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NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3” AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510918 PAGEREF
_Toc463510918 3

1 OAI?AOE*ANEEA AII?INU CAUEOU EIOI?IAOeEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510919
PAGEREF _Toc463510919 7

1.1 Iaci? nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia caueou eioi?iaoeee GOTOBUTTON
_Toc463510920 PAGEREF _Toc463510920 7

1.1.1 Oece/aneee aeinooi e aeinooi e aeaiiui GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510921
PAGEREF _Toc463510921 8

1.1.2 Eiio?ieue aeinooia e aiia?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510922
PAGEREF _Toc463510922 9

1.1.3 E?eioia?aoe/aneia i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc463510923 PAGEREF _Toc463510923 10

1.2 Nenoaia caueou eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia

(INAe) a IYAI GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510924 PAGEREF _Toc463510924 12

1.3 Eiiiuethoa?iua ae?onu e n?aaenoaa caueou io ieo. 19

1.3.1 Iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu e oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo

ae?onia GOTOBUTTON _Toc463510926 PAGEREF _Toc463510926 19

1.3.2 Oeie/iua ioeaee iieueciaaoaey, i?eaiaeyuea e ca?aaeaieth

IYAI eiiiuethoa?iuie ae?onaie 21

1.3.3 N?aaenoaa caueou io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia 22

1.3.4 Eniieueciaaiea ianeieueeeo aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii 28

1.3.5 Caiaia eee ea/aiea 29

1.3.6 Ia?u ii i?aaeioa?auaieth iiyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia 31

1.4 Aaciianiinoue eio?aiao 36

1.4.1 Oaiaeaioeee e aii?inu aaciianiinoe eio?aiao 37

1.4.2 Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iieueciaaoaey 40

1.4.3 ?ac?aaioea iaoaieciia iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe 42

2 N?AAeNOAA CAUEOU EIOI?IAOeEE IA EAOAAe?AO

YE e AO E O e II 45

2.1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?iaoeee, o?aieiie ia eaoaae?ao YE e AO

e O e II 45

2.2 Caueoa eioi?iaoeee io INAe 48

2.3 Caueoa eioi?iaoeee io ae?onia 49

CAEETH*AIEA 51

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA 53

I?EEIAEAIEss 54

I?eeiaeaiea A. Oeo?iaaiea
eioi?iaoeee…………………………………….55

I?eeiaeaiea A. Oa?aeoa?enoeea e?eioia?aoe/aneeo aeai?eoiia………56

I?eeiaeaiea A. N?aaenoaa caueou io
INAe……………………………………..57

I?eeiaeaiea A. Aooaioeoeeaoeey n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou……..59

I?eeiaeaiea Ae. Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe e iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu……60

Eoi aeaaeaao eioi?iaoeeae, oio aeaaeaao ie?ii.

Oeinoii *a?/eeeue

AAAAeAIEA

I?iaeaia caueou eioi?iaoeee io iinoi?iiiaai aeinooia e iaaeaeaoaeueiuo
aicaeaenoaee ia iaa aicieeea aeaaii, n oie ii?u, eiaaea /aeiaaeo ii
eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai ia oioaeinue aeaeeoueny ath ie n eai eee ia n
eaaeaeui /aeiaaeii. N ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, iiyaeaieai
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, ai?ueaie ca aeanoue e a
aeaeueiaeoai ?anoe?aieai ianooaaia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
eioi?iaoeey i?eia?aoaao oeaio. Oeaiiie noaiiaeony oa eioi?iaoeey,
iaeaaeaiea eioi?ie iicaieeo aa nouanoaothuaio e iioaioeeaeueiiio
aeaaeaeueoeo iieo/eoue eaeie-eeai auea?uo: iaoa?eaeueiue, iieeoe/aneee,
aiaiiue e o.ae.

A ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey i?eieoeaiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee aa caueoa
inouanoaeyeanue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie, eioi?ua aeeth/aee
ia?aie/aiea e ?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia, ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?u iaeacaiey ca
?acaeaoaiea oaeiu. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Aa?iaeioa, oaea a V aaea aei iiaie
y?u eniieueciaaeinue i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee iaoiaeii eiaee?iaaiey.
Eiaeu iiyaeeenue a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe a aeaea e?eioia?aii (ii-a?a/anee
— oaeiiienue). Nia?oaioeu eiaee niaoeeaeueiue iaoaie/aneee i?eai?, i?e
iiiiue eioi?iai aaaeiua niiauaiey iiaeii auei ienaoue iniaui niiniaii,
iaania/eaathuei nio?aiaiea oaeiu. Nianoaaiiay nae?aoiay acaoea auea o
THeey Oeaca?y. A n?aaeiea aaea e yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey iaae ecia?aoaieai
oaeiuo oeo?ia o?oaeeeenue iiiaea auaeathueany ethaee, a eo /enea
ecaanoiue oeeinio O?ainen Ayeii, e?oiiua iaoaiaoeee — O?ainoa Aeao,
Aeaea?ieaii Ea?aeaii, Aeaeii Aaeeen.

N ia?aoiaeii ia eniieueciaaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa nayce eioi?iaoeey
iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia: iaeni?aaiinoyi e naiyi
iai?oaeiaaiey, ioeaeai iia?aoi?ia e o. ae., eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e aa
?ac?ooaieth, eciaiaieyi ia eiaeioth, a oaeaea nicaeaoue i?aaeiinueee e
aeinooio e iae iinoi?iiieo eeoe. N aeaeueiaeoei oneiaeiaieai e oe?ieei
?ani?ino?aiaieai oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa nayce aic?inee aiciiaeiinoe aeey
i?aaeiaia?aiiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee.

N iiyaeaieai neiaeiuo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey, naycaiiuo n
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui aaiaeii, o?aiaieai, ia?aaioeie e auaiaeii
eioi?iaoeee, i?iaeaia aa caueou i?eia?aoaao aua aieueoaa cia/aiea. Yoiio
niinianoaiaaee:

• oaaee/aiea iauaiia eioi?iaoeee, iaeaieeaaaiie, o?aieiie e
ia?aaaouaaaiie n iiiiuueth YAI e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee;

• nin?aaeioi/aiea a aaeeiuo aacao aeaiiuo eioi?iaoeee ?acee/iiai
iacia/aiey e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe;

• ?anoe?aiea e?oaa iieueciaaoaeae, eiathueo aeinooi e ?ano?nai
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu e iaoiaeyueiny a iae ianneaai aeaiiuo;

• oneiaeiaiea ?aaeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu: oe?ieia aiaae?aiea iiiaii?ia?aiiiiai ?aaeeia,
?aaeeia ?acaeaeaiey a?aiaie e ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie;

• aaoiiaoecaoeey iaaeiaoeiiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, a oii /enea e ia
aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo;

• oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa e naycae a
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey e ia?aaioee aeaiiuo;

• iiyaeaiea ia?niiaeueiuo YAI, ?anoe?ythueo aiciiaeiinoe ia oieueei
iieueciaaoaey, ii e ia?ooeoaey.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie e a naiii /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa, e a oaoiieiaee
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo i?iecioee aieueoea eciaiaiey, eioi?ua iiaeeyee ia naio
nooue i?iaeaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee. Iai?eia?, ii aeaiiui ca?oaaaeiie
eeoa?aoo?u, e eiioeo 70-o aiaeia aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe nai?a,
ia?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee aeinoeaea 46% aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa NOA, e ia iaa i?eoiaeeony 53% iauae noiiu
ca?aaioiie ieaou. Eiaeono?ey ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee aeinoeaea
aeiaaeueiiai o?iaiy. Iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue auoiaea a aeiaaeueioth
au/eneeoaeueioth naoue n aeiiaoiaai eiiiuethoa?a. Iiyaeaiea
“yeaeo?iiiuo” aeaiaa (e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae) nicaeaei i?aaeiinueee aeey
oeuaiee e?oiiuo noii aeaiaa. A ia/aoe i?eaaaeaii iiiaeanoai eiie?aoiuo
i?eia?ia oeuaiey eioi?iaoeee ec aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo, eioi?ua aanueia oaaaeeoaeueii eeethno?e?otho na?ueaciinoue e
aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu.

Nae/an iu aeeaai a ie?a, ni anao noi?ii iiooaiiii i?iaiaeaie, aaea oae
iacuaaaiua “aicaeooiua caci?u” e “caueoa ia?acaeaoaieai” oaea ia
yaeythony aeinoaoi/iuie ia?aie. Eiiiuethoa?iay naoue i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe,
nicaeaaay caiooaiiua ia?aieaoaiey ia?o?ooia ii anaio ie?o. E iiaeao
ianooieoue iiiaio, eiaaea aeaiiua ia/ioo ia?aiaoeaaoueny. Iaeaou aaoae
eioi?iaoeee aoaeoo auno?aeaaoueny a i/a?aaeue iicaaee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iaeaoia eiieo?aioia. En/aciao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo Eioa?iao e eio?aiao. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, yeiiiie/aneia aeaaeaiea canoaaeo eiiiaiee ia?aeoe ia
iauaaeinooiiua naoe, aaea aaciianiinoue iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaia oieueei
ia eiae/aneii o?iaia.

Iiaia oaeeaeoaeueiia ii?iaeaeaiea IO? – niaoeeaeueiua eiiiuethoa?iua
ceioiuoeaiieee: oaea?u e e?yea?u. Oaea?u (Hacker, aiae.) —
eiiiuethoa?iua ooeeaaiu, iieo/athuea oaeiaieuenoaea io oiai, /oi ei
oaeaaony i?iieeiooue a /oaeie eiiiuethoa?. Iaeiia?aiaiii iie i?ae?aniua
ciaoiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee. N iiiiuueth oaeaoiia e aeiiaoieo
eiiiuethoa?ia iie iiaeeeth/athony e naoyi ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, naycaiiui n
ii/oe anaie e?oiiuie eiiiuethoa?aie yeiiiieee,
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaio?ia, aaieia.

Ia?aaeienaeueii, ii oi?ioi ?aaioathuay nenoaia n ea/anoaaiiuie
niaaeeiaieyie aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue aieaa oniaoiie e?aaea eioi?iaoeee.
Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iea/aaiiai enoiaea neaaeoao ia oieueei yooaeoeaii
?aaeeciaaoue caueoo, ii e onoaiiaeoue aeey ooieoeee neaaeaiey e
oi?aaeaiey aaciianiinoueth oaeie aea aunieee i?ei?eoao, eae e aeey
oi?aaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie. Oaea?u nicaeatho naie eeoau, oaeea,
eae aaiao?aneee eeoa “Oain-eiiiuethoa?”, ?ani?ino?aiytho naie
atheeaoaie, iaiaieaathony eioi?iaoeeae /a?ac aeanyoee “yeaeo?iiiuo
ii/oiauo yueeia”. Eiaeu, ia?iee, oaoie/aneay eioi?iaoeey, i?ecuau e o.
ae. – ana eaeao /a?ac “ii/oiaua yueee”. Oaeea eeoau iiyaeythony e a
?innee. Iniaay ?aciiaeaeiinoue oaea?ia – e?yea?u (Cracker (aiae.) –
ai?-aceiiuee). E?yea?u a ioee/ea io oaea?ia ai?otho eioi?iaoeeth n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a, auea/eaay oeaeua eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaiee aeaiiuo.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iiaue aeae
eiiiuethoa?iiai i?anooieaiey – nicaeaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia, a
ea/anoaa eioi?uo aunooiatho niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua i?ia?aiiu,
ia/eiathuea ?aaioaoue oieueei ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio neaiaeo. I?e yoii ae?on
iiaeao ?aciiiaeaoueny, neiaii aicaoaeeoaeue aieacie, eiaaea
nii?eeanaaony n ae?oaei i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai. Iineaaenoaey io
“ca?aaeaiey” i?ia?aii iiaeiaiuie ae?onaie iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie: io
aaciaeaeiuo oooie a aeaea thii?enoe/aneeo iiiao aei ?ac?ooaiey
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ainnoaiiaeaiea eioi?iai iiaeao ieacaoueny
iaaiciiaeiui, a iioa?e iaainiieieiuie.

1 Oai?aoe*aneea aii?inu caueou eioi?iaoeee

1.1 Iaci? nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia caueou eioi?iaoeee

I?e iaee/ee i?inouo n?aaenoa o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee
nouanoaiaaee e ia iioa?yee cia/aiey aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie neaaeothuea
iaoiaeu aa caueou io i?aaeiaia?aiiiai aeinooia: ia?aie/aiea aeinooia;
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia; ?acaeaeaiea aeinooia (i?eaeeaaee);
e?eioia?aoe/aneia i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee; eiio?ieue e o/ao aeinooia;
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?u.

Oeacaiiua iaoiaeu inouanoaeyeenue /enoi i?aaiecaoeeiiii eee n iiiiuueth
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

N iiyaeaieai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee eciaieeny e
aeiiieieeny iiauie aeaeaie oece/aneee iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee e
oneiaeieeenue oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa aa ia?aaioee.

N oneiaeiaieai ia?aaioee, oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,
o/anoaothueo a iae, oaaee/eaathony eiee/anoai e aeaeu neo/aeiuo
aicaeaenoaee, a oaeaea aiciiaeiua eaiaeu ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia.
N oaaee/aieai iauaiia, nin?aaeioi/aieai eioi?iaoeee, oaaee/aieai
eiee/anoaa iieueciaaoaeae e ae?oaeie oeacaiiuie auoa i?e/eiaie
oaaee/eaaaony aa?iyoiinoue i?aaeiaia?aiiiai ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai
aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee. A nayce n yoei ?acaeaathony noa?ua e aicieeatho
iiaua aeiiieieoaeueiua iaoiaeu caueou eioi?iaoeee a au/eneeoaeueiuo
nenoaiao:

• iaoiaeu ooieoeeiiaeueiiai eiio?iey, iaania/eaathuea iaia?oaeaiea e
aeeaaiinoeeo ioeacia, naiaa aiia?aoo?u e ioeaie /aeiaaea, a oaeaea
i?ia?aiiiua ioeaee;

• iaoiaeu iiauoaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe eioi?iaoeee;

• iaoiaeu caueou eioi?iaoeee io aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee;

• iaoiaeu eiio?iey aeinooia e aioo?aiiaio iiioaaeo aiia?aoo?u, eeieyi
nayce e oaoiieiae/aneei i?aaiai oi?aaeaiey;

• iaoiaeu ?aca?aie/aiey e eiio?iey aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee;

• iaoiaeu eaeaioeoeeaoeee e aooaioeoeeaoeee iieueciaaoaeae, oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa, iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee e aeieoiaioia;

• iaoiaeu caueou io iiai/iiai eceo/aiey e iaaiaeie eioi?iaoeee.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iaoiaeu iiae?iaiaa.

1.1.1 Oece/aneee aeinooi e aeinooi e aeaiiui

I?aaeea inouanoaeaiey eiio?iey aeinooia e aeaiiui yaeythony
aaeeinoaaiiuie nouanoaothueie iaoiaeaie aeey aeinoeaeaiey ?anniio?aiiuo
auoa o?aaiaaiee ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee. Iaeeo/oae
iieeoeeie oi?aaeaiey aeinooiii yaeyaony iieeoeea “ieieiaeueii
iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eaeeaaee”. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iieueciaaoaeue eiaao aeinooi
oieueei e oie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aio a ?aaioa. E
eioi?iaoeee, eeanneoeoee?oaiie eae eiioeaeaioeeaeueiay (eee
yeaeaaeaioiie) e auoa, aeinooi iiaeao iaiyoueny e ia?eiaee/anee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny. Ia iaeioi?ii o?iaia (ii e?aeiae ia?a ?aaeno?e?iaaiii
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiii eee yeaeaaeaioiii) aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue nenoaia
i?iaa?ie e eiio?iey aeinooia, a oaeaea ?aaeno?aoeey eciaiaiee.
Iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea i?aaee, ii?aaeaeythueo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ana
eciaiaiey aeaiiuo e i?ia?aii. Aeieaeai auoue onoaiiaeai iaoaieci
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiuoie iaaaoi?eciaaiiiai aeinooia e oaeei ?ano?nai, eae
aeaiiua e i?ia?aiiu. Aeaaeaeaoe ?ano?na, iaiaaeaea?u iiae?acaeaeaiee e
nio?oaeieee neoaeau aaciianiinoe aeieaeiu auoue oaaaeiieaiu i
iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?ooaieyo, /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue aiciiaeiinoue oaeiiai
naiai?a.

1.1.2 Eiio?ieue aeinooia e aiia?aoo?a

A oeaeyo eiio?iey aeinooia e aioo?aiiaio iiioaaeo, eeieyi nayce e
oaoiieiae/aneei i?aaiai oi?aaeaiey eniieuecoaony aiia?aoo?a eiio?iey
ane?uoey aiia?aoo?u. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aioo?aiiee iiioaae aiia?aoo?u e
oaoiieiae/aneea i?aaiu e ioeueou oi?aaeaiey cae?uo e?uoeaie, aeaa?oeaie
eee eiaeooaie, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aeao/ee. Aeao/eee n?aaaouaatho i?e
ane?uoee aiia?aoo?u e auaeatho yeaeo?e/aneea neaiaeu, eioi?ua ii oeaiyi
nai?a iinooiatho ia oeaio?aeeciaaiii ono?ienoai eiio?iey. Onoaiiaea
oaeie nenoaiu eiaao niune i?e aieaa iieiii ia?ae?uoee anao
oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e aiia?aoo?a, aeeth/ay n?aaenoaa caa?ocee
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ioeueo oi?aaeaiey YAI e aiaoiea eaaaeueiua
niaaeeieoaee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaiu. A eaeaaeueiii neo/aa aeey nenoai n iiauoaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie e
yooaeoeaiinoe caueou eioi?iaoeee oeaeaniia?acii cae?uaaoue e?uoeaie iiae
iaoaie/aneee caiie n aeao/eeii eee noaaeoue iiae eiio?ieue aeeth/aiea
oaeaea ooaoiuo n?aaenoa aoiaea a nenoaio – oa?ieiaeia iieueciaaoaeae.

