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E?EOONEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE

OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eeaa?iaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a Au/eneeoaeueiie Oaoieee

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

N?AAeNOAA IOEUeOEIAAeEA

Aeenoeeieeia:

I?aaiecaoeey YAI e nenoai

Auiieiee(

nooaeaio a?oiiu

YAI-94-1

Ino?ianeee I.N.

1996 a.

i

oeueoeiaaeea — yoi eioa?aeoeaiua nenoaiu, iaania/eaathuea ?aaioo n
iaiiaeaeaeiuie ecia?aaeaieyie e aeaeaeoueiny aeaeai, aieie?iaaiiie
eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeeie e oaenoii, ?a/ueth e aunieiea/anoaaiiui caoeii.

Iiyaeaiea nenoai ioeueoeiaaeea, aaconeiaii, i?iecaiaeeo ?aaiethoeeiiiua
eciaiaiey a oaeeo iaeanoyo, eae ia?aciaaiea, eiiiuethoa?iue o?aieia, ai
iiiaeo noa?ao i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaoee, eneonnoaa, a
eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?ao e o.ae.

Iiyaeaiea nenoai ioeueoeiaaeea iiaeaioiaeaii eae n o?aaiaaieyie
i?aeoeee, oae e n ?acaeoeai oai?ee. Iaeiaei, ?aceee ?uaie a yoii
iai?aaeaiee, i?iecioaaeoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei
eao, iaania/ai i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeoeai oaoie/aneeo e nenoaiiuo
n?aaenoa. Yoi e i?ia?ann a ?acaeoee IYAI: ?acei aic?inoea iauai iaiyoe,
auno?iaeaenoaea, a?aoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe, oa?aeoa?enoeee aiaoiae
iaiyoe, e aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe aeaeaioaoieee, eaca?iuo aeeneia —
aiaeiaiauo e CD-ROM, a oaeaea eo ianniaia aiaae?aiea. Aaaeioth ?ieue
nua?aea oae aea ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia auno?iai e yooaeoeaiiai naeaoey /
?acaa?oee aeaiiuo.

Nia?aiaiiue ioeueoeiaaeea–IE a iieiii “aii?oaeaiee” iaiiieiaao aeiiaoiee
noa?aioiie/aneee Hi–Fi eiiieaen, iauaaeeiaiiue n aeenieaai–oaeaaeci?ii.
Ii oeiiieaeoiaai aeoeaiuie noa?aioiie/aneeie eieiieaie, iee?ioiiii e
aeeneiaiaeii aeey iioe/aneeo eiiiaeo–aeeneia CD–ROM (CD — Compact Disc,
eiiiaeo–aeene; ROM — Read only Memory, iaiyoue oieueei aeey n/eouaaiey).
E?iia oiai, aioo?e eiiiuethoa?a oe?uoi iiaia aeey IE ono?ienoai —
aoaeeiaaeaioa?, iicaieeaoee ia?aeoe e i?ineooeaaieth /enouo
noa?aioiie/aneeo caoeia /a?ac aeonoe/aneea eieiiee n ano?iaiiuie
oneeeoaeyie.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua oaoie/aneea aii?inu, eanathueany ioeueoeiaaeea.
Iniiaiay i?iaeaia, ec eioi?ie “?anooo” ana iniiaiua — niaianoiay
ia?aaioea ?acii?iaeiuo aeaiiuo: oeeo?iauo e aiaeiaiauo, “aeeaiai” aeaeai
e iaiiaeaeaeiuo ecia?aaeaiee e o.i. A eiiiuethoa?a ana aeaiiua o?aiyony
a oeeo?iaie oi?ia, a oi a?aiy eae oaea-, aeaeai- e aieueoeinoai
aoaeeiaiia?aoo?u eiaao aeaei n aiaeiaiaui neaiaeii. Iaeiaei auoiaeiua
ono?ienoaa eiiiuethoa?a — iiieoi?u e aeeiaieee eiatho aiaeiaiaue auoiae.
Iiyoiio i?inoaeoee e iaeaieaa aeaoaaue iooue iino?iaiey ia?auo nenoai
ioeueoeiaaeea ninoiye a noueiaea ?acii?iaeiie aiia?aoo?u n
eiiiuethoa?ii, i?aaeinoaaeaiee eiiiuethoa?o aiciiaeiinoae oi?aaeaiey
yoeie ono?ienoaaie, niaiauaiee auoiaeiuo neaiaeia eiiiuethoa?a e aeaeai-
e aoaeeiono?ienoa e iaania/aiee eo ii?iaeueiie niaianoiie ?aaiou.
Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ioeueoeiaaeea i?ienoiaeeo a iai?aaeaiee
iauaaeeiaiey ?acii?iaeiuo oeiia aeaiiuo a oeeo?iaie oi?ia ia iaeiie
n?aaea-iineoaea, a ?aieao iaeiie nenoaiu.

