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Создание узла World Wide Web

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A A A Ae A I E A

N nia?aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey eniieueciaaiea oaeaoiia a ia?aua aiaeu aai
nouanoaiaaiey auaeyaeeo aeiaieueii niaoiui. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeeeoiaae
niiauaiea naiaio nae?aoa?th, eioi?ue caoai ioi?aaeye aai ec oaeaoiiiie
eiiiaou. Oaeaoiiiue caiiie i?eieiaee a aiaeiae/iie eiiiaoa ae?oaie
eiiiaiee, oaeno oeene?iaaee ia aoiaaa e aeinoaaeyee aae?anaoo.
Iio?aaiaaeinue iiiai a?aiaie, i?aaeaea /ai oaeaoii noae oaeei
?ani?ino?aiaiiui e i?eau/iui niiniaii niiauaiey, /oiau aai noaee
eniieueciaaoue oae, eae iu yoi aeaeaai naaiaeiy: naie caiiei a ioaeiia
ianoi, a n iiyaeaieai nioiauo oaeaoiiia – e eiie?aoiiio /aeiaaeo.

A iaoe aeie eiiiuethoa?u, a iniiaiii, i?eiaiythony eae n?aaenoaa
nicaeaiey e aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth caoai ia?aiinyo ia i?eau/iua
iineoaee (iai?eia? ia aoiaao). Ii oaia?ue, aeaaiaea?y oe?ieiio
?ani?ino?aiaieth eiiiuethoa?ia e nicaeaieth Eioa?iaoa, aia?aua iiaeii
i?e iiiiue naiaai eiiiuethoa?a iauaoueny n ae?oaeie ethaeueie /a?ac eo
eiiiuethoa?u. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ania/aoaiiuo aeaiiuo aeey
ia?aaea/e eieeaaai ono?aiyaony iiaeiaii oiio, eae aoiaaa en/acea ec
oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia. Naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue, aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth
Web, iiaeii n?aaieoue n oai a?aiaiai, eiaaea ethaee ia?anoaee
caienuaaoue oaeno oaeaoiiiuo niiauaiee: eiiiuethoa?u (e eo naycue
iaaeaeo niaie iin?aaenoaii Eioa?iaoa) oaea ianoieueei oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu e i?eau/iu, /oi iu ia/eiaai eniieueciaaoue eo
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauie niiniaaie. WWW – yoi ia/aei iooe, ia eioi?ii
eiiiuethoa?u ii-ianoiyuaio noaioo n?aaenoaaie nayce.

Eioa?iao i?aaeinoaaeyao aani?aoeaaeaioiue niinia iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee. Eaaeaeue, eiathuee aeinooi e WWW, iiaeao iieo/eoue anth
eiathuothny ia iai eioi?iaoeeth, a oaeaea iiuiua n?aaenoaa aa iienea.
Aiciiaeiinoe aeey

ia?aciaaiey, aeciana e ?inoa acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie
noaiiayony i?inoi ioaeiieythueie. Aieaa oiai, oaoiieiaey Web iicaieyao
?ani?ino?aiyoue eioi?iaoeeth iianthaeo. I?inoioa yoiai niiniaa ia eiaao
aiaeiaia a enoi?ee. Aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue naie acaeyaeu, oiaa?u eee
oneoae ec-aanoiuie ae?oaei, aieueoa iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiaoue
i?ino?ainoai a aacaoa eee aeo?iaea, ieaoeoue ca a?aiy ia oaeaaeaeaiee e
?aaeei. Web aeaeaao i?aaeea ea?u iaeeiaeiauie aeey i?aaeoaeuenoa e
ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, aeey iaeuo e aieueoeo oe?i, aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
iio?aaeoaeae, aeey aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. World
Wide Web (WWW) ia Eioa?iaoa – yoi naiue aeaiie?aoe/iue iineoaeue
eioi?iaoeee: n aai iiiiuueth ethaie iiaeao neacaoue e oneuoaoue
neacaiiia aac i?iiaaeooi/iie eioa?i?aoaoeee, eneaaeaiey e oeaico?u,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue ii?aaeaeaiiuie ?aieaie i?eee/ey. Eioa?iao iaania/eaaao
oieeaeueioth naiaiaeo naiiau?aaeaiey ee/iinoe e eioi?iaoeee.

Iiaeiaii eniieueciaaieth aioo?aiieo oaeaoiiia eiiiaiee aeey nayce
nio?oaeieeia iaaeaeo niaie e aiaoiei ie?ii, Web i?eiaiyaony eae aeey
nayce aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, oae e iaaeaeo i?aaiecaoeeyie e eo
iio?aaeoaeyie, eeeaioaie e ia?oia?aie. Oa aea naiay oaoiieiaey Web,
eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iaaieueoei oe?iai cayaeoue i naaa ia
Eioa?iaoa, e?oiiie eiiiaieae iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo i oaeouai ninoiyiee i?iaeoa ii aioo?aiiae eio?anaoe, /oi
iicaieeo aa nio?oaeieeai anaaaea auoue aieaa inaaaeiieaiiuie e, cia/eo,
aieaa iia?aoeaiuie ii n?aaiaieth n iaaieueoeie, i?iai?iuie eiieo?aioaie.
I?eiaiaiea eio?anaoe aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue
eioi?iaoeeth aieaa aeinooiiie aeey naieo /eaiia, oaeaea yaeyaony oaaii
aia?aae ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui. Oaia?ue, aianoi oiai, /oiau o?aieoue
aeieoiaiou a caiooaiiii eiiiuethoa?iii a?oeaa, iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue
(iiae eiio?ieai n?aaenoa caueou) eaaei i?iecaiaeeoue iiene e iienaiea
aeieoiaioia, aeaeaoue nnueee ia ieo e ninoaaeyoue oeacaoaee. Aeaaiaea?y
oaoiieiaee Web aecian, ?aaii eae e oi?aaeaiea, noaiiaeony aieaa
yooaeoeaiui.

N I C Ae A I E A O C E A E I O A ? I A O A

Nicaeaiea ocea Eioa?iaoa eee eio?anaoe iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaii ia
aeaa in- iiaiua caaea/e. Ia?aay – nicaeaiea iaiieiaiey. Nthaea aoiaeeo
?ac?aaioea e ioi?ieaiea iaoa?eaeia e ?ano?nia, eioi?ua /aeiaae (a?oiia,
eiiiaiey, i?aaeoaeuenoai eaeie-eeai no?aiu) oi/ao naeaeaoue aeinooiiuie
aeey eaeie-eeai aoaeeoi?ee. Aeey i?aia?aciaaiey iiaeiaiie eioi?iaoeee
eniieuecoaony i?inoie ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. Aoi?ay caaea/a –
ioaeeeaoeey yoeo ?ano?nia a naoe.

Caiieiaiea na?aa?a Web ninoieo ec o?ao iniiaiuo /anoae:
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ocea, i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e ?aciauaiey aai niaea?aeeiiai ia
na?aa?a. A ia/aea iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue oi?iao e no?oeoo?o ocea (ia
eioi?ue iaaei iiianoeoue eioi?iaoeeth) e ii?aaeaeeoue iaeeo/oee niinia
i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee. Ninoaaea iauee ieai, iaaei ?aoeoue, eae
i?eaanoe eioi?iaoeeth e oi?ia, aeinooiiie i?ia?aiiai i?iniio?a Web.
sscue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, eniieuecoaiue aeey yoiai, iacuaaaony HTML
(Hypertext Markup Langu-age). E, iaeiiaoe, iaaei aua?aoue iioeiaeueiue
niinia ?aciauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia na?aa?a.

Ii nouanoao, ocae Web ninoieo ec iaeiie eee aieaa no?aieoe Web e
iaeiie eee aieaa aeiiaoieo no?aieoe. No?aieoeu Web – yoi i?aaieciaaiiia
nia?aiea iaoa?eaeia ocea Web; iie iiaoo auoue naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Aeiiaoiyy no?aieoea – yoi aaiaeiay eee aeaaiay no?aieoea ocea.

Ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo no?aieoea Web iaiiieiaao ia/aoioth no?aieoeo.
Yoi – iaai? neia, o?ac, a?aoeee e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia, i?aaieciaaiiuo a
aeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai iioiea aeaiiuo io ia/aea no?aieoeu aei aa
eiioea. Naiia aieueoia ?acee/ea no?aieoe a oii, /oi aeeeia no?aieoeu Web
ia eiaao oece/aneeo ia?aie/aiee. E?iia oiai, no?aieoeu Web niaea?aeao
nayce, niaaeeiythuea eo iaaeaeo niaie. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eo ia iaaei
i?iniao?eaaoue a iaeioi?ii ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea eee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, eae no?aieoeu aieueoeinoaa eiea.

