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Создание информационной системы

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss

OE?AEIU

EEAANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE

YEIIIIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

E O ? N I A I E I ? I A E O

OAIA: “Nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey “.

Auiieiee: nooaeaio 5-ai eo?na,

1-e a?oiiu, OENeO,

Eiiaeaeia E.A.

I?iaa?eea: Eaca?aaa N.A.

EEAA 1997 a.

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aiioaoeey

?aoa?ao

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo nie?auaiee

Aaaaeaiea

1. Enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe
.

2. Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeaee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey

3. Aiaeec oiiieiaee e naoaauo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai aeey nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiey

AIIOAOeEss

Ia o?aaoao aeieacaoaeuenoa oio oaeo, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiuo enoi/ieeia
ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae e cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey e iioeieceoeee iaoiaeia
aaaeaiey aeciana, a niioaaonoaee n oaeouae ?uii/iie neooaoeeae yaeythony
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu (EN). Aeey nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiie EN i?aaei?eyoee
enneaaeiaaiu e ii?aaeaeaiu: caaea/e, enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee e
eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaca, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ea/anoaaiiiai ?an/aoa
yeiiiie/aneeo, oaoie/aneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae i?aaei?eyoey;
no?aoaaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai; iniiaiua
iauanenoaiiua i?eioeeiu, iaiaoiaeeiua i?e nicaeaiee EN; iiaeaee
no?aoaaee nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey EN; oiiieiaey e naoaaua iia?aoeeiiiua
nenoaiu, eniieuecoaiua aeey ?aaeecaoeee EN.

?AOA?AO

No?aieoe- , eeethno?aoeee- , eniieueciaaiiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo
enoi/ieeia-7.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: I?AAeIAOIAss IAEANOUe, I?IAEOIUA ?AOAIEss, OEIAINIAUA
?ANO?NU I?AAeI?EssOEss, I?EAUEUe, CAO?AOU, EIOI?IAOeEIIIAss AACA,
EIOI?IAOeEIIIUA NENOAIU, EIOI?IAOeEss, EIOI?IAOeEIIIIA IAANIA*AIEA,
OAOIE*ANEIA IAANIA*AIEA, I?AAIECAOeEIIIIA IAANIA*AIEA, I?IA?AIIIIA
IAANIA*AIEA, OAOIE*ANEEA N?AAeNOAA, NENOAIU OI?AAEAIEss AACAIE AeAIIUO,
EIEAEUeIAss AU*ENEEOAEUeIAss NAOUe.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa auiieiaia aeey enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeanna nicaeaiey e
?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, aiaae?aiea eioi?uo iicaieeo
inouanoaeoue ea/anoaaiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea (a iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaeyo) oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai, n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie
i?eauee, ca n/ao nie?auaiey ca?oao, oauoeia e iioa?ue ia i?iecaiaenoai e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, ioiinyueony ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee. A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu e ii?aaeaeaiu enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aae?eyoee, a eiaiii: i?eaueue io ?acoeueoaoia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey; aeioiaeu io
?aaeecaoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa (aeey a?aiaeiuo e /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee);
i?eaueue io naea/e iauaeoia iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a a?aiaeo; aciinu
/eaiia o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia: aeia?iaieueiua aciinu i?aaei?eyoee e
a?aaeaeai ia iauanoaaiiua ioaeaeu; aeioiaeu io i?aaeinoaaeaiey
oiaa?iiai, eiiia?/aneiai e oainiaiai e?aaeeoia; aeioiaeu io aeiioeaiee e
ia?aioeaiee eceeoeia oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae; eo?niaay
?acieoea, ia/eneaiiay ia aaethiua oeaiiinoe. Onoaiiaeaiu ooieoeee
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ca n/ao eioi?uo iiaeii aeiaeony oaaee/aiey
?acia?a i?eauee, a eiaiii: nieaeaiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu; nieaeaiey oauoeia e iioa?ue, eioi?ua
ioiinyony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee; nieaeaiey oauoeia e iioa?ue
?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; iiauoaiey ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, aa eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe; iiauoaiey oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee;
onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea.

Enneaaeiaaiu e ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u ?inoa ?acia?a i?eauee
nia?aiaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey. E eioi?ui ioianaiu: nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai
aana oiieeai-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee;
aiaae?aiea iiaie, i?ia?anneaiie oaoiieiaee, iaoaiecaoeee e aoiiaoecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia: eciaiaiea eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee ecaeaeee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii; oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eciaiaiea
no?oeoo?u i?iaeoeoeee; iiauoaiea ea/anoaa; oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia; eioaa?aoeey e eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaaaeaiiua, a eo?niaie ?aaioa, enneaaeiaaiey enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey e oaeoi?ia aeeythueo ia ieo, aeatho
iniiaaiea naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia (a
oneiaeyo ?uiea), iicaieythuei iaania/eoue iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie
i?eauee i?aaei?eyoeai, yaeyaony iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, o/ao, eiio?ieue
e aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e ?uieia nauoa. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yoie oeaee i?aaeiacia/aiu eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu (EN). E?iia yoiai EN,
iaiaoiaeeiu /oiau iinoiyiii iioeiece?iaaoue iaoiaeu aaaeaiey aeciana a
niioaaonoaee n oaeouae ?uii/iie neooaoeeae, o?aaiaaieyie caeac/eeia e
iinoaaueeia. Aeey nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiie EN i?aaei?eyoey a eo?niaie
?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu e ii?aaeaeaiu:

• caaea/e, enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee e eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaca, iaiaoiaeeiua
aeey ea/anoaaiiiai ?an/aoa yeiiiie/aneeo, oaoie/aneeo e oicyenoaaiiuo
iieacaoaeae i?aaei?eyoey e iaania/eaathuea ?oeiaiaenoai e neoaeau
i?aaei?eyoey eioi?iaoeeae, o?aaoaiie aeey ea/anoaaiiiai iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey eae ioaeaeueiuie neoaeaaie, oae e a oeaeii i?aaei?eyoeai;

• no?aoaaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai;

• iniiaiua iauanenoaiiua i?eioeeiu, eioi?uie iaiaoiaeeii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?e nicaeaiee EN;

• iiaeaee nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey EN;

• oiiieiaey e naoaaua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu, eniieuecoaiua aeey
?aaeecaoeee EN.

Oeaeueth iaienaiey eo?niaie ?aaiou yaeyaony:

• oe?aieaiea oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee, iieo/aiiuo a oa/aiea anao o/aaiuo
eo?nia, iieo/aiea oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee a ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth e
oi?aaeaieth EN ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e a i?aaiecaoeeyo;

• iaania/aiea iiauo iiaeoiaeia, iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae a no?aoaaee ?acaeoey
e nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiue nenoai aeey i?aaei?eyoee;

• iaania/aiea iiauo iiaeoiaeia, iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae a no?aoaaee
?ac?aaioee e nicaeaiey eieaeueiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai aeey
i?aaei?eyoee.

A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey e aiaeeca oai?aoe/aneeo
iauaeoia/nenoai e eo iieacaoaee, eieaeueiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, aac
aeaiiuo, eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee a iaeanoe yeiiiieee e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey iauaeoia e eco/aiey nouanoaothueo aa?eaioia
iieo/aiey/ia?aaea/e, aeinoaaee e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, ?ac?aaioaia e
i?aaeeiaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia, aace?othuayny ia iiaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee – ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee e o?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee i?e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiii oi?aaeaiee. Aeey aua?aiie iiaeaee
EN oai?eoe/aneiai iauaeoa nouanoaoao iaeei eieaeueiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue
ocae eiioeaio?aoeee a aeaea oaee-na?aa?a. A eieaeueiii ocea
eiioeaio?aoeee iaoiaeeony aaeieieno?aoi? naoe, eioi?ue oi?aaeyao oieueei
naoaauie ?ano?naie e oaoie/aneie iiaeaea?aeeie oaee-na?aa?a.