AEAeAI

I?e niaoaiee neaiaeia iniiaiua i?iaeaiu aicieeatho n
aeaeai–ecia?aaeaieai. ?acee/iua OA–noaiaea?ou, nouanoaothuea a ie?a
(NTSC, PAL, SECAM), i?eiaiaiea ?aciuo iiieoi?ia e aeaeaieiio?ieea?ia
aeeeooao ?aciiia?acea iiaeoiaeia a ?ac?aoaiee aicieeathueo i?iaeai.
Iaeiaei a ethaii neo/aa o?aaoaony neio?iiecaoeey aeaoo ecia?aaeaiee,
aeey /aai neoaeeo ono?ienoai aaieie (genlock). N aai iiiiuueth ia ye?aia
iiieoi?a iiaoo auoue niaiauaiu ecia?aaeaiea, naaia?e?iaaiiia
eiiiuethoa?ii (aieie?iaaiiay eee iaiiaeaeaeiay a?aoeea, oaeno, oeo?u), e
“aeeaia” aeaeai. Anee aeiaaaeoue aua iaeii ono?ienoai — eiaea?
(encoder), eiiiuethoa?iia ecia?aaeaiea iiaeao auoue i?aia?aciaaii a
oi?io OA–neaiaea e caienaii ia aeaeaiieaieo. “Ianoieueiua
aeaeai–nooaeee”, yaeythueany iaeiei ec i?eia?ia i?eiaiaiey nenoai
ioeueoeiaaeea, iicaieytho aioiaeoue niaiauaiiua aeaeai–eiiiuethoa?iua
eeeiu, oeo?u aeey aeaeaioeeueiia, iiiiaatho i?e iiioaaea eeiioeeueiia.

Nenoaiu oaeiai ?iaea ia iicaieytho eae-oi ia?aaaouaaoue eee
?aaeaeoe?iaaoue naii aiaeiaiaia ecia?aaeaiea. Aeey oiai, /oiau yoi noaei
aiciiaeiui, aai iaiaoiaeeii ioeeo?iaaoue e aaanoe a iaiyoue
eiiiuethoa?a. Aeey yoiai neoaeao oae iacuaaaiua ieaou caoaaoa (capture
board, frame grabbers). Ioeeo?iaea aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia ii?iaeaeaao
ia?iiiua ianneau aeaiiuo. Oae, eaae? noaiaea?oa NTSC (525 no?ie),
i?aia?aciaaiiue ieaoie oeia Truevision, i?aa?auaaony a eiiiuethoa?iia
ecia?aaeaiea n ?ac?aoaieai 512×482 ieenaeue. Anee eaaeaeay oi/ea
i?aaenoaaeaia 8 aeoaie, oi aeey o?aiaiey anae ea?oeiee o?aaoaony ieiei
250 Eaaeo iaiyoe, i?e/ai iaaeaao ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey, oae eae
iaania/eaaaony oieueei 256 ?acee/iuo oeaaoia. N/eoaaony, /oi aeey
aaeaeaaoiie ia?aaea/e enoiaeiiai ecia?aaeaiey o?aaoaony 16 iei.
iooaieia, iiyoiio eniieuecoaony 24-aeoiaue oi?iao o?aiaiey oeaaoiie
ea?oeiee, a iaiaoiaeeiue ?acia? iaiyoe aic?anoaao. Ioeeo?iaaiiue eaae?
iiaeao caoai auoue eciaiai, io?aaeaeoe?iaai iau/iui a?aoe/aneei
?aaeaeoi?ii, iiaoo auoue oa?aiu eee aeiaaaeaiu aeaoaee, eciaiaiu
oeaaoa, ianooaau, aeiaaaeaiu niaoeyooaeou, oeia iicaeee, eiaa?nee e
o.ae. Anoanoaaiii, eioa?aeoeaiay ye?aiiay ia?aaioea aiciiaeia eeoue a
i?aaeaeao ?ac?aoaiey, iaania/eaaaiiai aeaiiui eiie?aoiui
aeaeaiaaeaioa?ii. Ia?aaioaiiua eaae?u iiaoo auoue caienaiu ia aeene a
eaeii–eeai a?aoe/aneii oi?iaoa e caoai eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa
?aaeenoe/aneiai iaiiaeaeaeiiai oiia aeey eiiiuethoa?iie aieiaoeee.
Aiciiaeia oaeaea iieaae?iaay ia?aaioea enoiaeiiai ecia?aaeaiey e
auaiae ia?aoii ia aeaeaiieaieo aeey nicaeaiey inaaaei?aaeenoe/aneiai
ioeueooeeueia.

Caienue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eaae?ia a oeeo?iaii aeaea o?aaoao io
eiiiuethoa?a aieueoeo iauaiia aiaoiae iaiyoe: /anoioa eaae?ia a
aia?eeaineii OA–noaiaea?oa NTSC — 30 eaae?ia/n (PAL, SECAM — 25
eaae?ia/n), oae /oi aeey caiiieiaiey iaeiie naeoiaeu iieiioeaaoiiai
iieiiye?aiiiai aeaeai o?aaoaony 20–30 Iaaeo, a iioe/aneee aeene
aieinoueth 600 Iaaeo aianoeo iaiaa iieieioou ecia?aaeaiey. Ii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eaae?ia iaaeinoaoi/ii oieueei caiiiieoue, aa iaaei
aua auaanoe ia ye?ai a niioaaonoaothuai oaiia. Iiaeiaiie nei?inoueth
ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee — ieiei 30 Iaaeo / n — ia iaeaaeaao ie iaeii ec
nouanoaothueo aiaoieo caiiieiathueo ono?ienoa. *oiau auaiaeeoue ia ye?ai
eiiiuethoa?a ioeeo?iaaiiia aeaeai, i?eoiaeeony eaeoe ia oiaiueoaiea
iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo, (auaiae oiaiueoaiiiai ecia?aaeaiey a
iaaieueoii ieia, nieaeaiea /anoiou eaae?iaie ?acaa?oee aei 10–15 eaae?ia
/ n, oiaiueoaiea /enea aeo / ieenaeue), /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeo
e oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa ecia?aaeaiey.