Eiio?ieue ane?uoey aiia?aoo?u iaiaoiaeei ia oieueei a eioa?anao caueou
eioi?iaoeee io INAe, ii e aeey niaethaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneie aeenoeeieeiu
a oeaeyo iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaiu, iioiio /oi /anoi i?e yenieoaoaoeee ia?aeeaeueii ?aoaieth
iniiaiuo caaea/ i?iecaiaeeony ?aiiio eee i?ioeeaeoeea aiia?aoo?u, e
iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi neo/aeii caauee iiaeeeth/eoue eaaaeue eee ioeueoa
YAI eciaieee i?ia?aiio ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. N iiceoeee caueou
eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia eiio?ieue ane?uoey
aiia?aoo?u caueuaao io neaaeothueo aeaenoaee:

eciaiaiey e ?ac?ooaiey i?eioeeieaeueiie noaiu au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu e
aiia?aoo?u;

iiaeeeth/aiey iinoi?iiiaai ono?ienoaa;

eciaiaiey aeai?eoia ?aaiou au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu iooai eniieueciaaiey
oaoiieiae/aneeo ioeueoia e i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey;

caa?ocee iinoi?iiieo i?ia?aii e aianaiey i?ia?aiiiuo “ae?onia” a
nenoaio;

eniieueciaaiey oa?ieiaeia iinoi?iiieie eeoeaie e o. ae.

Iniiaiay caaea/a nenoai eiio?iey ane?uoey aiia?aoo?u – ia?ae?uoea ia
ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee anao iaooaoiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e
aiia?aoo?a. Anee iineaaeiea iio?aaothony a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee
nenoaiu, auaiaeeiay ia ?aiiio eee i?ioeeaeoeeo aiia?aoo?a ia?aae ia/aeii
?aaio ioeeth/aaony io ?aai/aai eiioo?a iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, iiaeeaaeauae
caueoa, e aaiaeeony a ?aai/ee eiioo? iiae iaaethaeaieai e eiio?ieai
eeoe, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca aaciianiinoue eioi?iaoeee.

1.1.3 E?eioia?aoe/aneia i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee.

Caueoa aeaiiuo n iiiiuueth oeo?iaaiey – iaeii ec aiciiaeiuo ?aoaiee
i?iaeaiu eo aaciianiinoe. Caoeo?iaaiiua aeaiiua noaiiayony aeinooiiuie
oieueei aeey oiai, eoi ciaao, eae eo ?anoeo?iaaoue, e iiyoiio iioeuaiea
caoeo?iaaiiuo aeaiiuo aaniethoii aanniuneaiii aeey ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo
iieueciaaoaeae.

E?eioia?aoey iaania/eaaao ia oieueei nae?aoiinoue eioi?iaoeee, ii e aa
iiaeeeiiinoue. Nae?aoiinoue iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iooai oeo?iaaiey
ioaeaeueiuo niiauaiee eee anaai oaeea oeaeeeii. Iiaeeeiiinoue
eioi?iaoeee iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iooai oeo?iaaiey niaoeeaeueiui eiaeii,
niaea?aeauei anth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ue i?iaa?yaony iieo/aoaeai aeey
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ee/iinoe aaoi?a. Ii ia oieueei oaeinoiaa?yao
i?ienoiaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, ii e aa?aioe?oao aa iaeciaiiinoue.

Aeaaea i?inoia i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony aanueia yooaeoeaiui
n?aaenoaii, aeathuei aiciiaeiinoue ne?uoue aa niune io aieueoeinoaa
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ia?ooeoaeae. No?oeoo?iay noaia oeo?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoiea A.1 (niio?e I?eeiaeaiea A).

E?eioia?aoey ia naaiaeiy yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui ecaanoiui niiniaii
iaania/aiey nae?aoiinoe e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aaeaaaaiie ni niooieeia. Oa?aeoa?enoeea e?eioia?aoe/aneeo aeai?eoiia
i?eaaaeaia a oaaeeoea A.1 (niio?e I?eeiaeaiea A). I?e?iaea noaiaea?oa
oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo DES oaeiaa, /oi aai aeai?eoi yaeyaony iauaaeinooiiui,
nae?aoiui aeieaeai auoue oieueei eeth/. I?e/ai iaeeiaeiaua eeth/e
aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny e aeey oeo?iaaiey, aeaoeo?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee,
a i?ioeaiii neo/aa i?i/eoaoue aa aoaeao iaaiciiaeii.

I?eioeei oeo?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a eiaee?iaaiee oaenoa n iiiiuueth
eeth/a. A o?aaeeoeeiiiuo nenoaiao oeo?iaaiey aeey eiaee?iaaiey e
aeaeiaee?iaaiey eniieueciaaeny iaeei e oio aea eeth/. A iiauo aea
nenoaiao n ioe?uoui eeth/ii eee aneiiao?e/iiai oeo?iaaiey eeth/e ia?iua:
iaeei eniieuecoaony aeey eiaee?iaaiey, ae?oaie – aeey aeaeiaee?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeee. A oaeie nenoaia eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue aeaaeaao
oieeaeueiie ia?ie eeth/ae. Iaeei eeth/, oae iacuaaaiue “ioe?uoue”,
ecaanoai anai e eniieuecoaony aeey eiaee?iaaiey niiauaiee. Ae?oaie
eeth/, iacuaaaiue “nae?aoiui”, aea?aeeony a no?iaii nae?aoa e
i?eiaiyaony aee ?anoeo?iaee aoiaeyueo niiauaiee. I?e ?aaeecaoeee oaeie
nenoaiu iaeei iieueciaaoaeue, eioi?iio ioaeii iineaoue niiauaiea
ae?oaiio, iiaeao caoeo?iaaoue niiauaiea ioe?uoui eeth/ii iineaaeiaai.
?anoeo?iaaoue aai niiaeao oieueei aeaaeaeaoe ee/iiai nae?aoiiai eeth/a,
iiyoiio iianiinoue ia?aoaaoa eneeth/aia. Yoo nenoaio iiaeii oaeaea
eniieueciaaoue e aeey nicaeaiey caueou io iiaeaeaeee oeeo?iauo
iiaeienae.

I?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea caueoiiai oeo?iaaiey Eioa?iao e eio?aiao
ni/aoaao o?aaeeoeeiiiua neiiao?e/iua e iiaua aneiiao?e/iua noaiu.
Oeo?iaaiea ioe?uoui eeth/ii i?eiaiyaony aeey niaeaniaaiey nae?aoiiai
neiiao?e/iiai eeth/a, eioi?ue caoai eniieuecoaony aeey oeo?iaaiey
?aaeueiuo aeaiiuo. Oeo?iaaiea iaania/eaaao naiue aunieee o?iaaiue
aaciianiinoe aeaiiuo. Eae a aiia?aoiii, oae e a i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee
i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua aeai?eoiu oeo?iaaiey.

1.2 Nenoaia caueou eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia
(INAe) a IYAI

Iaeaieaa i?inoie e iaaeaaeiue niinia caueou eioi?iaoeee io INAe – ?aaeei
aaoiiiiiiai eniieueciaaiey IYAI iaeiei iieueciaaoaeai, ?aaioathuei a
ioaeaeueiii iiiauaiee i?e ionoonoaee iinoi?iiieo eeoe. A yoii neo/aa
?ieue caieiooiai eiioo?a caueou auiieiytho iiiauaiea, aai noaiu,
iioieie, iie e ieia. Anee noaiu, iioieie, iie e aeaa?ue aeinoaoi/ii
i?i/iu, iie ia eiaao etheia, niiauathueony n ae?oaeie iiiauaieyie, ieia
e aeaa?ue iai?oaeiaaiu io?aiiie neaiaeecaoeeae, oi i?i/iinoue caueou
aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny oaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie io?aiiie
neaiaeecaoeee i?e ionoonoaee iieueciaaoaey (IYAI ia aeeth/aia) a
ia?aai/aa a?aiy.

A ?aai/aa a?aiy, eiaaea IYAI aeeth/aia, aiciiaeia ooa/ea eioi?iaoeee ca
n/ao aa iiai/iiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey e iaaiaeie. Aeey
ono?aiaiey oaeie iianiinoe, anee yoi iaiaoiaeeii, i?iaiaeyony
niioaaonoaothuea oaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey ii oiaiueoaieth eee
ca-ooieaieth neaiaea. E?iia oiai, aeaa?ue iiiauaiey aeey eneeth/aiey
aeinooia iinoi?iiieo eeoe aeieaeia auoue iai?oaeiaaia iaoaie/aneei eee
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneei caieii. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, eiaaea a iiiauaiee iao
io?aiiie neaiaeecaoeee, ia ia?eiae aeeeoaeueiiai ionoonoaey
iieueciaaoaey IYAI iieacii iiiauaoue a naeo ii e?aeiae ia?a oioy au aa
nenoaiiue aeie e iineoaee eioi?iaoeee. I?eiaiaiea a iaeioi?uo IYAI a
nenoaia aaiaea-auaiaea BIOS ano?iaiiiai aiia?aoiiai ia?iey,
aeiee?othuaai caa?oceo e ?aaioo IYAI e niaeaeaieth, ia nianaao
iieiaeaiey, oae eae aeaiiay aiia?aoiay /anoue i?e ionoonoaee ia ei?iona
nenoaiiiai aeiea caiea e ionoonoaee oicyeia iiaeao auoue naiaiaeii
caiaiaia ia ae?oaoth – oaeoth aea (oae eae oceu oieoeoee?iaaiu), ii
oieueei n ecaanoiui cia/aieai ia?iey. Iau/iue iaoaie/aneee caiie,
aeiee?othuee aeeth/aiea e caa?oceo IYAI, aieaa yooaeoeaiay a yoii neo/aa
ia?a.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeey caueou io oeuaiey niaoeeaeenou ?aeiiaiaeoy
iaoaie/anee cae?aieyoue IYAI e noieo iieueciaaoaey. Iaeiaei i?e yoii
neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi i?e ionoonoaee io?aiiie neaiaeecaoeee,
iaania/eaathuae iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue aeinooia a iiiauaiea eee e naeoo
i?i/iinoue caieia e e?aieaiee aeieaeia auoue oaeiaa, /oiau iaeeaeaaiia
noiia?iia a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia ia?ooeoaeth aeey i?aiaeieaiey oaeiai ?iaea
i?aiyonoaee eee iaoiaea eo, i?aauoaei a?aiy ionoonoaey iieueciaai IYAI
Anee yoi naeaeaoue ia oaeaaony, oi io?aiiay neaiaeecaoeey iaycaoaeueia.
Oai naiui aoaeao niaethaeaoueny iniiaiie i?eioeei n?aaaouaaiey caueou e
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aoaeoo auiieiyoueny o?aaiaaiey ii aa yooaeoeaiinoe.

Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa ia?u caueou eioi?iaoeee ia?aie/aiiiai aeinooia io
ia?ooeoaey-iai?ioanneiiaea a i?eioeeia iiaeii n/eoaoue aeinoaoi/iuie i?e
?aaioa n aaoiiiiiie IYAI iaeiiai iieueciaaoaey. Ia i?aeoeea aea /aeiaae
ia iiaeao iinoiyiii auoue eciee?iaaiiui io iauanoaa, a oii /enea e ia
?aaioa. Aai iinauatho ae?ocuey, ciaeiiua, nineoaeeaoeu ia?auathony ii
oai eee eiui aii?inai. Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea aeey aai ?aaiou ia anaaaea
iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii. Ii ?annayiiinoe eee icaai/aiiue ee/iuie
i?iaeaiaie iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao eiiiuethoa? aeeth/eoue, a eeth/
inoaaeoue a caiea; ia noiea caauoue aeeneaoo, a nai ia ei?ioeia a?aiy
iieeiooue iiiauaiea, /oi nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee aeey
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee eeoe, ia aeiiouaiiuo e iae,
ii eiathueo aeinooi a iiiauaiea. ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
?acaeaeaoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu iiaoo iineoaeeoue n?aaenoaii aeey caianaiey
i?ia?aiiiuo ae?onia a IYAI. Eniieueciaaiea iinoi?iiieo aeeneao aeey
ieacaiey ae?oaeaneie oneoae iiaeao iaieoenue i/aiue aei?iai. Iiieii
ca?aaeaiey IYAI ae?onii iiaeii ia?aiooaoue aeeneaou e ioaeaoue neo/aeii
ae?oao aeeneaoo n nae?aoiie eioi?iaoeeae.

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua n?aaenoaa e ei iiaeiaiua aeieaeiu n ?acee/iie
noaiaiueth aaciianiinoe iaania/eaaoue oieueei naieoeeiie?iaaiiue aeinooi
e eioi?iaoeee e i?ia?aiiai ni noi?iiu eeaaeaoo?u, n?aaenoa caa?ocee e
aioo?aiiaai iiioaaea eiiiuethoa?a. Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe e eioi?iaoeee
IYAI e n?aaenoaa caueou, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua aeey eo ia?ae?uoey i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea A.2 (niio?e I?eeiaeaiea A) e ia ?enoiea Ae.3. (niio?e
I?eeiaeaiea Ae).

Caueoa io INAe ni noi?iiu eeaaeaoo?u oneiaeiyaony oai, /oi nia?aiaiiua
eiiiuethoa?u ii naiaio iacia/aieth iaeaaeatho oe?ieei niaeo?ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua n oa/aieai a?aiaie i?iaeieaeatho
?acaeaaoueny. Aieaa oiai, eiiaaea eaaeaony, /oi o?aaiaaiey ii caueoa
anooiatho a i?ioeai?a/ea n iniiaiie caaea/ae eiiiuethoa?a: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? – na?eeiia ono?ienoai ianniaiai
i?eiaiaiey, n ae?oaie – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai.

Anee a eaaeaeue ec auioneaaiuo ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, iai?eia?,
onoaiiaeoue ia caaiaea-ecaioiaeoaea yeaeo?iiiue caiie, ioe?uaaaiue
ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou iieueciaaoaeai n iiiiuueth eeth/a-ia?iey, oi
aicieeaao aii?in caueou o?aiaiey e iineaaeothuae caiaiu aai ioaaoiie
/anoe a caiea. Anee aa iiaeao caiaieoue iieueciaaoaeue, oi yoi iiaeao
naeaeaoue e ia?ooeoaeue. Anee yoa /anoue eiiiuethoa?a iinoiyiia, oi iia
ecaanoia ecaioiaeoaeyi, /a?ac eioi?uo iiaeao noaoue ecaanoiie e
ia?ooeoaeth. Iaeiaei iineaaeiee aa?eaio aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai i?e
oneiaee nio?aiaiey oaeiu eeth/a oe?iie-ecaioiaeoaeai, a oaeaea aunieie
noieeinoe eeth/a e iiaeaeaeea e ?anoeo?iaea. Noieeinoue eeth/a aeieaeia
auoue ecaanoia e au?aaeaoueny a aaee/eia cao?ao a?aiaie ia?ooeoaey ia
auiieiaiea yoie ?aaiou, oae eae ii enoa/aiee yoiai a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeia
caiaia aai ia iiaue, anee caueuaaiue eiiiuethoa? i?iaeieaeaao
eniieueciaaoueny. Ii e yoiai oneiaey oiaea ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/ii.
Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea, /oiau ioaaoiay /anoue eeth/a – caiie oiaea ia aue
aeinooiai iioaioeeaeueiiio ia?ooeoaeth. Noieeinoue caiea e caiaia e
iiaeaeaeea aeieaeia auoue auoa noieeinoe eeth/a e ?aaiyoueny a?aiaie
yenieoaoaoeee eiiiuethoa?a i?e iaycaoaeueiii oneiaee iaaiciiaeiinoe aai
nuaia e caiaiu ia?ooeoaeai. A ?iee “caiea” iiaoo aunooiaoue
niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiiua o?aaiaiou, aeeaaeuaaaiua iieueciaaoaeai IYAI a
naie i?ia?aiiu e acaeiiaeaenoaothuea ii ecaanoiiio oieueei
iieueciaaoaeth aeai?eoio n yeaeo?iiiui eeth/ii. Aiaeec iioaioeeaeueiuo
oa?ic aaciianiinoe eioi?iaoeee e aiciiaeiuo eaiaeia INAe e iae a IYAI
iieacuaaao eo i?eioeeieaeueiia noiaenoai n aiaeiae/iuie oa?icaie e
eaiaeaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaoiaeu caueou aeieaeiu auoue oaeeie aea, a
oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa caueou aeieaeiu no?ieoueny n o/aoii eo nii?yaeaiey
n aa aiia?aoiuie e i?ia?aiiiuie n?aaenoaaie. A oeaeyo ia?ae?uoey
aiciiaeiuo eaiaeia INAe e eioi?iaoeee IYAI, e?iia oiiiyioouo, iiaoo
auoue i?eiaiaiu e ae?oaea iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa caueou.