Nienie eniieuecoaiuo nie?auaiee:

E?I -Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia ?aai/aa ianoi;

ENIE – Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

AAe – Aaca aeaiiuo;

AO – Au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea;

EA – Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaca;

EON – Eiiieaen oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa;

EAN – Eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue;

IOI – Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea;

IOe – Iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe;

IION – Ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey;

IN – Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia;

IE – Ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa?;

III – Iaeao i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii;

IO – Ia?eoa?eeiia ono?ienoai;

IYAI – Ia?niiaeueiay yeneo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia;

?AAe – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay aaca aeaiiuo;

?IE – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee;

?N – ?aai/ay noaioeey;

N?IE – Nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

NOAAe – Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo;

YAI – Yeaeo?iiiay au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia.

AAAAeAIEA

Nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?aoiaeii
i?aaei?eyoee ia iiaua oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey, iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?acaeoey
ia?niaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee e oaaee/aieai yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.
Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee
yaeyaony i?eaueue, eioi?ay aunooiaao aaaeiaeoei iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey eieeaeoeaa.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey i?eauee i?aaei?eyoeai yaeyaony ?aaeecaoeey
i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe (?aaio, oneoo). Ia?yaeo n i?eaueueth
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii
aiaeece?iaaoue aaeainiaoth i?eaueue, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay i?eaueue
io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia oeaiiuo aoiaa,
aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae, i?eaueue io eeceiaiauo e aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
iia?aoeee e i?eaueue io ia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, eioi?ay naycaia n
iieo/aieai aeioiaea io iia?aoeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naycaiiuo n
?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – ?aaeecaoeey iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, i?iaeoeoeee
ianeoaeeaathuaai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, io naea/e eiouanoaa
a a?aiaeo, aeeaeaeaiaeu io iaeeaaoeee e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa, aeioiaeu
io eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa e o.ae.

Aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeinoaaeaiiie i?aaei?eyoeyi
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee,
i?aaei?eyoeth (a eeoea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iiae?acaeaeaiee e aaeieieno?aoeee)
iinoiyiii o?aaoaony iia?aoeaiay, aeinoiaa?iay, aeinooiiay e iaoe?iay
eioi?iaoeey ii iio?aaeyaiinoe anao aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, iaania/aiiinoe aa
ecaioiaeaiey anaie aeaeaie ?ano?nia, oeaiao ia i?iaeoeoeeth e iaoa?eaeu,
oaeoe/aneii ninoiyiee i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?.

Iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea ia
i?aaei?eyoee ia?aaeiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, aeeth/athueo a naay:

ii?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue ?aoaiu n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey neoaea i?aaei?eyoey iaaeaaeiie e ea/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeeae
aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee;

ii?aaeaeaiea caaea/, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue n oeaeueth iaania/aiey
?aoaiey ooieoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia ia?aii yoaia;

ii?aaeaeaiea ia?a/iy eieee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo iieacaoae
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia aoi?ii
yoaia;

ii?aaeaeaiea oi?i e iaoiaeia, iniiauaaynue ia eioi?uo e/eee eniieuecoy
eioi?ua n iiiiuueth eieee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae
aeenoeaaaony ?aoaiea o?aaoaiuo caaea/ e ii?aaeaeaiea caaeaiiuo ooieoeee
aeey i?eiyoey iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aoaiee.

I?iioeeieaeueii aiciiaeii /aou?a oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee no?aoaaee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ia i?aaei?eyoee:

– oeaio?aeeciaaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e
oeaio?aeeciaaiiii oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieei-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie
(o?aaeeoeeiiiay ANO);

– oeaio?aeeciaaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiii eee iacaaeneiuo nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey (i?e iiiiue AOe
eieeaeoeaiiai iieueciaaiey);

– ?ani?aaeaeaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e oeaio?aeeciaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee;

– ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea e o?aiaiea i?e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee.

Aeaa iineaaeiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu i?aaeii?aaeaeeee eiioeaioeeth
iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee. Iniiao iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
oaoiieiaee ninoaaeytho ?ani?aaeaeaiiay eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea,
“ae?oaeanoaaiiia” i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e ?acaeoua n?aaenoaa
eiiioieeaoeee. Iieueciaaoaeth-iai?ia?aiienoo i?aaeinoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey n YAI i?e yoii iiuiua i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiua
n?aaenoaa (aacu aeaiiuo, yenia?oiua nenoaiu, aacu ciaiee e nenoaiu
iiaeaea?aeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e ae?.) nicaeatho eiioi?o a ?aaioa,
iicaieytho ia oieueei aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann eciaiaiey oi?iu e
ianoiiieiaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, ii oaeaea eciaiaiey aa niaea?aeaiey.

Aeey iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee oa?aeoa?iu:

– ?aaioa iieueciaaoaey a ?aaeeia iaieioee?iaaiey (iai?ia?aiie?iaaiey
aeaiiuie);

– neaiciay eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaea?aeea ia anao yoaiao i?ioiaeaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa eioaa?e?iaaiiuo aac aeaiiuo, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo
aaeeioth oieoeoee?iaaiioth oi?io i?aaenoaaeaiey, o?aiaiey, iienea,
ioia?aaeaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiey e caueou aeaiiuo;

– aacaoiaaeiue i?ioeann ia?aaioee aeieoiaioia;

– eioa?aeoeaiue ?aaeei ?aoaiey caaea/;

– aiciiaeiinoe eieeaeoeaiiai eniieiaiey aeieoiaioia ia iniiaa naoaaie
oaoiieiaee eeeaio – na?aa?, iauaaeeiaiiuo n?aaenoaaie eiiioieeaoeee;

– aiciiaeiinoe, aaeaioeaiie ia?ano?ieee oi?i e niiniaa i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey caaea/e.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai aaoiiaoecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii
oa?aeoa?ecoaony no?aieoaeueiui ?acaeoeai nenoai ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, /oi iicaieyao onei?eoue ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee ca n/ao
iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaeeaeaiey n?aaenoa ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e ianoai aa
aicieeiiaaiey e eniieueciaaiey; yooaeoeaiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoue
?aciiia?aciua e /anoi iaiythueany eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe
oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea; iaania/eoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiey e iauaeoai
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey; nieaeaoue ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea anae
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu; oaaee/eaaoue aeaeinoue e iiauoaoue aeeao/anoue
nenoai (auoiae ec no?iy iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia i?eaiaeeo e ioeaco anae
nenoaiu); iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaiaaoue eniieieoaeyi a i?ioeanna
oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaoue ea/anoai e iaaeaaeiinoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.

