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Сравнительный анализ развития компьютеров в США и на Украине

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai

ia?aciaaiey ?O

I?aiao?aneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Einoeooo Yia?aaoeee e Eioi?iaoeee

EAOAAe?A: EIINO?AIIUO ssCUEIA

EIAEAIA?II-OAOIE*ANEEO NIAOeEAEUeIINOAE

? A O A ? A O

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acaeoey eiiiuethoa?ia a NOA e ia Oe?aeia.

Auiieiee: Aonaa A. A.

A?oiia: 97-EAeIA

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

AiaiiieiaaA. E.

Distributed by BRS Corporation

http://www.osu.ru/~BRS

E-mail: [email protected]

I?aiao?a – 1999 a.

The Comparative Analisis Of The Computer Development In The USA And
Ukraine

In the early 1960s when computers were mainly mainframes that they took
up entire rooms. Researches at Xerox’s Polo Alto Research Center
(Xerox PARC) had realized that the pace of improvement in the technology
of semiconductors meant that sooner or later the PC would be extravagant
no longer.

Although the work at Xerox PARC was crucial, it was not the spark that
took PCs out of the hands of experts and into the popular imagination.

In January 1975, the magazine Popular Electronics put a new kit for
hobbyists, called the Altair, on its cover. The Altair inspired Steve
Wosniak and Steve Jobs to build the first Apple computer, and a young
college Bill Gates wrote software for it

They felt was needed to bring PCs to the masses. The Altair
incorporated one of the first single-chip microprocessor called the
Intel 8080.

The Soviet Union government and the authorities had paid serious
attention to the development of the computer industry right after the
Second World War.

Up to the beginning of the 1950s there were only small productive
capacities.

The electronic numerical computer engineering was only arising .

The first serious steps in the development of production base were made
initially in the late 1950s.

In the 1960s the science-research and assembling base was enlarged. As
the result of this measures, all researches connected with creating and
putting into the serial production of semi-conductor electronic
computing machines were almost finished.

But the situation in Ukraine was complicated, on one hand, with the
consequences of the Second World War and, on the other hand, at a
certain period Cybernetics and Computer Science were not acknowledged.

In America they paid more attention to the development of computers for
civil and later personal use. But in Ukraine the attention was mainly
focused on the military and industrial needs.

The natural final stage was buying in enormous quantities of foreign
computers last years and pressing to the deep background our domestic
researches, and developments, and the computer-building industry on the
whole.

Having analyzed the development of computer science in two countries I
have found some similar and some distinctive features in the arising of
computers.

First of all, I would like to say that at the first stages the two
countries rubbed shoulders with each other. But then, at a certain stage
the USSR was mistaken having copied the IBM-360 out of date technology.
Estimating the discussion of possible ways of the computer technique
development in the former USSR in late 1960s – early 1970s from the
today point of view it can be noticed that we have chosen a worse if not
the worst one. The only progressive way was to base on our domestic
researches and to collaborate with the west-European companies in
working out the new generation of machines. Thus we would reach the
world level of production, and we would have a real base for the further
development together with leading European companies.

Unfortunately the last twenty years may be called the years of
“unrealized possibilities”. Today it is still possible to change the
situation; but tomorrow it will be too late.

Will the new times come? Will there be a new renaissance of science,
engineering and national economy as it was in the post-war period? Only
one thing remains for us – that is to wait, to hope and to do our best
to reach the final goal.

bibliography:

A.I.Iaeeiianueeee “?noi??y ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee a iniaao”, Ee?a,
1995.

Stephen G. Nash “A History of Scientific Computing”, ACM Press History
Series, New York, 1990.

Aioeeeeiiaae?y e?aa?iaoeee, Ee?a, 1985.

The America House Pro-Quest Database: “Byte” Magazine, September, 1995.

William Aspray, Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series in the History
of Computing 7, Los Angeles, 1985.

D.J.Frailey “Computer Architecture” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science.

Stan Augarten “Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers”, New
York, 1984.

Michael R. Williams “A History of Computing Technology”, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1985.

“A?ae AANI aei noia?-AII. Noi??iee ?noi??? ?inoeoooo ?OI oa IO ?i.
N.I. Eaaaaeaaa AI O?N? o niiaaaeao ni?a?ia?oiee?a” i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th
A.A. ?yaiai?, 1988.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acaeoey eiiiuethoa?ia a NOA e ia Oe?aeia.