Aeiiaoiyy no?aieoea neoaeeo oi/eie aoiaea a ocae Web. Iau/ii yoi
aaiaeiay no?aieoea, niaea?aeauay i?eaaonoaea e nnueee ia no?aieoeu
aoi?iai o?iaiy, aeinooiiua ia aeaiiii ocea. Aeiiaoiea no?aieoeu
oi?ie?otho ia?aia aia/aoeaiea, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeo ocae ia
iieueciaaoaey. Iaeioi?ua iaeaiueeea oceu Web oeia ia?niiaeueiuo no?aieoe
ninoiyo oieueei ec aeiiaoiae no?aieoeu, oiaaea eae ia aieueoeo oceao
iiaeao auoue ianeieueei aeiiaoieo no?aieoe.

Ocae Web. I?aaiecaoeey iaoa?eaeia ia ocea WWW a /ai-oi iioiaea ia
iaienaiea eieae eee noaouee. Aia/aea iaiaoiaeeii i?iaeoiaoue no?oeoo?o e
oi?iao, a oaeaea ioaaoeoue ia iiiaeanoai aii?inia. I /ai neaaeoao
neacaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue? Eae aiai?eoue ia yoii? Eaeea oaiu
eiae/anee naycaiu eee aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa? Eaeia ii?yaeie
eceiaeaiey? Ioaeiu ee ?enoiee eee eiay a?aoeea? A caaeneiinoe io iauaia
e aeaea eioi?iaoeee ?aaeecaoeey yoeo aii?inia iiaeao ieacaoueny i?inoie,
a iiaeao e aanueia o?oaeiie.

I?aaiecaoeey eioi?iaoeee. Aeeaiacii niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee oceia Web
aanueia oe?ie: io oceia, eiathueo no?iaoth eeiaeioth no?oeoo?o, aei
oceia, o eioi?uo aiiaua iao /aoeie no?oeoo?u. Iau/ii no?aieoeu
?aniieaaatho a ea?a?oe/aneii eee eeiaeiii ii?yaeea, a oaeaea a aeaea
iaooeiu. Aianoi oiai, /oiau n naiiai ia/aea aeanoei no?oeoo?e?iaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth iaaei oaaaeeoueny, /oi nayce iaaeaeo no?aieoeaie –
eiae/iua, /oi iie aaaeoo iieueciaaoaey e iaiaoiaeeiie aio eioi?iaoeee.
Aa?iyoii, aeey yoiai eo/oa anaai ii-aeieaeao iaeioi?ay eiiaeiaoeey
?acee/iuo niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee eioi?iaoeee.

Ea?a?oe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey. Oceu Web, eioi?ua neaaeotho ea?a?oe/aneie
eee ae?aaiaeaeiie i?aaiecaoeee, eiatho aaeeinoaaiioth oi/eo aoiaea a
ocae; in-oaeueiua no?aieoeu ?aniieaaathony ia enoiaeyueo ec iaa
ioaaoaeaieyo. Aeaiiue iiaeoiae oaeiaai, anee iiaeii eaaei ?acaeoue naith
eioi?iaoeeth ia eaoaai?ee e iiaeeaoaai?ee. I?e ea?a?oe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee ocea Web e no?aieoea naiiai ieaeiaai o?iaiy aaaeao iaeei e
oieueei iaeei iooue (?en 1.).

Oaeay no?iaay no?oeoo?a ocea iiaeao aucaaoue i?iaeaiu o
iieueciaaoaeae. Iai?eia?, anee iieueciaaoaeue i?ioae ia ianeieueei
o?iaiae aiec ii iaeiiio ec iooae, a iioii ?aoee iiianoue a ae?oaoth
/anoue aea?aaa, oi aio i?eaeaony aica?auaoueny ia?aoii.

Eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey. *oiau iieueciaaoaee iieueciaaoaee ocea Web
iiaee /eoaoue niaea?aeeiia ocea eae eieao eee aeo?iae eee /oiau iie
i?ioee ii ca- aeaiiiio iooe io ia/aea e aei eiioea ocea – iaiaoiaeeii
aua?aoue eeiaeioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Eaeay-oi no?aieoea iiaeao eiaoue
ianeieueei naycae n i?eia/aieyie e aeiiieiaieyie, ii aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey
aeaeueoa iieueciaaoaeue aeieaeai aa?iooueny ia iaa niiaa. I?iaeaeaeaiea
ii aeieoiaioo inouanoaeyaony eiiieie Next, a aica?ao e ia/aeo ocea –
eiiieie Prev.

Aeey aieueoiai ocea Web eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey iiaeoiaeeo ia i/aiue.
*eoaoaeyi, euouei eiie?aoioth eioi?iaoeeth, iiaeao ia iii?aaeoueny
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?ieoe /a?ac iiiaeanoai no?aieoe, i?aaeaea /ai iie
iiiaaeoo ia ioaeioth. Eniieuecoy eeiaeiue iiaeoiae, ia iaaei
iiaeaeaaaoueny eneooaieth nicaeaaaoue neeoeii aeeeiiua no?aieoeu Web:
iiiaea ethaee iaeaeoo i?iniio? eo i/aiue ooiieoaeueiui.(?en.2).

WWW______

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WWW_______ WWW_______
WWW_______

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WWW ______ WWW_______
WWW_______

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WWW______

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?en.2. Eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey ocea Web.

I?aaiecaoeey a aeaea iaooeiu. I?aaiecaoeey eioi?iaoeee a aeaea iaooeiu,
aa?iyoii, iaeeo/oei ia?acii iiaeoiaeeo aeey aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa. A yoie

no?oeoo?a no?aieoeu naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii iauei eiioaenoii. E iaeiie
no?aieoea iiaeao aanoe ianeieueei naycae, e o eaaeaeiai aeieoiaioa
anoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa auoiaea. Nayce eiiaaea ia?acotho e?oa. Aeey
iooaoanoaee ii Web yoa i?aaiecaoeey ocea iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueia.
Auno?ue i?ioiae ii oceo e aieueoay naiaiaea ia?aiauaiey – aio /oi
i?aaeony iieueciaaoaeyi. Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie oaeie no?oeoo?u a oii, /oi
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao /oi-ieaoaeue i?iionoeoue, oae eae ii iiaeao i?ieoe
ia ii anai naycyi. Noaia oaeie i?aaiecaoeee ocea Web i?eaaaeaia ia
?en.3.

WWW_______

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WWW ________
WWW ________

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WWW________
WWW________

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WWW________

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?en.3. Ocae Web,i?aaieciaaiiue a aeaea iaooeiu.

Oi?io oio ocae Web,eioi?ue eioa?anii e i?eyoii iinauaoue. Ii
i?aaeinoaaeyao anth eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth iieueciaaoaeth, e ii
iaio eaaei ia?aiauaoueny. Aeey nicaeaiey oi?ioi niio?yueony
Web-no?aie/ae iiaeii niaei eniieueciaaoue y?eoth a?aoeeo, ecyuiua o?eoou
e ae?oaea niiniau. Ii, a oi aea a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeii auaea?aeeaaoue
iaaieueoie ?acia? no?aieoe aeey eo auno?ie caa?ocee ia eiiiuethoa?u
iieueciaaoaeae.. Iaeioi?ua niia?aaeaiey, iieaciua i?e ?ac?aaioea
no?aieoe Web, i?eaaaeaiu ieaea.

Aeiiaoiyy no?aieoea aeieaeia i?eaeaeaoue aieiaiea. Ia?aua aia/aoeaiey
ii-ianoiyuaio aaaeiu. Naiay eioa?aniay eioi?iaoeey ia iaania/eo
cia/eoaeueiiai o?aoeea, anee aeiiaoiyy no?aieoea ocea ia i?eaea/ao
aieiaiey iieueciaaoaey e ia auciaao o iaai aeaeaiey iiniio?aoue ae?oaea
no?aieoeu ocea.

?acia? no?aieoeu aeieaeai auoue iaaieueoei. *oiau ioaeaeueioth
no?aieoeo auei i?eyoii /eoaoue, neaaeoao ia?aie/eoue aa niaea?aeeiia
iaeiie oaiie. Iieueciaaoaeue auno?i onoaiao e ?aci/a?oaony, anee i?e
iienea eiie?aoiie eioi?iaoeee aio i?eaeaony iooeeueo?iauaaoue aieueoie
iauai eeoieo naaaeaiee. Eo/oa nicaeaaaoue iaeaiueeea no?aieoeu. Yoa ia?a
aeaao aua e auea?uo ai a?aiaie i?iniio?a e caa?ocee Web-no?aieoe. A anee
eiathueeny iaoa?eae ia oiauaaony ia iaeiie no?aieoea ii?iaeueiiai
?acia?a, oi iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue aai ia ianeieueei no?aieoe e iaania/eoue
nayce iaaeaeo ieie.

No?aieoeu aeieaeiu auoue eioa?aniuie. Nio?aieoue aieiaiea aoaeeoi?ee
anaaaea iaeaaei

I E A I E ? I A A I E A I I O ? A A I I N O A E.