Aieaa ?aaeeeaeueii iaa i?iaeaiu — iaiyoe e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe —
?aoathony n iiiiuueth iaoiaeia naeaoey / ?acaa?oee aeaiiuo, eioi?ua
iicaieytho naeeiaoue eioi?iaoeeth ia?aae caienueth ia aiaoiaa
ono?ienoai, a caoai n/eouaaoue e ?acai?a/eaaoue a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia
a?aiaie i?e auaiaea ia ye?ai. Oae, aeey aeaeaeoueony aeaeai–ecia?aaeaiee
nouanoaothuea aaeaioeaiua ?aciinoiua aeai?eoiu iiaoo naeeiaoue aeaiiua n
eiyooeoeeaioii ii?yaeea 100:1— 160:1, /oi iicaieyao ?acianoeoue ia
CD–ROM ieiei /ana iieiioeaiiiai icao/aiiiai aeaeai. ?aaioa yoeo
aeai?eoiia iniiaaia ia oii, /oi iau/ii iineaaeothuee eaae? ioee/aaony io
i?aaeuaeouaai eeoue iaeioi?uie aeaoaeyie, iiyoiio, acya eaeie–oi eaae?
ca aaciaue, aeey neaaeothueo iiaeii o?aieoue oieueei ioiineoaeueiua
eciaiaiey. I?e cia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaieyo eaae?a, iai?eia?, i?e iiioaaeiie
neeaeea, iaacaea eee iaii?aie?iaaiee eaia?u, aaoiiaoe/anee auae?aaony
iiaue aaciaue eaae?. Aeey noaoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee eiyooeoeeaio naeaoey,
anoanoaaiii, ieaea — ii?yaeea 20–30:1. Aeey aoaeeiaeaiiuo i?eiaiytho
naie iaoiaeu eiii?annee.

Nouanoaoao neiiao?e/iay e aneiiao?e/iay noaiu naeaoey aeaiiuo. I?e
aneiiao?e/iie noaia eioi?iaoeey naeeiaaony a aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia (o.a.
iaeia naeoiaea enoiaeiiai aeaeai naeeiaaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
naeoiae eee aeaaea ieioo iiuiuie ia?aeeaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie e
iiiauaaony ia aiaoiee iineoaeue, iai?eia? CD–ROM. Ia iaoeiao
iieueciaaoaeae onoaiaaeeaathony n?aaieoaeueii aeaoaaua ieaou
aeaeiaee?iaaiey, iaania/eaathuea aini?iecaaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee
ioeueoeiaaeea a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie. Eniieueciaaiea oaeie noaiu
oaaee/eaaao eiyooeoeeaio naeaoey, oeo/oaao ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey,
iaeiaei iieueciaaoaeue eeoai aiciiaeiinoe ?ac?aaaouaaoue nianoaaiiua
i?iaeoeou ioeueoeiaaeea. I?e neiiao?e/iie noaia naeaoea e ?acaa?oea
i?ienoiaeyo a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie ia iaoeia iieueciaaoaey, aeaaiaea?y /aio
ca ia?niiaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie e a yoii neo/aa nio?aiyaony eo
iniiaiiieaaathuaa aeinoieinoai: n eo iiiiuueth ethaie iieueciaaoaeue
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue nianoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, a oii /enea
e eiiia?/aneoth, ia auoiaey ec aeiia. I?aaaea, i?e neiiao?e/iie noaia
ianeieueei iaaeaao ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey: iiyaeythony “niacaiiua”
oeaaoa, ea?oeiea eae au ?anoieone?oaony. N ?acaeoeai oaoiieiaee yoa
i?iaeaia iinoaiaiii ooiaeeo, iaeiaei iiea eiiaaea i?aaeii/eoatho
niaoaiioth noaio, i?e eioi?ie ?ac?aaio/ee i?iaeoeoa aioiaeo, ioeaaeeaaao
e eniuouaaao i?iaeoeo ioeueoeiaaeea ia naiae iaoeia n neiiao?e/iie
noaiie, a caoai “iieooaa?eeao” a noaiaea?oiii oi?iaoa ionueaaony ia
oe?io, aaea aai iiaeaa?aatho naeaoeth ia iiuiii eiiiuethoa?a, n
eniieueciaaieai aieaa niaa?oaiiuo aeai?eoiia e iiiauatho
?acoeueoe?othuee i?iaeoeo ia CD–ROM.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeaeue ?yae oe?i aeoeaii aaaeao ?ac?aaioeo aeai?eoiia
naeaoey aeaeaieioi?iaoeee, no?aiynue aeinoe/ue eiyooeoeeaioa naeaoey
ii?yaeea 200:1 e auoa. A iniiaa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo aeai?eoiia eaaeao
?acee/iua aaeaioeaiua aa?eaiou: DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform,
aeene?aoiia eineion–i?aia?aciaaiea), DPCM (Differential Pulse Code
Modulation, ?aciinoiay eiioeuenii–eiaeiaay iiaeoeyoeey), a oaeaea
o?aeoaeueiua iaoiaeu. Aeai?eoiu ?aaeecothony aiia?aoii — a aeaea
niaoeeaeueiuo iee?inoai, eee “firmware” — caienaiiie a ICO i?ia?aiiu,
eeai /enoi i?ia?aiiii.

?aciinoiua aeai?eoiu naeaoey i?eiaieiu ia oieueei e
aeaeai–ecia?aaeaieyi, ii e e eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeea, /oi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiyoue ia iau/iuo ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao iiaue
aeey ieo aeae aieiaoeee, a eiaiii iieaae?iaoth caienue ?eniaaiiuo
ioeueooeeueiia aieueoie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe. Yoe ioeueooeeueiu iiaoo
o?aieony ia aeenea, a i?e aini?iecaaaeaiee n/eouaaoueny,
?aniaeiauaaoueny e auaeaaaoueny ia ye?ai a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie,
iaania/eaay oa aea iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ieaaiiai ecia?aaeaiey 25–30 eaae?ia
a naeoiaeo.