I?e eniieueciaaiee IYAI a iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneii ?aaeeia iaiaoiaeeii
i?eiaieoue a iae i?ia?aiio eiio?iey e ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia. Nouanoaoao
iiiai iiaeiaiuo i?ia?aii, eioi?ua /anoi ?ac?aaaouaatho naie
iieueciaaoaee. Iaeiaei niaoeeoeea ?aaiou i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey IYAI
oaeiaa /oi n iiiiuueth aa eeaaeaoo?u aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
i?ia?aiieno-ia?ooeoaeue iiaeao caueoo oaeiai ?iaea eaaei iaieoe. Iiyoiio
yoa ia?a yooaeoeaia oieueei aeey caueou io iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai
ia?ooeoaey. Aeey caueou io ia?ooeoaey-i?ioanneiiaea iiiiaeao eiiieaen
i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, niaoeeaeueiue yeaeo?iiiue
eeth/, anoaaeyaiue a naiaiaeiue neio IE, e niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiiua
o?aaiaiou, caeeaaeuaaaiua a i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu IE, eioi?ua
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n yeaeo?iiiui eeth/ii ii ecaanoiiio oieueei
iieueciaaoaeth aeai?eoio. I?e ionoonoaee eeth/a yoe i?ia?aiiu ia
?aaioatho. Iaeiaei oaeie eeth/ iaoaeiaai a ia?auaiee, oae eae eaaeaeue
?ac i?eoiaeeony ane?uaaoue nenoaiiue aeie IE. A nayce n yoei aai
ia?aiaiioth /anoue – ia?ieue – auaiaeyo ia ioaeaeueiia ono?ienoai,
eioi?ia e noaiiaeony nianoaaiii eeth/ii, a n/eouaathuaa ono?ienoai
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia eeoeaaoth iaiaeue nenoaiiiai aeiea eee auiieiyaony a
aeaea auiiniiai ioaeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa. Oaeei niiniaii iiaeii
caaeiee?iaaoue e caa?oceo IE, e i?ia?aiio eiio?iey e ?aca?aie/aiey
aeinooia.

Iiaeiaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, iai?eia?, iaeaaeatho iaeaieaa iiioey?iua
yeaeo?iiiua eeth/e aeaoo aia?eeaineeo oe?i: Rainbow Technologies (RT) e
Software Security (SSI).

Ec ioa/anoaaiiuo nenoai oe?iie AEEEN ?aeiiaiaeoaony eeth/ Goldkey. Ia
ioa/anoaaiiii ?uiea i?aaeeaaaaony ?yae yeaeo?iiiuo eeth/ae: NovexKey –
oe?iie NOVEX, HASP e Plug – oe?iie ALADDIN e o. ae. N?aaee ieo aieueoay
/anoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai eiie?iaaiey
i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa, o. a. aeey caueou aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia aai
nicaeaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey ae?oaie oeaee.

Iaeiaei i?e yoii inoathony ia anaaaea caueuaiiuie eaiaeu
ioia?aaeaiey, aeieoiaioe?iaaiey, iineoaee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e
eioi?iaoeee, iiai/iia yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea e iaaiaeee eioi?iaoeee.
Eo ia?ae?uoea iaania/eaaaony oaea ecaanoiuie iaoiaeaie e n?aaenoaaie:
?aciauaieai eiiiuethoa?a a caueuaiiii iiiauaiee, o/aoii e o?aiaieai
iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee a iaoaeee/aneeo oeaoao e naeoao, oeo?iaaieai.

Ii?aaeaeaiioth i?iaeaio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caueoa io INAe inoaoeia
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo i?i/eoaoue i?e iaeiaeaiee ia noa?oth caienue
iiaie eioi?iaoeee ia iaeiii e oii aea iineoaea, a oaeaea i?e ioeacao
aiia?aoo?u.

Iooiaeu iineoaeae neaieeaathony a ioni?iie ei?ceia. Iiyoiio ai
ecaaaeaiea ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu n?aaenoaa
iaoaie/aneiai oie/oiaeaiey io?aaioaiiuo iineoaeae n inoaoeaie
eioi?iaoeee.

Ioaeaeueioth i?iaeaio a caueoa II e eioi?iaoeee ninoaaeyao i?iaeaia
caueou io i?ia?aiiiuo ae?onia.

Anee IYAI ?aaioaao a aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia, i?iieeiiaaiea ae?ona aiciiaeii
oieueei ni noi?iiu aiaoieo iineoaeae II e eioi?iaoeee. Anee IYAI
yaeyaony yeaiaioii au/eneeoaeueiie naoe (eee ANO), oi i?iieeiiaaiea
ae?ona aiciiaeii oaeaea e ni noi?iiu eaiaeia nayce. Iineieueeo yoio
aii?in i?aaenoaaeyao ioaeaeueioth i?iaeaio, ii ?anniio?ai ieaea a
niaoeeaeueiii ?acaeaea.

Aua iaeei o?iaaiue caueou io iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ia?ooeoaey iiaeao
auoue iaania/ai iooai eniieueciaaiey eiii?annee aeaiiuo. Yoio iaoiae
auaiaeai oai, /oi:

• yeiiiieo i?ino?ainoai i?e o?aiaiee oaeeia ia aeenea;

• oiaiueoaao a?aiy oeo?aoeee-aeaoeo?aoeee;

• cao?oaeiyao iacaeiiiia ?anoeo?iaaiea oaeea;

• oiaiueoaao a?aiy ia?aaea/e a i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Oioy yoio iaoiae aeaao ioiineoaeueii ieceee o?iaaiue aaciianiinoe, aai
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue ia?aae oeo?aoeeae.

I?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa, ?aaioathuea n aeeneaie ia oece/aneii o?iaia,
i?aaeinoaaeytho a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aiciiaeiinoue iaoiaea i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa caueou.

E?iia oiai, nouanoaotho i?ia?aiiu, iicaieythuea nicaeaaaoue II,
niiniaiia i?iecaiaeeoue /oaiea eee caienue ii aaniethoiui aae?anai, a
oaeaea i?ia?aii, iaania/eaathueo i?iniio? e ioeaaeeo i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoia a ?aaeeia aeenannaiaea?a, i?iniio? e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea
iia?a-oeaiie iaiyoe IYAI.

Iaeiaei iaee/ea oaeeo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa neoaeeo aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae –
aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey enii?/aiiie ae?onaie eee iainoi?iaeiuie aeaenoaeyie
iieueciaaoaeae eioi?iaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo i?eiaiaiea aeieaeii
auoue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaii e aeinooiii oieueei aaeieieno?aoi?o
nenoaiu. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeenue iaoiaeu caueou io aiaeeca
i?ia?aii.

Aeey nicaeaiey caieiooie iaiei/ee caueou eioi?iaoeee a IYAI e
iauaaeeiaiey ia?a/eneaiiuo n?aaenoa a iaeio nenoaio iaiaoiaeeiu
niioaaonoaothuea n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey. A caaeneiinoe io
?aaeeia eniieueciaaiey IYAI – aaoiiiiiiai eee naoaaiai (a ninoaaa naoe –
eieaeueiie, ?aaeiiaeueiie eee aeiaaeueiie) – iie aoaeoo iineoue
?acee/iue oa?aeoa?.

A aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia iiaoo auoue aeaa aa?eaioa oi?aaeaiey:
iaeiiiieueciaaoaeueneee e iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneee. A ia?aii neo/aa
iieueciaaoaeue nai auiieiyao ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey e ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aaciianiinoue naiae e aeiaa?yaiie aio eioi?iaoeee.

A iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneii ?aaeeia ia?a/eneaiiua ooieoeee ?aeiiaiaeoaony
ii?o/eoue niaoeeaeueiiio aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo. Ei iiaeao auoue iaeei ec
iieueciaaoaeae eee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaio. I?e yoii, iaeiaei, eeth/e
oeo?iaaiey e eioi?iaoeey, cae?uoay eie ae?oaei iieueciaaoaeai, aio iiaoo
auoue iaaeinooiiu aei iiiaioa ia?aaea/e ?oeiaiaeeoaeth ?aaio.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia ooieoeee eiio?iey ineaaeaiu
ec-ca ionoonoaey iaoaiecia auno?iai iaia?oaeaiey INAe, oae eae yoi
i?eoiaeeony inouanoaeyoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie ia?aie ii eieoeeaoeaa
/aeiaaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneee ?aaeei iaaeaeaoaeai n
iiceoeee aaciianiinoe e ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeey ia?aaioee aaaeiie
eioi?iaoeee.

A naoaaii aa?eaioa iiaeii aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann eiio?iey e ana
ia?a/eneaiiua ooieoeee auiieiyoue ni niaoeeaeueiiai ?aai/aai ianoa
neoaeau aaciianiinoe.

A naoaaii aa?eaioa aeieaeiinoiia eeoei – iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao
ia?aaeaaaoue niiauaiey e aeieoiaiou ae?oaiio iieueciaaoaeth ii eaiaeai
nayce, e oiaaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue auiieiyoue, a eioa?anao
aaciianiinoe ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee, aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee ii
iaania/aieth aaiiaioneiai oeo?iaaiey e oeeo?iaie iiaeiene niiauaiee.

1.3 Eiiiuethoa?iua ae?onu e n?aaenoaa caueou io ieo.

Caueoa io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia – ioaeaeueiay i?iaeaia, ?aoaieth
eioi?ie iinayuaii iiiai enneaaeiaaiee.

Aeey nia?aiaiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae, ninoiyueo ec ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia, aieueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho oaea?u. Yoio oa?iei,
ia?aiia/aeueii iaicia/aaoee yiooceanoa-i?ia?aiienoa, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eiaiyaony aeey iienaiey /aeiaaea, eioi?ue eniieuecoao naie ciaiey e
iiuo aeey aoi?aeaiey a au/eneeoaeueiua naoe e naoe nayce n oeaeueth
enneaaeiaaiey eo aiciiaeiinoae, iieo/aiey nae?aoiuo naaaeaiee eee
niaa?oaiey ae?oaeo a?aaeiiiniuo aeaenoaee.

Aeayoaeueiinoue yoeo eeoe i?aaenoaaeyao na?ueacioth iianiinoue.
Iai?eia?, 3 iiya?y 1988 a. 6 oun. ?aai/eo noaioeee e au/eneeoaeueiuo
nenoai a NOA auee “ca?aaeaiu” i?ia?aiiie-ae?onii, ioiinyuaeny e oeio
“/a?aue”. Yoa i?ia?aiia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ii naoe Internet ec-ca ioeaie
a aa?nee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, oi?aaeythuae ?aaioie aeaiiie
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. Ca ianeieueei /ania n iiiaioa caionea n iaeiiai ec
eiiiuethoa?ia i?ia?aiia-ae?ono oaeaeinue eioeoee?iaaoue ouny/e nenoai.

1.3.1 Iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu e oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo
ae?onia

Eiiiuethoa?iue ae?on – yoi niaoeeaeueii iaienaiiay iaaieueoay ii
?acia?ai i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay iiaeao “i?eienuaaoue” naay e ae?oaea
i?ia?aiiai (o. a. “ca?aaeaoue” eo), a oaeaea auiieiyoue ?acee/iua
iaaeaeaoaeueiua aeaenoaey ia eiiiuethoa?a (iai?eia?, ii?oeoue oaeeu eee
oaaeeoeo ?aciauaiey oaeeia ia aeenea, “cani?yy” iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue, e
o. ae.). Iiaeiaiua aeaenoaey auiieiythony aeinoaoi/ii auno?i, e ieeaeeo
niiauaiee i?e yoii ia ye?ai ia auaeaaony. Aeaeaa ae?on ia?aaeaao
oi?aaeaiea oie i?ia?aiia, a eioi?ie ii iaoiaeeony. Aiaoia ?aaioa
ca?aaeaiiie i?ia?aiiu auaeyaeeo oae aea, eae e iaca?aaeaiiie.

Iaeioi?ua ?aciiaeaeiinoe ae?ona ono?iaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oi iinea
ia?aiai caionea ca?aaeaiiie yoei ae?onii i?ia?aiiu ae?on inoaaony
iinoiyiii (oi/iaa aei ia?acaa?ocee IN) a iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a e a?aiy io
a?aiaie ca?aaeaao oaeeu e auiieiyao ae?oaea a?aaeiua aeaenoaey ia
eiiiuethoa?a. Ii i?ioanoaee iaeioi?iai a?aiaie iaeie i?ia?aiiu
ia?anoatho ?aaioaoue, ae?oaea – ia/eiatho ?aaioaoue iai?aaeeueii, ia
ye?ai auaiaeyony i?iecaieueiua niiauaiey eee neiaieu e o. ae. E yoiio
iiiaioo, eae i?aaeei, oaea aeinoaoi/ii iiiai (eee aeaaea aieueoeinoai)
i?ia?aii ieacuaathony ca?aaeaiiuie ae?onii, a iaeioi?ua oaeeu e aeenee
enii?/aiiuie. Aieaa oiai, ca?aaeaiiua i?ia?aiiu iiaoo auoue ia?aianaiu n
iiiiuueth aeeneao eee ii eieaeueiie naoe ia ae?oaea eiiiuethoa?u.

Eiiiuethoa?iue ae?on iiaeao enii?oeoue, o. a. eciaieoue ethaie oaee ia
eiathueony a eiiiuethoa?a aeeneao, a iiaeao “ca?aceoue”. Yoi icia/aao,
/oi ae?on “aiaae?yaony” a yoe oaeeu, o. a. eciaiyao eo oae, /oi iie
aoaeoo niaea?aeaoue nai ae?on, eioi?ue i?e iaeioi?uo oneiaeyo,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo aeaeii ae?ona, ia/iao naith ?ac?ooeoaeueioth ?aaioo.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaenou i?ia?aii e aeieoiaioia, eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaeeu aac aeaiiuo, oaaeeoeu e ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua oaeeu iaeuecy
ca?aceoue ae?onii: ii iiaeao eo oieueei iiii?oeoue.

1.3.2 Oeie/iua ioeaee iieueciaaoaey, i?eaiaeyuea e ca?aaeaieth IYAI
eiiiuethoa?iuie ae?onaie

Iaeia ec naiuo a?oauo e ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ioeaie i?e eniieueciaaiee
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia – ionoonoaea iaaeeaaeauae nenoaiu
a?oeae?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Aoi?ay a?oaay ioeaea – caione iieo/aiiie i?ia?aiiu aac aa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i?iaa?ee ia ca?aaeaiiinoue e aac onoaiiaee
iaeneiaeueiiai ?aaeeia caueou aei/anoa?a n iiiiuueth nenoai
?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia e caionea ?aceaeaioiiai noi?iaea.

O?aouey oeie/iay ioeaea – auiieiaiea ia?acaa?ocee nenoaiu i?e iaee/ee
onoaiiaeaiiie a aeeneiaiaea A aeeneaou. I?e yoii BIOS aeaeaao iiiuoeo
caa?oceoueny eiaiii n yoie aeeneaou, a ia n aei/anoa?a, a ?acoeueoaoa,
anee aeeneaoa ca?aaeaia aooiaui ae?onii, i?ienoiaeeo ca?aaeaiea
aei/anoa?a.

*aoaa?oay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay ioeaea – i?iaii anaaiciiaeiuo aioeae?oniuo
i?ia?aii, aac ciaiey oeiia aeeaaiinoe?oaiuo eie eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia,
a ?acoeueoaoa /aai i?iaiaeeony aeeaaiinoeea iaeieo e oao aea ae?onia
?aciuie aioeae?oniuie i?ia?aiiaie.

Iaeia ec a?oaaeoeo ioeaie – aiaeec e ainnoaiiaeaiea i?ia?aii ia
ca?aaeaiiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia. Aeaiiay ioeaea iiaeao eiaoue
eaoano?ioe/aneea iineaaenoaey. A /anoiinoe, i?e yoii iiaoo auoue
ca?aaeaiu e inoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu. Iai?eia?, i?e ?aceaeaioiii ae?ona
RCE-1800 (Dark Avenger) caione i?ia?aiiu-oaaa, ia ?ann/eoaiiie ia
aeaiiue ae?on, i?eaiaeeo e ca?aaeaieth anao i?iaa?yaoeony aeaiiie
i?ia?aiiie caa?oci/iuo iiaeoeae, iineieueeo ae?on RCE-1800 ia?aoaaouaaao
i?a?uaaiea ii ioe?uoeth e /oaieth oaeeia e i?e ?aaioa oaaa aoaeao
ca?aaeai eaaeaeue i?iaa?yaiue ei oaee. Iiyoiio i?iaa?youe ca?aaeaiiue
eiiiuethoa? neaaeoao oieueei ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueii caa?oaeaiiie n
caueuaiiie io caiene aeeneaoa yoaeiiiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu,
eniieuecoy oieueei i?ia?aiiu, o?aiyueany ia caueuaiiuo io caiene
aeeneaoao.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieie iiioey?iinoueth a ?innee iieuecothony
neaaeothuea aioeae?oniua n?aaenoaa AI “AeeaeiaIaoea”:

• iieeoaa Aidstest;

• ?aaeci? ADinf;

• ea/auee aeie ADinfExt;

• iieeoaa aeey “iieeii?oeeia” Doctor Web.

1.3.3 N?aaenoaa caueou io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia

Iaeia ec i?e/ei, ec-ca eioi?uo noaei aiciiaeiui oaeia yaeaiea, eae
eiiiuethoa?iue ae?on, ionoonoaea a iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao yooaeoeaiuo
n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia. A nayce n
yoei ?acee/iuie oe?iaie e i?ia?aiienoaie ?ac?aaioaiu i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua
a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie ainiieiytho oeacaiiue iaaeinoaoie. Yoe i?ia?aiiu
iinoiyiii iaoiaeyony a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe (yaeythony “?aceaeaioiuie”) e
“ia?aoaaouaatho” ana cai?inu e iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia ia auiieiaiea
?acee/iuo “iiaeic?eoaeueiuo” aeaenoaee, o. a. iia?aoeee, eioi?ua
eniieuecotho eiiiuethoa?iua ae?onu aeey naiaai “?aciiiaeaiey” e ii?/e
eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?a.

I?e eaaeaeii cai?ina ia oaeia aeaenoaea ia ye?ai eiiiuethoa?a auaiaeeony
niiauaiea i oii, eaeia aeaenoaea cao?aaiaaii e eaeay i?ia?aiia aeaeaao
aai auiieiyoue. Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao eeai ?ac?aoeoue auiieiaiea yoiai
aeaenoaey, eeai cai?aoeoue aai.