Iio?aaiinoe ii?aaeaeytho auai? aiia?aoo?u. Iauai iaiyoe e
aeeneiaia i?ino?ainoai eiiiuethoa?a iaiaoiaeeii niioiineoue n iauaiii
niaea?aeeiiai ocea Eioa?iaoa. Caeanue oiaea iao oaa?aeuo i?aaee. Iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiia aeeneiaia i?ino?ainoai, ii iaeuecy
i?aaeneacaoue aicaeaenoaea iieueciaaoaeae ia ICO e i?ioeanni?
eiiiuethoa?a, e neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu. “Anee
Aao eiiiuethoa? aaaeai aeey aeciana, ia naycaiiiai n Eioa?iaoii, anoue
niune ?aca?oceoue aai, eniieuecoy aeey ocea ae?oaoth iaoeio”, – ieoao
Eoen Eai.

Ia?aua oanoue ianyoeaa iaiaoiaeeii iaaethaeaoue ca oceii e /anoi
oanoe?iaaoue aai.*oiau i?aaeeueii nieaie?iaaoue naie iio?aaiinoe ,
ioaeii ioaaoeoue ia iaeioi?ua aii?inu.

Eaeea na?aenu Eioa?iaoa i?aaeiieaaaaony eniieueciaaoue?

Eaeiau aeaeu iaoa?eaeia? Iiiai ee a?aoeee? Eaeea o?aaiaaiey e o?a-
ieeeuo oaeeia e iauaio aeanoeiai aeenea?

I?iaiice?oaoa ee Au ?ino ocea a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai? Eaeay aiia?aoo?a
i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeia?

Ioaeai ee aeiiieieoaeueiue eiiiuethoa??

Eoi Aaoe iieueciaaoaee? Iiae/ee ee iie eee eiatho iiuo?

A U A I ? A I I A ? A O O ? U .

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii aeeneiaiai i?ino?ainoaa aeaaaoue
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii: iii iai?yioth caaeneo io iauaia ?ano?nia,
couanoaaiii eciaiythueony io iaeiiai ocea e ae?oaiio. Iaeiaei noieiinoue
aeeneiaiai i?ino?ainoaa iaauniea, iiyoiio aai eaaei oaaee/eoue.

Ai?acaei aaaeiaa ecia/aeueii eiaoue ICO aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia.
Iaiyoue aei?iaa ,e ?anoe?eoue aa o?oaeii. Anee i?aaeiieaaaaony
eniieueciaaoue ia nicaeaaaaiii ocea oaeea na?aenu , eae o?aicaeoeee,
neoaeau iienea eee nenoaiu cai?inia e aacai aeaiiuo, oi a caaeneiinoe
io ?inoa o?aoeea iio?aaoaony aieaa auno?ue eiiiuethoa? n aieueoei
iauaiii iaiyoe.

Aeey auai?a anoue iiiai aa?eaioia. Iaoeia eeanna Pentium a
caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaeaea?aeeaaao io 128 Ia ICO aeey
ieaaeoeo iiaeaeae aei 1 Aa aeey noa?oeo iiaeaeae. E?iia oiai,
eniieueciaaiea ianeieueeeo na?aa?ia e ia?aoiae ia ae?oaea a?oeoaeoo?u
(iai?eia?, io iaoei ia i?ioeanni?ao Intel e RISK – iaoeiai)
aeiiieieoaeueii iiauoatho iiuiinoue.Anee aea nicaeaoaeue ocea
i?aaeii/eoaao iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee, a oeaia ia eiaao aieueoiai cia/aiey,
oi ?aoaiea – iiaue i?ioeanni? Intel Pentium Pro.

O ? A O E E

ieceee(iaiaa

3 iieueciaaoaeae

iaeiia?aiaiii) n?aaeiee( io 3 aei 15 iieueciaaoaeae iaeiia?aiaiii)
aunieee(aieaa

15 iieueciaaoaeae iaeiia?iai-

ii)

WWW 486/66

32 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 486/100

32 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 586/90

48 Ia ICO

2 Aa aeene

FTP 486/66

32 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 486/66

32 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 486/6

32 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene

Yeaeo?iiiay

ii/oa 586/75

48 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 586/75

48 Ia ICO

1 Aa aeene 586/90

64 Ia ICO

2 Aa aeene

Ana na?aenu 586/75

48 Ia ICO

2 Aa aeene 586/90

64 Ia ICO

1,5 Aa aeene 586/90

64+Ia ICO

2 Aa aeene

IAAeAAEIINOUe E IOEACIONOIE*EAINOUe.

Anee Eioa?iao – aaaeiay /anoue Aaoaai aeciana, iaaei iiaeoiaoue i
caueoa eioi?iaoeee e i?aaeioa?auaiee iieiiie nenoaiu.
Ioeacionoie/eainoue- yoi niaieoiiinoue oaoiieiaee, aeoaee?othueo
iaiaaeaaeiua nenoaiu eiiiuethoa?a e aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aeeth/athuea
nenoaio ec aaa?eeiiai iieiaeaiey a ii?iaeueiia. Iiauoaiea
ioeacionoie/eainoe nenoaiu o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao ia
aeoaee?othuaa aiia?aoiia a eiiaaea i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea. Iaeiaei yoi
ieoiaaony: i?enoonoaea a Eioa?iaoa ia i?a?uaaaony aeaaea i?e e?oiiii
aiia?aoiii naia.

Ecaaaeaoue i?inoiy iiiiaeao iaaei?iaia ?aoaiea – ca?eaeecaoeey aeenea
aeoaee?iaaiea aeanoeiai aeenea a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie.

Aiiaua aiai?y, aeeneiaua ono?ienoaa iaaeaaeiu, ii anee a eiiiuethoa?a
/oi-oi aueaeao ec no?iy, oi, nei?aa anaai , yoi eiaiii aeanoeee aeene,
niaea?aeauee oo aea eioi?iaoeeth, /oi e ia?aue. A neo/aa aaa?ee ia?aoiae
ia ca?eaeueioth eiieth auiieiyaony aaoiiaoe/anee. A Windows NT Server
eiioeao?e?iaaiea ca?eaeecaoeee ano?iaii a i?ia?aiio Disk Administrator.

E i?e ca?eaeecaoeee , ii iniaaiii anee aa iao, i?eaiaeeony nenoaia
?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey (backup).Iia nio?aiyao oaeeu eae i?e nenoaiiii
naia, oae e i?e eo oie/oiaeaiee, ioeai/iii eee ceiiaia?aiiii.Nouanoao-ao
ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey.Iaeei ec oi?ioi naay
ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoeo: iaeiieoaeue ia iaaieoiie eaioa, eo/oa n eioa?oaenii
SCSI , ano?iaiiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea Windows NT Server,
iinoaaeyaiia o?aoueeie oe?iaie, n aaoiiaoe/aneei eiie?iaaieai.

Iioa?y eioi?iaoeee i?ienoiaeeo i?e ioeeth/aiee naoaaiai ieoaiey
aeaaea ia aeieth naeoiaeu. ?aoeoue i?iaeaio iiaeii i?e iiiiue enoi/ieea
aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey – UPS, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie aieueooth aaoa?ath
e eiaa?oe?othuee oneeeoaeue. Ii aeaao aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie aeey
ei??aeoiiai caaa?oaiey ?aaiou e nio?aiaiey aeaiiuo.

Aa?eaiou iiaeeeth/aiey ocea e Eioa?iaoo.

Iiiaea naycuaathony n Eioa?iaoii ii iiaeaio eee ii nei?inoiie eeiee
ISDN. Eo eniieuecotho oaeaea e aeey iiaeaea?aeee a Eioa?iaoa.

?aciua oeiu niaaeeiaiey ?acee/athony nei?inoueth nayce (aeo/nae) e
oeaiie, aic?anoathuae i?iii?oeeiiaeueii nei?inoe.

Iiaeai. Naycue n Eioa?iaoii ii iiaeaio inouanoaeyaony ii noaiaea?oiie
oaeaoiiiie eeiee ni nei?inoueth aei 28,8 eaeo/n.Yoa naycue n/eoaaony
iaiaaeaaeiie e , oioy ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaa, aa ia eniieuecotho aeey
iinoiyiiiai i?enoonoaey a Eioa?iaoa.Oiiiyiooay nei?inoue oi?ioa aeey
i?iniio?a, ii ia aeey iinoiyiiiai i?enoonoaey a Eioa?iaoa.Iaeiaei ec-ca
i?inoiou onoaiiaee e ieceie oeaiu naycue ii iiaeaio eniieuecotho aeey
oceia Eioa?iaoa n ieceei o?aoeeii eee ia?niiaeueiuo no?aieoe Web. E?iia
oiai, aa i?eiaiytho aeey oanoe?iaaiey ocea ia?aae onoaiiaeie aieaa
auno?ie e aei?iaie eeiee, a oaeaea aeey yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou n ieceei e
n?aaeiei o?aoeeii.