I?e eniieueciaaiee niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeai–aaeaioa?ia (aeaeaiaeanoa?ia)
ioeueoeiaaeea–IE noaiiayony oeaio?ii auoiaie aeaeai–nenoaiu,
eiieo?e?othuae n naiui niaa?oaiiui oaeaaeci?ii.

Iiaaeoea aeaeaiaaeaioa?u eiatho n?aaenoaa nayce n enoi/ieeaie
oaeaaeceiiiuo neaiaeia e ano?iaiiua nenoaiu caoaaoa eaae?a (eiii?annee /
aeaeiii?annee aeaeaineaiaeia) a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie, o.a.
i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii. Aeaeaiaaeaioa?u eiatho auno?oth aeaeaiiaiyoue io
2 aei 4 Iaaeo e niaoeeaeueiua a?aoe/aneea onei?eoaee i?ioeanni?u. Yoi
iicaieyao iieo/aoue aei 30–50 eaae?ia a naeoiaeo e iaania/eoue auaiae
iiaeaeaeiuo iieiiye?aiiuo ecia?aaeaiee.

AOAeEI

Ethaie ioeueoeiaaeea–IE eiaao a naiai ninoaaa ieaoo–aoaeeiaaeaioa?. Aeey
/aai iia ioaeia? N eaaeie ?oee oe?iu Creative Labs (Neiaaio?),
iacaaaoae naie ia?aua aoaeeiaaeaioa?u caiieei neiaii Sound Blaster, yoe
ono?ienoaa /anoi eiaiothony “naoiaeaeanoa?aie”. Aoaeeiaaeaioa? aeae
eiiiuethoa?o ia oieueei noa?aioiie/aneia cao/aiea, ii e aiciiaeiinoue
caiene ia aiaoiea iineoaee caoeiauo neaiaeia. Eae oaea auei neacaii
?aiaa, aeeneiaua iaeiieoaee IE nianai ia iiaeoiaeyo aeey caiene iau/iuo
(aiaeiaiauo) caoeiauo neaiaeia, oae eae ?ann/eoaiu aeey caiene oieueei
oeeo?iauo neaiaeia, eioi?ua i?aeoe/anee ia eneaaeathony i?e eo ia?aaea/a
ii eeieyi nayce.

Aoaeeiaaeaioa? eiaao aiaeiai–oeeo?iaie i?aia?aciaaoaeue (AOeI),
ia?eiaee/anee ii?aaeaeythuee o?iaaiue caoeiaiai neaiaea e i?aa?auathuee
yoio ion/ao a oeeo?iaie eiae. Ii e caienuaaaony ia aiaoiee iineoaeue
oaea eae oeeo?iaie neaiae.

Oeeo?iaua auai?ee ?aaeueiiai caoeiaiai neaiaea o?aiyony a iaiyoe
eiiiuethoa?a (iai?eia?, a aeaea WAV–oaeeia). N/eoaiiue n aeenea
oeeo?iaie neaiae iiaeaaony ia oeeo?i–aiaeiaiaue i?aia?aciaaoaeue (OeAI),
eioi?ue i?aia?acoao oeeo?iaua neaiaeu a aiaeiaiaua. Iinea oeeueo?aoeee
eo iiaeii oneeeoue e iiaeaoue ia aeonoe/aneea eieiiee aeey
aini?iecaaaeaiey. Aaaeiuie ia?aiao?aie aoaeeiaaeaioa?a yaeythony /anoioa
eaaioiaaiey caoeiauo neaiaeia e ?ac?yaeiinoue eaaioiaaiey.

*anoiou eaaioiaaiey iieacuaatho, neieueei ?ac a naeoiaeo aa?oony auai?ee
neaiaea aeey i?aia?aciaaiey a oeeo?iaie eiae. Iau/ii iie eaaeao a
i?aaeaeao io 4–5 EAoe aei 45–48 EAoe.

?ac?yaeiinoue eaaioiaaiey oa?aeoa?ecoao /enei nooiaiae eaaioiaaiey e
eciaiyaony noaiaiueth /enea 2. Oae, 8–?ac?yaeiua aoaeeiaaeaioa?u eiatho
28=256 noaiaiae, /oi yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey aunieiea/anoaaiiiai
eiaee?iaaiey caoeiauo neaiaeia. Iiyoiio nae/an i?eiaiythony a iniiaiii
16-?ac?yaeiua aoaeeiaaeaioa?u, eiathuea 216 =65536 nooiaiae eaaioiaaiey
— eae o caoeiaiai eiiiaeo–aeenea.

Oaaeeoea 1.

*anoioiue aeeaiacii Aeae neaiaea *anoioa eaaioiaaiey

400 – 3500 Aoe ?a/ue (aaeaa ?acai?/eaa) 5.5 EAoe

250 – 5500 Aoe ?a/ue (n?aaeiaa ea/anoai) 11.025 EAoe

40 – 10000 Aoe Ea/anoai cao/aiey OEA–i?eaiieea 22.040 EAoe

20 – 20000 Aoe Caoe aunieiai ea/anoaa 44.100 EAoe

Ae?oaie niinia aini?iecaaaeaiey caoea caeeth/aaony a aai neioaca. I?e
iinooieaiee ia neioacaoi? iaeioi?ie oi?aaeythuae eioi?iaoeee ii iae
oi?ie?oaony niioaaonoaothuee auoiaeiie neaiae. Nia?aiaiiua
aoaeeiaaeaioa?u neioace?otho iocueaeueiua caoee aeaoiy niiniaaie:
iaoiaeii /anoioiie iiaeoeyoeee FM (Frequency Modulation) e n iiiiuueth
aieiiaiai neioaca (auae?ay caoee ec oaaeeoeu caoeia, Wave Table). Aoi?ie
niinia iaania/eaaao aieaa iaoo?aeueiia cao/aiea.