No?oeoo?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ?aaeecoaony a aeaea
iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneeo nenoai (naoae au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei –
eieaeueiuo/aeiaaeueiuo). Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii noaiiaeaiey iiaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee yaeyaony nicaeaiea eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie
naoe (EAN) ia?niiaeueiuo YAI (IYAI), eioi?ua yooaeoeaii ni/aoatho
aiciiaeiinoe IYAI aeey ia?niiaeueiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo n i?aeiouanoaaie
?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, iaania/eaathuae eieeaeoeaiia
eniieueciaaiea iaueo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia aeey oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii a
oeaeii. A eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe aicieeaao iiaue oei
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieueciaaoaeae, i?e eioi?ii ?aaeecothony yeaiaiou
aacaoiaaeiie oaoiieiaee ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, i?aaiecoaony “yeaeo?iiiay
ii/oa”. A eieaeueiuo naoyo yooaeoeaii auiieiythony iia?aoeee ia?ae/iiai
aaiaea aeaiiuo a nenoaio, i?iecaiaeeony aeeaeiaiaia e ?aaeaiaioiia
?aoaiea caaea/, i?eieiathony oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey, ia iniiaa neaiciie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee n?aaenoaaie naoaauo aac aeaiiuo. Nicaeaiea
eieaeueiie naoe, i?aaiecaoeey iiauo iaoiaeia aeeaeiaiaiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey n YAI nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo. Eiioeaioeey ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ?aaeeciaaiiay
ia aaca EAN, i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeoea naoe aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo iano
– (A?I) ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoee. Iineieueeo i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a
i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey ?aaeecoaony a oeaeii eieeaeoeaii, iaiaoiaeeia
i?iaeaiiay niaoeeaeecaoeey A?I oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea
niioaaonoaothuay ?acee/iui oi?aaeai/aneei caaiueyi e ?aaeecoaiui
ooieoeeyi. Yoi iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue aeaeea, ia?ano?aeaaaiua no?oeoo?u
oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaoue yooaeoeaiinoue e iia?aoeaiinoue ?aaiou neoaea EAN,
ia iniiaa eioi?uo ooieoeeiie?otho eiiieaenu A?I, eae a ?aieao
ioaeaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, oae e ia o?iaiyo niaaeiuo ooieoeee,
auiieiyaiuo ?acee/iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie, neoaeao aeey acaeiinayce
ioaeaeueiuo A?I a nenoaia.

Iiaua oi?iu acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e YAI nicaeatho iiaoth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth oi?aaeaiey, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ia
/aeiaaei-iaoeiiay i?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Oi?ie?othony iiaua
o?aaiaaiey e iinoaiiaea caaea/ e ?anoe?ythony aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ia ?aai/eo ianoao.

Iiaua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee oi?aaeaiey aaaeiui e iaiaoiaeeiui
n?aaenoaii iicaieythuei:

– inaiaiaeeoue oi?aaeai/anei-oaoie/aneee ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey io
?ooeiiie ?o/iie ?aaiou ii o/aoo, o?aiaieth e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo;

– auno?i, ea/anoaaiii e iaaeaaeii inouanoaeyoue i?ioeann i?eaia, o/aoa,
o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

– cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeoue oi?aaeai/anei-oaoie/aneee ia?niiae
i?aaei?eyoey caieiathueeny ?o/iie ?aaioie ii o/aoo, o?aiaieth e
ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee;

– iaania/eoue, a o?aaoaiua n?iee, ?oeiaiaenoai e
oi?aaeai/anei-oaoie/aneee ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey ea/anoaaiiie
eioi?iaoeeae;

– naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii aanoe aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey;

– auno?i e ea/anoaaiii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, naycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, nia?aiaiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth aeey oniaoiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio
iaania/eaathuoth:

– iia?aoeaiue nai?, ea/anoaaiioth e iaaeaaeioth ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee,
ia/eiay n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e caeai/eaay
aaeieieno?aoeeae i?aaei?eyoey;

– iaania/aiea oeaeinoiinoe e nio?aiiinoe eioi?iaoeee;

– eioaa?aoeeth eioi?iaoeee, a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ooieoeee e
i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee, oai eee eiui aeieaeiinoiui eeoeii eee neoaeaie;

– ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie;

– iaania/aiea caueou eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia;

– aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee (aacai aeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
aaieia).

0niiauaaynue ia eceiaeaiiii, a ?aaioa i?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea anao
iiae?acaeaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey e iniiauaaynue ia oii, /oi
i?eaueue aunooiaao aaaeiaeoei iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai cooaeoeaiinoe
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeeiaeaia ?aaeecaoeey iioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu,
eioi?ay iaania/eaaao iia?aoeaiue nai? e ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee e
aiciiaeiinoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiee neoaeaaie e ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaei?eyoey.

?acaeae 1. Enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee
yaeyaony i?eaueue, eioi?ay aunooiaao aaaeiaeoei iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey eieeaeoeaa. A nayce n yoei
nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ia i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu
iaania/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue iaeneiaeueiiai iieo/aiey i?eauee i?e
ieieiaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao e cao?aoao.

N oeaeueth ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey, enneaaeoai enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo
?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee e niiniau, iicaieythuea iia?aoeaii iaania/eaaoue
o/ao, oi?ie?iaaiea e ?an/ao iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, auaea/o o?aaoaiuo ?acoeueoaoia a eiio?ieueii-oeiainiaua
i?aaiu e iia?aoeaii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey neoaeaai e aaeieieno?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoey.

Enoi/ieeaie oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony:

– i?eaueue io ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey;

– aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa (aeey a?aiaeiuo e /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee);

– i?eaueue io naea/e iauaeoia iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a a?aiaeo;

– aciinu /eaiia o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia;

– aeia?iaieueiua aciinu i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai ia iauanoaaiiua
ioaeaeu;

– aeioiaeu io i?aaeinoaaeaiey oiaa?iiai, eiiia?/aneiai e oeiainiaiai
e?aaeeoia;

– aeioiaeu io aeiioeaiee e ia?aioeaiee eceeoeia oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae;

– eo?niaay ?acieoea, ia/eneaiiay ia aaethoiua oeaiiinoe;

– i?i/ea iinooieaiey.

Enneaaeoai ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey ?ano?nia yaeyaony i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe (?aaio, oneoa). Iiae i?eaueueth io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) neaaeoao iiieiaoue au?o/eo io
?aaeecaoeee oiaiueoaiioth ia iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee e nai?u (iaeiae ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, aeoeeciue nai?, ainiioeeio e o.ae.) e
?anoiaeia, eioi?ua aeeth/athony a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii a naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.
?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee – yoi oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey noaueaeoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?aaea/o
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe oiaa?a ae?oaiio noauaeoo e iaiai ia yeaeaaeaioioth
noiio aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eee iaycaoaeuenoa ii caaeieaeaiiinoe.

I?eaueue yaeyaony iaaeiaeoei iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai yooaeoeaiinoe
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa
e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey eieeaeoeaa.

Ia?yaeo n i?eaueueth io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eiaaony aaeainiaay
i?eaueue, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae, a
oaeaea i?eaueue io a?aiaeiuo (eeceiaiauo) iia?aoeee e aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
iia?aoeee. E iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai ioiineony noieiinoue iauaeoia
i?iiuoeaiiie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo
i?aa: “Iio-Oao”, iaoaiou e eeoeaicee, ciaee ia oiaa?u e oneoae, i?aaa ia
ecia?aoaiey, ia i?iiuoeaiiua eee iao/iua ia?acoeu, /a?oaaee, iiaeaee eee
noaiu, i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
n?aaenoaa e nenoaiu ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e o.ae.

I?eaueue io ia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee naycaia n iieo/aieai aeioiaea io
iia?aoeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naycaiiuo n ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – ?aaeecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia, iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, i?iaeoeoeee ianeoaeeaathoaai e
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo,
aeeaeaeaiaeu io iaeeaaoeee e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa, aeioiaeu io
eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa e o.ae.