Aeey nayce ii iiaeaio iaiaoiaeeiu oaeaoiiiay eeiey e iiaeai,
aioo?aiiee eee aiaoiee. Iineaaeiee eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa :
aai eaaei ia?anoaaeyoue n iaeiie iaoeiu ia ae?oaoth, ii ia i?eaycai e
eaeie-eeai aiia?aoiie ieaooi?ia. E?iia oiai, eaaei iiaeeeth/eoue e
iaeiie iaoeia aei 256 aiaoieo iiaeaiia. Ana yoi iicaieyao eaaei e aeaei
eiioeao?e?iaaoue nenoaio.

ISDN. Eeiey ISDN i/aiue iioiaea ia iau/ioth oaeaoiiioth, ca
eneeth/aieai oiai, /oi iia iieiinoueth oeeo?iaay e iaania/eaaao
aieueooth nei?inoue- aei 128 eaeo/n. Eae e naycue ii iiaeaio, iia
iaiinoiyiiay, oi anoue eaaeaeue ?ac i?eoiaeeony aeicaaieaaoueny. Iiyoiio
eeiee ISDN eniieuecotho ,eae ii-aeai, aeey niaaeeiaiee n ieceei
o?aoeeii, oanoe?iaaiey e yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, caa?oaeaiiie neaai eee
n?aaeia. Anee iinoiyiiia niaaeeiaiea n Eioa?iaoii aei?iai, a nei?inoue
ioaeia auoa , /ai o iiaeaia, oi aeey i?inouo oceia yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou,
FTP e WWW eeiey ISDN – eo/oee auai?.

Aeey ?aaiou n ISDN ioaeai eeai iiaeai ISDN, eeai aaeaioa? ISDN, a
oaeaea niaaeeieoaeue NT-1 – yeaeaaeaio oaeaoiiiiai ?acuaia aeey
aeeth/aiey ono?ienoaa – e eeiey ISDN io ianoiie oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee

Iiaeaiu ISDN iiaeeeth/athony e eiiiuethoa?o /a?ac iineaaeiaaoaeueiue
ii?o, eae e iau/iua iiaeaiu. Ii?o iaania/eaaao nei?inoue – 115 eaeo/n,
iiyoiio /anoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ISDN oa?yaony. Aieaa oaea/iue auai?
– aaeaioa? ISDN. Ii ?aaioaao ni nei?inoueth oeiu , i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue eioi?ie auoa nei?inoe ISDN. Aeey aieueoeinoaa iiaeaiia e
aaeaioa?ia o?aaoaony NT-1; iaeioi?ia iai?oaeiaaiea iinoaaeyaony ni
ano?iaiiui NT-1.

?ao?aineyoeey eaae?ia. Naoue n ?ao?aineyoeeae eaae?ia (frame relay) –
yoi iinoiyiiay eeiey nayce. Iia neoaeeo iii?iie iaaeno?aeueth, e eioi?ie
iiaeniaaeeiai na?aa?. A neo/aa iaeiia?aiaiiiai iiaeeeth/aiey aa
i?iecaiaeeoaeue-iinoue iiaeao auoue ieaea, /ai i?e eniieueciaaiee
ae?oaiai iinoiyiiiai niaaeeiaiey – auaeaeaiiie eeiee.I?e iieoiea eeiee n
?ao?aineyoeeae eaae?ia, iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue o?aaoaioth nei?inoue
eaae?ia ,aeeaiacii eioi?ie io 65 eaeo/n aei 1,5 Iaeo/n(O1).Oeaia eeiee
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony n ?inoii iieinu i?iioneaiey.

?ao?aineyoeey eaae?ia – iaaeaaeiay naycue n Eioa?iaoii, iia oi?ioa
aeey oceia ni n?aaeiei o?aoeeii e yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou n aunieei o?aoeeii.

Aeey onoaiiaee aeaiiiai niaaeeiaiey iaiaoiaeeia niioaaonoaothuay
eiiiuethoa?iay ieaoa e eeiey n ?ao?aineyoeeae eaae?ia io ianoiie
oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee; eniieueciaaiea aiaoiaai ia?o?ooecaoi?a aiciiaeii
oieueei n ieaoie Ethernet ia Windows NT Server. I?e aunieii o?aoeea
cia/eoaeueiua au/eneeoaeueiua ?ano?nu Windows NT Server aoaeoo caiyou
ia?o?ooecaoeeae.

Auaeaeaiiay eeiey. Auaeaeaiiay eeiey (dedicated line) aiaeiae/ia
oaoiieiaee ?ao?aineyoeee eaae?ia, iaeiaei caeanue naycue onoaiaaeeaaaony
iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie, oi anoue ionoonoaoao i?iiaaeooi/iay iii?iay
iaaeno?aeue. A ?acoeueoaoa – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue auoa, oae eae eeiey
ianeoaeeaaao oieueei iaeei /ae-oi o?aoee, eiee/anoai oi/ae aiciiaeiuo
iaeni?aaiinoae iaiueoa e caueoa eo/oa, iioiio /oi eioi?iaoeey ia
i?ioiaeeo /a?ac iauee eaiae. Nei?inoue auaeaeaiiuo eeiee eciaiyaony a
aeeaiaciia io 65 eaeo/n aei 45 iaeo/n. Aeey iinoiyiiiai iiaeeeth/aiey e
Eioa?iaoo auaeaeaiiay eeiey – iae-eo/oee auai?. ?aeiiaiaeoaony
eniieueciaaoue aa aeey anao oceia n aunieei o?aoeeii, e?iia yeaeo?iiiie
ii/ou, aeey eioi?ie o?aaoaony iaiueoay iieina i?iioneaiey. Aeey
niaaeeiaiey ii auaeaeaiiie eeiee iiiaaeiaeony aiaoiee ia?o?ooecaoi?,
iaania/eaathuee iaaeeaaeauoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e aunieii o?aoeea,
auaeaeaiiay eeiey io ianoiie oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee e niaaeeieoaeue
CSU/DSU.

Auai? ISP. Aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e Eioa?iaoo iaiaoiaeei ISP. Aeaaea anee
/aeiaae, nicaeaaoee na?aa? Web, nai iaia?aaaaony noaoue ISP, oi aio
ioaeai ISP aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy. Iau/ii yoi e?oiiua oaeaoiiiua
eiiiaiee(ia Caiaaea e a NOA). I/aiue aaaeia oa??eoi?eaeueiay aeecinoue
ISP: iacaaeneii io oeia eniieuecoaiiai niaaeeiaiey oeaia ?anoao n
oaaee/aieai ?annoiyiey. Oae-aea eiatho cia/aiea iaaeaaeiinoue
ianeoaeeaaiey, iaai? i?aaeeaaaaiuo na?aenia, iaee/ea o ISP eeoieo
eaiaeia, nei?inoue nayce, oeaia aeinooiiinoue ianeoaeeaaaiiai ia?niiaea
e na?aeniie neoaeau. Ia?auaynue e ISP, iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue na?aenu e
iio?aaiinoue a iieina i?iioneaiey. Iinea caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa ISP
niiaueo aaeieieno?aoi?o nicaeaiiiai ocea aai aae?an IP, ianeo iiaenaoe,
eiaia na?aenia DNS, i?ieino?oeoe?oao i iiaeeeth/aiee aai e naoe e
ii?aeiiaiaeoao ethaia iaiaoiaeeiia aeiiieieoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea.
Aeaeaa, eeai ISP, eeai aaeieieno?aoi? iiaiai ocea aeieaeai
aeiaiai?eoueny n oaeaoiiiie eiiiaieae. N?aaiea ?anoeaiee ISP e
oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee, iaaei aua ?ac oaaaeeoueny a iaaeaaeiinoe aeaiiiai
ISP.

N A I ? E A O C E A E I OA ? I A O A

*oiau caionoeoue na?aa? Eioa?iaoa, iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ianeieueei
caaea/: nia/aea aua?aoue e ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue eiy naiaai aeiiaia,
onoaiiaeoue naoaaoth aiia?aoo?o, caoai oaaaeeoueny a i?aaeeueiinoe
onoaiiaee e eiioeao?aoeee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. Iinea yoiai iaeaaeeoue
naycue n Eioa?iaoii e i?ioanoe?iaaoue aa. Ai anai yoii iao ie/aai
o?oaeiiai, ii, ii i?aaaea neacaoue, iaeioi?ua ec yoeo yoaiia iiaoo
aeeeoueny aeinoaoi/ii aeieai.

