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Системы телекоммуникаций, Интернет

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NEAE?NEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO OAEAEIIIOIEEAOeEE E
EIOI?IAOEEE

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii eioi?iaoeea

Oaia: Nenoaiu oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. Eioa?iao.

Auiieieea nooaeaioea NeaAOOE

A?oiia N-83

Eaoaaaa E?eia Aeaenaaaia

Aeaoa?eiao?a 1999

?acaeae 1

Oeaeue ?aaiou: eco/eoue iaoa?eae, iciaeiieoueny n aeiaaeueiie
eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth Eioa?iao e aa aiciiaeiinoyie.

AAAAeAIEA

Eioa?iao – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?. Ii
?aciui aeaiiui aeinooi a Eioa?iao eiatho io 15 aei 30 ieeeeiiia ethaeae
a aieaa /ai 150 no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7
– 10 i?ioeaioia. Eioa?iao ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue
?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi
ai anai ie?a, iaeia n ae?oaie. Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue
eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Eioa?iao, neoaeeaoee eiaaea-oi
eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu
i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana
aieueoa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a. Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa,
aeaoaaecia, oaeianoai aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua
i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay aaca aeaiiuo naoe Eioa?iao. I?e ieceie noieiinoe
oneoa iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieo/eoue aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e ia
eiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui neoaeaai NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao naiaiaeiiai aeinooia naoe Eioa?iao iiaeii
iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth ii ethaui noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ia/eiay n
iiauo iao/iuo ioe?uoee aei i?iaiica ia caao?a.

Enoi?ey naoe EIOA?IAO

1961 aiaeo Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe –TCP/IP. TCP/IP-
yoi iiiaeanoai eiiiooaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eae
eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaoo iauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeinue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defense Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defense Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia caeii/eeinue, i?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standards (MIL STD), oi anoue a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkley (BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc TCP/IP e UNIX.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Eioa?iao aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay
noaea ioiineoueny e Defense Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Eioa?iao noaea eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Eioa?iao nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.

1. ?aaeiiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?iua naoe e Eioa?iao

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ethaay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, iaania/eaathuay
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie a ie?a ii i?ioieieo
TCP/IP, naia yaeyaony /anoueth Eioa?iao. ?aaioo Eioa?iao ia
eiio?iee?otho ie i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ie eaeea-eeai i?aaiecaoeee. A iaoae
no?aia nouanoaoao e oniaoii ?aaioaao ianeieueei ?aaeiiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae. Iiaeii iacaaoue oaeea naoe, eae Relcom, Sprint,
Glasnet, Rosnet e ae?oaea. Auai? oie eee eiie naoe iiaeao caaenaoue io
iiiaeo i?e/ei: aeecinoe ocea nayce, n?ieia iiyaeaiey oneoa a eiie?aoiii
ianaeaiiii ioieoa, i?inoi ciaeiinoaii ni niaoeeaeenoaie aeaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee. ?acee/athony e oneoae, ieacuaaaiua yoeie naoyie. Ii a
aieueoeinoaa naoae i?aaieciaai iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n ae?oaeie
eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie ii i?ioieieo TCP/IP, yoa naoue naia noaiiaeony
/anoueth Eioa?iao.