*anoioiue neioac (FM) iiyaeeny a 1974 aiaeo (PC–Speaker). A 1985 aiaeo
iiyaeeny AdLib, eioi?ue, eniieuecoy /anoioioth iiaeoeyoeeth, aue
niiniaai ea?aoue iocueo. Iiaay caoeiaay ea?oa SoundBlaster oaea iiaea
caienuaaoue e aini?iecaiaeeoue caoe. Noaiaea?oiue FM–neioac eiaao
n?aaeiea caoeiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiyoiio ia ea?oao onoaiaaeeaathony
neiaeiua nenoaiu oeeueo?ia i?ioea aiciiaeiuo caoeiauo iiiao.

Nooue oaoiieiaee WT–neioaca ninoieo a neaaeothuai. Ia naiie caoeiaie
ea?oa onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaeoeue ICO n “caoeouie” a iaai ia?acoeaie
cao/aiey ianoiyueo iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioia — nyiieaie, a WT–i?ioeanni?
n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo aeai?eoiia aeaaea ii iaeiiio oiio eino?oiaioa
aini?iecaiaeeo ana aai inoaeueiua caoee. E?iia oiai iiiaea
i?iecaiaeeoaee iniauatho naie caoeiaua ea?ou iiaeoeyoi?aie ICO, oae /oi
anoue aiciiaeiinoue ia oieueei caienuaaoue i?iecaieueiua nyiieu, ii e
iiaea?oaeaoue iiaua eino?oiaiou.

Enoaoe, oi?aaeythuea eiiaiaeu aeey neioaca caoea iiaoo iinooiaoue ia
caoeiaoth ea?oo ia oieueei io eiiiuethoa?a, ii e io ae?oaiai, iai?eia?,
MIDI (Musical Instruments Digital Interface) ono?ienoaa. Nianoaaiii MIDI
ii?aaeaeyao i?ioieie ia?aaea/e eiiaiae ii noaiaea?oiiio eioa?oaeno.
MIDI–niiauaiea niaea?aeeo nnueee ia iiou, a ia caienue iocuee eae
oaeiaie. A /anoiinoe, eiaaea caoeiaay ea?oa iieo/aao iiaeiaiia
niiauaiea, iii ?anoeo?iauaaaony (eaeea iiou eaeeo eino?oiaioia aeieaeiu
cao/aoue) e io?aaaouaaaony ia neioacaoi?a. A naith i/a?aaeue eiiiuethoa?
iiaeao /a?ac MIDI oi?aaeyoue ?acee/iuie “eioaeeaeooaeueiuie”
iocueaeueiuie eino?oiaioaie n niioaaonoaothuei eioa?oaenii.

Aeey yeaeo?iiiuo neioacaoi?ia iau/ii oeacuaaaony /enei iaeiia?aiaiii
cao/aueo eino?oiaioia e eo iauaa /enei (io 20 aei 32). Oaeaea aaaeia e
i?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue aoaeeiaaeaioa?a n oeiiauie caoeiauie
ieaooi?iaie (SoundBlaster, Roland, AdLib, Microsoft Sound System, Gravis
Ultrasound e ae?.).

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?anniio?ei ninoaa oceia iaeiiai ec iiuiuo
aoaeeiaaeaioa?ia — SoundBlaster AWE 32 Value. Ii niaea?aeeo aeaa
iee?ioiiiuo iaeiooiyueo oneeeoaey n aaoiiaoe/aneie ?aaoee?iaeie oneeaiey
aeey neaiaeia, iinooiathueo io iee?ioiia, aeaa eeiaeiuo oneeeoaey aeey
neaiaeia, iinooiathueo n eeiee, n i?iea?uaaoaey caoeiauo aeeneia eee
iocueaeueiiai neioacaoi?a. E?iia oiai, nthaea aoiaeyo
i?ia?aiiii–oi?aaeyaiue yeaeo?iiiue ieeoa?, iaania/eaathuee niaoaiea
neaiaeia io ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia e ?aaoee?iaeo eo o?iaiy e
noa?aiaaeaina, 20-aieinue neioacaoi? iocueaeueiuo caoeia /anoioiie
iiaeoeyoeee FM, i?ia?aiiii oi?aaeyaiue aieiiaie (oaaee/iue) neioacaoi?
iocueaeueiuo caoeia e caoeiauo yooaeoia (16 eaiaeia, 32 aieina, 128
eino?oiaioia), aiaeiai–oeeo?iaie 16-?ac?yaeiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue aeey
i?aa?auaiey aiaeiaiaiai neaiaea n auoiaea ieeoa?a a oeeo?iaie neaiae,
nenoaio naeaoey oeeo?iaie eioi?iaoeee n aiciiaeiinoueth i?eiaiaiey
?anoe?aiiiai caoeiaiai i?ioeanni?a ASP. Iaeiiaoe, aoaeeiaaeaioa? eiaao
oeeo?i–aiaeiaiaue i?aia?aciaaoaeue (OeAI) aeey i?aa?auaiey oeeo?iauo
neaiaeia, ianoueo eioi?iaoeeth i caoea, a aiaeiaiaue neaiae, aaeaioeaiue
yeaeo?iiiue oeeueo? ia auoiaea OeAI, nieaeathuee iiiaoe io eaaioiaaiey
neaiaea, aeaooeaiaeueiue oneeeoaeue iiuiinoe ii 4 Ao ia eaiae n ?o/iui e
i?ia?aiiii–oi?aaeyaiui ?aaoeyoi?ii a?iieinoe e MIDI–?acuai aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioia.