Oaeie niinia caueou ia eeoai iaaeinoaoeia. I?aaeaea anaai ?aceaeaioiay
i?ia?aiia aeey caueou io ae?ona iinoiyiii caieiaao eaeoth-oi /anoue
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a, /oi ia anaaaea i?eaieaii. E?iia oiai,
i?e /anouo cai?inao ioaa/aoue ia ieo iiaeao iaaeianoue iieueciaaoaeth. E
iaeiiaoe, eiathony aeaeu ae?onia, ?aaioa eioi?uo ia iaia?oaeeaaaony
?aceaeaioiuie i?ia?aiiaie caueou. Iaeiaei i?aeiouanoaa yoiai niiniaa
aanueia cia/eoaeueiu. Ii iicaieyao iaia?oaeeoue ae?on ia naiie ?aiiae
noaaeee, eiaaea ae?on aua ia oniae ?aciiiaeeoueny e /oi-eeai enii?oeoue.
Oai naiui iiaeii naanoe oauoee io aicaeaenoaee eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona e
ieieioio.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?aceaeaioiie i?ia?aiiu aeey caueou io ae?ona iiaeii
i?eaanoe i?ia?aiio VSAFE oe?i Carmel e Central Point Software.

Aieaa ?aiiyy aeeaaiinoeea ae?ona a oaeeao ia aeenea iniiaaia ia oii, /oi
i?e ca?aaeaiee e ii?/a ae?onii oaeeu eciaiythony, a i?e ca?aaeaiee, eae
i?aaeei, aua e oaaee/eaathony a naiai ?acia?a. Aeey i?iaa?ee oiai, ia
eciaieeny ee oaee, au/eneyaony aai eiio?ieueiay noiia — iaeioi?ay
niaoeeaeueiay ooieoeey anaai niaea?aeeiiai oaeea. Aeey au/eneaiey
eiio?ieueiie noiiu iaiaoiaeeii i?i/anoue aanue oaee, a yoi ioiineoaeueii
aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann. A nayce n yoei, eae i?aaeei, i?e iau/iie i?iaa?ea
ia iaee/ea ae?ona au/eneaiea eiio?ieueiie noiiu i?iecaiaeeony oieueei
aeey ianeieueeeo iniai aaaeiuo oaeeia, a o inoaeueiuo oaeeia i?iaa?yaony
eeoue eo ?acia?, oeacaiiue a eaoaeiaa. Iiaeiaioth i?iaa?eo iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?acii i?iecaiaeeoue aeey oaeeia ia aeanoeii aeenea. A ea/anoaa
i?ia?aii ?aiiae aeeaaiinoeee eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona iiaoo auoue
?aeiiaiaeiaaiu i?ia?aiiu CRCLIST e CRCTEST.

Aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae ciatho i oii, /oi caienue ia aeeneaoo iiaeii
cai?aoeoue, caeeaea ia iae i?i?acue caueou io caiene. Yoa aiciiaeiinoue
oe?iei eniieuecoaony iiiaeie aeey caueou eioi?iaoeee ia “yoaeiiiuo”
aeeneaoao, niaea?aeaueo a?oeaiua oaeeu, i?ia?aiiu e aeaiiua, eioi?ua
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny, ii ia aeieaeiu iaiyoueny. Yoio aea niinia iiaeii
i?eiaieoue aeey caueou io ae?onia ?aai/ae aeeneaou, a eioi?oth ia
iio?aaoaony aaiaeeoue eaeoth-eeai caienue.

Caueoeoue oaeeu io caiene iiaeii e ia aeanoeii aeenea. Aeey yoiai iiea
iaiyoe aeenea neaaeoao ?acaeoue n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii ia
ianeieueei /anoae – oneiaiuo eiae/aneeo aeeneia. Anee ia aeanoeii aeenea
eiaaony ianeieueei eiae/aneeo aeeneia, aeinooiiuo iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia
MS DOS, oi iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiaeii naeaeaoue aeinooiiuie oieueei aeey
/oaiey, /oi oaeaea iineoaeeo n?aaenoaii caueou io ca?aaeaiey eee ii?/e
ae?onii.

Anee ca?aiaa ecaanoii (oioy au i?eaeeceoaeueii), eaeoth /anoue aeanoeiai
aeenea iiaoo caieiaoue i?ia?aiiu e aeaiiua, ia eciaiyaiua a i?ioeanna
auiieiaiey oaeouae caaea/e, oi oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeoue aeanoeee aeene ia
aeaa eiae/aneeo aeenea, iaeei ec eioi?uo ioaanoe aeey o?aiaiey
eciaiyaiuo i?ia?aii e aeaiiuo, a ae?oaie n caueoie io caiene – aeey
o?aiaiey i?ia?aii e aeaiiuo, eioi?ua aoaeoo eniieueciaaoueny, ii ia
eciaiyoueny.

Ae?oaie o?iaaiue caueou iniiauaaaony:

– ia naaiaioaoeee aeanoeiai aeenea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai ae?aeaa?a,
iaania/eaathuaai i?enaiaiea ioaeaeueiui eiae/aneei aeeneai ao?eaooa READ
ONLY;

– ia nenoaia ia?ieueiiai aeinooia;

– ia eniieueciaaiee aeey o?aiaiey oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee ?acaeaeia
aeanoeiai aeenea, ioee/iuo io N e D e ia oeacuaaaiuo a PATH. I?e yoii
?aeiiaiaeoaony ?acaeaeueiia o?aiaiea eniieiyaiuo i?ia?aii e aac aeaiiuo.

I?e i?aaeeueiii ?aciauaiee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu iiaeii aa?aioe?iaaoue,
/oi iinea eaiaeueiie caa?ocee iia ia aoaeao ca?aaeaia ?aceaeaioiui
oaeeiaui ae?onii. Aeaaiia a yoii neo/aa – ?acianoeoue iia?aoeeiiioth
nenoaio a caueuaiiii io caiene ?acaeaea, iai?eia? ia aeenea D. E?iia
oiai, aiiaue iieo/aiiua ooeeeou iaeuecy aeeth/aoue a ninoaa yoiai aeenea
aac ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee ia ionoonoaea ae?onia e i?ioiaeaeaiey
“ea?aioeiiiai” ?aaeeia oioy au a oa/aiea ianyoea.

Anee i?ia?aiiiia ecaeaeea iieo/aii aac na?oeoeeaoa, ec niiieoaeueiiai
enoi/ieea eee ia yenieoaoe?iaaeinue a oii ianoa, ioeoaea auei iieo/aii,
ia?aua ianeieueei aeiae aai iieacii yenieoaoe?iaaoue a ea?aioeiiii
?aaeeia n eniieueciaaieai, anee yoi aiciiaeii, onei?aiiiai eaeaiaea?y.
Yoi iiauoaao aa?iyoiinoue iaia?oaeaiey “o?iyineie” eiiiiiaiou,
n?aaaouaathuae a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. I?e ?aaioa ni aiiaue iinooieaoeie
i?ia?aiiaie oeaeaniia?acii oiio?aaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai eiaie
iieueciaaoaey. Aeey aua?aiiiai eiaie ana inoaeueiua ?acaeaeu aeieaeiu
auoue eeai iaaeaeeiu, eeai eiaoue noaoon READ ONLY. I?e yoii aeey anao
eiiiiiaio iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e iaeioi?uo ooeeeo, eniieuecoaiuo eae
“eiaooee” aeey ae?ona, neaaeoao caienaoue a niioaaonoaothuee oaee
eiio?ieueiua noiiu, au/eneaiiua niioaaonoaothuae i?ia?aiiie.

Iniiaiui n?aaenoaii caueou io ae?onia neoaeeo a?oeae?iaaiea. Ae?oaea
iaoiaeu caiaieoue aai ia iiaoo, oioy e iiauoatho iauee o?iaaiue caueou.
A?oeae?iaaiea iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue aaeaaeiaaii. A?oeae?iaaiea
caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee eiiee eniieuecoaiuo oaeeia e nenoaiaoe/aneii
iaiiaeaiee eciaiyaiuo oaeeia. Aeey yoie oeaee oaeiaii eniieueciaaoue
niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua i?ia?aiiu. Iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ia
oieueei yeiiiieoue ianoi ia niaoeeaeueiuo a?oeaiuo aeeneaoao, ii e
iauaaeeiyoue a?oiiu niaianoii eniieuecoaiuo oaeeia a iaeei a?oeaiue
oaee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ai?acaei eaa/a ?acae?aoueny a iauai a?oeaa
oaeeia. Iaeaieaa oycaeiuie n/eoathony oaaeeoeu ?aciauaiey oaeeia (AT),
aeaaiiai eaoaeiaa (MB) e aoonaeoi?. Oaeeu, nicaeaaaaiua yoeie ooeeeoaie,
?aeiiaiaeoaony ia?eiaee/anee eiie?iaaoue ia niaoeeaeueioth aeeneaoo. Eo
?aca?ae?iaaiea aaaeii ia oieueei aeey caueou io ae?onia, ii e aeey
no?aoiaee ia neo/ae aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee eee /ueeo-oi aeaenoaee, a oii
/enea nianoaaiiuo ioeaie. A oeaeyo i?ioeeaeoeee aeey caueou io ae?onia
?aeiiaiaeoaony:

?aaioa n aeeneaoaie, caueuaiiuie io caiene;

ieieiecaoeey ia?eiaeia aeinooiiinoe aeeneao aeey caiene;

?acaeaeaiea aeeneao iaaeaeo eiie?aoiuie ioaaonoaaiiuie iieueciaaoaeyie;

?acaeaeaiea ia?aaeaaaaiuo e iinooiathueo aeeneao;

?acaeaeueiia o?aiaiea aiiaue iieo/aiiuo i?ia?aii e yenieoaoe?iaaaoeony
?aiaa;

o?aiaiea i?ia?aii ia aeanoeii aeenea a a?oeae?iaaiiii aeaea.

Aiiaue iinooieaoea i?ia?aiiiua ecaeaeey aeieaeiu iiaeaa?aaoueny
aoiaeiiio eiio?ieth – i?iaa?ea niioaaonoaey aeeeiu e eiio?ieueiuo noii a
na?oeoeeaoa iieo/aiiui aeeeiai e eiio?ieueiui noiiai. Nenoaiaoe/aneia
iaioeaiea ia?auo o?ao aaeoia naeoi?a ia/aeueiie caa?ocee ia iieo/aiiuo
aeeneaoao aei eo eniieueciaaiey iiiiaeao oie/oiaeaieth “aooiauo”
ae?onia.

Iiiaea i?ia?aiienou e i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaaouaatho nianoaaiiua eee
eniieuecotho aioiaua i?ia?aiiu aeey iaia?oaeaiey e oaeaeaiey ae?onia ia
naieo eiiiuethoa?ao e aeeneao. Iaia?oaeaiea ae?ona iniiaaii ia oii, /oi
eaaeaeay eiie?aoiay aa?ney ae?ona, eae ethaay i?ia?aiia, niaea?aeeo
i?enouea oieueei ae eiiaeiaoeee aaeoia. I?ia?aiiu-oeeueo?u i?iaa?ytho,
eiaaony ee a oaeeao ia oeacaiiii iieueciaaoaeai aeenea niaoeeoe/aneay
aeey aeaiiiai ae?ona eiiaeiaoeey aaeoia. I?e aa iaia?oaeaiee a
eaeii-eeai oaeea ia ye?ai auaiaeeony niioaaonoaothuaa niiauaiea. Aeey
iaia?oaeaiey ae?onia oaeaea eniieuecoaony niaoeeaeueiay ia?aaioea
oaeeia, aeeneia, eaoaeiaia – aaeoeeie?iaaiea: caione ?aceaeaioiuo
i?ia?aii-aaeoeei, eieoe?othueo ni/aoaiea oneiaee, a eioi?uo ca?aaioaao
aeaiiue oei ae?ona e i?iyaeo naay.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu oaeaeaiey eiie?aoiiai ae?ona
a ca?aaeaiiuo i?ia?aiiao. Oaeea i?ia?aiiu iacuaathony
i?ia?aiiaie-oaaaie. N ca?aaeaiiuie oaeeaie i?ia?aiia-oaa auiieiyao (anee
yoi aiciiaeii) aeaenoaey, ia?aoiua oai, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ae?onii
i?e ca?aaeaiee oaeea, o. a. aeaeaao iiiuoeo ainnoaiiaeaiey oaeea. Oa
oaeeu, eioi?ua ia oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue, eae i?aaeei, n/eoathony
ia?aaioiniiniaiuie e oaeaeythony.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeaenoaey, eioi?ua iaaei i?aaei?eiyoue aeey
iaia?oaeaiey e oaeaeaiey ae?ona, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu aeey eaaeaeie aa?nee
ae?ona. Iiea ia nouanoaoao oieaa?naeueiie i?ia?aiiu, niiniaiie
iaia?oaeeoue ethaie ae?on. Iiyoiio iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ca?aaeaiea
aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a aiciiaeii e oaeie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ae?ona, eioi?ay
ia auyaeyaony ecaanoiuie i?ia?aiiaie aeey eo iaia?oaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?oaeii iacaaoue aieaa eee iaiaa oi/ii eiee/anoai
oeiia ae?onia, oae eae iii iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony. Niioaaonoaaiii
oaaee/eaaaony, ii n iaeioi?ui caiacaeuaaieai, e /enei i?ia?aii aeey eo
iaia?oaeaiey.

I?iaeaio caueou eioi?iaoeee e i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia io ae?onia
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue a iauai eiioaenoa i?iaeaiu caueou io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia. Iniiaiie i?eioeei, eioi?ue aeieaeai
auoue iieiaeai a iniiao iaoiaeieiaee caueou io ae?onia, ninoieo a
nicaeaiee iiiaio?iaiaaie ?ani?aaeaeaiiie nenoaiu caueou, aeeth/athuae
i?eaaaeaiiua auoa n?aaenoaa. Iaee/ea ianeieueeeo o?iaiae iicaieyao
eiiiaine?iaaoue iaaeinoaoee iaeieo n?aaenoa caueou aeinoieinoaaie
ae?oaeo. Anee ae?on iaieaeao iaeei aeae caueou, oi iiaeao auoue
inoaiiaeai ae?oaei. Aeey oiai /oiau ecaaaeaoue iiyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo
ae?onia, iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue i?aaeaea anaai neaaeothuea ia?u:

ia ia?aienuaaoue i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea n ae?oaeo eiiiuethoa?ia. Anee
yoi iaiaoiaeeii, oi neaaeoao i?eiyoue ia?a/eneaiiua auoa ia?u;

ia aeiioneaoue e ?aaioa ia eiiiuethoa?a iinoi?iiieo eeoe, iniaaiii anee
iie niae?athony ?aaioaoue ni naieie aeeneaoaie;

ia iieueciaaoueny iinoi?iiieie aeeneaoaie, iniaaiii n eiiiuethoa?iuie
ea?aie.

1.3.4 Eniieueciaaiea ianeieueeeo aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii

Eniieueciaaiea iaeiiai aioeae?ona iiaeao iaania/eoue iaaeaaeioth caueoo,
ii cae?aaue niune iiaeneacuaaao, /oi ianeieueei iiaeiaiuo i?ia?aii
cia/eoaeueii iiaunyo aaciianiinoue aaoae nenoaiu. Eiaiii oae e
i?aaeeaaatho iinooiaoue ?oeiaiaenoao ioaeaeia eioi?iaoecaoeee
aioeae?oniua oi?oiu a CIS, AOL a oaeaea ?acee/iua a?oiiu iiainoae
(iai?eia?, comp.vims). Ioiaoei, /oi i?e eniieueciaaiee ianeieueeeo
i?ia?aii, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe (a oii /enea e
iaaeieoiaioe?iaaiiua), iooaiua eee eiioeeeoothuea Ae?oa n ae?oaii io/aou
ia yaeythony aieueoie ?aaeeinoueth. Eiaiii iiyoiio iiiaei iieueciaaoaeyi
i?eoiaeeo a aieiao iuneue, /oi i?eiaiaiea aieaa /ai iaeiiai aioeae?ona
yaeyaony ieioie eaeaae. Ii yoi ia oae! Ianiio?y ie ia /oi, i?aeiouanoaa
eniieueciaaiey ianeieueeeo aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii io ?acee/iuo
?ac?aaio/eeia ia?aaaoeaatho iineaaenoaey iaaeinoaoi/iie caueou. Iaeaieaa
i/aaeaeiia ec ieo ninoieo a oii, /oi au eniieuecoaoa aieaa iaeeoth naoue
(eee, anee oaiaeii, neiaeioth aeaieioth naoue), /a?ac eioi?oth ia
niiaeao i?iieeiooue aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia.

Yoi neaaeoao i?aaei?eiyoue, anee aioeae?oniia II iaia?oaeeei
i?iieeiiaaiea a aaoo nenoaio eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona. Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi
ii/oe ana ae?oniua eioeeaeaiou i?ienoiaeyo i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiai.
Anee eioaeoeey yaeyaony ?aaeueiie, oi neaaeoao i?iaanoe eo?n ea/aiey.
Anee au iaia?oaeeoa /oi ae?on ia iiaeao auoue iaaca?aaeai iaeiei
aioeae?onii, oi aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi o?aaiaa ieacaeanue eiaeiie. Aeey
i?iaa?ee iaee/ey yoiai i?aaeiieaaaaiiai ae?ona ainiieuecoeoanue ae?oaie
i?ia?aiiie. Anee e aeaeueiaeoay aeeaaiinoeea aeano iiaeiaiua
?acoeueoaou, oi aieaa /ai aa?iyoii, /oi o aan ae?on. Iaeaeeoa niinia
ea/aiey eee caiaiu ca?aaeaiiuo o/anoeia.

Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaaea n iiiiuueth aeaoo aioeae?onia nianai
ia i?inoi auiieieoue aeeaaiinoeeo. *oi au iiaeoiaaoa, anee noaiaoa,
iai?eia?, naeaeaoaeai neaaeothueo niauoee: i?iaeoeo O iaia?oaeeaaao
ae?on e ia iiaeao ecea/eoue ca?aaeaiiua oaeeu, i?iaeoeo Y
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao niiauaiea i iaeaeaiiii ae?ona, ii oaeaea ia iiaeao
oaeaeeoue aai ec nenoaiu, a i?iaeoeo L ia aeaeeo ie/aai. Eoi iiiaaeaao a
iiaeiaiua iai?eyoiua neooaoeee, eiaao aeinoaoi/ii aaneea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaee/ey eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona a nenoaia, ii ia
?aniieaaaao iaoaieciaie i?iaa?ee, eioi?ua iicaieeee au auoue a yoii
aaniethoii oaa?aiiuie.

Ian/anoiiio iieueciaaoaeth ec i?aaeuaeouaai i?eia?a eaaeaony, /oi
aeeciue e iaio ii-ianoiyuaio aeanoiea. O?e aioeae?oniuo i?iaeoeoa,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeao ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio, ia ?aoatho aa!
Niaeaneoanue, /oi yoio i?eia? ianeieueei oo?e?iaai. I/aiue ?aaeei
aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eniieueciaaiee o?ao (e aieaa) i?ia?aii
oieueei eeoue aeey iaia?oaeaiey ae?ona. Yoi oeacuaaao eeoue ia oi, /oi
iie aiieia i?eaiaeiu e yooaeoeaiu a ea/anoaa aioeae?oniuo n?aaenoa.

1.3.5 Caiaia eee ea/aiea

Aei neo ii? iu iiaee aeaeaoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea ianeieueeeo i?ia?aii
aeey iienea eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona aeaao iaeioi?ua i?aeiouanoaa. Ia?aia
ec ieo ninoieo a oii, /oi aoi?ay i?ia?aiia i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue
iiaeoaa?aeeoue (eee ii?iaa?aiooue) oaeo iaee/ey ae?ona a nenoaia. Aoi?ia
i?aeiouanoai – aieaa oi/iay aeeaaiinoeea. E oioy iu ieeiaaea ia iieo/ei
ieii/aoaeueiiai ioaaoa, oai ia iaiaa, n eaaeaeui iineaaeothuei
oanoe?iaaieai i?eaeeaeaainy e enoeia.

Ecaaaeaiea io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia – nii? iaaeaeo oaa?aiiinoueth e
oaeianoaii. Oaa?aiiinoue aicieeaao i?e oie/oiaeaiee ae?ona iooai
oaeaeaiey eee caiaiu ca?aaeaiiuo oaeeia, i?e ia?aienuaaiee i?ia?aiiu
ia/aeueiie caa?ocee e/eee ethaie ae?oaie ca?aaeaiiie /anoe oaeea.
Oaeianoai caeeth/aaony a aiciiaeiinoe iaieioee?iaaoue nouanoaothueie
aeaiiuie e ainnoaiaaeeaaoue eo a naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie oi?ia aac caiaiu.

Ieeoi ia iiaeao inia?eaaoue aa?aioe?iaaiioth oeaeinoiinoue, eioi?oth
aeaao caiaia, ii ieeoi ia iiaeao io?eoeaoue e cia/eoaeueiuo iaoaeianoa,
naycaiiuo n yoie i?ioeaaeo?ie. Iiene ?aca?aiuo eiiee (e aeaeaiea iaeoe
naioth iineaaeithth), eo ainnoaiiaeaiea, iano?ieea — ana yoi caieiaao
iiiai a?aiaie.

N?aaieoa yoi n yooaeoeaiinoueth aioeae?oniiai II, eioi?ia iiaeao
ecea/eoue ca?aaeaiiua o/anoee. Uae/ie eeaaeoae iuoe eee iaai?
iaiaoiaeeiie eiiaiaeu n eeaaeaoo?u — e au ecaaaeaiu io eiiiuethoa?iiai
ae?ona, i?e/ai ca cia/eoaeueii iaiueoaa a?aiy.

I?e auai?a iaaeaeo ea/aieai eee iieiie caiaiie, aieueoeinoai
aaeieieno?aoi?ia nenoai aaciianiinoe neeiiythony a noi?iio caiaiu.
Io/aai aea e ea/aieth noieue iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea? Iinea yoie
i?ioeaaeo?u aeeciue i?iaeieaeaaony eae e i?aaeaea – ie aaniieienoaa, ie
i?iaeai, anee, eiia/ii, ea/aiea i?ioei ii?iaeueii. *anoi iiaeii
ano?aoeoue aeieoiaioaeueiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa i neo/ayo iai?aaeeueiiai
ea/aiey, eioi?ua ii?iaeaeatho iaoaa?aiiinoue a aiciiaeiinoyo
aioeae?onia. Ec-ca iaeioi?uo iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo neooaoeee ea/aiea eiiaaea
oa?ieo iaoaea/o, e oiaaea iia?aoi? aoaeao eiaoue eae eni?aaeaiioth, oae
e iacao?iioooth eioi?iaoeeth.

Iai?aaeeueiia ea/aiea ?aaeei i?eaiaeeo e oaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi,
iineieueeo aioeae?onu i?eieiatho ia?u i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe e iiaoo
ioee/aoue “aeiionoeiia” ea/aiea io iai?aaeeueiiai. Ii ceie e?iiee,
iaeioi?ua oiieinoe a iai?aaeeueiii ea/aiee, i?e/ai nianai ia
eaoano?ioe/iua, i?eaaee e oiio, /oi naii neiai “ea/aiea” aini?eieiaaony
eae a?aiiia.

Iaeei ec iaaeinoaoeia eniieueciaaiey aieaa iaeiiai aioeae?oniiai II
naycai n oai, /oi i?e yoii ioe?uaathony eacaeee aeey ?ac?aaio/eeia. Anee
a ecea/aiiii oaeea i?enoonoaotho eaeea-eeai aeaoaeou, oi i?e n?aaiaiee n
i?inoui oaeeii iie n?aco aea caiaoiu. Yoi iiaeiaii iaienaieth ethaie
eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu. Anee iaeei ec niaaoi?ia i?eieiae aieueoaa
o/anoea a aa nicaeaiee, oi ae?oaie aoaeao cayaeyoue, /oi ii iia
naeaeaoue yoi eo/oa.

1.3.6 Ia?u ii i?aaeioa?auaieth iiyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia

Iiiaeanoai noaoae ii eiiiuethoa?iui ae?onai aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaii
?anniao?eaatho aii?inu ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth ca?aaeaiey. Oai ia iaiaa,
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iaaeinoaoie iieaciie eioi?iaoeee ia oaio “*oi
aeaeaoue, anee neo/eony iaeooaeoaa?” Eiaoue aeaei n aiacaiiui iiyaeaieai
ae?onia ia ninoaaeyao iniaiai oaeiaieuenoaey. E n/anoueth, auoue ca?aiaa
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiiui, cia/eo, a aeaiiii neo/aa, auoue aioiaui e
io?aaeaieth aoaee. Aioiaynue e oaeiio niauoeth, iiaeii naanoe e ieieioio
oua?a io ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo aicaeaenoaee.

Aeey oniaoiie ai?ueau n ae?oniui iaiaaeaieai neaaeoao i?iaanoe aieueooth
iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo. Iaeaieaa aaaeiie caaea/ae, i eioi?ie, e
niaeaeaieth, /anoi caauaatho, yaeyaony eiio?ieue ca ?aaoey?iui
auiieiaieai i?ioeaaeo?u iaaeaaeiiai e i?aaeeueii oi?aaeyaiiai ?aca?aiiai
eiie?iaaiey.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa, iaeaieaa oeaiiie /anoueth eiiiuethoa?a yaeythony
eioi?iaoeeiiiua aeaiiua, eioi?ua o?aiyony ia aeenea. Iie iiaoo
ieacaoueny iacaiaieiuie, a oaeaea iiaoo niaea?aeaoue ?acoeueoaou iiiaeo
iaaeaeue e aeaaea eao ?aaiou. I/aiue /anoi iu ii-ianoiyuaio ia/eiaai
ioeaieaaoue eo aaaeiinoue oaea iinea oiai, eae iioa?yai.

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoiaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie n?aaenoai caueou yoeo ?ano?nia. Aaaeiinoue nicaeaiey
?aca?aiuo eiiee ia iiaeao auoue ia?aioeaiaia: eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue
aeieaeai /aoei iniciaaaoue eo eae iaiouaieaioth /anoue yooaeoeaiie
iieeoeee aaciianiinoe, iineieueeo eiaiii iie yaeythony iii?ie a neo/aa
aicieeiiaaiey /?acau/aeiie neooaoeee.

Oaaaeeoanue a oii, /oi au iiaeaoa iaeoe ?aniieiaeaiey ?aca?aiuo eiiee, e
ciaaoa, e /aio eiie?aoii iie ioiinyony. I?iaa?ueoa, i?aaeeueii ee
ooieoeeiie?oao II aeey eo ainnoaiiaeaiey. Iao ie/aai ooaea, /ai
oaeaeeoue oaee, a iioii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi ii ia iiaeao auoue
ainnoaiiaeai ec nicaeaiiie ?aiaa ?aca?aiie eiiee.

?anniao?eaay ainnoaiiaeaiea aeaiiuo iinea ae?oniie aoaee, iiaeii
ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa — aeaei noieo oiai, /oiau nicaeaoue ?aca?aioth
eiieth eaaeaeiai oaeea, iaoiaeyuaainy ia eiiiuethoa?a, aeeth/ay
eniieiyaiua oaeeu. Onoaiiaea e eiioeao?aoeey n?aaeu Windows yaeyaony
iai?inoui e aeieaia?aiaiiui caiyoeai, iniaaiii eiaaea iaeioi?ua iaeaou
iinoaaeythony a eiiieaeoa ec aeanyoeia aeeneao. Iiyoiio, aeaaaeoeaoue
eee o?eaeoeaoue ieioo i?iaa?ee ia iaee/ea ae?onia e nicaeaiea ?aca?aiie
eiiee oaea neiioeao?e?iaaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a iiaoo nianoe aan io
ooiieoaeueiiai caiyoey ia?aonoaiiaee “n ioey”. Anoanoaaiii, /oi auai?
oiai, eae /anoi neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue i?ioeaaeo?u ?aca?aiiai
eiie?iaaiey e eaeea oaeeu i?e yoii eiie?iaaoue, caaeneo io oie ?iee,
eioi?oth ea?aao eiie?aoiue eiiiuethoa? a eiiiaiee, eaeie oei II ia iai
onoaiiaeai, a oaeaea io oeaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee, ?aniieiaeaiiie a nenoaia.

Caa?oci/iay aeeneaoa oaeaea yaeyaony iacaiaieiie, eiaaea au auiieiyaoa
i?iaa?eo ia ae?onu e ainnoaiiaeaiea ca?aaeaiiuo iaoei. Ianiio?y ia oi
/oi aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii aeeneaou, nicaeaiiie ia iaca?aaeaiiie iaoeia n
eniieueciaaieai DOS-eiiaiaeu FORMAT /S, eo/oa nia?aoue iaaieueoie
eiiieaeo iieaciuo ooeeeo.

A eaeaaea, au aeieaeiu aoaeaoa nicaeaoue ianeieueei ?acee/iuo
caa?oci/iuo aeeneao aeey eaaeaeie ec aa?nee DOS, eioi?ua eniieuecothony
a aaoae eiiiaiee. Eaaeaeay oaeay aeeneaoa aeieaeia auoue i?ioanoe?iaaia
aeey oiai, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a aa i?aaeeueiii ooieoeeiie?iaaiee eiaiii
ia oii ia?niiaeueiii eiiiuethoa?a, aaea aa i?aaeiieaaaaony
eniieueciaaoue. I?eiya ia aii?oaeaiea ?aaoey?iia ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea e
eieeaeoeeth niioaaonoaothueo caa?oci/iuo aeeneao, au oaeoe/anee aoaeaoa
iaeaaeaoue aieueoeinoaii eino?oiaioia, o?aaoaiuo aeey i?ioeainoiyiey
ae?oniui yieaeaieyi.

Iaia?oaeaiea ae?oniie aoaee a ?aieao i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao auoue auiieiaii
?acee/iuie niiniaaie: iiaeao auoue iaeaeaia ca?aaeaiiay aeeneaoa,
i?ieioe?iaai e iaia?oaeai ca?aaeaiiue eiiiuethoa?, eee aeaaea nai ae?on
iiaeao i?iyaeoue naay ia iaoeia, neaiaeece?oy iieueciaaoaeth i naiai
i?enoonoaee. Iacaaeneii oi oiai, eaeei niiniaii aue iaia?oaeai ae?on,
i?aaeaea, /ai i?aaei?eieiaoue eaeia-eeai aeaenoaea, neaaeoao ia?aoeoueny
e ca?aiaa iiaeaioiaeaiiiio ieaio ia neo/ae aicieeiiaaiey
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ca/anooth ieacuaaaony, /oi iiiuoee
ea/aiey i?eiinyo aieueoa iai?eyoiinoae, /ai nai ae?on.

Anee iieueciaaoaeue iaia?oaeee ae?on, oi ia?aui aeaeii ii aeieaeai
ia?aoeoueny e ii?aaeaeaiiiio nio?oaeieeo eee a ioaeae, ioaaonoaaiiue ca
i?eiyoea aioeae?oniuo ia?. Anee ae?on iaia?oaeai a eiiiuethoa?a, oi
iineaaeiee ia aeieaeai eniieueciaaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeoo
iieo/aiu aeaeueiaeoea oeacaiey. E?iia oiai, aeieaeiu auoue caienaiu
iiae?iaiinoe neo/eaoaainy eioeeaeaioa (oi/iia iacaaiea ae?ona,
ii?aaeaeaiiia aioeae?oniie i?ia?aiiie, eee oaeno eioi?ue nai ae?on auaae
ia iiieoi?).

I/aiue oianoiie i?ioeeaeoe/aneie ia?ie, eioi?oth iiaeao i?aeoeeiaaoue
eaaeaeay eiiiaiey, yaeyaony oanoe?iaaiea aioeae?oniie i?ia?aiiie anao
aeeneao ia?aae eo ioi?aaeaieai eeeaioo, eee aeaaea eiaaea iie (a
caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a i?aaiecaoeee) ia?aaeathony iaaeaeo ioaeaeaie.
Aiaae?aiea oaeie ia?u eiaao neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa:

• I?aaeioa?auathony neo/ae ioi?aaeaiey ca?aaeaiiuo aeeneao caeac/eeo (a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa aao aecian iiaeao auno?i eiiiooue).

• I?e ca?aaeaiee eaeiai-eeai eiiiuethoa?a a eiiiaiee, aa?iyoiaa anaai.
enoi/iee ca?aaeaiey iaoiaeeony ia aeeneaoao. Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a
i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoe aeey aieaa ?aiiaai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
ca?aaeaiey eiiiuethoa?ia.

Ia?aui, /oi aeieaeii noiyoue ia iiaanoea aeiy i?e ano?a/a n ae?oniie
eioaeoeeae, yaeyaony i?aaeioa?auaiea aa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia ae?oaea
eiiiuethoa?u. Oa?aeoa? o?aaoaiuo ioaaoiuo aeaenoaee caaeneo io i?e?iaeu
iaia?oaeaiiiai ae?ona e io eiathuaainy a iaee/ee aioeae?oniiai II.

Anee aue iaia?oaeai ca?aaeaiiue IE, ia iiaeniaaeeiaiiue a naoue, oi
ia?aui aeaeii iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue: eaeea oeiiie-aeenee
eniieueciaaeenue ia ca?aaeaiiie iaoeia. Anee aea ii yaeyaony /anoueth
eio?aiao, oi n?aco aea neaaeoao auynieoue — oniae ee ae?on ca?aceoue
naoue. Ae?onu, ii?aaeathuea oieueei caa?oci/iua naeoi?u, ia iiaoo
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia ae?oaea IE /a?ac na?aa?. Aeey ae?oaeo oeiia ae?onia
neaaeoao i?aaeiieiaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioaeoeee ia
ae?oaea iaoeiu iin?aaenoaii oaee-na?aa?a.

Anee aioeae?oniie i?ia?aiia ?ac?aoaii auiieiaiea i?iaa?ee oaeeia a
eio?aiao e iia iaia?oaeeea ae?on, oi iaeiaa?iyoii, /oi aicieeiao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?ae?auaiee ?aaiou anae naoe — a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi eieaeeciaaoue enoi/iee i?iyaeaiey aai aeoeaiinoe. Oai
ia iaiaa, anee eio?aiao ia caueuai, oi iiaeao ieacaoueny iieaciie
inoaiiaea ?aaiou anae eieaeueiie naoe.

I?eiyoue oaeia ?aoaiea i/aiue iai?inoi. Neaaeoao acaaneoue ?acee/iua
aeiaiaeu: n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?e inoaiiaea ?aaiou eio?aiao aan iaeeaeatho
cao?aou ec-ca i?inoiy, ii n ae?oaie — i?e ?aaioathuae naoe auniea
aa?iyoiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?ona. *?acau/aeii aaaeii
iiiieoue i oii, /oiau ea/aiea ia ieacaeinue aieaa aieaciaiiui, /ai naia
aieaciue!

Iacaaeneii io aeaea iaia?oaeaiiiai ae?ona, i?aaeeueiui aoaeao
ioeeth/aiea naoe eio?aiao anao ca?aaeaiiuo ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia,
a oaeaea iaania/aieth anao oeiiie-aeeneia, eioi?ua au oioaee au
i?aaeio?aieoue io ca?aaeaiey, caueoie io caiene.