2. Iaeioi?ua oa?ieiu aeiaaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae

2.1 Aeiiaiiay i?aaiecaoeey naoe

Eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa?, iiaeeeth/aiiue e Eioa?iao, aeieaeai auoue
oieeaeueii iienai a aeiaaeueiie naoe. Yoa no?oeoo?a iiaeiaia no?oeoo?a
eaoaeiaia a eiiiuethoa?a: anoue aeiiaiu naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy, anoue
aeiaeaiiua a ieo aeiiaiu, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaoo niaea?aeaoue
ae?oaea aeiiaiu. Eiaia aeiiaiia naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy no?iai
?ani?aaeaeaiu. Nouanoaoao aeaa oeia oaeeo eiai: ii oeio i?aaiecaoeee e
ii no?aia. Eiaia ii oeio i?aaiecaoeee (com – eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey,
edu – o/aaiay, gov – i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay e o.ae.), auee enoi?e/anee
ia?auie, nae/an i?aeoe/anee ia i?enaaeaathony e, a iniiaiii oa?aeoa?iu
aeey i?aaiecaoeee a NOA. Iau/ii aae?an, i?enaaeaaaiue eiiiuethoa?o,
aoaeao aeeth/aoue a naay a ea/anoaa eiaie naiiai “ aa?oiaai” aeiiaia
neiaieu, ii?aaeaeythuea no?aio i?aauaaiey. ?inneeneea eiiiuethoa?u
eiatho aae?ana, caeai/eaathueany ia ru eee su. Aeaeaa, oaea a ?aieao
aeaiiie no?aiu, i?aaiecaoeee i?iaaeaea?u ?aaeno?e?otho naie a?oiiu eiai
– aeiiaiu. Eiy eaaeaeiai aeiiaia ioaeaeyaony i?e iaienaiee io ae?oaiai
eiaie oi/eie, i?e/ai eiy aeiiaia aa?oiaai o?iaiy ieoaony ni?aaa. Oae,
aae?an na?aa?a aacaou “O?aeueneee ?aai/ee” – yoi ur.etel.ru. A yoii
aae?ana ru – iaicia/aiea no?aiu, etel – aeiiai, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue
i?iaaeaea?ii (Aeaoa?eiao?aneei oaeaa?aoii), ur – eiy eiiiuethoa?a a
aacaoa. Anee i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa inouanoaeyaony /a?ac ianeieueei
i?aaiecaoeee, oi eiy eiiiuethoa?a iiaeao ninoiyoue ec aieueoaai /enea
a?oii neiaieia, oioy ia i?aeoeea ?aaeei ano?aoeoue eiaia, aeeth/athuea a
naay aieueoa iyoe a?oii. Aeiiaiiia eiy a eiiiuethoa?a oieeaeueii. Ii iii
aua ie/aai ia aiai?eo i ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee eiiiuethoa?a. Au iiaeaoa
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue ia naay iiaue aeiiai e a aeaeueiaeoai, i?e ia?aacaea
ec ai?iaea a ai?iae nio?aiyoue ca niaie yoe eiaia. Aoaeao iaiyoueny
oieueei i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho aao auoiae a Eioa?iao,
?aaeno?e?oy yoe eiaia a aeiaaeueiie naoe.

2.2 IP aae?an

Aoi?ie ia?aiao?, eioi?ue aoaeao oieeaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue aao eiiiuethoa?
a ie?a – yoi IP aae?an. IP aae?an – yoi /aou?a /enea, eaaeaeia ec
eioi?uo iiaeao i?eieiaoue cia/aiea io 0 aei 255. Iai?eia? IP – aae?an
ftp-na?aa?a oe?iu Microsoft ( oi anoue na?aa?a, n eioi?iai iiaeii
iieo/eoue oaeeu ii naoe ) 189.105.232.1. Nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua
i?aaeea, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aae?an, i?enaaeaaaiue eiiiuethoa?o. Ia
aaeaaaynue a iaioaeiua iiae?iaiinoe, ioiaoei oieueei, /oi yoio oeeo?iaie
aae?an oieeaeai, oi anoue a ie?a iao aoi?iai eiiiuethoa?a n oaeei aea
aae?anii. A /ai i?e/eia nouanoaiaaiey aeaoo oeiia aae?ania? Ai-ia?auo,
/aeiaaeo i?iua ?aaioaoue n neiaieueiui aae?anii, /ai caiiieiaoue
ni/aoaiey oeeo?. Iau/ii eiaia aeiiaiia aeathony ii eiaie i?aaiecaoeee,
oae /oi – aeaaea ia ciay oeeo?iaiai aae?ana oe?iu – iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue i aeiiaiiii aae?ana. E?iia oiai, nio?aiaiea “ ca niaie “
iicaieyao ia aaniieieoueny, /oi a neo/aa aiciiaeiuo ia?aacaeia i?eaeaony
i?aaieciauaaoue iiaoth ?aeeaio aeiiaiiiai aae?ana. Ai-aoi?uo, IP aae?ana
iau/ii iieo/atho ia naay oe?iu, i?aaeinoaaeythuea oneoae auoiaea a
Eioa?iao.

Yoe aae?ana (iaeei eee ianeieueei) iie cae?aieytho ca eiie?aoiui
iieueciaaoaeai, eioi?ue iiaeao eiaoue «naia», nianoaaiiia aeiiaiiia eiy.
Iinea ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaeno?aoeee iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao
ia/eiaoue ?aaioo a Eioa?iao. I?ioeaaeo?a iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaia,
ii iaiaoiaeeii iaeioi?ia a?aiy (ieiei nooie), /oiau na?aa?a ai anai ie?a
i?iecaaee ioaeiua caiene i iieueciaaoaea. I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia
eiiiuethoa?ao, i?aaeinoaaeythueo oneoae Internet, iaania/eaaao
iaoiaeaeaiea ii IP-aae?ano eiaie eiiiuethoa?a e iaiai?io

Caiaoei oieueei, /oi ia ana eiiiuethoa?u, eiathuea IP-aae?an, eiatho
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia a aeiaaeueiie naoe naia aeiiaiiia eiy.