?aaeno?aoeey eiaie aeiiaia. Aeiiaiu a Eioa?iaoa ?acee/athony ii
o?iaiyi ea?a?oee, iai?eia?: a idsoftware.com idsoftware – aeiiai
aoi?iai o?iaiy, a com – aa?oiaai. Nicaeaaay aeiiai, iaaei
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue aai a ?oeiaiaeyuae i?aaiecaoeee, oiaaea eiy
nicaeaaaaiiai aeiiaia aoaeoo aeeth/aiu a eiy aa aeiiaia. Aeiiaiu
aa?oiaai o?iaiy eeanneoeoee?otho i?aaiecaoeee ii oeiai: gov(government –
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua), edu(educational – ia?aciaaoaeueiua),
org(organization – i?aaiecaoeee), net(aeey ISP), com(commercial –
eiiia?/aneea). *oiau i?eniaaeeieony ei anai, e?iia iineaaeiaai,
nicaeaoaeue iiaiai ocea Web aeieaeai aeieacaoue, /oi niioaaonoaoao
i?aaeuyaeyaiui no?iaei o?aaiaaieyi. Aeeth/aiea a aeiiai com ai?acaei
i?iua, iaeiaei ana-oaee ioaeii i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue, e eaeiio ec
aeiiaiia aa?oiaai o?iaiy ioiineony iiaue ocae. Aeey yoiai iaaei
naycaoueny n i?aaiecaoeeae, ioaa/athuae ca aeiiaiu aa?oiaai o?iaiy, –
InterNIC – ii aae?ano: http://www.internic.net.

Nicaeaiea iiaiai aeiiaia a aeiiaia .com. Aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai
aeiiaia a aeiiaia com, ainiieuecoainy ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie Eoena Eaia e
Eao?u Eiaai – aaoi?ia eieae “Iie ocae Web”.

“Nia/aea auaa?eoa eiy naiaai aeiiaia. Yoi o?oaeiaa, /ai eaaeaony: eiy
aeieaeii eiaoue niune aeey Aan, neoaeeoue iaoeie aeey Aaoaai ocea
Eioa?iaoa, eaaei caiiieiaoueny e aaiaeeoueny n eeaaeaoo?u, a oaeaea ia
eniieueciaaoueny ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeeae ia Eioa?iaoa. Anee eoi-oi
eniieuecoao Aaoa eiy, caueuaiiia oi?aiaie ia?eie, oi Aai neaaeoao ii
caeiio eee ii niaeaoaieth aeiaeoueny aai aica?auaiey. Aua?aa
iiaeoiaeyuaa eiy, ca?aaeno?e?oeoa aai. Iau/ii aeey yoiai ec iaeanoe
Registration Web – no?aieoeu InterNIC auea/eaatho oaenoiaue aeaie e
caiieiytho aai a ethaii ?aaeaeoi?a eee oaenoiaii i?ioeanni?a eee
caiieiytho oi?io WWW, eniieuecoy i?ia?aiio i?iniio?a Web.

Au aeieaeiu niiaueoue InterNIC i naaa iaeioi?ua aeaiiua. Ai-ia?auo,
eoi aoaeao eiioaeoe?iaaoue n iae ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui, oaoie/aneei e
oeiainiaui aii?inai, eanathueiny Aaoaai aeiiaia. Yoi iiaoo auoue ?aciua
ethaee eee iaeei /aeiaae. Ai-aoi?uo, eiaia e IP-aae?ana na?aa?ia DNS,
iiaeaea?aeeaathueo Aao aeiiai(InterNIC o?aaoao, /oiau ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua
aeiiaiu eiaee oioy au aeaa na?aa?a DNS). I?e iaee/ee nianoaaiiie neoaeau
DNS, /aai iu ia ?aeiiaiaeoai, i?aaeinoaaueoa yoo eioi?iaoeeth
naiinoiyoaeueii. Anee iao, aae?ana DNS niiaueo Aai ISP. A-o?aoueeo,
oi?ia iieaou. Nae/an ?aaeno?aoeey eiaie aeiiaia noieo $100(ia 10.1996).
Iieiaeia yoie noiiu – aaeeiia?aiaiiay, a ae?oaay iieiaeia – ?aaoey?iay
ieaoa (?ac a aeaa aiaea) ca nii?iaiaeaeaiea, oi anoue ca nio?aiaiea
eiaie aeiiaia.

Ioioeeoa caiieiaiioth oi?io yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie a InterNIC ii aae?ano
[email protected] *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy Au iieo/eoa aeaa ioaaoa:
ia?-aue – iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iieo/aiey Aaoaai cai?ina, aoi?ie – ?ac?aoaiea
ia eniieueciaaiea Aaoaai eiaie aeiiaia.” Aieaa iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth
i ?aaeno?aoeee eiaie aeiiaia e anao eciaiaieyo, i?iecioaaeoeo iinea
iaienaiey yoie eieae, iiaeii iaeoe ia Web-no?aieoea InterNIC ii aae?ano:
http:// www.internic.net (ni?aai/iee “AEaeoua no?aieoeu Web-?inneeneea e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?ano?nu”).

Aeaeueiaeoay nai?ea ocea Eioa?iaoa aeieaeia i?ieoe ianeieueei yoaiia:
onoaiiaea naoaaiai iai?oaeiaaiey(iiaeaiu, aaeaioa?u ISDN, ieaou
?ao?aineyoeee eaae?ia eee naoaaua ieaou);iiaeaioiaea e onoaiiaea
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu(iai?eia? Windows NT Server, Unix, OS/2 ), eioi?ay
aeeth/aao a naay auai? i?ioieiea(TCP/IP, IPX, NetBEUI),oaeeiaie nenoaiu,
aeiiieieoaeueiuo na?aenia(DNS, DHCP, WINS); onoaiiaea iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiu – nai? eioi?iaoeee i eiiiuethoa?a, onoaiiaea naoe, onoaiiaea
naoaauo eiiiiiaioia e caaa?oaiea onoaiiaee(auai? /aniaiai iiyna,
onoaiiaea IIS – Internet Infor-mation Server e ae?.). Neaaeothuee yoai –
iano?ieea niaaeeiaiey n Eioa?iaoii.

Onoaiiaea na?aa? e iiaeeeth/ea aai e Eioa?iaoo, iaiaoiaeeii
i?ioanoe?iaaoue niaaeeiaiea, i?aaeaea /ai iauyaeoue i iiaii na?aa?a.
Iaeei ec niiniaia oanoe?iaaiey – eniieueciaaiea na?aa?a a ea/anoaa
eeeaioa aeey iooaoanoaey ii Web: iin?aaenoaii i?ia?aiiu i?iniio?a
Eioa?iaoa niaaeeieoueny n oceaie Web, FTP e Gopher, a oaeaea naycaoueny
n ae?oaeie na?aa?aie i?ia?aiiie Ping. Ooeeeoa Ping onoaiaaeeaaao naycue
n ae?oaei eiiiuethoa?ii, iinueay aio iaeao eioi?iaoeee, e, e?iia oiai,
oeene?oao a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey niaaeeiaiey. I?e oniaoa iia?aoeee a
ieia eiiaiaeiie no?iee iiyaeony niioaaonoaothuaa niiauaiea. *oiau
ainiieueciaaoueny Ping, iaaei, anaai eeoue, ioe?uoue ieii eiiaiaeiie
no?iee e aaanoe eiiaiaeo “PING eiyocea”, iai?eia? “PING www.kiae.su”.
Ae?oaie niinia i?iaa?ee nayce – iiiuoea niaaeeieoueny n nicaeaiiui
oceii Eioa?iaoa ecaia. Iai?eia?, /a?ac eiiiuethoa? naiaai ciaeiiiai eee
eae-ieaoaeue ii ae?oaiio, iiaeii iiiuoaoueny naycaoueny ni naiei
na?aa?ii ooeeeoie Ping, a oaeaea iieo/eoue aeinooi e naiei na?aenai
Eioa?iaoa.

C A U E O A E I O I ? I A Oe E E.

*ai aieueoa ethaeae iieo/atho aeinooi e nenoaia, iai?eia? i?e
?anoe?aiee aeciana eee i?e iiaeeeth/aiee e EAN, oai auoa noaiaiue ?enea
e caueoa noaiiaeony aaaeiie i?iaeaiie. Ai-ia?auo, aiciiaeioth oa?ico,
oioy e ia?aie/aiioth, i?aaenoaaeytho oa, eoi eiaao oece/aneee aeinooi e
eiiiuethoa?o iaeiaai iieueciaaoaey: iie iiaoo, iai?eia?, neo/aeii
oaeaeeoue oaee.

Ai-aoi?uo, n oi/ee c?aiey aaciianiinoe nai Eioa?iao yaeyaony
a?aaeaeaaiie n?aaeie: eiee/anoai oao, eoi iiaeao iaianoe oua?a
/ueae-eeai nenoaia iaia?aiii eee ii ioeaea aic?anoaao eaoano?ioe/anee.
?ene iioa?ue oai auoa, /ai n aieaa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeeae
eiaao aeaei iieueciaaoaeue.