Eiaaea oaeaeinue oniaoii i?aaeioa?aoeoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea ae?ona,
ianooiaao a?aiy aeey iienea anao ca?aaeaiiuo aeeneao. I?e yoii i/aiue
aaaeii neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue iaiai aeeneaoaie eee
oaeeaie iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie, i eioi?uo ecaanoii, /oi iie caei?iau, e
ca?aaeaiiuie iaoeiaie. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa iiaeao i?iecieoe iiaoi?iia
eioeoee?iaaiea oaea i?iaa?aiiuo iaoei. Anee yoi neo/eony, oi aanue
i?ioeann i?eaeaony iiaoi?eoue n naiiai ia/aea.

Aeey iieiie oaa?aiiinoe neaaeoao i?ioanoe?iaaoue ia ae?onu eaaeaeue
eiiiuethoa? e eaaeaeue niioonoaothuee oeiiie-aeene. Oaeoth iia?aoeeth
eo/oa anaai i?iaiaeeoue a auoiaeiua aeie eee ii aa/a?ai, eiaaea
caa?oaeaiiinoue aeeneia ieieiaeueia. Ia naie no?ao e ?ene au, eiia/ii,
iiaeaoa iionoeoue aeaiiue oaa: iaeiaei, anee au oionoeoa oioy au
aaeeinoaaiiue ca?aaeaiiue iauaeo, oi aeey ae?ona ie/aai ia noieo
iiaoi?ii ?ani?ino?aieoueny ia anth nenoaio. Iaeanoue iienea ae?ona
iiaeao auoue ia?aie/aia a caaeneiinoe oi oiai, /oi auei ca?aaeaii, e
neieueei eiiiuethoa?ia auei i?e yoii eioeoee?iaaii.

Oaeaea aaaeii, /oiau nio?oaeieee auiieieee i?iaa?eo ia iaee/ea ae?onia a
naieo aeiiaoieo eiiiuethoa?ao. Iaeioi?ua iinoaaueee i?aaeeaaatho ca
aeiiieieoaeueioth ieaoo, eee aeaaea aanieaoii, eeoeaicee, aeaenoaea
eioi?uo ?ani?ino?aiyaony oaeaea e ia aeiiaoiea eiiiuethoa?u
iieueciaaoaeae. Ianoiyoaeueii ?aeiiaiaeoaony ainiieueciaaoueny oaeeie
eeoeaiceyie, iineieueeo iaeiei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo niiniaia
ca?aaeaiey ioeniuo eiiiuethoa?ia yaeyaony caianaiea ae?ona ec aeiia.
Iinea oiai, eae auea auyaeaia any ca?aaeaiiay n?aaea, ianooiaao a?aiy
aeey i?ioeanna ainnoaiiaeaiey. Oa?aeoa? i?iaaaeaiey ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie
i?ioeaaeo?u caaeneo io oeia iaeaeaiiuo ae?onia.

A eaaeaeie i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeai eiaoueny a iaee/ee ieai aeaenoaee ia
neo/ae aicieeiiaaiey ae?oniie yieaeaiee. Eiaaea au iaia?oaeeoa, /oi
ca?aaeaiu eiiiuethoa?u, ca eioi?ua au ianaoa ioaaonoaaiiinoue, oi i/aiue
aaaeii, /oiau aioeae?oniua i?ioeaaeo?u i?iecaiaeeeenue a niioaaonoaee n
ieaiii. Yoio i?ioeann iaiaoiaeeii aeieoiaioe?iaaoue a yniie e oi?ioi
i?iaeoiaiiie oi?ia, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue ioeaie, aiciiaeiuo ec-ca
no?anniaie neooaoeee, e i?aaeioa?aoeoue aua aieueoea iioa?e.

Eaaeaeay au/eneeoaeueiay nenoaia yaeyaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e iaeaaeaao
niaoeeoe/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Eiie?aoiue niinia, eioi?ue au aoaeaoa
eniieueciaaoue aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey iineaaenoaee ae?oniiai iaiaaeaiey,
iiaeao caaenaoue io ae?ona e ocea eiiiuethoa?iie naoe. E niaeaeaieth,
caeanue ia nouanoaoao aaeeiiai ?aoaiey, i?eaiaeiiai ia ana neo/ae
aeecie.

I?ioeann iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueii oi?iuai, anee au?aaioaoue ieai,
oeacuaathuee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee i?e iaia?oaeaiee ae?oniie
yieaeaiee. Eniieueciaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee
(?aaoey?iia auiieiaiea ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey, nicaeaiea caueuaiiuo io
caiene caa?oci/iuo aeeneia), a oaeaea ?anniio?aiea oaaia, eioi?ua aai
iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao i?aaei?eiyoue aeey auno?iai e aacaieaciaiiiai
ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou a aaoae eiiiaiee, iiiiaeao i?iecaanoe
ainnoaiiaeaiea n iaiueoeie oneeeyie.

Iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao ecaea/ue iaeneiaeueioth iieueco ec eiaaoeo ianoi
neo/aaa ca?aaeaiey. ?anniao?eaaeoa eo, eae aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/aiey
aaeeoaeueiinoe neoaeaueo (aac eniieueciaaiey oaeoeee caioaeaaiey). E
iiaeiaiui i?ienoanoaeyi neaaeoao oaeaea ioiineoueny, eae e oaino aeey
ia?aniio?a aaoae iieeoeee n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey caueoiuo ia? i?ioea
aoaeoueo yieaeaiee.

1.4 Aaciianiinoue eio?aiao

Iiiyoea “aaciianiinoue eio?aiao” iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae niaieoiiinoue
ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia i?aaeioa?auaiea ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aoi?aeaiey
(eae ia oece/aneii, oae e ia eiae/aneii o?iaia), iiaeiaiu aeaiiuo e
ae?oaeo aeaeia eiiiuethoa?iuo iaiaaeaiee. Nthaea oaeaea aeeth/aaony
iaania/aiea oeaeinoiinoe eio?aiao-naoe e ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey
iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe o?aaoaony ?ac?aaioea caueoiuo ia? i?ioea
aicieeiiaaiey ianeieueeeo oeiia ?ac?ooaiee, aeeth/ay eiiiuethoa?iua
iaiaaeaiey, aoi?aeaiey ia oece/aneii o?iaia, /aeiaa/aneea ioeaee e
i?e?iaeiua eaoaeeeciu.

Ii ia?a oiai, eae aic?anoaao caaeneiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /anoiuo
eiiiaiee e aiiaua anao ethaeae io eioi?iaoeeiiiuo neoaea, o/anoaothueo a
oi?ie?iaaiee ia?aca aeecie iauanoaa, ana aieaa aaaeiui e iaiaoiaeeiui
noaiiaeony oaeoi? iaaeaaeiinoe e aaciianiinoe naoae eio?aiao, ii eioi?ui
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee. Eio?aiao aeieaeiu auoue iaania/aiu
caueoie i?ioea eaoano?ioe/aneeo naiaa eee inoaiiaee ?aaiou ec-ca ?yaea
oa?ic e i?ienoanoaee. Ia?aeeaeueii aeieaeiu auoue i?aaei?eiyou ia?u ii
iiieoi?eiao ninoiyiey eio?aiao, eioi?ua, i?e aicieeiiaaiee
iaeni?aaiinoe, iiiiaoo iaiaaeeaiii ainnoaiiaeoue ?aaioiniiniaiinoue
naoe.

1.4.1 Oaiaeaioeee e aii?inu aaciianiinoe eio?aiao

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ?ac?aceeny oaoiieiae/aneee aoi. Iniaaiii ao?ii
?acaeoea noaei iaae?aoue iai?iou a 90-o aiaeao. A /anoiinoe,
?acaeaathony oaeea iai?aaeaiey, eae au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea,
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, i?ia?aiiiua i?eeiaeaiey e nenoaiu niaoeeaeueiiai
iacia/aiey. A ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeeny aieueoie iaai? eino?oiaioia e
na?aenia aeey ?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneeie nenoaiaie. I?e
iianaianoiii ?ani?ino?aiaiey au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, ia?iiiia /enei
iieueciaaoaeae iiaeao oaia?ue eniieueciaaoue eiiiuethoa?u aeey
iaiaic?eiiai /enea caaea/. A iiiuoea oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?anoouea
o?aaiaaiey, iiiaeanoai eiiiaiee ?ac?aaaouaatho au/eneeoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
e i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu a niioaaonoaee n ioaeaeaie eiie?aoiuo
iieueciaaoaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iaeoeoeee aeey IE,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoai, a oaeaea
eiiiuethoa?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e
i?ia?aiiiuo caaea/, oa?aeoa?ecoao iaeio ec i/aaeaeiuo oaiaeaioeee iaoaai
a?aiaie.

?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea aeaiiuo anaaaea aea/ao ca niaie aieueooth
caaeneiinoue io oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo eeiee, n?aaenoa nayce e eio?aiao.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, eniieueciaaiea eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey
niinianoaoao eioaa?aoeee iaaeaaii ?ac?aaioaiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
n eiie?aoiui i?ia?aiiiui i?eeiaeaieai iieueciaaoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa,
noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui yooaeoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea au/eneeoaeueiuo
?ano?nia e ooieoeee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aic?inoay caaeneiinoue i?aaiecaoeee io aiciiaeiinoae
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai i?eaaea e oiio, /oi i?e o?aiaiee e ia?aaioea
aeaiiuo noaiiaeony ana aieueoa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie oeiainiaie e
aaaeiinoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, aeinooi e eioi?ie iiaeao auoue oaeaeaiiui
(ii /anoiui eee iauanoaaiiui eeieyi nayce e /a?ac eio?aiao). Oniaoe a
?acaeoee eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee i?eaaee e nicaeaieth /?acau/aeii
neiaeiie eioi?iaoeeiiii-o?iiieiae/aneie n?aaeu, aaea iieueciaaoaee
eiatho oaeaeaiiue aeinooi e nenoaiai e iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiyaony
iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo i?eeiaeaiee, i?ia?aii, caaea/ e iia?aoeee.

Iai?eia?, eio?aiao-naoe iiaoo auoue aaoiiiiiuie eee yaeyoueny /anoueth
eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. Aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi i?aaiecaoeey
iieiinoueth aeaaeaao nenoaiie, a naoe iiaoo i?iaiaeeoueny ?aaoey?iua
i?iaa?ee, ia?eiaee/iinoue eioi?uo caaeneo io ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo
naaiaioaie naoe. Iiyoiio, eiiioieeaoeeiiiua eeiee aioo?e iaeiiai
caeaiey, nianai ianeiaeii i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue. Ia iaa /anoi a ea/anoaa
niaaeeieoaeueiuo eeiee eniieuecoaony aeoay ia?a i?iaiaeia, eiaeneaeueiue
eaaaeue e iioiaieieiiiua eeiee. Iaeiaei, i?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe
aioo?aiieo eaiaeia nayce aic?anoatho, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey ia/eiaao
ia?aaeaaaoue eeiee a a?aiaeo eee eniieueciaaoue eo a ea/anoaa
oaeaoiiiuo. A eoiaa i?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe noaiiayony oaeeie aea, eae e
aeey eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe, iineieueeo i?aaiecaoeey ineaaeyao
eiio?ieue iaae naiei eiiiuethoa?iui iai?oaeiaaieai. A iniiaiii iu
?anniao?eaaai oa?ieiaeueiua eieaeueiua naoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie
iiaoo ninoiyoue ec eaaaeae, iaoiaeyueony a nianoaaiiinoe iieueciaaoaey
(aeeth/ay iioiaieieiiiua), NA*, auaeaeaiiuo e oaeaoiiiuo eeiee. E oiio
aea caeanue aa?iyoiinoue aoi?aeaiey e iiaeneooeaaiey ai?acaei auoa, /ai
a naoe eio?aiao.

Iiaeieiainy aua ia iaeio eee aeaa nooiaiueee auoa e ?anniio?ei i?iaeaiu
aaciianiinoe, naycaiiua n iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuie naoyie eio?aiao. Iie
iaeaaeatho aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei ?acia?ii e eniieuecotho /anoiua eee
iauanoaaiiua eeiee nayce. Anee eniieuecothony iauanoaaiiua eeiee nayce,
oi ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo oeaeeeii i?iecaiaeeony iinoaaueeaie n?aaenoa
eioi?iaoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?aoei iniiaiia aieiaiea ia ?acee/iua i?iaeaiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii aicieeiiaaiey
iioaioeeaeueiuo oa?ic ?aaioa nenoaiu. Aiciiaeiu neaaeothuea i?iaeaiu:

Oa?icu ec-ca neo/aeiuo i?ienoanoaee eee iai?aaeeueiie ?aaiou,
aeano?oeoeaiie aeey ?aaoey?iiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu – nthaea
oaeaea aeeth/athony iai?aaeeueiua aeaenoaey nenoaiu eee iieueciaaoaeae.

Oa?icu, eae i?iyaeaiea oiuoeaiiuo e iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea, oie/oiaeaiea eee ?acaeaoaiea nenoaiiuo
?ano?nia, eeai i?inoi nicaeathony cao?oaeiaiey a ?aaoey?iii
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee nenoaiu.

Ia?u ii iaania/aieth oeaeinoiinoe eee ia?aie/aiey ii oeaeinoiinoe
yaeythony i?ioeaaeo?aie e iaoiaeaie aeey ono?aiaiey neo/aeiuo aeaenoaee
aiia?aoo?u e iieueciaaoaeae, iiyaeythueony ai a?aiy ?aaiou. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, i?aaaioeaiua iaoiaeu, i?eiaiyaiua oiuoeaiiie ?ac?ooeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iacuaathony eiiiuethoa?iie caueoie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eiae/aneay no?oeoo?a iieeoeee aaciianiinoe aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a naay
aeoeaioth caueoo e ianneaiia nio?aiaiea oeaeinoiinoe nenoaiiuo ?ano?nia.

E?iia oiai, a i?aaeaeao ei?ii?aoeaiie eio?aiao eniieuecothony ?acee/iua
no?aoaaee, aieueoeinoai ec eioi?uo ?ac?aaaouaathony e ?aaeecothony a
aeaea oae iacuaaaiuo neoaea iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe. Eaaeaeay no?aoaaey
ioiineony e eaeiio-eeai niaoeeoe/aneiio aniaeoo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu. Ionthaea, ooieoeey ia?aie neoaeau iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe ninoieo a eaeaioeoeeaoeee e aooaioeoeeaoeee iieueciaaoaey,
eioi?ay inouanoaeyao i?iaa?eo ee/iinoe.

1.4.2 Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iieueciaaoaey

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey – yoi i?enaiaiea eaeiio-eeai iauaeoo eee noauaeoo
oieeaeueiiai ia?aca, eiaie eee /enea. Onoaiiaeaiea iiaeeeiiinoe
(aooaioeoeeaoeey) caeeth/aaony a i?iaa?ea, yaeyaony ee i?iaa?yaiue
iauaeo (noauaeo) a naiii aeaea oai, ca eiai naay auaeaao. I?eia?
aooaioeoeeaoeee n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou i?eaaaeai ia ?enoiea A.2
(niio?e I?eeiaeaiea A).

Eiia/iay oeaeue eaeaioeoeeaoeee e onoaiiaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe iauaeoa a
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaia – aeiione aai e eioi?iaoeee ia?aie/aiiiai
iieueciaaiey a neo/aa iieiaeeoaeueiiai enoiaea i?iaa?ee eee ioeac a
aeiionea a neo/aa io?eoeaoaeueiiai enoiaea i?iaa?ee.

Iauaeoaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee e onoaiiaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe a au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaia iiaoo auoue:

• /aeiaae (iia?aoi?, iieueciaaoaeue, aeieaeiinoiia eeoei);

• oaoie/aneia n?aaenoai (oa?ieiae, aeenieae, YAI, ENA);

• aeieoiaiou (?ania/aoee, eenoeiae e ae?.);

• iineoaee eioi?iaoeee (iaaieoiua eaiou, aeenee e ae?.);

• eioi?iaoeey ia aeenieaa, oaaei e o. ae.

Onoaiiaeaiea iiaeeeiiinoe iauaeoa iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny /aeiaaeii,
aiia?aoiui ono?ienoaii, i?ia?aiiie, au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiie e o. ae.

A au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoaiao i?eiaiaiea oeacaiiuo iaoiaeia a oeaeyo caueou
eioi?iaoeee i?e aa iaiaia i?aaeiieaaaao eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue ia?acia e
eiai iauaeoia.

I?e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e YAI (a i?e oaeaeaiiuo naycyo
iaycaoaeueii) au/eneeoaeueiuie nenoaiaie a naoe ?aeiiaiaeoaony
i?aaeoniio?aoue acaeiioth i?iaa?eo iiaeeeiiinoe iieiiii/ee iauaeoa e
noauaeoa. A oeacaiiuo oeaeyo iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau eaaeaeue ec iauaeoia
(noauaeoia) o?aiee a naiae iaiyoe, iaaeinooiiie aeey iinoi?iiieo, nienie
ia?acia (eiai) iauaeoia (noauaeoia), n eioi?uie i?iecaiaeeony iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae, iiaeeaaeauae caueoa.