2.3 Ianea naoe

Aeey i?aaeeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?ioieiea IP iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie aeeaiacii IP-aae?ania i?enaiai Aaoae eieaeueiie
naoe. Aeey yoeo oeaeae eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiay ianea naoe: /aou?a
o?ieee oeeo?, eiathueo cia/aiea io 0 aei 255. Eiia/iue iieueciaaoaeue
iau/ii eiaao ianeo 255.255.255.???, aaea aianoi ciaeia aii?ina noiyo
oeeo?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ?acia? naoe. Yoe ia?aiao?u aeieaeiu auoue
niiauaiu Aai i?iaaeaea?ii.

2.4 Gateway (oethc)

Aeey i?aaeeueiie ?aaiou a iano?ieeao aeieaeai auoue oeacai IP-aae?an
ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao naycue n aiaoiae naoueth. Yoi oae aea
iiaeao auoue naeaeaii yaii eee aaoiiaoe/anee — a caaeneiinoe io
onoaiiaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

2.5 DNS-na?aa?

Aeey oiai, /oiau Au iiaee oeacuaaoue ia oieueei oeeo?iaua IP-aae?ana, ii
e eiaia eiiiuethoa?ia, ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue IP-aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, aaea
onoaiiaeaii i?ia?aiia, iaania/eaathuay oaeia i?aia?aciaaiea (domain name
service).

2.6 Proxy

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iaeioi?ay eioi?iaoeey iieuecoaony iniaie
iiioey?iinoueth: aa cai?aoeaatho iiiaea iieueciaaoaee, eiiaaea aeaaea ia
ii iaeiiio ?aco ca aeaiue. *oiau nieceoue iaa?oceo ia naoe, noaee
onoaiaaeeaaoue oae iacuaaaiua proxy-na?aa?a. Ia yoii na?aa?a
aaoiiaoe/anee nio?aiyaony ia iaeioi?ue n?ie any eioi?iaoeey, i?ioiaeyuay
/a?ac iaai. Anee aoaeao iaia?oaeai cai?in eioi?iaoeee, oaea iaoiaeyuaeny
a eiiee ia na?aa?a, oi eiaiii yoa eiiey e aoaeao iai?aaeaia
iieueciaaoaeth. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eioi?iaoeey ia proxy-na?aa?a iiaeao
iaiiaeaia ii cai?ino i?ia?aiiu i?iniio?a iieueciaaoaey.

?aaioa /a?ac proxy-na?aa? ia iaycaiiinoue, a i?aai. Proxy-na?aa? iiaeao
auoue oeacai a iano?ieeao i?ia?aii, inouanoaeythueo i?iniio? Eioa?iao
(iai?eia?, MS Internet Explorer). Ia i?aeoeea ?aaioa /a?ac i?iene –
na?aa? iau/ii nouanoaaiii auno?aa ?aaiou «iai?yiee».

2.7 «Ca?eaeueiue» na?aa? (mirror)

Eioi?iaoeey n iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo na?aa?ia aeoaee?oaony ia na?aa?ao a
ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a. Yoi iicaieyao nieceoue iauai eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aaeaaaaiie iaaeaeo no?aiaie, e onei?eoue ?aaioo iieueciaaoaey n
eioa?anothueie aai no?aieoeaie.

2.8 URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

Oae, iau/ii, iacuaatho aae?an aeieoiaioa (eee na?aa?a) a Eioa?iao.
I?eia?u URL:

ftp://ur.etel.ru/distr/index.txt file //ur.etel.ru/distr/index.txt http
//ur.etel.ru/default.htm news alt.hypertext telnet://dra.corn

URL ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae: neaaa (aei aeaiaoi/ey) oeacuaaaony niinia
aeinooia e ?ano?no (file e ftp — aeinooi ii i?ioieieo FTP, http —
aeieoiaio iaiaoiaeeii i?iniao?eaaoue i?ia?aiiaie oeia MS Internet
Explorer eee Netscape Navigator, news oeacuaaao ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
oaeaeiioa?aioeeyi, a telnet — ia eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aiiu telnet).

Ni?aaa ieoaony aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony ?ano?n, e
eaoaeiae (ioaeaeythony einuie /a?oi/eaie), a eioi?uo ?aniieiaeai
aeieoiaio. Anee ia oeacaii eiy aeieoiaioa, oi Au iieo/eoa aeinooi e
aeieoiaioo «ii oiie/aieth», eioi?ue iacia/ai iano?ieeaie
niioaaonoaothuaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai na?aa?a.