Ia?ooeoaee ii?yaeea. Ia?ooaiey a ?aaioa nenoaiu, aucaaiiua
aeaenoaeyie ethaeae, i?eaiaeyo e ?acee/iui iineaaenoaeyi e iiaoo auoue
i?aaeiaia?aiiuie eee iai?aaeiaia?aiiuie.

Iu ana neuoaee i oaea?ao, aceaiuaathueo eiiiuethoa?iua nenoaiu
caueou. Aeey ieo i?ioiae neaicue caueoo – ea?a, eioi?ay oai eioa?aniae,
/ai neiaeiaa caueoa. Aeia?aaoenue aei niaea?aeeiiai na?aa?a (anoanoaaiii
/oaeiai), oaea? iiaeao i?inoi inoaaeoue oaee – “iiaeienue” eee
caionoeoue ae?on, eee aeaaea iieiinoueth oie/oiaeeoue niaea?aeeiia
na?aa?a.

Oaea? (hacker) – i?ia?aiieno, niiniaiue ienaoue i?ia?aiiu aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ?ac?aaioee aeaoaeueiuo niaoeeoeeaoeee e iia?aoeaii
aiineoue eni?aaeaiey a ?aaioathuea i?ia?aiiu, ia eiathuea
aeieoiaioaoeee, a oii /enea e iaiin?aaenoaaiii a iaoeiiuo eiaeao, /oi
o?aaoao auni/aeoae eaaeeoeeaoeee. Eiiaaea iiae oaea?ii ioeai/ii
iiae?acoiaaatho aceiiueea.

Aceiiuee – iieueciaaoaeue au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu (iau/ii
eiiiuethoa?iie naoe), caieiathueeny iieneii iacaeiiiuo niiniaia
iieo/eoue aeinooi e caueuaiiui ?ano?nai, iai?eia? eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee. Ei ioaeia eioi?iaoeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea: iiia?a
e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae e aaieianeeo n/aoia. Aeey ieo yoi ia ea?a, a
na?ueaciue aecian, iiyoiio aeey iieo/aiey aeinooia e nenoaiai iie
eniieuecotho a?naiae eneoniuo eino?oiaioia e i?ia?aii. Ioeiaii
aceiiueeia caieiaaony Eioa?iie – iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey,
iauaaeeiythuay i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia aieaa /ai 50
no?ai ie?a. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao yoei caieiathony niaoeneoaeau. A NOA –
Oaaea?aeueiia Ath?i ?anneaaeiaaiee (FBI – Federal Bureau of
Investigations – OA?), ii eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo aunieiai o?iaiy, oi a aeaei anooiaao Aaainoai
Iaoeeiiaeueii Aaciianiinoe (NSA – National Security Agency – AIA). Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yoi iaeia ec naiuo iiaouanoaaiiuo niaoeneoaea ie?a,
caieiathueony eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?acaaaeeie e caueoie eioi?iaoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA e iaeioi?uo iniai ae?oaeanoaaiiuo ainoaea?noa. ?inney
a eo /enei ia aoiaeeo.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee caueoo ainoaea?noaaiii-aaaeiie eioi?iaoeee
inouanoaeyao OAINE – Oaaea?aeueiia Aaainoai I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie Nayce e
Eioi?iaoeee – auaoaa Aeaaiaaeoeaoia oi?aaeaiea EAA NNN?. Iineaaeiee
ecaanoiue “caeac”, iinooieaoee a OAINE – ianeoaeeaaiea iiaie
eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu o/aoa ?inneeneeo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Iiieii
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai, OAINE ianeoaeeaaao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth naycue
(AON-1 e AON-2), – /oi, a i?eioeeia, yaeyaony iniiaiui i?ioeeai ?aaiou
aeaiiie niaoeneoaeau e, a nio?oaeie/anoaa n Oaaea?aeueiie Neoaeaie
Aaciianiinoe, caieiaaony i?ineooeaaieai oaeaoiiiuo ?acaiai?ia
iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?ooeoaeae ii?yaeea.

Ia?aie/eoue aeinooi e eiiiuethoa?o eee e naoe i?aaeaeaie naiae
i?aaiecaoeee – ia cia/eo o/anoue ana aii?inu caueou. Yoiai iiaeao auoue
iaaeinoaoi/ii i?e iaee/ee aioo?aiieo a?aaia: ia?iiioth iianiinoue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anna?aeaiiue nio?oaeiee. Aaiaeaeeci ii ioiioaieth e
eiiiuethoa?o oe?iu – ioee/iue niinia ianoe aeey n/eoathueo naay
iaaeiioeaiaiiuie eee aeey oaieaiiuo nio?oaeieeia. Iaiaa ae?aiaoe/ii, ii
iioaioeeaeueii ia iaiaa no?aoii iai?aaeiaia?aiiia oaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee
eiyeueiuie nio?oaeieeaie. Eaaeaeue, eiaaea-eeai ?aaioaaoee ia
eiiiuethoa?a, aa?iyoii, eiaao “i?e-yoiue” iiuo neo/aeiie iioa?e oie eee
eiie eioi?iaoeee. *aeiaaeo naienoaaiii aeaeaoue ioeaee. Iiyoiio
eioi?iaoeey ia na?aa?a – iaaaaeii ia eaeii, aeieaeia auoue caueuaia.

I?iieeiiaaiea a nenoaio. *aoa anaai ethaua neaaua ianoa
eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu aicieeatho ec-ca iai?aaeeueii neiioeao?e?iaaiiiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, iaiaaeaaeiinoe ia?ieae, a oaeaea iioiio, /oi
ia?aaeaaaaioth ii i?iaiaeai eioi?iaoeeth eaaei ia?aoaaoeoue. I?aaiecoy
caueoo, iaiaoiaeeii nia/aea ii?aaeaeeoue neaaua ianoa eiie?aoiie
nenoaiu. Iai?aaeeueii neiioeao?e?iaaiiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
nicaeaao a caueoa a?aoe, eioi?ua iiuoiue oaea? eaaei iaia?oaeeo.

Eiiaaea iaiaaeaaeiinoue caueou – ?acoeueoao i?iaeoiuo iaaeinoaoeia
eee ioeaie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Aecian oaea?ia iniiaai ia oii,
/oiau auoue a eo?na oaeeo i?in/aoia. Iaia?oaeaiiua ioeaee a caueoa
auno?i ?an-i?ino?aiythony ii Eioa?iaoo, iiyoiio eo/oa nio?aiyoue a oaeia
aeaiiua i naiai na?aa?a e aai i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee. Anee oaea?o
ecaanoii, eaeoth eiie?aoioth nenoaio eniieuecoao aaeieieno?aoi? ocea
aeey iiaeaea?aeee naiaai i?enoonoaey a Eioa?iaoa, oi ii, ?acaeiaua
aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth, niiaeao aoaeiaaoue na?aa?.

Iau/ii caueoa caeeth/aaony a ia?aie/aiee aeinooia e naiei
eiiiuethoa?ai iin?aaenoaii aooaioeoeeaoeee, iniiaaiiie ia eniieueciaaiee
ia?ieae. Yoi auaeyaeeo aanueia iaaeaaeiui, e i?e i?aaeeueiii
iieueciaaiee oae e anoue. Iaeiaei ia nouanoaoao niaa?oaiii iaaeaaeiie
nenoaiu. O oaea?ia anoue n?aaenoaa e eino?oiaiou aeey ociaaaiey ia?ieae,
iai?eia? neiaa?iay aoaea(dictionary attack). I?e yoii i?ia?aiia aai
eiiiuethoa?a iineaaeiaaoaeueii iuoaaony ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny ia oeaeaaii
na?aa?a, eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa ia?iey ana neiaa ec neiaa?y. A eiioea
eiioeia iia iiaeao iaoeiooueny ia ioaeiia neiai. Ae?oaie iaoiae –
eco/aiea anae eioi?iaoeee i aeaaeaeueoea ocea, aeinooiiie a naoe: iiiaea
eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa ia?iey eiaia eee aeaou ?iaeaeaiey aeaoae e
noi?oaia.

Eioi?iaoeeth e?aaeoo e iin?aaenoaii aiaeecaoi?a iaeaoia (packet
analyser, sniffer). Yoio eino?oiaio iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue i?iaeaiu
ia?o?ooecaoeee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe a Eioa?iaoa. Oaea?u eniieuecotho
aai aeey i?iniio?a niaea?aeeiiai iaeaoia, ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii naoe, a
iaaeaaeaea ecaea/ue ec iaai iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth. Neaaeoao eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi anyeee “ioe?uoue” oaeno, ia?anueaaiue /a?ac Eioa?iao, iiaeao
auoue ia?aoaa/ai. Yoi aiaeiae/ii ?eneo i?e eniieueciaaiee
?aaeeioaeaoiia: iiaeneooeaaoue iiaeao eoi oaiaeii e eiaaea oaiaeii. E
oioy aa?iyoiinoue yoiai iaaaeeea, eo/oa ia niiauaoue iiia?a naieo
e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae ii ?aaeeioaeaoiio.