A au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoaiao n oeaio?aeeciaaiiie ia?aaioeie eioi?iaoeee e
ioiineoaeueii iaaunieeie o?aaiaaieyie e caueoa onoaiiaeaiea aa
iiaeeeiiinoe ia oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoaao ioia?aaeaiey e ia/aoe
aa?aioe?oaony iaee/eai nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee aeaiiie
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu. Iaeiaei n oneiaeiaieai au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai
ii i?e/eiai, oeacaiiui auoa, aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee e aa iiaeeoeeaoeee
nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony. Iiyoiio a aieaa ioaaonoaaiiuo neo/ayo
ioaeaeueiua niiauaiey eee aeiee eioi?iaoeee iiaeaa?aathony niaoeeaeueiie
caueoa, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee n?aaenoa iiauoaiey
aeinoiaa?iinoe eioi?iaoeee e e?eioia?aoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey.
Onoaiiaeaiea iiaeeeiiinoe iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/ay ioia?aaeaiea
ia oaaei e oa?ieiaeao, caeeth/aaony a eiio?iea iieiaeeoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia iaania/aiey aeinoiaa?iinoe eioi?iaoeee e ?acoeueoaoia
aeaoeo?iaaiey iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee aei ioia?aaeaiey aa ia ye?aia.
Iiaeeeiiinoue eioi?iaoeee ia n?aaenoaao aa ioia?aaeaiey oanii naycaia n
iiaeeeiiinoueth aeieoiaioia. Aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee ia n?aaenoaao
ioia?aaeaiey e ia/aoe a neo/aa i?eiaiaiey oeacaiiuo n?aaenoa caueou
caaeneo io iaaeaaeiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n?aaenoa, aeinoaaeythueo
eioi?iaoeeth ia iiea ioia?aaeaiey iinea ieii/aiey i?ioeaaeo? i?iaa?ee aa
aeinoiaa?iinoe. *ai aeeaea e iieth ioia?aaeaiey (aoiaaeiiio iineoaeth)
yoa i?ioeaaeo?a i?eaeeaeaaony, oai aeinoiaa?iaa ioia?aaeaaiay
eioi?iaoeey.

1.4.3 ?ac?aaioea iaoaieciia iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe

?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe a
eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaia nouanoaotho a /aou?ao eiinoanyo: oaoie/aneee,
oece/aneee e aaeieieno?aoeaiue eiio?ieue, a oaeaea i?aaiaua e
nioeeaeueiua aii?inu.

Oece/aneay aaciianiinoue: aeaiiue o?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie n?aaenoaa
oece/aneie caueou eiiiuethoa?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey – caiee,
i?aaeio?aieoaee, ono?ienoaa o?aaiae, i?ioeaiiiaea?iua yeaiaiou,
iaoaieciu caueou o?aieeeu aeaiiuo e o.i. Eiia/ii, oeacaiiua ia?u ia
iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu e iai?oaeiaaieth nayce (niooieee, ioe?uoua
eiiiooe?oaiua naoe [PSN] e ae?.), eioi?ua auoiaeyo ec iiae eiio?iey
aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Aaciianiinoue ia oece/aneii o?iaia caaeneo io
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ie i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?ia?aiiiia e aiia?aoiia
iaania/aiea.

Neaaeothuei o?iaiai aaciianiinoe yaeyaony aaeieieno?aoeaiue eiio?ieue,
iaania/eaathuee ei??aeoiia oi?aaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea nenoaiu eee
eio?aiao. E aai i?iaaaeaieth aeieaeiu auoue iiaeeeth/aiu i?ia?aiienou,
nenoaiiua eiaeaia?u e iaiaaeaea?u eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai. Aeaeaa yoi
?ani?ino?aiyony ia ioaeaeu eaae?ia, aooaaeoa?eth e aee?aeoeeth.

Iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiei o?iaiai, oaeaea i/aiue aaaeiui, yaeythony i?aaiaua
e nioeeaeueiua ii?iu.

Eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee e eaaeaeay i?aaiecaoeey, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe, i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee yooaeoeaiie
nenoaiu caueou aeieaeiu no?iai neaaeiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui i?ioeaaeo?ai.
Ia ia?aii ianoa noiyo iniciaiea e auyaeaiea anao oa?ic aeey aeiaaeueiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u eee eiiiuethoa?iuo ono?ienoa. Eaaeaeay
iia?aoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi/iee aiciiaeiie iianiinoe e
aicieeiiaaiey i?iaeai. Noaiaiue na?ueaciinoe eaaeaeie ec i?iaeai caaeneo
io iieueciaaoaeae e ?ano?nia nenoaiu, a oaeaea io niaea?aeeiiai e
noaoona iineaaeieo. Iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue neaaeothuoth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?annoaeaeaiee:

1. Aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu nia/aea au
aeieaeiu ninoaaeoue nienie iaeeaeaaiuo oa?ic.

2. Nienie aeinooiiuo a nenoaia iia?aoeee neaaeoao niioianoe ni nieneii
oa?ic.

3. Eaaeaeay oa?ica e niioaaonoaothuay ae iia?aoeey aeieaeiu auoue
naycaiu n eiie?aoiui ?ano?nii, aai aaaeiinoueth e aai niaea?aeeiui.
*anoi yoi iacuaatho aiaeecii oycaeiinoe.

Neaaeothuei oaaii yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea e ioeaiea aa?iyoiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey anao aiciiaeiuo iianiinoae, a oaeaea eo iineaaenoaee.
Aeaiiue i?ioeann iacuaaaony aiaeecii ?enea eee oi?aaeaiea ?eneii. I?e
aai i?iaaaeaiee ii?aaeaeythony o?aaiaaiey e neoaeaai iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe eio?aiao-naoe ?ano?niaieinoue. Eaaeaeay neoaeaa
aaciianiinoe iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaia ee/iuie niiniaaie n
eniieueciaaieai iiiaeanoaa iaoaieciia. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, /oiau
?ac?aaioaoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaioth nenoaio aaciianiinoe aeey eiie?aoiie
onoaiiaee, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau nio?oaeieee i?iecaaee ioeaieo e i?iaa?eo
anao aiciiaeiuo iaoaieciia aaciianiinoe.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey iaeni?aaiinoe eee naiy a
?aaeeciaaiiie nenoaia aaciianiinoe, aeey aa iano?ieee ia iiaua
eciaieaoeany oneiaey iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny ainnoaiiaeaiea iaeioi?uo
?ano?nia, iniaaiii oao ec ieo, aaea ia?ooaia caueoa eee oeaeinoiinoue.

Iiyoiio, aeey nicaeaiey iaaeaaeiie nenoaiu aaciianiinoe ana
iieueciaaoaee, aaeieieno?aoi?u e ?oeiaiaeeoaee eiiiaiee aeieaeiu
niaethaeaoue auoaoeacaiioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oaaia. ?aoaiey,
aicieeathuea i?e eo auiieiaiee, ninoaaeytho iieeoeeo aaciianiinoe.
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iieeoeea aaciianiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ieai
aeaenoaee e ii?i aeey i?eiaiaiey iaoiaeia aaciianiinoe. Ai a?aiy
iianaaeiaaiie ?aaiou aeaiiie nenoaiu iia aeaeea?e?oao, /oi yaeyaony
?ac?aoaiiui, a /oi cai?auaii. A nouiinoe, iieeoeea aaciianiinoe
(niaianoii n i?eiaiyaiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ii?iaie) ii?aaeaeyao
neaaeothuea aniaeou:

• A eaeeo ?aieao aoaeoo eniieueciaaoueny eiiioieeaoeeiiiua eeiee
i?aaiecaoeee?

• Eaeie oei aeaiiuo aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny i?e ia?aaea/a?

• Eaeia iiaaaeaiea yaeyaony i?eaieaiui aeey iieueciaaoaeae nenoaiu
?

• Eoi yaeyaony ioaaonoaaiiui ca aaciianiinoue a eio?aiao-naoe?

• Eiathony ee athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey a aii?inao aaciianiinoe?

Ana oeacaiiua aniaeou yaeythony ninoaaiuie /anoyie ?aaiou eio?aiao
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu a oeaeii. Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea i ?acia?ao
eaaeaeie no?oeoo?u aaciianiinoe i?eieiaaony ec ?an/aoa eniieuecoaiuo
na?aenia e iaoaieciia caueou, eae iie aoaeoo ?aaeeciaaiu, eniieueciaaiu,
e eae iaae ieie aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeoueny oi?aaeaiea e eiio?ieue.

2 n?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee ia eaoaae?ao YE e AO e O e II

2.1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?iaoeee, o?aieiie ia eaoaae?ao YE e AO e O e II

Oneiaeiaiea iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee iaoeiiie ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony aieaa oycaeiie.
Yoiio niinianoaotho oaeea oaeoi?u, eae iinoiyiii aic?anoathuea iauaiu
ia?aaaouaaaiuo aeaiiuo, iaeiieaiea e o?aiaiea aeaiiuo a ia?aie/aiiuo
ianoao, iinoiyiiia ?anoe?aiea e?oaa iieueciaaoaeae, eiathueo aeinooi eae
e ?ano?nai IYAI, oae e i?ia?aiiai e aeaiiui, o?aiyueiny a ieo,
oneiaeiaieai ?aaeeiia yenieoaoaoeee au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai e o.i.

O/eouaay yoe oaeoi?u, caueoa eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna aa nai?a, o?aiaiey
e ia?aaioee i?eia?aoaao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea. Yoe i?iaeaiu
aeooaeueiu ia oieueei aeey e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aaieia e o.ae., ii e
aeey aioo?aiieo iiae?acaeaeaiee o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, eaeiauie yaeythony
eaoaae?u YE e AO e O e II, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa ?AYA. Iiae caueoie
eioi?iaoeee ia eaoaae?ao iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue ia?ii?eyoee, iaoiaeia
e n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo ?aoaiea neaaeothueo iniiaiuo caaea/:

i?iaa?ee oeaeinoiinoe eioi?iaoeee;

eneeth/aiey ianaieeoeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai IYAI e o?aiyueiny
a iae i?ia?aiiai e aeaiiui;

eneeth/aiey ianaieeoeiie?iaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey o?aiyueony a IYAI
i?ia?aii (o.a. caueou i?ia?aii io eiie?iaaiey).

Eacaeinue au, /oi caueuaoue iniai ia/aai, ii i?e aeeceii ?anniio?aiee
aeaiiie i?iaeaiu ana ieacuaaaony ia oae oae e i?inoi. Caueoa eioi?iaoeee
YAI iniiauaaaony ia oieueei ia eniieueciaaiee ia?ieae e ia?aie/aiee
oece/aneiai aeinooia e aiia?aoo?a, ii e eniieueciaaiee aioeae?oniuo
i?ia?aii e ae?. n?aaenoa caueou, i eioi?uo aoaeao ?anneacaii ieaea.

A ?anii?yaeaiee eaoaae? iaoiaeyony ianeieueei eiiiuethoa?ia.
Eioi?iaoeey, o?aiyuayny a ieo aanueia ?aciiia?acia. Aa iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei nooiaiae ii o?iaith aeinooiiinoe e aaaeiinoe.
E aieaa aeinooiiui ioiinyony neaaeothuea aeaeu aeieoiaioaoeee:
neoaeaaiua caienee, eioi?ua aeinoaaeythony ii ianoo o?aaiaaiey (iaeei
yecaiiey? o?aieony ia eaoaae?a); i?ioieieu canaaeaiee eaoaae?u e auienee
eo ieo (auienee oaeaea o?aiyony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: iaeei ia eaoaae?a,
ae?oaie i?aaeuyaeyaony ii ianoo o?aaiaaiey, eae i?aaeei, a ioaeae
eaae?ia); ieaiu noaaee?iaei i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, ninoaaeyaiua a o?ao
yecaiiey?ao. Aeey eaaeaeie niaoeeaeueiinoe ia auioneathueo eaoaae?ao
eiathony ?aai/ea ieaiu e ainoaea?noaaiiua noaiaea?ou (AINOu). Yoa
eioi?iaoeey oaea aieaa aaaeiay, o.e. ia iniiaa AINOia ninoaaeythony
?aai/ea i?ia?aiiu aeey eaaeaeie niaoeeaeueiinoe. ?aai/ea ieaiu
ninoaaeythony aeey i/iie, cai/iie oi?i iao/aiey, a oaeaea cai/iie oi?iu
ia aaca aoi?iai ia?aciaaiey (2, 3, 4 aiaea), cai/ii-aeenoaioeeiiiie
oi?iu. Yoe ieaiu iaiaoiaeeiu ia oieueei aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, ii e aeey
nooaeaioia, aac ieo o/aaiue i?ioeann aue au iaaiciiaeai. Nooaeaioai iie
ioaeiu aeey oiai, /oiau ciaoue, eaeea aeenoeeieeiu ei i?aaenoieo
naeaaaoue, ii eaeei i?aaeiaoai iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue aeiiaoiaa
caaeaiea, eo?niaie i?iaeo, ca/ao eee yecaiai. Iniaaiii yoi aaaeii aeey
nooaeaioia – cai/ieeia.

A iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a o?aiyony oaeea aeieoiaiou, eae ?acee/iua oi?iu e
i?eeiaeaiey aeey io/aoia e aooanoaoeee, eioi?ua i?enueathony ia eaoaae?u
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneei oi?aaeaieai aeaaeaiee e aee?aeoi?aoii iaoaai
einoeoooa. Eiathony a eiiiuethoa?ao e niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiua aacu
aeaiiuo ii anie?aioai (aeey ?aciuo oi?i iao/aiey), nieneaoaeyi, a oaeaea
aacu n ioaeeeaoeeyie, iao/iuie e o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneeie ?ac?aaioeaie
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, anie?aioia e nooaeaioia eaoaae?, a oaeaea auioneaaiua
eaoaae?ie oaenou nai?ieeia ii eiioa?aioeeyi.

Yoa eioi?iaoeey aaaeia e aeieaeia eiaoue oi?iooth caueoo, o.e.
i?aiiaeaaaoaee aeaaeatho i?aaaie ia naie ecaeaiey: iie iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue
eo e iieo/aoue io yoiai iaoa?eaeueioth auaiaeo (i?aiey, aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
e o.i.), iioiio /oi i?aiiaeaaaoaeue cao?aoee naia ee/iia a?aiy e neeu ia
nicaeaiea aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea. Ii ia eaoaae?a
iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony iiiai ethaeae, iniaaiii ai a?aiy ia?aiaiu e
eaaeaeue iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio ainiieueciaaoueny oaeaeaiiie
eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?ay aunaa/eaaaony ia iiieoi?a, a iioii i?enaieoue naaa
aaoi?noai, ecaeaoue, iioaeeeiaaoue io naiaai eiaie /oaeie o?oae,
eniieueciaaoue auaea?aeee ec ioaeeeaoeee, aac aaaeiia aaoi?a, aunoaaeoue
ia i?iaeaaeo oaeaea io naiaai eiaie. Yoi ana n/eoaaony ia?ooaieai
aaoi?neeo i?aa e i?aneaaeoaony ii caeiio.

E naiie cae?uoie e aaaeiie eioi?iaoeee ioiinyony aii?inu e ca/aoo, e
yecaiaio ii aeaiiui aeenoeeieeiai, yecaiaiaoeeiiiua aeeaou, aa?eaiou
eiio?ieueiuo ?aaio, oanou aeey i?iaa?ee inoaoi/iuo ciaiee,
yecaiaiaoeeiiiua aii?inu aeey iinooieaiey a anie?aioo?o, eaiaeeaeaoneee
ieieioi. Yoa eioi?iaoeey aaaeia e iaaeinooiia aeey nooaeaioia, eia/a
o/aaiue i?ioeann ia eiae au niunea. Iao?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
neooaoeeth, eiaaea nooaeaio eaeao ia yecaiai eee ca/ao, ca?aiaa ciay ana
aeeaou: yecaiai eee ca/ao i?aa?auaaony a iau/iia aeiiaoiaa caaeaiea.

Oaeeu, eioi?ua niaea?aeao anth yoo eioi?iaoeeth, iiaeii caoeo?iaaoue,
caueoeoue n iiiiuueth ia?iey, caaeaiiiai a i?ioeanna iaai?a oaenoa a
iaith Na?aen eiiaiaeie Onoaiiaeoue caueoo. Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e
ae?oaie aa?eaio: oae iacuaaaiay iiia/eoaeueneay caueoa aeaiiuo.
Iiia/eoaeue – yoi iieueciaaoaeue, eioi?iio i?aaeinoaaeaiu i?eaeeaaee eee
i?aaa aeey ?aaiou n eaoaeiaii e oaeeaie aioo?e iaai.

Ethaie iiia/eoaeue iiaeao eiaoue ainaiue ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?aa:

Read – i?aai *oaiey ioe?uouo oaeeia;

Write – i?aai Caiene a ioe?uoua oaeeo;

Open – i?aai Ioe?uoey nouanoaothuaai oaeea;

Create – i?aai Nicaeaiey (e iaeiia?aiaiii ioe?uoey) iiauo oaeeia;

Delete – i?aai Oaeaeaiey nouanoaothueo oaeeia;

Parental – ?iaeeoaeueneea i?aaa:

i?aai Nicaeaiey, Ia?aeiaiiaaiey, Noe?aiey iiaeeaoaeiaia eaoaeiaa;

i?aai Onoaiiaeaiey iiia/eoaeae e i?aa a eaoaeiaa;

i?aai Onoaiiaeaiey iiia/eoaeae e i?aa a iiaeeaoaeiaa;

Search – i?aai Iienea eaoaeiaa;

Modify – i?aai Iiaeeoeeaoeee oaeeiauo ao?eaooia.

Aua iaeie niinia caueou – caueoa ao?eaooaie oaeeia. I?e yoii
i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue onoaiaaeeaaoue, iiaeao ee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oaee auoue eciaiai eee ?acaeaeai. Caueoa ao?eaooaie
oaeeia eniieuecoaony a iniiaiii aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey neo/aeiuo eciaiaiee
eee oaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo oaeeia. Oaeay caueoa iieacia aeey caueou
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaeeia iauaai iieueciaaiey, eioi?ua iau/ii /eoathony
iiiaeie iieueciaaoaeyie. A caueoa aeaiiuo eniieuecothony /ao?ua oaeeiauo
ao?eaooa: “Caienue-/oaiea/Oieueei /oaiea” e
“?acaeaeyaiue/Ia?acaeaey-aiue”. A i?e /oaiee eioi?iaoeee n aeeneaou
eioi?iaoeey aoaeao iaaeinooiia, anee caueoeoue aa io caiene. Aeey yoiai
ia aeeneaoa eiaaony eeno (caueoiue caiie).