2.9 Eiaee?iaee neiaieia a Eioa?iao

I?iaeaia nouanoaiaaiey ?acee/iuo eiaee?iaie neiaieia ?onneiai ycuea
aieueoa anaai aeaao i naaa ciaoue eiaiii i?e ?aaioa n aeiaaeueiuie
eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiaee?iaee EIE-8 e 1251.
Eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue e ?onneea oaenou, iaa?aiiua eaoeineeie
aoeaaie.

?ani?ino?aiaiea Windows-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo i?ia?aii ?aaiou n Eioa?iao
noeioee?oao iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae ia eiaee?iaeo N?1251, iiaua na?aa?a
eiatho /anoi oieueei oaeea oaenou.

Iiiaea na?aa?a iicaieytho ia?aeeth/eoue auaiae eioi?iaoeee ia oo eee
eioth eiaee?iaeo (iau/ii yoa iioeey i?aaeeaaaaony ia ia?aie no?aieoea
na?aa?a). A oi aea a?aiy iineaaeiea aa?nee i?ia?aii aeey ?aaiou n
Eioa?iao i?aaeinoaaeytho aiciiaeiinoue /oaiey aeieoiaioia ethaie
eiaee?iaee, i?e yoii iicaieyy eiie?iaaoue oaenou ia eiiiuethoa? a
ioaeiie eiaee?iaea e eniieueciaaoue oaeea aeieoiaiou a ae?oaeo
i?ia?aiiao. E niaeaeaieth, ia anaaaea ia?aeeth/aiea eiaee?iaee
inouanoaeyaony aaoiiaoe/anee, oae /oi iieueciaaoaeth i?eoiaeeony
aeaeaoue oaeia ia?aeeth/aiea a?o/ioth: anee aeieoiaio auaiaeeony ia
ye?ai iaiiiyoiuie neiaieaie, oi inoaiiaeoa caa?oceo aeieoiaioa e niaieoa
a iaith i?ia?aiiu i?iniio?a eiaee?iaeo.

3. Auoiae a Internet

Aeey ?aaiou a Internet ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai onoaiiaeoue naycue ii IP
i?ioieieo n i?aaiecaoeeae, i?aaeinoaaeythuae oneoae ?aaiou a aeiaaeueiie
eiiiuethoa?iie naoe (oaeoth i?aaiecaoeeth iacuaatho
Internet-i?iaaeaea?ii). Nouanoaoao aeaa aiciiaeiinoe. Yoi auaeaeaiea
iinoiyiiiai eaiaea e ?aaioa a ?aaeeia oaeaoiiiuo caiieia (dial-up).
?aaioa ii auaeaeaiiiio eaiaeo aieaa onoie/eaa, Au iiea/eaaaoa eaiae
iieiinoueth e caa?oaeaaoa aai ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Aa?eaio aei?iaie,
iacaaeneii io eiie?aoiuo ?anoeaiie Internet-i?iaaeaea?ia a ?aaeiiao.

?aaioa ii iau/iiio oaeaoiiiiio eaiaeo aieaa aeaoaaa, ii neeueii caaeneo
io ea/anoaa eiie?aoiie oaeaoiiiie eeiee. Eiiaaea i?eoiaeeony ia ii
iaeiiio ?aco aeicaaieaaoueny ii oaeaoiiiiio iiia?o e iuoaoueny aieoe a
naoue. Eiia/ii e nei?inoue ?aaiou ii oaeiio eaiaeo iau/ii ?aaeueii ieaea
ec-ca ooaeoaai ea/anoaa eiiiooe?oaiie oaeaoiiiie eeiee.

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, ia eiiiuethoa?a aeieaeai auoue onoaiiaeai
IP-i?ioieie. Aeey yoiai a ieia iano?ieee naoaauo ia?aiao?ia eiiiuethoa?a
auaa?eoa aa?eaio onoaiiaee aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?ioieiea, oeaaeeoa, /oi
yoi i?ioieie Microsoft, ioiaoueoa TCP/IP — e auiieieoa oeacaiey
i?ia?aiiu ii anoaaea iaiaoiaeeiuo aeeneao aeeno?eaooeaa.

Anee i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea i?iaaeaea?a iieiinoueth niaianoeii n
Windows’95, oi aieueoa io Aan ie/aai ia iio?aaoaony. Oeaaeeoa a
i?ia?aiia Dial Up Networking oaeaoii i?iaaeaea?a e iiiuoaeoanue
inouanoaeoue niaaeeiaiea. Anee yoa i?ia?aiia ia onoaiiaeaia, oi aa iaaei
aeiaaaeoue n aeeno?eaooeaa, ainiieueciaaaoenue caaea/ae Add/Remove
Program.

