 1

}

eia/a {

/oaiea eaeaioeoeeaoi?a

caienue eiaie e eiaeaena a IIO

IION ++

i?eaioiaeoue iannea nienea AEA

caienue eiaie a IAeO

IAeON ++

oeeee {

/oaiea neaaeothuae no?iee AOO

iiaenoaiiaea eiaeaena iia?aoi?ia

aeiaaaeaiea a IAeO

IAeON ++

} iiea !(iia?aoeey MEND)

}

}

ia?aoiae ei aoi?iio i?ioiaeo

eiiaoe aeai?eoia

Aoi?ie i?iniio?

Ia/aei aeai?eoia

OEAA AUOIAeA = 0

oeeee iiea (OEAA AUOIAeA == 0) {

/oaiea no?iee ec AUOO1

IAEAeAII = iiene eiaea a IIO

anee !(IAEAeAII) {

caienue a AUOO2 no?iee

anee (iia?aoeey END) {

OEAA AUOIAeA = 1

}

}

eia/a {

OEACAOAEUe = eiaeaen ec IIO

Caiieiaiea nienea ia?aiao?ia AEA

oeeee {

OEACAOAEUe ++

/oaiea neaae. no?iee ec IAeO

iiaenoaiiaea ia?aiao?ia

auaiae a AUOO2

} iiea !(iia?aoeey MEND)

}

}

ia?aoiae e eiiieeyoeee

eiiaoe aeai?eoia

IAeIII?INIIO?IAUE AEAI?EOI

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iu aeiioneaai ?aaeecaoeeth iae?iii?aaeaeaiey aioo?e
iae?iii?aaeaeaiee. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia caeanue caeeth/aia a oii, /oi
aioo?aiiaa iae?i ii?aaeaeaii oieueei iinea oiai, eae auiieiai aucia
aiaoiaai. Aeey iaania/aiey eniieueciaaiey aioo?aiiaai iae?i iai
i?eaeaony iiaoi?youe eae i?iniio? ia?aaioee iae?iii?aaeaeaiee, oae e
i?iniio? ia?aaioee iae?ieiiaiae. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao e aua iaeii ?aoaiea,
eioi?ia iicaieyao i?iecaanoe ?aniiciaaaiea e ?anoe?aiea a iaeei
i?iniio?.

?anniio?ei aiaeiaeth n annaiaea?ii. Iae?iii?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii
ia?aaaouaaoueny aei ia?aaioee iae?ieiiaiae, iineieueeo iae?i aeieaeiu
auoue ii?aaeaeaiu aeey i?ioeanni?a ?aiueoa, /ai iae?ieiiaiaeu ia?auaiey
e iei. Iaeiaei, anee iu iaeiaeei ia?aie/aiea, /oi eaaeaeia
iae?iii?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii auoue ii?aaeaeaii aei oiai, eae i?iecieaeao
ia?auaiea e iaio, iu ono?aiei iniiaiia i?aiyonoaea aeey
iaeiii?iniio?iaie ia?aaioee. Caiaoei, /oi oi aea naiia iiaeao auoue
aa?ii e aeey neiaiee/aneeo eiai a annaiaea?a, ii oaeia o?aaiaaiea auei
au iaii?aaaeaiiui ia?aie/aieai aeey i?ia?aiienoa. A neo/aa aea
iae?i?anoe?aiey iiaeao auoue aiieia anoanoaaiii iio?aaiaaoue, /oiau
iauyaeaiey iae?i i?aaeoanoaiaaee auciaai. Yoi ia iaeeaaeuaaao i/aiue
nouanoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia eniieueciaaiea aiia?aoa iae?ieiiaiae. Yoio
iaoaieci aeaaea ia cai?auaao ia?auaiea iae?i e naiiio naaa, iineieueeo
ia?auaiea aaaeaony a oio iiiaio, eiaaea eiy iae?ina oaea ii?aaeaeaii.
?anoe?aiea aea iae?ina eaeao ia a i?ioeanna ?acai?a iae?ina, a a
i?ioeanna iineaaeothuaai auciaa.