Aeiaeony oaaee/aiey ?acia?a i?eauee aiciiaeii ca n/ao neaaeothueo
ooieoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:

– nieaeaiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu;

– nieaeaiey oauoeia e iioa?ue, eioi?ua ioiinyony ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee;

– nieaeaiey oauoeia e iioa?ue ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e aa eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe;

– iiauoaiey oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee;

– onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeiaeaiiian eaieoaea.

Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia i?eaueue ieacuaaao naaanoieiinou i?iaeoeoeee,
eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay:

– iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou;

– cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

– io/eneaiea ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea;

– aii?oecaoeeth iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;

– i?i/ea cao?aou.

E iaoa?eaeueiui cao?aoai – ioiinyony cao?aou naycaiiua n iiaeaioiaeie e
inaiaieai i?iecaiaenoaa (ia inaiaiea iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oeaoia,
ionei-iaeaaei/iua ?aaiou n i?iaiui auioneii i?iaeoeoeee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiie i?iaeoii; ia ?aoeeiiaeecaoeeth e ecia?aoaoaeuenoai, ia
i?iaaaeaiia iao/ii-yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio e e?.), n eniieueciaaieai
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (ieaoa ca aiaeo, ?aeoeueoeaaoeey caiee, ia iie?uoea
cao?ao ii aaieiai?acaaaeea, ieaoa ca i?aauoaiea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo
ii?i aua?inia a aoiinoa?o e o.i.), cao?aou ia eaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,
naycaiiua n niaa?oainoaiaaieai oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee; cao?aou naycaiiua n
ianeoaeeaaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna (nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai
e yeaeo?iyia?aey, niaoeiaeaaeaea, i?iaaaeaiea oaeouaai ?aiiioa iniiaiuo
oiiaeia e o.ae.); cao?aou, naycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaii.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea a ninoaaa naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee caieiatho ?anoiaeu
ia iieaoo o?oaea:

– ?anoiaeu ia iieaoo iniiaiie e aeiiieieoaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou;

– iieaoa aaeaaiaeiuo ioioneia;

– cao?aou, naycaiiua n iiaeaioiaeie e ia?aiiaeaioiaeie eaae?ia;

– iieaoa ca auiieiaiiua ?aaiou e oneoae, niaeanii caeeth/aiiuo
aeiaiai?ia.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ea?aao aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia. Aii?oecaoeey – yoi
i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai ia?aiina noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia ii ia?a eo oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai
eciina ia i?iecaiaeeiue i?iaeoeo (aiiaue nicaeaaaaioth noieiinoue). Ca
n/ao aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia?aciauaaaony oiiae-enoi/iee
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

E i?i/ei ?anoiaeai, ioiinyueiny ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ioiineony:

– ?anoiaeu naycaiiua n iaai?ii ?aai/ae neeu;

– ?anoiaeu ia ia?aaiceo ?aaioieeia e ianoo ?aaiou;

– aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n auiieiaieai ?aaio aaooiaui
iaoiaeii;

– i?ioeaiou ii oeiainiaui e oiaa?iui e?aaeeoai;

– cao?aou naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee (oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e
nai?u, o?ainii?oii-yeniaaeeoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea, ?aeeaia e
i?aaei?iaeaaeiay iiaeaioiaea oiaa?ia, ?anoiaeu naycaiiua n o/anoeai a
aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu e o.ae.);

– iaaeinoa/e iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a i?aaeaeao ii?i.

– ae?oaea ?anoiaeu.

Iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie ?inoa ?acia?a i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony:

– nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana oiieeai-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee;

– aiaae?aiea iiaie, i?ia?anneaiie oaoiieiaee, iaoaiecaoeee e
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia;

– eciaiaiea eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ecaeaeee;

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii;

– oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

– eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u i?iaeoeoeee;

– iiauoaiea ea/anoaa;

– oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia;

– eioaa?aoeey e eiiia?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii iiauoaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oaaee/aiea
i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony aeeciaiii-aaaeiui aai oneiaeai ?acaeoey,
o.e. ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eniieuecothony ia
ia?aciaaiea oiiaeia yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey e auieaoo
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiuie aeaeaie ieaoaaeae yaeythony:

– aeoeeciue nai?;

– iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue;

– iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n i?eauee;

– iaeia ia caieth;

– ieaoa ca aiaeo;

– i?i/ea iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee – Oiiae eeeaeaeaoeee *a?iiaueueneie
eaoano?iou, ia no?ieoaeuenoai e ?aeiino?oeoeeth, ?aiiio e iiaeaea?aeaiea
aei?ia, aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e o.ae.

Aeoeeciue nai? – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iai?yiie iaeia ia
auniei?aioaaaeueiua e iiiiiieueiua oiaa?u e aeeth/aaony a oeaio yoeo
oiaa?ia (i?iaeoeoeee).

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue aiiaue
nicaeaiiie noieiinoe, eioi?ay aiineony a athaeaeao ia eaaeaeii yoaia
ecaioiaeaiey oiaa?ia, auiieiaiey ?aaio, i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoa.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iauaaeeiaiiy e th?eaee/aneea eeoea, a?aaeaeaia eioi?ua
inouanoaeytho io naiaai eiaie i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eee eioth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a Oe?aeia.

Iauaeoaie iaeiaiiaeaaeaiey yaeythony noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), e?iia eo
?aaeecaoeee ca eiino?aiioth aaethoo. Iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea iiaeiaaeaao
oaieiyia?aey, aac, aiaea, iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai. A no?ieoaeuenoaa
iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yaeythony iauaiu auiieiaiiuo
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo e ?aiiioiuo ?aaio. Iiaeeaaeao oaeaea
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth oneoae o?ainii?oiuo i?aaiecaoeee (aeeth/ay
o?ainii?oe?iaeo ii o?oaii?iaiaeai iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia, aaca,
oaieiaie yia?aee, aiaeu), nayce, eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeo e
oo?enoe/aneeo caaaaeaiee e nii?oeiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?aeeaiiuo e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo, i?aaiecaoeee ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth 6uoiauo oneoa.

Iaeaaaaiue iai?io ii?aaeaeyaony ii noieiinoe oiaa?a (?aaiou, oneoae) a
naiaiaeiuo oeaiao e oa?eoao, ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeene?iaaiiuo e
?aaoee?oaiuo oeaiao e oa?eoao, eioi?ua aeeth/atho iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue ii onoaiiaeaiiie noaaea. A iaeaaaaiue iai?io aeeth/aaony
oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee-caeac/eeia a iieueco
i?aaei?eyoee-iinoaaueeia.

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n i?eauee – caieiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e
oi?ie?iaaiee eae iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia oae e ?ano?nia noauaeoia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaeeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa, eniieueciaaiea i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo eueaio
oaaee/eaatho i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey, inoaaoothny a aai ?anii?yaeaiee.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, athaeaeaoiua o/?aaeaeaiey (a /anoe oic?an/aoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe), aaiee (e?iia Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea Oe?aeiu e aai
oeeeaeia), eioi?ua yaeythony th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua eiatho i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a
Oe?aeia, ia?aceaeaiou ii i?eauee ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.

Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yaeyaony aaeainiaay i?eaueue. I?e yoii.
aaeainiaay i?eaueue iiaeao auoue oaaee/aia ia iioa?e i?e aa?oa?iuo
iia?aoeeyo, noiio n?aaenoa eee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae iieo/aiiuo ia
nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu aanieaoii eee a aeaea aacaica?aoiie oeiainiaie
iiiiue, noiio oiiaeia, nicaeaiiuo ca n/ao naaanoieiinoe e ae?.