Eae aeaeii ec yoiai ia?a/iy, aoaeeiaaeaioa? — aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia
oaoie/aneia ono?ienoai, iino?iaiiia ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey iineaaeieo
aeinoeaeaiee a aiaeiaiaie e oeeo?iaie aoaeeioaoieea.

A iiaaeoea caoeiaua ea?ou aoiaeeo oeeo?iaie neaiaeueiue i?ioeanni? DSP
(Digital Signal Processor) eee ?anoe?aiiue neaiaeueiue i?ioeanni? ASP
(Advanced Signal Processor). Iie eniieuecotho niaa?oaiiua aeai?eoiu aeey
oeeo?iaie eiii?annee e aeaeiii?annee caoeiauo neaiaeia, aeey ?anoe?aiey
aacu noa?aicaoea, nicaeaiey yoa e iaania/aiey iauaiiiai
(eaaae?ioiie/aneiai) cao/aiey. I?ia?aiia iiaeaea?aeee ASP QSound
iinoaaeyaony aanieaoii oe?iie Intel ia CD-ROM “Software Developer CD”.
Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?ioeanni? ASP eniieuecoaony i?e iau/iuo
aeaooeaiaeueiuo noa?aioiie/aneeo caiene e aini?iecaaaeaiee caoea. Aai
i?eiaiaiea ia caa?oaeaao aeonoe/aneea o?aeou ioeueoeiaaeea
eiiiuethoa?ia.

IINEOAEE EIOI?IAOeEE

Aaaeiie i?iaeaiie ioeueoeiaaeea yaeyaony iaania/aiea aaeaeaaoiuo
n?aaenoa aeinoaaee, ?ani?ino?aiaiey ioeueoeiaaeea–eioi?iaoeee. Iineoaee
aeieaeiu aiauaoue ia?iiiua iauaiu ?acii?iaeiie eioi?iaoeee, iicaieyoue
auno?ue aeinooi e ioaeaeueiui aa eiiiiiaioai, ea/anoaaiiia eo
aini?iecaaaeaiea, e i?e yoii auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaaui, eiiiaeoiui e
iaaeaaeiui. Yoa i?iaeaia iieo/eea aeinoieiia ?aoaiea eeoue n iiyaeaieai
iioe/aneeo aeeneia ?acee/iuo oeiia. A ia?auo nenoaiao ioeueoeiaaeea auee
eniieueciaaiu aiaeiaiaua aeenee — eo iau/ii iacuaatho “aeaeaiaeeneaie”.
Aeeaiao? yoeo aeeneia 12 eee 8 aetheiia. Ecaanoiu 12–aetheiiaua aeenee
noaiaea?oa LV (Laser Vision), iiaeaea?aeeaaaiiai Sony, Philips e
Pioneer.

Eioi?iaoeey caienuaaaony ia eaca?iue aeene ii nie?aee, eaaeaeue aeoie
yoie nie?aee iacuaaaony aei?iaeeie. Nouanoaotho 2 niiniaa caiene
eioi?iaoeee ia eaca?iua aeenee — CAV (Constant Angular Velocity, n
iinoiyiiie oaeiaie nei?inoueth) e CLV (Constant Linear Velocity, n
iinoiyiiie eeiaeiie nei?inoueth). I?e caiene CLV aeenee aiauatho ii 1
/ano aeaeai ia eaaeaeie ec noi?ii (aeenee CLV iacuaatho oaeaea
“aeieaiea?athueie”), iaeiaei eo eioa?aeoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe ia?aie/aiu,
iiyoiio iie a nenoaiao ioeueoeiaaeea eniieuecothony ?aaeei, /aua
i?eiaiythony i?e caiene oeeueiia.

Aeene CAV aiauaao ia eaaeaeie aei?iaeea iaeei aeaeaieaae? (oi/iaa, aeaa
iieoeaae?a, niaea?aeauea /aoiua e ia/aoiua no?iee eaae?a — oaeaaeci?
?aaioaao a eioa?eaeniii ?aaeeia, iiia?aiaiii aunaa/eaay /aoiua e
ia/aoiua no?iee eaaeaeiai eaae?a). Aeene a?auaaony n iinoiyiiie
nei?inoueth 30 ia / n, iaania/eaay iaiaoiaeeiua aeey NTSC 30
eaae?ia / n. Eaaeaeay ec noi?ii aeenea eiaao 54000 aei?iaeae, o.a.
aiauaao 30 ieioo aeaeai NTSC (aeenee aeey PAL — 37 ieioo). Eaaeaeue
eaae? eiaao naie iiia?, eee aae?an, ii iiia?o aiciiaeai i?yiie aeinooi e
ethaiio eaae?o. Eaae?u iiaoo o?aeoiaaoueny eae iaiiaeaeaeiua
ecia?aaeaiey — aeey yoiai iinea caaa?oaiey n/eouaaiey aei?iaeee
ono?ienoai ia ia?aoiaeeo ia neaaeothuoth, a aiiaue n/eouaaao oo aea
naioth); aiciiaeii oaeaea i?iea?uaaiea n ?aciuie nei?inoyie e a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee. Aianoa n ecia?aaeaieai caienuaathony aeaa caoeiaua
aei?iaeee, aeinooiiua, ai?i/ai, oieueei i?e i?iniio?a eaae?ia a ?aaeeia
aeaeai. Eioi?iaoeeth ia aeenea iiaeii ?acaeoue ia “/anoe” — aei 80
/anoae ia eaaeaeie ec noi?ii. Oi?aaeythuay eioi?iaoeey — iiia?a eaae?ia,
iiia?a /anoae — iiiauaaony a “aeaieiauo” (iaaeaeeiuo) /anoyo eaae?ia.