I?aaeeiaeaiiue ieaea aeai?eoi iauaaeeiyao aeaa auoai?eaaaeaiiuo
aeai?eoia aeey aeaoi?iniio?iaiai iae?iannaiaea?a a iaeei.

AEAI?EOI

Iaeiii?iniio?iaue iae?iannaiaea?

Ia/aei aeai?eoia

IOAeN = 0

IION = 0

OEAA AUOIAeA = 0

oeeee iiea !(OEAA AUOIAeA) {

/oaiea neaaeothuae no?iee AOO

IAEAeAII = iiene eiaea a IIO

anee (IAEAeAII) {

IAeE = 1

OEACAOAEUe = eiaeaen ec IIO

Caiieiaiea nienea ia?aiao?ia AEA

oeeee {

OEACAOAEUe ++

/oaiea neaae. no?iee ec IAeO

iiaenoaiiaea ia?aiao?ia

anoaaea ai AOO

} iiea !(iia?aoeey MEND)

eia/a anee !(iia?aoeey MACRO) {

auaiae no?iee a AUOO1

anee (iia?aoeey END) OEAA AUOIAeA = 1

}

eia/a {

/oaiea eaeaioeoeeaoi?a

caienue eiaie e eiaeaena a IIO

IION ++

i?eaioiaeoue iannea nienea AEA

caienue eiaie a IAeO

IAeON ++

oeeee {

/oaiea neaaeothuae no?iee AOO

iiaenoaiiaea eiaeaena iia?aoi?ia

aeiaaaeaiea a IAeO

IAeON ++

} iiea !(iia?aoeey MEND)

}

}

eiiaoe aeai?eoia

IIENAIEA AEAI?EOIA

aeaiiue aeai?eoi yaeyaony oi?iuaieai aeai?eoia i?eaaaeaiiiai a [1],
aeaaa 4.3.2. ?acee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa
eioaeeaeooaeecaoeee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aeatho iai aiciiaeiinoue
inouanoaeyoue anoaaee e oaeaeaiey ec e?oiiuo ianneaia n ieieiaeueiuie
cao?aoaie i?ioeanni?iiai a?aiaie, /oi auei iaaiciiaeii i?e
eniieueciaaiee ia?oiea?o. E?iia oiai, nei?inoue ?aaiou nia?aiaiiuo
i?ioeanni?ia ianoieueei aaeeea, /oi iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue i?yiua
anoaaee e oaeaeaiey a ianneaao aeaiiuo n?aaeiae aaee/eiu (neaaeai, aei
64 eeeiaaeo) a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, ?anoe?aiea
enoiaeiiai iae?ina iiaeao auoue iai?yioth anoaaeaii a iannea enoiaeiiai
oaenoa e ia?aaioaii a ?anoe?aiiii aeaea. Oaeay oaoiieiaey iicaieyao
cia/eoaeueii oi?inoeoue aeai?eoi ia?aaioee iae?iycuea.

?AAEECAOeEss AIOO?E ANNAIAEA?A

Iae?ii?ioeanni?, iienaiiue iaie i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey ia?aaioee oaenoa a
?aaeeia i?ai?ioeanni?a, oi-anoue ii auiieiye iieiue i?iniio? aoiaeiiai
oaenoa, aei oiai, eae ia?aaeaoue oi?aaeaiea annaiaea?o. Ii
iae?ii?ioeanni? oaeaea iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaai aioo?e ia?aiai i?ioiaea
annaiaea?a. Oaeay ?aaeecaoeey iicaieyao eneeth/eoue i?iiaaeooi/iua
oaeeu, e iicaieyao aeinoe/ue ia ii?yaeie aieueoae eioaa?aoeee
iae?ii?ioeanni?a e annaiaea?a iooai iauaaeeiaiey noiaeiuo ooieoeee.
Iai?eia?, aiciiaeii iauaaeeiaiea oaaeeoe eiai iae?inia e eiai eiaea
iia?aoeee; niaoeeaeueiue i?eciae iiaeao oeacuaaoue ia oi iae?i yoi eee
ano?iaiiay iia?aoeey.