Aianoa n oai, aaeainiaay i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia iaeia ia eiouanoai,
caieth, aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, ia noiio cao?ao ii
niaea?aeaieth iauaeoia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iacia/aiey, aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia,
ia?aaeaiiuo oiiaeai iauanoaaiiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee, oeaeueth
eioi?uo yaeyaony eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay, iao/iay e
aeaaioai?eoaeueiay ?aaioa e o.ae.

Ioaeaeueiua aeaeu aeioiaeia ia yaeythony iauaeoaie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.
Oae, ia iiaeeaaeao iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe e iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, iieo/aiiua i?aaei?eyoeai a aeaea
aciinia a onoaaiie oiiae, eo?niaua ?acieoeu, ia/eneaiiua ia aaethoiua
oeaiiinoe, noiiu aeiioeaiie io ia?aioeaiee oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiiieiaiea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e
ae?.

Ii ioaeaeueiui iia?aoeeyi onoaiiaeaiu ioee/eoaeueiua i?aaeea
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eiathony i?e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee aa?oa?iuo iia?aoeee, iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
eeceiaiauo e aaieianeeo iia?aoeee, no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeiaiai?iuo
iia?aoeee ia?aceaeaioia, i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie,
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. Oae, i?aaei?eyoey aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai
eiiieaena inaiaiaeaeathony io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii i?eauee io
i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e i?iaeoeoeee aa
ia?a?iaioee ia nianoaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiioyo. ?uaiua oicyenoaa
– io i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io aueiaa ?uau e ia?a?aaioee aa ia nianoaaiiuo
iiuiinoyo. No?ieoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee – io i?eauee, iieo/aiiie a
?acoeueoaoa no?ieoaeuenoaa a naeueneie ianoiinoe aeeeuey, iauaeoia auoa,
eoeueoo?u, oi?aiaee, io?aiu caei?iauey, aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo iiiauaiee e
eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo eiiieaenia.

Ieaoa ca caieth – aceiaaony a aeaea caiaeueiiai iaeiaa eee a?aiaeiie
ieaou, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa e ianoa
?aniieiaeaiey caiaeueiiai o/anoea, enoiaey ec eaaeano?iaie ioeaiee
caiaeue.

Iaeia n aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa – inouanoaeyaony aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?aeiino?oeoeee, ?aiiioa e niaea?aeaiey aaoiiiaeeueiuo
aei?ia. Caeiiii Oe?aeiu aaaaeai iaeia n aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa e iaoaieciia.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony i?aaiecaoeee, eiathuea nianoaaiiua
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, naiioiaeiua iaoeiu e iaoaieciu. Iaeia
onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io iiuiinoe aeaeaaoaey – eioaaeeiiuo nee
eee eeeiaaoo iiuiinoe. Ia/eneaiea iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony ia aaca io/aoiuo
aeaiiuo i iaee/ee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

Inoaoi/iay i?eaueue, inoaaoayny iinea ?an/aoia n athaeaeaoii (aeey
a?aiaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee n a?aiaeiaeaoaeai e athaeaeaoii) inoaaony a
iieiii ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ia naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao
iai?aaeaiea aa eniieueciaaiey. Eae i?aaeei, i?aaei?eyoey ia?aciauaatho
oiiaeu n o/aoii eo oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey:

– oiiae ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa;

– oiiae nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey;

– oiiae iaoa?eaeueiiai iiiu?aiey.

A oneiaeyo nioeeaeueiie ia?ai?eaioaoeee ceiiiieee, eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea
aeieaeii eiaoue n?aaenoaa aeey nioeeaeueiie caueou naieo ?aaioieeia, a
neo/aa iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo iioa?ue e nieaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aeey yoie oeaee, e?iia iacaaiiuo oiiaeia iiaeao nicaeaaaoueny ?aca?aiue
oiiae.

N?aaenoaa oiiaeia yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey eniieuecothony ia
?aoaiea aii?inia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, ?acaeoey e ?anoe?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?anoe?aiey nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie eio?ano?oeoo?u,
iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea ?aaioieeia.

I?iaaaeaiiua auoa enneaaeiaaiey enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo
?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey e oaeoi?ia aeeythueo ia ieo, iicaieytho naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia (a oneiaeyo ?uiea),
iicaieythuei iaania/eoue iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, yaeyaony
iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, o/ao, eiio?ieue anai i?aaei?eyoeai e iaania/aiea
iaeneiaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?e ieieiecaoeee aa naaanoieiinoe,
o. a. a eaeaaea eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee nia?aiaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeai
eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee. Aeey yoiai e
i?aaeiacia/aiu eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, /oiau
auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao,i?aaiecaoeeyi i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii
iioeiece?iaaoue iaoiaeu aaaeaiey aeciana a niioaaonoaee n oaeouae
?uii/iie neooaoeeae, o?aaiaaieyie caeac/eeia e iinoaaueeia. A yoii
eeth/aaoth ?ieue ea?atho eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, eioi?ua iiiiaatho a
oi?aaeaiee aecian-i?ioeannaie e iiaeaea?aeeaatho i?eiyoea ?aoaiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeey iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue e aiaae?eoue aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio,
iicaieythuoth iaania/eoue i?aaei?eyoea:

– iia?aoeaiuie naaaeaieyie i iio?aaiinoyo a oiaa?ao e oneoaao eae ia
?uiea Oe?aeiu, oae e ia ie?iaii ?uiea;

– iia?aoeaiuie naaaeaieyie i iio?aaeoaeyo (iinoaaueeao) oiaa?ia e oneoa
e niioaaonaaiii oeaiu ia ieo;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea ?aaeecaoeeae
nianoaaiiuo (i?iecaiaeeiuo) oiaa?ia e oneoa;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea iniiaiuie
n?aaenoaaie;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiia aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie;

– o/ao, eiio?ieue e ?an/aou anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae e iia?aoeaioth auaea/o
aeaiiuo.

?acaene 2. Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeaee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee a ie?a,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?anoe?aieai e niaa?oainoaiaaieai oi?i e iaoiaeia eo
oi?aaeaiey n eniieueciaaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ia i?aaei?eyoee.
?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai (EN) ia i?aaei?eyoeyo a iineaaeiea 30
eao iaaeyaeii aeaiiino?e?oao yooaeo iayoieea: oeaio?aeeciaaiiay iiaeaeue
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia aaca iyeio?aeiia, aeiieie?othuay aei na?aaeeiu
80-o aiaeia, anaai ia ianeieueei eao onooieea naie iiceoeee
?ani?aaeaeaiiie a?oeoaeoo?a iaeii?aiaiauo naoae ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia (IE), ii caoai ia/aeinue aica?aoiia aeaeaeaiea e
oeaio?aeecaoeee ?ano?nia nenoaiu, e naaiaeiy a oieona aieiaiey
ieacaeanue oaoiieiaey eeeaio/na?aa?, eioi?ay yooaeoeaii iauaaeeiyao
aeinoieinoaa naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Enneaaeiaaiey EN i?aaeiieaaatho
?anniao?eaaoue eo i?ioeann ?acaeoey eae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue /aou?ao
aiei yaiethoeee:

– ia?aay aieia ( 1960-1970 aa.): EN no?ieeenue ia aaca iaeio?aeiia ii
i?eioeeio “iaeii i?aaei?eyoea – iaeei oeaio? ia?aaioee”, a a ea/anoaa
noaiaea?oiie n?aaeu auiieiaiey i?eeiaeaiee neoaeeea IN MVS oe?iu IBM;