I?iiaaeooi/iue, “aiaeiai–oeeo?iaie” oi?iao eaca?iuo aeeneia — LVROM, eee
AIV (Advanced Interactive Video, oeo/oaiiia eioa?aeoeaiia aeaeai) —
iicaieyao ni/aoaoue ia iaeiii aeenea aiaeiaiaia aeaeai n oeeo?iaui
caoeii e aeaiiuie.

Iaeiiaoe, nouanoaotho ?aciua oeiu /enoi oeeo?iauo aeeneia: CD–ROM, WORM,
noe?aaiua. CD–ROM, eae e oeeo?iaua aoaeei–eiiiaeo–aeenee CD–DA (Compact
Disc — Digital Audio) eiatho aeeaiao? 5.25 aetheia; iie aiauatho 500–600
Iaaeo eioi?iaoeee e yaeythony nae/an iaeaieaa ianniaui oeeo?iaui
n?aaenoaii aeinoaaee ioeueoeiaaeea–eioi?iaoeee.

Oaaeeoea 2.

Oi?iao Iienaiea

CD–Audio Noa?aeoee oi?iao eiiiaeo–aeeneia. Ii/oe ana aeeneiaiaeu CD–ROM
iiaoo i?iea?uaaoue caoeiaua eiiiaeo–aeenee.

CD–Interactive

Nianoaaiiue oi?iao Philips aeey “eioa?aeoeaiuo”, a iniiaiii, ea?iauo
eiiiaeo–aeeneia aeey aeiiaoieo i?iea?uaaoaeae.

CD–ROM / XA Ni/aoaao naeaoua aeaiiua e caoe, a oae aea niaoaiiue ?aaeei,
caienuaathony n /a?aaeiaaieai aeey aieaa ?iaiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey.
Eo/oee oi?iao aeey ioeueoeiaaeea.

Mixed mode Eiiaeiaoeey caoea a oi?iaoa Red Book e aeaiiuo CD–ROM. Ia?aay
aei?iaeea aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue aeaiiua, ca iae iiaoo neaaeiaaoue
aei?iaeee CD–Audio.

CD–Plus Noiaeai n ?aaeeiii Mixed mode, ioee/ea — i?aaeioa?auaiea
ia?auaiey caoeiaiai i?iea?uaaoaey e aei?iaeeai n aeaiiuie ai ecaaaeaiea
iia?aaeaeaiey aeeiaieeia.

ISO–9660 Noaiaea?oiue oi?iao e no?oeoo?a eaoaeiaia aeey CD–ROM.

HFS (Hierarhical File Structure) Oi?iao aeaiiuo, ?ac?aaioaiiue aeey
Macintosh.

Hybrid discs Niaea?aeeo nenoaiu HFS e ISO.

Photo CD ?ac?aaioai oe?iie Kodak aeey caiene oioia?aoee aunieiai
ea/anoaa. Aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii ono?ienoai CD–ROM / XA eee
CD–Interactive.

Video CD Aeaeaieioi?iaoeey a oi?iaoa MPEG–1 e caoe. Noaiaea?o
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey oeeueiia.

CD–ROM aeene — e?oaeie ec i?ic?a/iie ieanoiannu, iieeea?aiiaoa, ia
iaeiie ec iiaa?oiinoae eioi?iai iaianai oiieee naaoiio?aaeathuee neie.
Yoio na?aa?enoue neie oi?ioi aeaeai n oueueiie noi?iiu i?ic?a/iiai
aeenea. A iai eiathony iee?ineiie/aneea oaeoaeaiey — ieou, nicaeaiiua a
i?ioeanna aai eiie?iaaiey n i?eaeiaea.

Oeie/iay aeeeia ieoa 0.8 – 3.2 iei, oe?eia 0.4 iei, aeoaeia 0.12 iei, a
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aei?iaeeaie 1.6 iei. Ia iaeiii aetheia
(2.54 ni) iiaa?oiinoe aeenea ?aciauaaony 16 oun. aei?iaeae (aeey
n?aaiaiey — ia iaeiii aetheia iaaieoiiai aeenea iiiauaaony oieueei 96
aei?iaeae). Aeaaiaea?y noieue iaeui ?acia?ai ieoia iau/iue CD–ROM
aiauaao ia?iiiue iauai eioi?iaoeee — ii?yaeea 700 Iaaeo. Iiaua oeiu
aeeneia eiatho ia ii?yaeie aieueoee iauai e aeiioneatho caienue
eioi?iaoeee iieueciaaoaeai.

?aai/ae yaeyaony oieueei iaeia iiaa?oiinoue aeenea CD–ROM. Iia caueuaia
oienoui neiai eaea, ia eioi?ue iau/ii iaiineony e?ani/iay yoeeaoea. A
i?iea?uaaoaea aeene ia?auai yoie noi?iiie ia?oaeo. I?ioeaiiieiaeiay
(oueueiay) noi?iia eniieuecoaony aeey n/eouaaiey eaca?iui eo/ii. Eo/
i?ioiaeeo neaicue iaa, oae eae iniiaa aeenea — i?ic?a/iay ieanoianna.
Oieueia aeenea 1.2 ii, aiaoiee aeeaiao? 120 ii, aeeaiao? aioo?aiiaai
ioaa?noey 15 ii.