Iaeia ec i?e/ei, ii eioi?ui caueoa a Eioa?iaoa oae neiaeia, –
ionoonoaea aaeeiiai ?oeiaiaeyuaai oeaio?a. A ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaaeo,
eiathuaio niioaaonoaothuea ciaiey, i/aiue eaaei iaiaiooue nenoaio,
canoaaea aa aeoiaoue, /oi ii oio, eai ia naiii aeaea ia yaeyaony. Oaeie
iaoiae aoaee iacuaaaony eieoaoeeae (spoofing). E?iia oiai, ca/anooth
iaaiciiaeii ioneaaeeoue ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea oaea?a a Eioa?iaoa.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o ia?iey.

ia ?ac?aoaeoa eciaiyoue ia?ieue /a?ac Eioa?iao: iiaue ia?ieue iiaeao
auoue eaaei ia?aoaa/ai;

ia aeiioneaeoa ionouo ia?ieae – yoi aeaeaao aooaioeoeeaoeeth
aanniuneaiiie;

ia eniieuecoeoa a ea/anoaa ia?iey Aaoa eiy, eiy noi?oae/noi?oaa e
aeaoae, aeaou ?iaeaeaiey eee ethaoth ae?oaoth iauaaeinooiioth
eioi?iaoeeth i Aan;

i?eiaiyeoa aeey ia?iey ia iau/iua neiaa, a iaai? aoea, oeeo?, ciaeia
i?aieiaiey: yoi cao?oaeieo aceii;

/ai aeeeiiaa ia?ieue, oai eo/oa: eniieuecoeoa ia iaiaa 6 neiaieia;

eciaiyeoa naie ia?ieue ?aaoey?ii, ii e?aeiae ia?a /a?ac eaaeaeua 60
aeiae, aeaaea anee nenoaia caueou Aaoae nenoaiu yoiai ia o?aaoao;

ieeiaaea ia caienuaaeoa naie ia?iee e ia niiauaeoa eo eiio-eeai
ae?oaiio: anee Au ia a ninoiyiee caiiiieoue naie ia?ieue, ia caienuaay
aai, oi ia iiia/aeoa aai eae “ia?ieue” e ia o?aieoa ?yaeii n
eiiiuethoa?ii;

ieeiaaea ia ia?anueaeoa ia?iee ii Eioa?iaoo: eo iiaoo ia?aoaaoeoue.

I/aiue o?oaeii naeaeaoue eiaia iieueciaaoaeae e ia?iee e iaaeinooiiuie
aeey aceiia e caiiieiaaiuie, oi anoue caueoeoue nenoaio, ia neeoeii
cao?oaeiea aa ii?iaeueiia eniieueciaaiea.

E auai?o eiai o/aoiuo caienae (i?eaeiaeueiue eaeaioeoeeaoi?
iieueciaaoaey eee a?oiiu iieueciaaoaeae – Administrator, Backup
operators, Guests e ae?.) i?eiaieiu oa aea i?aaeea, /oi e e auai?o
ia?ieae. Ethaiio, eoi caoi/ao i?iieeiooue a nenoaio, iaycaoaeueii
i?eaeaony iaicia/eoue a ea/anoaa oeaee iaeioi?oth o/aoioth caienue,
iiyoiio ia iaaei iacia/aoue ae i/aaeaeiua eiaia. Anee, iai?eia?, oaea?o
ecaanoii, /oi iaeee Bill Smith eiaao ia iaeiai na?aa?a o/aoioth caienue,
oi ii iiiuoaaony ia/aoue aoaeo n o/aoiuo caienae Bsmith eee BillS.
Iiyoiio eo/oa caaeaoue eiy BillS1. Yoi ia ecauoi/iay
i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoue, ii aeaenoaaiiay ia?a caueou.

A?aiaeiaoy?u. A?aiaeiaoy?u (firewall) ioaeiu oieueei aeey naoe
eiiiuethoa?ia, ii ia aeey iaeeii/iie iaoeiu. Yoi ono?ienoai, ?aciauaaiia
iaaeaeo naoueth iieueciaaoaey e Eioa?iaoii, neoaeeo aeey caueou io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia ec Eioa?iaoa. Ii n?aaieaaao ana
iinooiathuea iaeaou ni nieneii oeiia iaeaoia e iano ioi?aaeaiey e
iacia/aiey, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue eo aaciianiinoe. Yoio
iieoi?ic?a/iue aa?uea? yooaeoeaii aeiee?oao aeinooi iioaioeeaeueiuo
oaea?ia. E?eoa?ee aeinooia onoaiaaeeaaao aaeieieno?aoi?.

Aeaiiue iaoiae oaeaea aaniethoii iaiaaeaaeai. Oae eae a iniiaa ?aaiou
a?aiaeiaoy?ia eaaeeo aooaioeoeeaoeey, oi, ociaa ia?ieue, iiaeii
i?iieeiooue e ca a?aiaeiaoy?. Aeey oaaee/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe caueou ia
noieo eniieueciaaoue i?ioieie TCP/IP ia aioo?aiieo na?aa?ao, iniaaiii
anee ia ieo o?aieony aaaeiay eioi?iaoeey. A ?acoeueoaoa, i?iieeioa
neaicue a?aiaeiaoy? a naoue, /oaeae ia iieo/eo aeinooi e aioo?aiiei
na?aa?ai, oae eae iie “aiai?yo” ia ia iauai ycuea.

Noeaia?ee e caueoa. Noeaia?ee (scripts) ?anoe?ytho ooieoeeiiaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe na?aa?a Eioa?iaoa. Yoi iaaieueoea i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua
i?eiaiytho aeey /anoi iiaoi?yaiuo aeaenoaee, iai?eia?: aeey caiene
aeaiiuo a oi?io HTML e a aaco aeaiiuo SQL Server eee aeey ioi?aaeaiey
iineaaeiae eioi?iaoeee i oeaiao. E iaeioi?ui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oi?iai
noeaia?eaa ioiinyony i?ia?aiiu, eniieuecothuea n?aaenoaa CGI (Common
Gateway Inter-face), ISAPI (Internet Server API), e noeaia?ee PERL
(Practical Extraction and Report Language). Oae eae noeaia?ee – yoi
i?ioeann eee i?ia?aiia, auiieiythueany ia na?aa?a Eioa?iaoa, oi aai
iai?aaeeueiia iiaaaeaiea aucuaaao i?iaeaiu.

Caueoa eeiee nayce. Aeey aieueoeinoaa aeaaeaeueoeaa i?inouo oceia
Eioa?iaoa a?yae ee eiaao cia/aiea, /oi eo aeaiiua oaeaeyo iinoi?iiiea.
Iaeiaei, i?e ia?aaea/a yeaeo?iiiuo o?aicaeoeee eee eaeie-ieaoaeue
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeii iaycaoaeueii o/anoue
aiciiaeiinoue eo ia?aoaaoa. Aeaau yoiai ia neo/eeinue, iaaei i?eiaiyoue
eeai oeo?iaaiea, eeai aeueoa?iaoeaiua iaoiaeu iaiaia aaaeiuie aeaiiuie
oeia eee?eiaiaiai oeaio?a.

Oeo?iaaiea e na?oeoeeaou. Oeo?iaaiea ia i?aaeioa?auaao ia?aoaao e
i?iniio? iaeaoia, ii aeaeaao aeaiiua ia/eoaaiuie e, oaeei ia?acii,
aaniieaciuie aeey iinoi?iiiaai. Aae?anao aea, eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueiue
eeth/, iiaeao aeaoeo?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth. I?eiaiaiea oeo?iaaiey,
inouanoaeyaiiai neiaeiuie iaoaiaoe/aneeie aeai?eoiaie, o?aaoao
niioaaonoaothuaai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e niaeaniaaiiiai iaoiaea
eiaee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee e ia na?aa?a e o eeeaioa

I?ioieie SSL. I?ioieie SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) eniieuecoaony aeey
oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo, ia?anueaaiuo ii Eioa?iaoo, e iiaeaea?aeeaaaony IIS.
Caueoa SSL caiaaeeyao ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo, iiyoiio aa i?eiaiytho, eae
i?aaeei, ia aeey anaai na?aa?a, ii eeoue aeey iaeioi?uo eaoaeiaia. Ana
nnueee ec iauaaeinooiiuo aeaiiuo ia iaeanoue, caueuaiioth SSL,
ia/eiathony n https://, a ia n http://. *oiau ainiieueciaaoueny SSL,
iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue na?oeoeeao a eiiiaiee VeriSign.