– aoi?ay aieia ( 1970-1980 aa.): ia?aua oaae aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee EN, a
i?ioeanna eioi?ie iieueciaaoaee noaee i?iaeaeaaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee a i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey, eniieuecoy ieie-eiiiuethoa?u
eeanna DEC VAX IBM AS/400. Ia?aeeaeueii ia/aeinue aeoeaiia aiaae?aiea
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo NOAAe oeia DB2, ADABAS e iaeaoia i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii oeia SAS, Walker e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii, ea?aeeiaeueiui
iiaoanoaii EN aoi?ie aieiu auea aeaooo?iaiaaay iiaeaeue i?aaiecaoeee
nenoaiu “iyeio?aei – ieie-eiiiueoa?u” n eioi?iaoeeiiiui ooiaeaiaioii a
aeaea oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aacu aeaiiuo e i?eeeaaeiuo iaeaoia. Iai?eia?,
aeey AIN NNN? Naaa?iiai oeioa Naaa?iii?ne – iyeio?aei e
oeaio?aeeciaaiiua aacu aeaiiuo e i?eeeaaeiua iaeaou; aiaiiua aacu –
ieie-eiiiuethoa?u ia aacao oeioa e ei?aaeyo;

– o?aouey aieia (1980 – 1990 aa.): aoi ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee,
aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie eioi?ie aue ianniaue ia?aoiae iieueciaaoaeae n
iyeio?aeiia e ieie-eiiiuethoa?ia ia IE (ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai, ia eiiaoe
1994a. naeoi? IE ninoaaeye ieiei 60 % eiiiuethoa?iiai ?uiea, a ie?iaie
ia?e YAI yoiai eeanna ian/eouaae aieaa 170 iei. oooe). Eiaeea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a NNN? e ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeciana a ie?a
iio?aaiaaea iauaaeeiaiey ?ac?iciaiiuo YAI (?aai/eo iano) e aaeeioth EN –
iiyaeeenue au/eneeoaeueiua naoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea. Iaeiaei
i/aiue nei?i a iaeii?aiaiauo naoyo noaee iaia?oaeeaaoueny ia?aua
i?eciaee ea?a?oe/iinoe – nia/aea a aeaea auaeaeaiiuo oaee-na?aa?ia,
na?aa?ia ia/aoe, oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo na?aa?ia, a caoai e na?aa?ia
i?eeiaeaiee. Ia eaeii-oi yoaia aic?anoathuoth iio?aaiinoue a
eiioeaio?aoeee ?ano?nia EN, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca aaeieieno?e?iaaiea nenoaiu,
iiaeaea?aeeo oeaio?aeeciaaiiie (ei?ii?aoeaiie) AAe e auiieiaiea
naycaiiuo n iae oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo i?eeiaeaiee, oaeaeinue oaeiaeaoai?eoue
a iiaeaee n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eyoey eee iiae?acaeaeaiee e?oiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey UNIX – na?aa?ia e eniieueciiaiey
?ani?aaeaeaiiuo AAe ia aaca NOAAe ORAKL. Aeaiiue i?ioeann i?ioiaeee n
aunieie eioaineaiinoueth, oae e eiioeo i?ioeiai aiaea a ie?a auei
onoaiiaeaii 2,5 iei. UNIX -na?aa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee. I?eaaaeaiiay
no?oeoo?a EN icia/aao aica?ao e aeaooo?iaiaaie iiaeaee aoi?ie aieiu, ii
?acoiaaony n aeiaaaeaieai iiaiai ea/anoaa. Oae, i?e ?acaeoee EN
o?aoueaai iieieaiey eaeay /enoie (iaeii?aiaiaie) ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
ia?aaioee caiaoii ia/aea naeaaaoue iiceoeee ea?a?oe/aneie iiaeaaee
eeeaio/na?aa?.

– /aoaa?oay aieia (1990 – ???? aa.): iaoiaeeony a oaca ca?iaeaeaiey, ii
enneaaeiaaiey aeatho aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ioee/eoaeueiie
/a?oie nia?aiaiiuo EN yaeyaony ea?a?oe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, a eioi?ie
oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ia?aaioea e aaeeiia oi?aaeaiea ?ano?naie EN ia aa?oiai
o?iaia ni/aoathony n ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioeie ia ieaeiai o?iaia.
Iiaeiaiia iino?iaiea EN yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea eiii?iienii iaaeaeo
aeaeaieai eniieueciaaoue eiioi?o a?aoe/aneiai eioa?oaena
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?eeiaeaiee e o?aaiaaieyie iaeneiaeueiie aeinooiiinoe
aeaiiuo aeey anao eeeaioia nenoaiu, iiauoaiey nei?inoe ia?aaioee,
i?inoiou aaeieieno?e?iaaiey e nieaeaiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca [1,4] e enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii
naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu ia iniaaiiinoyo EN iineaaeiaai iieieaiey:

– iieiia eniieueciaaiea iioaioeeaea ianoieueiuo eiiiueoa?ia e n?aaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee;

– iiaeoeueiia iino?iaiea nenoaiu, i?aaeiieaaathuae nouanoaiaaiea
iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo oeiia a?oeoaeoo?iuo ?aoaiee a ?aieao aaeeiiai
eiiieaena;

– yeiiiiey ?ano?nia nenoaiu ca n/ao oeaio?aeecaoeee o?aiaiey i ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo ia aa?oieo o?iaiyo;

– iaee/ea yooaeoeaiuo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo n?aaenoa naoaaiai e nenoaiiiai
aaeieieno?e?iaaiey, iicaieythueo inouanoaeyoue neaiciie eiio?ieue ca
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai naoe e oi?aaeaiea ia anao o?iaiyo ea?a?oee, a oaeaea
iaania/eaathueo iaiaoiaeeioth aeaeinoue e aeeiaie/aneia eciaiaiea
eiioeao?aoeee nenoaiu.

Iniiauaaynue ia i?eaaaeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aiciiaeiu /aou?a oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee no?aoaaee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ia i?aaei?eyoee:

– oeaio?aeeciaaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e
oeaio?aeeciaaiiii oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieei-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie
(o?aaeeoeeiiiay ANO);

– oeaio?aeeciaaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo eee iacaaeneiuo nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey (i?e iiiiue AOe
eieeaeoeaiiai iieueciaaiey);

– ?ani?aaeaeaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i?e oeaio?aeeciaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee;

– ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea e o?aiaiea i?e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiii
oi?aaeaiee.

Aeaa iineaaeiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu i?aaeii?aeaeytho eiioeaioeeth
iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee. Iniiao iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
oaoiieiaee ninoaaeytho ?ani?aaeaeaiiay eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea,
“ae?oaeanoaaiiia” i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e ?acaeoua n?aaenoaa
eiiioieeaoeee. Iieueciaaoaeth iai?ia?aiienoo i?aaeinoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey n YAI .I?e yoii iiuiua i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiua
n?aaenoaa (aacu aeaiiuo, yenia?oiua nenoaiu, aacu ciaiee e nenoaiu
iiaeaea?aeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e ae?.) nicaeatho eiioi?o a ?aaioa,
iicaieytho ia oieueei aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann eciaiaiey oi?iu e
ianoiiieiaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, ii oaeaea eciaiaiey aa niaea?aeaiey.