?AC?AAIOEA EIIIUeTHOA?IA A NOA

A ia/aea 1960-o, eiaaea ei?ion eiiiuethoa?ia caieiae oeaeua eiiiaou,
nicaeaoaee oaea iaea?aeenue c iei, caoai yeno?aaaaaioiia iiiyoea
iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?a i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey aaeeinoaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaeiei /aeiaaeii. A ia/aea 1970-o, enneaaeiaaoaee a
Ena?ien Iiei Aeueoa Enneaaeiaaoaeueneii Oeaio?a (Ena?ien IAEN) iiiyee,
/oi oeo/oaiiue oaii a oaoiieiaee iieoi?iaiaeieeia icia/aei, /oi ?aii eee
iicaeii PC aue au aieueoa yeno?aaaaaioiuie. Iie i?aaeaeaeeee, /oi
?ano?nu aeieaeiu eiaaea-ieaoaeue noaoue oaeeie aeaoaauie, /oi eiaeaia?u
aeieaeiu auoue a ninoiyiee iinayoeoue naay o/anoeth a ?aaioa. A naieo
eaai?aoi?eyo, iie ?ac?aaioaee eee i/enoeee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue oiai ec
/aai ninoieo IE naaiaeiy, ia/eiay io “iuoee”, oeacuaathuaai ono?ienoaa a
i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee “ieii”.

Oioy ?aaioa a Ena?ien IAEN auea ?aoathuae, yoi ia auea ene?a, eioi?ay
acyea IE ec ?oe yenia?oia a iiioey?iia aiia?aaeaiea. Yoi neo/eeinue
iaaeaaii?eyoii a ssiaa?a 1975, eiaaea aeo?iae “Iiioey?iay Yeaeo?iieea“
onoaiaaeeaaao iiaue eiiieaeo aeey oiaaeoeenoia, iacaaiiue Aeueoae?ii, ca
nai? ioe?uoea. Aeueoae? aaeioiiaee Noeaa Aicieea e Noeaa Aeaeiana ia
nicaeaiea ia?aiai eiiiuethoa?a «Yiie», e iieiaeie eieeaaa Aeee Aaeon
iaienae i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeey iaai.

E yoiio aeith, enneaaeiaaiey a Ena?iena e a ae?oaeo ianoao iaae
Aeueoae?ii aeiaieueii i?eieoeaiu, /oiau eniieueciaaoue oaoiieiaeth,
eioi?oth iie /oanoaiaaee, auei ioaeii ia?aianoe IE aei iann. Aeueoae?
niaaae?i iaeiei ec ia?auo iaeiie?enoaeueiui iee?ii?ioeanni?ii iacaaiiui
Eioae 8080. Oioy yoio i?ioeanni? i?aaenoaaeyeny i?iaeaeiooui aeey naiaai
a?aiaie, ii ii aue neeoeii iaaeeaiiui, /oiau iiaeaea?aeeaaoue «iuoeo»,
ieia, e ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai Ena?iena

?AC?AAIOEA EIIIUeTHOA?IA IA OE?AEIA E A AUAOAI NNN?

?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu e aeanoe oaeaeeee na?ueaciia aieiaiea e ?ac?aaioea
eiiiuethoa?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n?aco iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Aaaeouea
o/?iua n/eoaee yoo caaea/o iaeiie ec i?eioeeieaeueiie aeey
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Aei ia/aea 1950-o auee oieueei iaaieueoea i?iaeoeoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe,
eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue a i?iecaiaenoaa n/aoiie e
n/aoii-ia?oi?aoiuo iaoei. Yeaeo?iiiia oeeo?iaia eiiiuethoa?iia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea oieueei aicieeaei, e i?iaeoeoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
yoiai auee aeeceeie e ioeth.

Ia?aua na?ueaciua oaae a ?ac?aaioea i?iiuoeaiiie aacu auee naeaeaiu
ia?aiia/aeueii a eiioea 1950-o, eiaaea ?aaioa iaae nicaeaieai ia?auo
i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia yeaeo?iiiuo n/aoiuo iaoei caaa?oeeanue e auee
nicaeaiu M-20, “O?ae-1”, “Meine-1”, eioi?ua aianoa n eo i?aaiieeaie
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie (M-220, “O?ae-11-14”, “Meine-22” e “Meine-32”)
nicaeaiiua a 1960-o auee iniiaiuie a NNN?.