Iniiaiua i?aeiouanoaa aeeth/aiey iae?ii?ioeanni?a a ia?aue i?iniio?
ninoiyo a neaaeothuai:

Iiiaea ooieoeee ia iaaei ?aaeeciauaaoue aeaaaeaeu (iai?eia?, ooieoeee
aaiaea-auaiaea, i?iaa?ee ia oei, e.o.i.)

A i?ioeanna ia?aaioee ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaaaoue
i?iiaaeooi/iua oaeeu eee ianneau aeaiiuo.

O i?ia?aiienoa iiyaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe ii niaiauaieth
n?aaenoa annaiaea?a (iai?eia?, eiiaiaeu EUQ) niaianoii n
iae?ieiiaiaeaie.

Iniiaiua iaaeinoaoee:

I?ia?aiia aeieaeia o?aaiaaoue aieueoa iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, /oi e?eoe/ii
ia iaeioi?uo oeiao YAI, ia eiathueo iiiai iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.

?aaeecaoeey iiaeiaiiai oeia caaea/e iiaeao ieacaoueny ia ii?yaeie
neiaeiaa, /ai ioaeaeueiay ?aaeecaoeey annaiaea?a e iae?ii?ioeanni?a.

Ioaeaeueii io ?anniio?aiey ?aaeecaoeee aiia?aoa iae?in?aaenoa a
annaiaea? eaaeeo ?anniio?aiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iniio?a,
eniieuecoaiiai iiiaeie i?ia?aiiaie aeey auyaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee enoiaeiie i?ia?aiiu, oaeeo eae oeiu aeaiiuo. ?aniieaaay
oaeei iae?ii?ioeanni?ii, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eiiaiaeu oneiaiie
eiiieeyoeee, iicaieythuea iinoaaeoue ?anoe?aiea iae?ieiiaiae a
caaeneiinoue io ii?aaeaeaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ia?aiiu.

AUAIAeU

Iae?iycuee e niioaaonoaothuea ei iae?ii?ioeanni?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
naiinoiyoaeueioth oi?io ycueia i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. I?e eniieueciaaiee
aianoa n annaiaea?ii, iae?ii?ioeanni? yaeyaony aeey i?ia?aiienoa
iieaciui eino?oiaioii e ii nouanoao, iicaieyao aio naiiio ii?aaeaeyoue
naie ycue “aunieiai” o?iaiy.

Nouanoaotho /aou?a iniiaiuo caaea/e, ?aoaaiuo iae?ii?ioeanni?ii:

?aniiciaaaiea iae?iii?aaeaeaiee

O?aiaiea iae?iii?aaeaeaiee

?aniiciaaaiea iae?ieiiaiae

?anoe?aiea iae?ieiiaiae e iiaenoaiiaea ia?aiao?ia

Iae?ii?ioeanni? a annaiaea?a iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaai ianeieueeeie
niiniaaie:

Iacaaeneiue aeaooi?iniio?iaue annaiaea?

Iacaaeneiue iaeiii?iniio?iaue annaiaea?

I?ioeanni?, niaiauaiiue n ia?aui i?ioiaeii noaiaea?oiiai
aeaooi?iniio?iaiai annaiaea?a.

NNUEEE

A ?aaioa iaae ?aoa?aoii eniieueciaaeanue neaaeothuay eeoa?aoo?a:

[1] Aeae. Aeaei?aeai – “Nenoaiiia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea”

[2] IBM OS/2 – “REXX Programmer’s Reference”

[3] Borland C++ – Included documentation and sources.

Iineaa, 1 Iiya?y 1995 a.

?ac?aaioea iauaai i?ia?aiiiai iaania/aiey. ?aoa?ao. no? PAGE \*
MERGEFORMAT 29

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Einoeooo Yeaeo?iieee e Iaoaiaoeee, 1995

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