Aeey iiaie iioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee oa?aeoa?iu:

– ?aaioa iieueciaaoaey a ?aaeeia iaieioee?iaaiey (iai?ia?aiie?iaaiey
aeaiiuie);

– neaiciay eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaea?aeea ia anao yoaiao i?ioiaeaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa iioaa?e?iaaiiuo aac aeaiiuo, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo
aaeeioth oieoeoee?iaaiioth oi?io i?aaenoaaeaiey, o?aiaiey, iienea,
ioia?aaeaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiey e caueou aeaiiuo;

– aacaoiaaeiue i?ioeann ia?aaioee aeieoiaioia;

– eioa?aeoeaiue ?aaeei ?aoaiey caaea/;

– aiciiaeiinoe eieeaeoeaiiai eniieiaiey aeieoiaioia ia iniiaa naoaaie
oaoiieiaee eeeaio – na?aa?, iauaaeeiaiiuo n?aaenoaaie eiiioieeaoeee;

– aiciiaeiinoue, aaeaioeaiie ia?ano?ieee oi?i e niiniaa i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey caaea/e.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai aaoiiaoecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii
oa?aeoa?ecoaony no?aieoaeueiui ?acaeoeai nenoai ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, /oi iicaieyao onei?eoue ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee ca n/ao
iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaeeaeaiey n?aaenoa ia?aaioee aeaiiuo e ianoai aa
aicieeiiaaiey e eniieueciaaiey; yooaeoeaiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoue
?aciiia?aciua e /anoi iaiythueany eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe
oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea; iaania/eoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiey e iauaeoai
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey; nieaeaoue ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea anae
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu; oaaee/eaaoue aeaeinoue e iiauoaoue aeeao/anoue
nenoai (auoiae ec no?iy iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia i?eaiaeeo e ioeaco anae
nenoaiu); iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaiaaoue eniieieoaeyi a i?ioeanna
oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaoue ea/anoai e iaaeaaeiinoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.
No?oeoo?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ?aaeecoaony a aeaea
iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneeo nenoai (naoae au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei
-eieaeueiuo/aeiaaeueiuo). Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii noaiiaeaiey iiaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee yaeyaony nicaeaiea eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie
naoe (EAN) ia?niiaeueiuo YAI (IYAI), eioi?ua yooaeoeaii ni/aoatho
aiciiaeiinoe IYAI aeey ia?niiaeueiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo n i?aeiouanoaaie
?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo.

?acaeae3. Aiaeec oiiieiaee e naoaauo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai aeey nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey.

A niioaaonoaee n i?iaaaeaiiuie auoa enneaaeiaaieyie aeey ea/anoaaiiie
?aaeecaoeee EN i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeiu eieaeueiua (aeiaaeueiay)
au/eneeoaeueiua naoe. Aeey ei??aeoiie ?aaiou EAN e oiaiueoaiey cao?ao ia
eo nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue i?iaeoe?iaaiea oiiieiaee EAN e
aua?aoue naoaaoth iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio, ia aaca eioi?ie aoaeao
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue EAN. I?iaaaeai aiaeec e enneaaeiaaiea oiiieiaee EAN.

Ii niaaeeiaieth oece/aneeo eiiiiiaioia a EAN iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny:

– oiiieiaey caacaeu;

– eieueoeaaay oiiieiaey;

– oeiiay oiiieiaey;

– ea?a?oe/aneay oiiieiaey.

A?oeoaeoo?o EAN, i?e eioi?ie ana oceu naoe niaaeeiaiu n iaeiei
oeaio?aeueiui oceii – iacuaatho oiiieiaeae caacaeu.

A?oeoaeoo?o EAN, i?e eioi?ie eaaeaeue ocae naycai n aeaoiy ae?oaeie e
ana oceu aianoa ia?acotho eieueoei – iacuaatho eieueoeaaie oiiieiaeae.

A?oeoaeoo?o EAN, i?e eioi?ie ana oceu iiaeeeth/aiu e iauaio eeiaeiiio
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio eaiaeo – iacuaatho oeiiie oiiieiaeae.

A?oeoaeoo?o EAN, i?e eioi?ie oceu iauaaeeiythony a a?oiiu (eeanoa?u) n
iauei eiio?ieea?ii, i?e/ai i?aaeea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo oceaie aioo?e
iaeiiai eeanoa?a e iaaeaeo oceaie ?o/iuo eeanoa?ia ?acee/iu – iacuaatho
ea?a?oe/aneie.

Aeey auai?a naoaaie iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai (NIN), i?iaaaeai eo
enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue
iieo/eee neaaeouea NIN: PS LAN, C+ I?an Lan Ianagea, OS/2, 3+ Shaaa,
Novell, NetWare, Lantastin, Windows NO. Aeaiiua nenoaiu i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey i?eiaiaiey a iaeii?iaeiuo naoyo 16/32 – ?ac?yaeiuo IYAI,
?aaioathueo iiae oi?aaeaieai IS DOS, OS/2 eee Windows 95. Aeey
eieaeueiuo naoae UNIX-iaoei aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao NIN LOCUS. A
iaiaeii?iaeieo naoyo, ninoiyueo ec iaoei na?ee IAI/370 e iaoei oeia
AO/386, ?S/2, ia?niaeoeaiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao iiaay nenoaia ONF.

PC LAN – iiaeaea?aeeaaao aeaa oece/aneea naoe ?N NetWare e Oikei Ring.
?aai/ea noaioeee eniieuecotho ?N DIS. Eaaeaeay ?aai/ay noaioeey (?N)
iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?iee oaee-na?aa?a aeey ae?oaie ?N, eioi?ay e iae
ia?auaaony n niioaaonoaothuae eiiaiaeie (yoa eiioeaioeey “iiia?iiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey PN – na?aa?” i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io naoaaie
a?oeoaeoo?u NetWare, aaea ?ano?nu iauaai aeinooia ?aaeecothony a
oeaio?aeueiii(uo) oaee-na?aa?ao.

3+ I?an Ianagaa – aacie aeaiiie nenoaiu yaeyaony IS DOS e aa
noaiaea?oiia naoaaia ?anoe?aiea IS-NET. ?aai/ea noaioeee nenoaiu
i?aaeinoaaeytho iieueciaaoaeyi eiiaiaeu o?iaiy IS-NAO. Eiaaony oaeaea
niaoeeaeueiue i?iaeoeo 3+ Open Sekure, ?aaeecothuee ?yae niaoeeaeueiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoaieciia ii oi?aaeaieth ia?ieyie, eiio?ieth aeinooia
e aiaeeco cai?auaiiuo neooaoeee. Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth nenoaiu 3+ Open
yaeyaony ?acaeoea iaoaiecia eioaa?aoeee n ae?oaeie eieaeueiuie e
aeiaaeueiuie naoyie.

OS/2 LAN Server – aeaiiay naoaaay IN yaeyaony ?acaeoeai PC LAN e
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey i?eiaiaiey a n?aaea OS/2. ?aai/ea noaioeee iiaoo
eniieueciaaoue eae OS/2, oae e PC DOS.

3+ Share – aace?oaony ia MS-NET, a /anoiinoe i?ia?aiia Microsoft
Redirector eniieuecoaony aeey oi?aaeaiey ?aaioie na?aa?a. Na?aa? iiaeao
auoue auaeaeaiiui eee niaiauaoue naieo iieueciaaoaeae, aaeieieno?aoi?ia
e na?aa?-iieueciaaoaeae.