A 1960-o iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e nia?aiiay aaca auee ?anoe?aiu. A
?acoeueoaoa yoeo ia? ana enneaaeiaaiey naycaiiua n nicaeaieai e ioneii a
na?eeiia i?iecaiaenoai iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo yeaeo?iiiuo iaoei ii/oe auee
caaa?oaiu.

N?AAIAIEA EIIIUeTHOA?IIE ?AC?AAIOEE A NOA E IA OE?AEIA

A oi a?aiy, eiaaea eioi?iaoeea oieueei iiaeieiaeanue, NNN? e NOA auee
iaeieie ec iaeaieaa caiaoiuo aeeyoaeueiuo no?ai. Auei iiiai oaeaioeeauo
o/aiuo e ecia?aoaoaeae a iaaeo no?aiao. Ii neooaoeey ia Oe?aeia auea
caiooaia n iaeiie noi?iiu iineaaenoaey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu e, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae Eeaa?iaoeee e Eioi?iaoeee ia aue
i?eciai. Yoi nua?aei io?eoeaoaeueioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eiiiuethoa?ia ia
Oe?aeia.

A Aia?eea iie oaeaeyee aieueoa aieiaiey e ?ac?aaioea eiiiuethoa?ia aeey
a?aaeaeaineiai e iineaaeothuaai ia?niiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ii ia
Oe?aeia aieiaiea aeaaiui ia?acii oieone?iaaeinue ia aiaiiuo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo iio?aaiinoyo.

Ae?oaie eioa?aniue aniaeo oe?aeineie eiiiuethoa?iie ?ac?aaioee aue
i?ioeann 70-o “niaaoececaoeey” nenoaiu YAI-360 noaea ia?aui oaaii ia
iooe ineaaeaiey iiceoeee aeinoeaioouo niaaoneei no?ieoaeuenoaii
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Anoanoaaiiue ieii/aoaeueiue eaneaae iieoiaeny a ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao
eiino?aiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia a iineaaeiea aiaeu e i?eaeeiaao iaoe
aioo?aiiea enneaaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioee e i?iiuoeaiiinoue eiiiuethoa?iiai
iino?iaiey a oeaeii.

AUAIAe

I?iaiaeece?iaaa ?ac?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee a aeaoo no?aiao, y iaia?oaeee
iaeioi?ua aiaeiae/iua e iaeioi?ua io/aoeeaua oa?aeoa?enoeee a
aicieeiiaaiee eiiiuethoa?ia.

I?aaeaea anaai, y oioae au neacaoue, /oi ia ia?auo yoaiao aeaa no?aiu
o??eenue iea/aie ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ii caoi, ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia NNN?
ioeany, eiie?oy onoa?aeoth oaoiieiaeth YAI-360. Ioeaieaay ianoaeaeaiea
aiciiaeiuo iooae ?ac?aaioee eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee a auaoai NNN? a
eiioea 1960-o – ia/aea 1970-o aei iuiaoiae oi/ee c?aiey, iiaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi iu aua?aee ooaeoee, anee ia iaeooaeoee iooue ?acaeoey.
Aaeeinoaaiiue i?ia?anneaiue iooue aeieaeai aace?iaaoueny ia iaoeo
aioo?aiieo enneaaeiaaieyo e ia nio?oaeie/anoaa n caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneeie
eiiiaieyie a ?ac?aaioea iiauo iieieaiee iaoei. Oaeei ia?acii, iu
aeieaeiu aeinoeaiooue ie?iaiai o?iaiy i?iaeoeoeee, e iu aeieaeiu eiaoue
?aaeueioth aaco aeey aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee aianoa n aaaeoueie
eiiiaieyie Aa?iiu.

E ian/anoueth iineaaeiea aeaaaeoeaoue eao iiaoo auoue aucaaiu aiaeaie
“ia?aaeeciaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae”. Naaiaeiy ana aua aiciiaeii eciaieoue
neooaoeeth; ii caao?a aoaeao neeoeii iicaeii.

I?eaeoo ee iiaua a?aiaia? Aoaeao ee iiaue ?aiannain iaoee,
i?iaeoe?iaaiey e iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae yoi auei a iineaaiaiiue
ia?eiae? Oieueei iaeii inoa?ony aeey ian – iaeeaeaoue, iaaeayoueny e
aeaeaoue an? aiciiaeiia, aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iie oeaee.

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