A i?iea?uaaoaea eiaaony yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeue ni neaaeyuae nenoa, iie,
iaania/eaathuae oi/iia n/eouaaiea aei?iaeee eaca?iui eo/ii e iaeciaiioth
eeiaeioth nei?inoue n/eouaaiey. Iiyoiio nei?inoue a?auaiey aeenea
iaiinoiyiia e eciaiyaony io 500 ia. / iei. aeey aioo?aiiae /anoe aeenea,
n eioi?ie ia/eiaaony n/eouaaiea, aei 200 ia. / iei. aeey aiaoiae.
Niaoeeaeueiue iioeei–yeaeo?iiiue aeie eiaao ono?ienoaa aeey
noaaeeecaoeee eceo/aiey eaca?a, aaoiiaoe/aneie oieone?iaee, neaaeaiey ca
aei?iaeeie i?e aeaiee aeenea e auai?a o?aeia aeenea aeey n/eouaaiey.

Aeey n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee n CD–ROM eniieuecoaony iieoi?iaiaeieeiaue
aeeiae n oieone?othuae e neaaeyuae iioe/aneie nenoaiie. Aioo?aiiyy
iiaa?oiinoue aeenea, ia eioi?oth eeaaeoo aeene ia iiaenoaaeo (a eannaoo)
aeeneiaiaea, iaoiaeeony ia a oieona iioe/aneie nenoaiu eaca?iiai
eceo/aoaey. Aeeaiao? naaoiaiai iyoia io eaca?a, nicaeathuaai noiaeyueeny
eiion naaoa, ii?yaeea 1 ii. Iiyoiio oia?aiiua caa?yciaiey ia?aai/ae
iiaa?oiinoe, iai?eia?, iueeiee ia iae, ioia/aoee iaeueoeaa e aeaaea
iaaieueoea oea?aieiu i?aeoe/anee ia aeeytho ia aini?iecaaaeaiea. A
ioee/ea io i?eau/iuo aeanoeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneia, aeenee CD–ROM iiaeii
caiaiyoue a n/eoaiiua naeoiaeu. A aaaeue iaeei aeene CD–ROM ii aieinoe
?aaai i?eia?ii 500–i iau/iui aeaeei aeeneai oi?iaoa 3.5“ ia 1.44 Iaaeo.
Yeiiiiey ia aeeneaoao yaeyaony iaiaeiaaaeiui aeinoieinoaii
ioeueoeiaaeea.

I?iea?uaaoaee eiiiuethoa?iuo eiiiaeo–aeeneia, iau/ii iacuaaaiua
CD–ROM–ae?aeaaie, auaatho aeaoo oeiia: aiaoiea (ni naiei ei?ionii) e
aioo?aiiea — ano?aeaaaiua a nenoaiiue aeie eiiiuethoa?a. Iineaaeiea
iaiiieiatho iaeiieoaee ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo 5.25–aetheiiauo aeeneaoao e
eiatho iaeeiaeiaua n iei ?acia?u.

Ia ia?aaeiae iaiaee aeeneiaiaea CD–ROM iau/ii eiaaony eiiiea Eject aeey
aua?ina eee ieaaiiai auaeaeaeaiey iiaeaeiia, eiaeeeaoi? Busy (caiyoi),
aiacaei aeey iiaeeeth/aiey noa?aioaeaoiiia e ?aaoeyoi? a?iieinoe,
eniieuecoaiue i?e i?iea?uaaiee caoeiauo aeeneia.

Iieiioeaiiia “aii?oaeaiea” ioeueoeiaaeea–IE o?aaoao iiaeeeth/aiey e iaio
iiiaeanoaa aiaoieo ono?ienoa: aoaeei– e aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia, oaeaaeceiiiuo
e ?aaeei–othia?ia, aeeneiaiaeia CD–ROM, aeaeienoeeia, eeaaeaoo?u MIDI e
o.ae. Ana iie ianeoaeeaathony iannie i?ia?aiiiuo ooeeeo — ae?aeaa?ia e
ia?aaeei eiioeeeootho ae?oa n ae?oaii. A yoie nayce e?oiiua ?ac?aaio/eee
IE iauaaeeieee oneeey a nicaeaiee noaiaea?oa Plug and Play (aeeth/ae e
ea?ae). Yoio noaiaea?o — iaoe?iue eiiieaen i?ia?aiiiuo e aiia?aoiuo
n?aaenoa ii iieiinoueth aaoiiaoe/aneie iano?ieea eiioeao?aoeee
eiiiuethoa?a a niioaaonoaee n eniieuecoaiui n iei iai?oaeiaaieai.

Oaoiieiaey PnP (eee Plug’n’Play) i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aeinoaoi/ii
aeeth/eoue eiiiuethoa?, eae ana aiia?aoiua e i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa
aaoiiaoe/anee iioeiaeueii iano?iyony e noaioo ?aaioaoue aac naiaa e
eiioeeeoia.

ENIIEUeCOAIAss EEOA?AOO?A:

N. Iiainaeueoeaa “Ioeueoeiaaeea — neioac o?ao noeoee”.
Eiiiuethoa?–I?ann, 7’91.

A. Aeueyeiiia “Ioeueoeiaaeea–IE”. Aeiiaoiee Eiiiuethoa?, 1’96.

“Caoeiaua ieaou” — ii iaoa?eaeai ca?oaaaeiie i?annu, Copmuter Review,
7’96

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