I?ioieie PCT. ?anoe?aiiue i?ioieie PCT (Private Communications
Technology) i/aiue iioiae ia SSL. Aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai PCT a oii, /oi
aai aeai?eoi oeo?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee, aooaioeoeoee?othuae iieueciaaoaey,
aanueia neiaeai e ioee/aaony io aeai?eoia oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo. Yoi
aa?aioe?oao caueoo ia oieueei aeaiiuo, ii e aooaioeoeoee?othuae
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue nae?aoiie. Ii neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi
caueoo PCT eniieuecotho ia oae /anoi, iioiio /oi iia caiaaeeyao ?aaioo
nenoaiu.

I?ioieie SET. I?ioieie caueou SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) –
yoi nei?aa iaoiae aaciianiie ia?aaioee oeiainiauo o?aicaeoeee. Iiiaea ia
iieoiatho oiaa?u /a?ac Eioa?iao eeai ec-ca aiycie iaia?iaeiaaoue iiia?a
naieo e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae e aae?ana, eeai ec-ca oiai, /oi ei ia ciaeiiu
iinoaaueee. I?e iieoiea /aai-eeai, i?ioieie SET iinueaao aaieo
iieoiaoaey aeaiiua ia iauaia o?aicaeoeee e iiia? iinoaaueea oiaa?a.
Aeaeaa aaie oaaaeiieyao iinoaaueea i niaa?oaiee o?aicaeoeee e
ia?a/eneaiee aeaiaa. “Eniieuecoy SET, Au ieeiaaea ia ia?aaeaaoa
i?iaeaaoeo iiia? naiae e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee”, – ieoao Eao?a Eiaai, iaeei
ec aaoi?ia eieae “Iie ocae Web”. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi IIS nai ii naaa
ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao SET.

Ai?ueaa n ae?onaie. Ae?on – yoi iaaeaeaoaeueiay
naii?ai?iaeooee?othuayny i?ia?aiia, niiniaiay i?eienuaaoue aanue naie
eiae (eee o/anoie eiaea) e ae?oaei i?ia?aiiai (o.a. “ca?aaeaoue” eo),
i?iieeathuay a au/eneeoaeueioth nenoaio n aeaeiai aeenea eee /a?ac
naoue, e niiniaiay auiieiyoue ?acee/iua iaaeaeaoaeueiua aeaenoaey ia
eiiiuethoa?a. Ae?onu nicaeatho ethaee, ii iaeioi?ie iaiinoeaeeiie
i?e/eia iieo/athuea oaeiaieuenoaea io eioeoee?iaaiey iinoi?iiieo
eiiiuethoa?ia. I?e iaeioi?uo oneiaeyo ae?on aeoeaece?oaony. Iaeioi?ua ec
ieo e?aeia ?ac?ooeoaeueiu (ae?on “666” iiaeao oaeoue /aeiaaea). Ii naoe
ae?onu ?ani?ino?aiythony, eae aao?yiea ii aeaoneiio naaeo.

Eo/oaa n?aaenoai ai?ueau n ae?onaie – i?ioeeaeoeea: eiio?ieue
aeinooia e nenoaia. Ia iaaei eniieueciaaoue aeaeee aeene, eioi?ue
iiauaae aia aeiia. A nayce n niaa?oainoaiaaieai oaoiieiaee nicaeaiey
ae?onia iaeioi?ua aieueoea eiiiaiee ia ?ac?aoatho nio?oaeieeai
i?eiineoue aeaeea aeenee “n oeeoeu”.

Ae?oaay oi?ioay ia?a – aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu. Eiia/ii, iie ni
a?aiaiai onoa?aaatho e iiaoo ia caiaoeoue iiaua ae?onu, iiyoiio eo iaaei
iinoiyiii iaiiaeyoue.

Caueoa eio?anaoe. N iaeiie noi?iiu, eio?anaoue cae?uoa aeey
Eioa?iaoa, ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, nouanoaoao iianiinoue aioo?e
i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie aeaiiay eio?anaoue onoaiiaeaia, a oii /enea
ec-ca oeia niaea?aeauaeny a iae eioi?iaoeee. Ii aieueoae /anoe, caueoa
eio?anaoe e Eioa?iaoa iaeeiaeiaa. Iaiaoiaeeii eeoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
aoaeeoi?eth iieueciaaoaeae e naeaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu. Eae
oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, ?anna?aeaiiue nio?oaeiee iiaeao i?e/eieoue
aieueoie a?aae, iai?eia?, i?iieeioa a iaeanoue eio?anaoe n ia?aie/aiiui
aeinooiii. Aieueoeinoai nio?oaeieeia aeieaeiu auoue aeinoaoi/ii
ii?yaei/iu, /oiau ?ene yoiai aue iaaaeee. Ii /ai nae?aoiae eioi?iaoeey,
oai aieueoa ?ene: eoi-ieaoaeue i?inoi ii ioeaea onoaiiaeo ia oa i?aaa
aeinooia e oaeeo e iaia?iaeoao cae?uooth eioi?iaoeeth.

Aeey caueou iaeioi?ie eioi?iaoeee a eio?anaoe neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue
oeo?iaaiea. Iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiui e eceeoiei oeo?iaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth, ia?aaeaaaaioth oieueei aioo?e oe?iu. Ii ii ia?a ?inoa
eio?anaoe e caiauaiey ath noa?uo nenoai iaeioi?uo neoaea iio?aaoaony
caueuaoue aeaiiua i?e ia?anueea n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia ae?oaie.

I?e iaee/ee a i?aaiecaoeee e ocea Eioa?iaoa e eio?anaoe iaiaoiaeeii
iicaaioeoueny ia eo ?acaeaeaiee, oioy yoi neiaeii, oae eae iie
eniieuecotho iaeei e oio aea i?ioieie. Iaycaoaeueii iaaei onoaiiaeoue
a?aiaeiaoy? iaaeaeo auoiaeii a Eioa?iao e na?aa?ii eio?anaoe.

Iaycaoaeueiinoue ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey. Ianiio?y ia ana i?eiyoua
ia?u i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe, ii-i?aaeiaio iiaeii iioa?youe eioi?iaoeeth
ec-ca oaea?a, aaa?ee nenoaiu, oaeiaeeaiai ?aaaiea eee ii?ieeiooie /aoee
eioa. I?e ?aaoey?iii auiieiaiee ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey ainnoaiiaeaiea
eioi?iaoeee iinea oaeeo eioeeaeaioia iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo auno?i e
aacaieaciaiii. Aaaeii, /oiau i?ioeaaeo?a eiie?iaaiey na?aa?a
auiieiyeanue ii e?aeiae ia?a ?ac a iaaeaeth, anee ia aaeaaeiaaii.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Eioa?iaoo oaea aeanyoue eao, e a?yae ee ii i?ae?aoeo naia
nouanoaiaaiea a iaic?eiii aoaeouai. *oi yaeyaony aii?inii – oae yoi
niinia e ianooaau aai eniieueciaaiey. Eaaeaeue ec ian, iaaa?iyea, oaea
ia ia?aue aiae neuoeo, /oi eiiiuethoa? aio-aio noaiao oaeei aea iau/iui
yaeaieai a aeiia, eae oaeaaeci? eee oaeaoii. ss aeoiath, /oi Eioa?iao e
naycaiiua n iei oaoiieiaee cia/eoaeueii onei?yo yoio i?ioeann. Aieaa
oiai, y i?aaeiieaaath, /oi eiiiuethoa?, iiaeeeth/aiiue e Eioa?iaoo, a
eaeie-oi iiiaio caiaieo iai e oaeaaeci? e oaeaoii. Yoi ia oaeay oae
aeaeaeay ia?niaeoeaa, anee aniiiieoue aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey eiiiuethoa?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. ?acaa iiaee i?aaeiieiaeeoue ethaee, ?aaioay 20 eao
iacaae ia Apple-II, /oi /a?ac oaeia ei?ioeia a?aiy oae iiiai ethaeae
aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny aeiia eiiiuethoa?aie n oaeeie aiciiaeiinoyie, eae
naaiaeiyoiea? O/eouaay, /oi nae/an oaoiieiaey iaiyaony aeaaea auno?aa,
/ai ?aiueoa, iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi niiaoo eiiiuethoa?u,
iiaeeeth/aiiua e Eioa?iaoo, /a?ac neaaeothuea 20 eao!

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

E. Eai, E. Eiaai “Iie ocae Web”, Microsoft Press – ?onneay ?aaeaeoeey,
1996 a.

N. Eeeiaiei, A. O?aciaoia “Internet. N?aaea iaeoaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa”, ?OeOOE, I?ioaeii, 1995 a.

3. Aiae?eaiia A.E. e ae?. “Oieiineea ooo/ee” e ono?ienoaa aeey caueou

iauaeoia e eioi?iaoeee”, Naieo Iaoa?ao?a, ecae-ai “Eaiue”, 1997 a.

PAGE 23

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