Novell NetWare – ?aaioaao n ?aai/eie noaioeeyie ia aaca OC MS DOS,
Windows 95, OS/2, SVM, MVS. Ia aaca COC NetWare iiaeii iino?ieoue
naoaaoth n?aaeo, i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia ioaeaeu iieueciaaoaeae. YAI,
eioi?ay yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth naoe, ooieoeeiie?othuae iiae
oi?aaeaieai OC NetWare, naycaia n ae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?aie e ia?eoa?eae.
Ia aeaiiii YAI iieueciaaoaee iiaoo niaianoii eniieueciaaoue oaeeu e
?ano?nu e acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ae?oaeie iieueciaaoaeyie aeaiiie naoe,
o.a. naoue, ooieoeeiie?othuay iiae oi?aaeaieai OC NetWare, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie a?oiio eiiiuethoa?ia (oaeeo eae IBM PC eee Macintosh), eioi?ua
niaaeeiaiu aianoa oaeei ia?acii, /oi iiaoo iaaeaeo niaie
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue e niaianoii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu. ?aai/ea noaioeee
(?N) iiaoo auoue aeeneiauie eee aacaeeneiauie, ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe aeey ?aaiou ia aeeneiaie ?N 512 Ea, ia aacaeeneiaie 2
Iaa. A naoe iiaeao auoue iaeei na?aa? eee ianeieueei na?aa?ia. I?ae?anii
inouanoaeaiu nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee, ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey
?ano?naie, niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. Iaeiaei aieueooth
neiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao i?ioeann einoieeyoeee, ieaie?iaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie.

Lantastic -iaeii?aiaiaay NIN, n iiiuueth eioi?ie iiaeii iieo/aoue
?ano?nu ae?oaeo ?aai/eo noaioeee, aaea a ea/anoaa ?ano?nia iiaoo
aunooiaoue aeanoeea aeenee (aei/anoa?u) e i?eioa?u. Nenoaia Lantastic ia
aacaeeneiauo ?N ia ?aaioaao. Aeey ?aaiou n Lantastic a AN iaiaoiaeei
aeanoeee aeene e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ieei 20 Iaa.

Windows NT -iieo/eea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

?aai/ea noaioeee (?N) iiaoo auoue oieueei aeeneiauie n iauaiii aeeneiaie
iaiyoe ia aieaa 320 Iaa e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ia iaiaa 12 Iaa. NIN
Windows NT ?aaioaao n ?aai/eie noaioeeyie ia aaca IN MS DOS, Windows 95,
OS/2. Ia aaca NIN Windows NT iiaeii iino?ieoue naoaaoth n?aaeo,
i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia ioaeaeu iieueciaaoaeae. YAI, eioi?ay yaeyaony
ninoaaiie /anoueth naoe, ooieoeeiie?othuae iiae oi?aaeaieai NIN, naycaia
nae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?aie e ia?eoa?eae. Ia aeaiiie YAI iiaoo niaianoii
eniieueciaaoue oaeeu e ?ano?nu e acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ae?oaeie
iieueciaaoaeyie aeaiiie naoe, o.a. naoue, ooieoeeiie?othuay iiae
oi?aaeaieai NIN Windows NT, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio eiiiuethoa?ia
(oaeeo eae IBM PC eee Macintosh), eioi?ua niaaeeiaiu aianoa oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iiaoo iaaeaeo niaie acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue e eniieueciaaoue
niaianoiua ?ano?nu. A naoe iiaeao auoue iaeei eee ianeieueei na?aa?ia.
I?ae?anii inouanoaeaiu nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee, ieaie?iaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey ?ano?naie, niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. Eaaei
inouanoaeyaony i?ioeann einoieyoeee, ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie.

CAEETH*AIEA

Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a eo?niaie ?aaioa iicaieeee naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia (a oneiaeyo ?uiea),
iicaieythueo iaania/eoue iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, yaeyaony
iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, o/ao, eiio?ieue anai i?aaei?eyoeai e iaania/aiea
iaeneiaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?e ieieiecaoeee naaanoieiinoe.
Yoi aiciiaeii (a eaeaaea) a oii neo/aa, eiaaea eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee
nia?aiaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey iaania/ai aiciiaeiinoueth aunoi?iai aeinooia e
o?aaoaiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey yoiai e i?aaeiacia/aiu eioi?iaoeeiiiua
nenoaiu.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, /oiau auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao,
i?aaei?eyoeyi i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii iioeiece?iaaoue iaoiaeu aaaeaiey
aeciana a niioaaonoaee n oaeouae ?uii/iie neooaoeeae, o?aaiaaieyie
caeac/eeia e iinoaaueeia. A yoii oaeaea eeth/aaoth ?ieue ea?atho
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, eioi?ua iiiiaatho a oi?aaeaiee
aecian-i?ioeannaie e iiaeaea?aeeaatho i?eiyoea ?aoaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiia?iinoue auai?a oaiu eo?niaiai i?iaeoa, eae
i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey, iniiaaia ia oii, /oi aeey iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai e iaania/aiey aaaeaiey aeciana a ?uii/iie
nenoaia iaiaoiaeeii:

– iia?aoeaii iaania/eaaoue ?oeiaiaenoai e oi?aaeai/anei-oaoie/aneee
ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey ea/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeeae;

– naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii aanoe aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey;

– auno?i e ea/anoaaiii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey naycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai
iniiaiuie e iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie i?aaei?eyoey.

N yoie oeaeueth, iaiaoiaeeia eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaia, iicaieythuay
iaania/eoue i?aaei?eyoea:

– iia?aoeaiuie naaaeaieyie i iio?aaiinoyo a oiaa?ao e oneoaao eae ia
?uiea Oe?aeiu, oae e ia ie?iaii ?uiea;

– iia?aoeaiuie naaaeaieyie i iio?aaeoaeyo (iinoaaueeao) oiaa?ia e oneoa;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea ?aaeecaoeeae
nianoaaiiuo (i?iecaiaeeiuo) oiaa?ia e oneoa;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea iniiaiuie
n?aaenoaaie;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao, eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie;

– o/ao, eiio?ieue e ?an/aou anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae i iia?aoeaioth auaea/o
aeaiiuo.

A niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth a ?aaioa i?iaaaeaii:

– aiaeec i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe e aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaeoa
enneaaeiaaiey;

– aiaeec i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee;

– enneaaeiaaiea, aiaeec e auai? no?aoaaee nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai i?aaei?eyoee;

– enneaaeiaaiea, aiaeec e auai? no?aoaaee ?ac?aaioee eioiiaoeeiiiuo
nenoai oi?aaeaieai i?aaei?eyoeai;

– enneaaeiaaiea, aiaeec, auai? e ?aaeecaoeey iiaeaee eioiiaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey;

– enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec oiiieiaee EAN e NIN;

Iainiiaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ?aoaiee aace?oaony ia i?aeoe/aneie oeaiiinoe
e ?aaeecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaeeoeei A.E., Eaa/aiei O.A. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu iioeiecaoeee no?oeoo? e
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey naoueth. Iaaea. iao/i, nai?. “Iaoeiiay ia?aaioea
eioi?iaoeee”. Eeaa EAYO, 1995.

2. Ia?oei Aeae., Au/eneeoaeueiua naoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiiay ia?aaioea
aeaiiuo – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea. 1985

Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai neiiiceoia “EIOI?IAOEEA – 89”: Ieine 1990,
o.2 /.1

4. Oe?oiiaiiua ii?iu a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. – Eaeeiei, 1986.

5. Oa??a?e Ae. Ioeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai. I.:
“Ie?” 1981.

6. Oeeio Ae. Eieaeueiua naoe YAI: a?oeoaeoo?a, i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey,
?aaeecaoeey: Ia?. n aiae. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1986.- 359 n.

Aeiaaeueiua e eieaeueiua naoe – acaeyae a aoaeouaa. “Eiiiuethoa?u +
I?ia?aiiu “ ? 5, 1996.

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