2.2 Caueoa eioi?iaoeee io INAe

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai niiniaia caueou eiiiuethoa?a io INAe io iaiaa
yooaeoeaiuo aei i/aiue yooaeoeaiuo. A iaoai neo/aa iaoeio iiaeii
caueoeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: ia?iee e oeo?iaaiea.

Ia?iee aeieaeiu auoue i?inou aeey caiiieiaiey e ia aeieaeiu auoue noieue
i/aaeaeiu, /oiau oio, eoi caoioae ainiieueciaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae a
eiiiuethoa?a, iia aai oaaaeaoue. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee ia?iey iiaeii
i?eaaaiooue e iiiiue niaoeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia aaia?e?oao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe /enae e aoea a caaeneiinoe io aeaiiuo, eioi?ua
caaeaao iieueciaaoaeue.

Nouanoaotho “iaaeaeeiua” oaeeu. Yoi n?aaenoai caueou ninoieo a eciaiaiee
eiaie oaeea i?ia?aiiu a eaoaeiaa aeenea oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
cao?oaeieoue ?aaioo n oaeeaie iau/iuie eiiaiaeaie DOS. Iai?eia?, eiy
oaeea iiaeao niaea?aeaoue “iaaeaeeiua” oi?aaeythuea neiaieu, eioi?ua ia
ioia?aaeathony, eiaaea i?iniao?eaathony niaea?aeeiia eaoaeiaia.

Eioi?iaoeeth ia aeeneaoao iiaeii nio?aieoue, eniieuecoy aeaa i?eioeeia:
eeai iiiaoaoue eiie?iaaieth i?ia?aiiu ia ae?oaie aeene. eeai
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue i?iniio?o. I oaeeo i?ia?aiiao iiaeii aiai?eoue eae i
“caueuaiiuo io eiie?iaaiey” e “caueuaiiuo io i?iniio?a”. Iaoiae ia?aiai
oeia caueuaao i?ia?aiio io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia, a aoi?iai –
io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiie i?iaa?ee.

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, ia eaoaae?ao iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony iiiai ethaeae
io nooaeaioia aei nio?oaeieeia e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Iaiaoiaeeii
ia?aie/eoue aeinooi ia?niiaea ia eaoaae?a, aaea onoaiiaeaiu
eiiiuethoa?u. ?aeiiaiaeoaony, /oiau a iiiauaiee iaoiaeeeinue ia aieaa
8-10 /aeiaae a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy. Yoe ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iniiaaiu ia oii,
/oi i?e aieueoai eiee/anoaa ethaeae o?oaeiaa caiaoeoue eee ociaoue
eeoieo iinaoeoaeae.

2.3 Caueoa eioi?iaoeee io ae?onia

Ii oaeeu e nai eiiiuethoa? iiaoo iino?aaeaoue ia oieueei io iinoi?iiiaai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa, ii e io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia. E yoi oaea i?iaeaia
aeinoaoi/ii na?ueacia e aeooaeueia ia oieueei a i?aaeaeao eaoaae?, ii e
noaea aeiaaeueiie i?iaeaiie. Ae?onu iiaoo i?iieeaoue a iaoeio
?acee/iuie iooyie: i?e /oaiee oaeeia n aeeneao; i?e iaee/ee
iiaeeeth/aiiie e eiiiuethoa?o naoe ia oieueei eieaeueiie
(aioo?eaocianeie), ii e aeiaaeueiie (Internet), a oaeaea /a?ac ea?iaua
i?ia?aiiu (yaeythueany naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii i?iieeiiaaiey
ae?onia a iaoeio, o.e. ca/aooth i?e iaiaia ea?aie iieueciaaoaee
caauaatho i?inoua i?aaeea aaciianiinoe, a eiaiii: i?iaa?eo aeeneao ia
iaee/ea ae?onia). Iineaaenoaey io ca?aaeaiey ae?onia aanueia iai?eyoiu:
io ?ac?ooaiey oaeea aei i?iieeiiaaiey ae?ona a iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a,
i?eaiaeyuaai iaoeio a iieioth iai?eaiaeiinoue aeey ?aaiou. Aeinoaoi/ii
anaai eeoue iaeiiai ca?aaeaiiiai oaeea, /oiau ca?aceoue anth eiathuothny
ia eiiiuethoa?a eioi?iaoeeth.

Ae?onu a eiiiuethoa? iiaoo iiianoue e ae?oaei iooai. A ?AYA nouanoaoao
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiay aioo?eaocianeay naoue naoaauo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai iiae oi?aaeaieai Novell NetWare 4.1 e Microsoft WindowsNT 4.0, n
oiiieiaeae iauay oeia. Aeaiiay naoue iiaeeeth/aia i?aeoe/anee e
eaaeaeiio eiiiuethoa?o ia eaoaae?ao. Eae oaeiauo ae?onia a naoe iao, ii
nooaeaiou, ?aaioay ia aoi?ii yoaaea ni naieie aeieoiaioaie e aeeneaoaie
(a eiaiii: eiie?otho, caienuaatho ia?aienuaatho n aeeneaou a iaiyoue
eiiiuethoa?a eee iaiai?io) iiaoo neo/aeii caianoe ae?on a eiiiuethoa?, a
cia/eo e a naoue. ?aiueoa ia eiiiuethoa?ao auea onoaiiaeaia aeiee?iaea
aeeneiaiaea, aeey oiai, /oiau nooaeaiou ia iiaee iieueciaaoueny naieie
aeeneaoaie, a oaia?ue aa ono?aieee e ?ene iiiaaeaiey ae?onia a
eiiiuethoa? aeinoaoi/ii aaeee.

Anaai yoiai iiaeii ecaaaeaoue, neaaeoy yeaiaioa?iui i?aaeeai. I?aaeaea
anaai i?e ?aaioa n oaeeaie ia aeeneaoa eee n/eouaaiey ?acee/iie
eioi?iaoeee n aeeneaou eee i?inoi ?aaioa n eiie?aoiuie oaeeaie
iaiaoiaeeii i?iaa?eoue aeeneaoo eee aeaiiue oaee ia iaee/ea ae?onia, n
iiiiuueth eiathueony ia YAI niaoeeaeueiuo aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii. A iaoai
neo/aa yoi oaeea i?ia?aiiu eae AntiViral Toolkit Pro e DrWeb. Ii i?e
iaee/ee iiiaeanoaa ?aciiaeaeiinoae ae?onia o?aaoaony iinoiyiiia
iaiiaeaiea aeaiiuo n?aaenoa caueou.

Caeeth*aiea

Eoae, iu ?anniio?aee e i?iaiaeece?iaaee iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu,
aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe, iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee eae a
oeaeii a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e ia i?eia?a
eio?aiao, oae e aieaa eiie?aoii, ia eaoaae?ao YE e AO e O e II.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi oeacaiiua n?aaenoaa caueou ia anaaaea iaaeaaeiu, o.e.
ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue auno?uie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony ia oieueei oaoieea
(a iaoai neo/aa eiiiuethoa?iay), iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaoaony ia oieueei
naia eioi?iaoeey, ii e iaoiaeu, iicaieythuea yoo eioi?iaoeeth
aeiauaaoue. Iao aae /anoi iacuaatho eioi?iaoeeiiiie yiioie e ii ianao n
niaie ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe, naycaiiua n yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii,
oaoiieiae/aneeie iiaoanoaaie. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio iaeaaeaiea yeaeo?iiiuie
aeaiiuie, eioi?ua noaiiayony iaeaieueoae oeaiiinoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiie
y?u, aiceaaaao ia naieo aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii eiio?ieth
ca eo eniieueciaaieai. Oaeeu e niiauaiey, o?aieiua ia aeeneao e
ia?anueaaiua ii eaiaeai nayce, eiatho eiiaaea aieueooth oeaiiinoue, /ai
naie eiiiuethoa?u, aeenee. Iiyoiio ia?niaeoeau eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaea
iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ioaeaeueiua eeoea,
i?aaei?eyoey e ae?oaea iiae?acaeaeaiey, aeaaeathuea eioi?iaoeeae,
eioi?ay ana /aua eiaao eiioeaeaioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? eee yaeyaony iniai
aaaeiie, niiaoo niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii caueoeoue naith nianoaaiiinoue
io anaaiciiaeiuo oa?ic, aua?aoue oaeie o?iaaiue caueou, eioi?ue aoaeao
niioaaonoaiaaoue eo o?aaiaaieyi aaciianiinoe, iniiaaiiui ia aiaeeca
noaiaie oa?icu e oeaiiinoe o?aieiie nianoaaiiinoe.

A /oi eanaaony caueou aeaiiuo a aieaa oceii niunea (a iaoai neo/aa yoi
caueoa aeaiiuo ia eaoaae?ao), oi caueoa eiiiuethoa?ia ia eaoaae?ao eiaao
oe?ieee aeeaiacii aeaenoaey e nio?oaeieee aeieaeiu auae?aoue oio eee
eiie iaoaieci, a caaeneiinoe io aaaeiinoe o?aieiie eioi?iaoeee. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea, ia iao acaeyae, neaaeoao oaeaeyoue ae?onai e nio?aiaieth
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe eioi?iaoeee a i?aaeaeao eaoaae?. A eaeaaea
oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe eaoaae? aeieaeiu iicaieyoue nio?oaeieeai
aeaeaoue ?aca?aiua eiiee aeey nianoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey e ia aeieaeiu
ia?aie/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoe eiiiuethoa?a, ii, e niaeaeaieth, ia ana
o?aaiaaiey, ia?a/eneaiiua auoa, oaeiaeaoai?ytho oaoie/aneei
aiciiaeiinoyi eiiiuethoa?ia e oneiaeyi, nicaeaiiui ia eaoaae?ao. Ii,
aoaeai iaaeayoueny, /oi yoa neooaoeey a aeaeueiaeoai eciaieoueny e
eo/oaio e noaioo aiciiaeiu neaaeothuea ia?u ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee:
?aaoey?iia iauyaeaiea aioeae?oniie aacu /a?ac INTERNET, ?aca?aiia
eiie?iaaiea (aeey yoiai o?aaothony neaaeothuea ono?ienoaa: no?eiia? eee
jarr-drive), eniieueciaaiea iaaeaaeiie IN (WindowsNT). A yoii neo/aa
noaiaiue caueou eioi?iaoeee ia eaoaae?ao YE e AO e O e II cia/eoaeueii
aic?anoao.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi*ieeia

Aaeea Aeae. Aaciianiinoue eio?aiao: Ia?. n aiae.-I.: III ”Aoe Iaaeea
Iaaeeoa?”, 1998.- 496 n.: ee.

Caueoa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey: Ia?. n aiae./ Ae.A?ioaa?, ?.Naoa?,
Aeae. Oein e ae?./ Iiae ?aae. Ae.A?ioaa?a.- I.: Ie?, 1992. – 286 n.: ee.

Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a ia?niiaeueiuo YAI/ Nianeaoeaa A.A., Aaaia? A.A.,
E?ooyeia A.TH. e ae?.-I.: ?aaeei e naycue, II “Aanoa”, 1993.-192 n.: ee.

Iaeueieeia A.A. Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao.-I.:
Oeiainu e noaoenoeea; Yeaeo?iieioi?i, 1997.-368 n.: ee.

I?eeiaeaiess

I?eeiaeaiea A

Oeo?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee

(eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

?enoiie A.1 – Oeo?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee

I?eeiaeaiea A

Oa?aeoa?enoeea e?eioia?aoe/aneeo aeai?eoiia

(eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

Oaaeeoea A.1 – Oa?aeoa?enoeea e?eioia?aoe/aneeo aeai?eoiia

Oa?aeoa?enoeea DES RSA

Nei?inoue ?aaiou

Eniieuecoaiay ooieoeey

Aeeeia eeth/a

Iaeiaiaa cao?aoiue e?eioiaiaeec

A?aiaiiua cao?aou ia e?eioiaiaeec

A?aiy aaia?aoeee eeth/a

Oei eeth/a Auno?ay

Ia?anoaiiaea e iiaenoaiiaea

56 aeo

Ia?aai? ii anaio eeth/aaiio i?ino?ainoao

Noieaoey

Ieeeenaeoiaeu

Neiiao?e/iue Iaaeeaiiay

Aicaaaeaiea a noaiaiue

300…600 aeo

?aceiaeaiea iiaeoey

Caaenyo io aeeeiu eeth/a

Aeanyoee naeoiae

Aneiiao?e/iue

I?eeiaeaiea A

N?aaenoaa caueou io INAe

(eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

Oaaeeoea A.2 – Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe e eioi?iaoeee IYAI e

n?aaenoaa caueou, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua aeey eo ia?ae?uoey

?? i/i Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe N?aaenoaa caueou

1 Aeenieae, i?eioa?, ieiooa?, a?aoiiino?ieoaeue

Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

2 Eeaaeaoo?a, neaia?, iaieioeyoi? “iuoue” Oi aea

Niaoeeaeueiue yeaeo?iiiue eeth/ a ni/aoaiee n o?aaiaioaie II

I?ia?aiia eiio?iey e ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia (ia?iee)

N?aaenoaa caueou io ioeaaei/iuo i?ia?aii

Aeiee?iaea iaoaie/aneei caieii aeeth/aiey yeaeo?iieoaiey

Aeiee?iaea iaoaie/aneei caieii iaoaiecia caa?ocee II

N?aaenoaa eiio?iey oeaeinoiinoe II

3 Aeeneiaiae Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

I?eiaiaiea IYAI aac aeeneiaiaea

Onoaiiaea iaoaie/aneie e?uoee n iaoaie/aneei caieii

N?aaenoaa caueou io ae?onia

N?aaenoaa aa?eoeeaoeee IAIAe

N?aaenoaa caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiie caa?ocee II

N?aaenoaa eiio?iey oeaeinoiinoe II

I?iaeieaeaiea i?eeiaeaiey A

I?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu A.2

4 AIAe, No?eiia? Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

O/ao e ?aaeno?aoeey

Ia?ee?iaea oeaaoii

O?aiaiea a naeoao

Noe?aiea inoaoeia eioi?iaoeee

Oie/oiaeaiea inoaoeia eioi?iaoeee

Eiii?anney aeaiiuo

Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo

5 AEIAe Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

Iaoaeee/aneee oeao n caieii

Aeiee?iaea niyoey eiaeooa nenoaiiiai aeiea iaoaie/aneei caieii

N?aaenoaa eiio?iey oeaeinoiinoe II

Noe?aiea inoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee

Oie/oiaeaiea inoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee

Oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo

6 Aioo?aiiee iiioaae Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

Aeiee?iaea niyoey eiaeooa nenoaiiiai aeiea iaoaie/aneei caieii

7 IYIEI N?aaenoaa oiaiueoaiey e caooieaiey neaiaeia e onoaiiaeaiea
a?aieoe eiio?iee?oaiie ciiu

8 Iooiaeu iineoaeae n eioi?iaoeeae Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n
eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

N?aaenoaa oie/oiaeaiey iooiaeia iineoaeae

9 Aeieoiaiou Ioaeaeueiia iiiauaiea n eiio?iee?oaiui aeinooiii

O/ao e ?aaeno?aoeey aeieoiaioia

Naeo

I?eeiaeaiea A

Aooaioeoeeaoeey n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou

(eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

Yoai 1: Iieueciaaoaeue cai?aoeaaao o na?aa?a
aae?an ye.ii/ou

ia?ieue, eioi?ue aoaeao iai?aaeai

ii eiie?aoiiio aae?ano yeaeo?iiiie

ii/ou

ia?ieue, ioi?aaeaiiue

Yoai 2: Na?aa? nicaeaao ia?ieue e
ii caaeaiiiio aae?ano

ioi?aaeyao aai ii oeacaiiiio

aae?ano

ii/oiaue aae?an, ia?ieue,

Yoai 3: Iieueciaaoaeue, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
ae?oaea aeaiiua (URL)

aeaiiue aae?an, ioi?aaeyao ia na?aa?

naie ii/oiaue aae?an, ia?ieue e URL

?enoiie A.2 – Aooaioeoeeaoeey n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou

I?eeiaeaiea Ae

Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe e iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu

(eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

?enoiie Ae.3 – Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu INAe e eioi?iaoeee IYAI e

iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu

PAGE 21

Ioe?uoue oaeno

Oeo?

Oeo?

Ioe?uoue oaeno

Eeth/

Eeth/

Ioe?uoue oaeno

I?eaiiee

Ia?aaeao/ee

IIEUeCIAAOAEUe

NA?AA?

NA?AA?

IIEUeCIAAOAEUe

IIEUeCIAAOAEUe

NA?AA?

Iioaioeeaeueiua oa?icu

Eciaiaiea noaiu IYAI

e anoaaea iinoi?iiiaai

ono?ienoaa

Iooiaeu iineoaeae

eioi?iaoeee

Niyoea iao/oaiiie

eiiee

Aeeneiaiae

Ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiue aoiae a IYAI

Eeaaeaoo?a, neaia?, iuoue

Aeenieae, i?eioa?,

ieiooa?,

a?aoiiino?ieoaeue

Aiciiaeiua eaiaeu

Ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee

ae?oaiai iieueciaaoaey

Ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiia

iaaethaeaiea eioi?iaoeee

Aaiae ianaieoeeiie?i-aaiiuo i?ia?aii

?aiiio IAEIAe

I?eai eioi?iaoeee

ia niaoeaiia?aoo?o

*oaiea inoaoeia

eioi?iaoeee

Caienue eioi?iaoeee ia iao/oaiiue iineoaeue

Oeuaiea IAIAe

Iiai/iia

yeaeo?iiaaieoiia

eceo/aiea e iaaiaeee

eioi?iaoeee

I?ia?aiiiia

iaania/aiea

IAEIAe

IAIAe, no?eiia?

Aioo?aiiee iiioaae

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