3.1. Iaeioi?ua iieaciua i?ia?aiiu

Iaeiia?aiaiii n onoaiiaeie a Windows i?ioieiea IP, aoaeoo aeiaaaeaiu
iaeioi?ua iieaciua i?ia?aiiu.

WINIPCFG-yoa i?ia?aiia iieacuaaao iano?ieeo IP-i?ioieiea ia
eiiiuethoa?a. Iia (aeey i?iaa?ee iano?iae) iniaaiii a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea ia?aiao?u i?ioieiea caaeathony n na?aa?a (aaoiiaoe/anee).

PING. Yoa eiiaiaea iicaieyao iieo/eoue «ioaao» io oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a e oaeei ia?acii i?iaa?eoue ?aaioiniiniaiinoue eaiaea nayce.
Auciaeoa eiiaiaeiia ieii Windows e iaaa?eoa yoo eiiaiaeo n ia?aiao?ii a
aeaea aae?ana, iai?eia?, aeeaeaeoaai eiiiuethoa?a i?iaaeaea?ia. Au
aeieaeiu iieo/eoue ioaao i aai aeinoeaeeiinoe a aeaea cia/aiey a?aiaie,
ca eioi?ia yoio eiiiuethoa? ioaaoee.

TRACERT- yoa eiiaiaea IP-i?ioieiea iicaieyao iiniio?aoue iooue
i?ioiaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee io Aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a e ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o
a Eioa?iao. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaa?aoue aa n ia?aiao?ii a aeaea
eiaie oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Eiiaaea iiaeii aeaeaoue, eae naycue n
eiiiuethoa?ii a ninaaeiai aeiia i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac aeanyoie
eiiiuethoa?ia, a oii /enea ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao…

4. Oeiu na?aena Internet

Ia/eiay ?aaioo a Internet, eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue oi/ao iieo/eoue aeey
naay eaeoth-oi eioi?iaoeeth: neiie?iaaoue iaiiaeaiey i?ia?aii, ociaoue
iiainoe a ie?a, i?inoi iiiauaoueny n eieeaaaie ii eioa?anai. Nouanoaoao
ianeieueei iniiaiuo niiniaia ?aaiou n eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth. Yoi:

• iaiai yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie;

• nienee ?annueee;

• ?aaioa n oaeaeiioa?aioeeyie;

• eiie?iaaiea oaeeia ii i?ioieieo FTP;

• ?aaioa a WWW.

4.1 Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa

Iaiai yeaeo?iiiie ei??aniiiaeaioeeae — iaeei ec naiuo i?inouo na?aenia,
ii e i/aiue eioaineaii eniieuecoaiue.

Ii/oiaay i?ia?aiia

Aeey ioi?aaee ienueia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau a) iii auei ioi?ieaii a
niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothueie i?aaeeaie, a) iiiaei ia eiiiuethoa?,
iinoiyiii eiathuee naycue n Eioa?iao e niiniaiue i?aaieciaaoue
aeaeueiaeooth ia?aaea/o ienueia ii niaoeeaeueiui i?ioieieai. Aeey yoeo
oeaeae a ninoaa Windows NT 4.0 oaea aoiaeeo i?ia?aiia Internet Mail.
Aeey Windows’95 aa neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue ec iaeaoa Microsoft Internet
Explorer, eioi?ue ?ani?ino?aiyaony aanieaoii. Yoa i?ia?aiia iicaieyao
iiaeaioiaeoue ienueii, a caoai ia?aneaoue aai ia ii/oiaue na?aa?.

Aeey oiai, /oiau aeaiiie ii/oiaie i?ia?aiiie iiaeii auei ia/aoue
iieueciaaoueny, ioaeii eiaoue ia iaeiii ec eiiiuethoa?ia i?iaaeaea?a Aao
ee/iue ii/oiaue yuee. Iacaaiey ii/oiaiai na?aa?a, ee/iiai ii/oiaiai
yueea e ia?ieue aeinooia e iaio aeieaeiu auoue oeacaiu a iano?ieeao
i?ia?aiiu.

Yeaeo?iiiua ienueia iiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue caaeaaia?aiaiii, a caoai, iinea
onoaiiaeaiey nayce n Eioa?iao, inouanoaeoue iaiai ii/oie, auiieiea
niioaaonoaothuoth eiiaiaeo. I?e yoii a iaeiii naaina aoaeoo eae
ii?aaeaiu iiaeaioiaeaiiua ienueia, oae e iieo/aia any aoiaeyuay
ei??aniiiaeaioeey.

Eae eaeao ienueii

Ianeieueei naeoiae, e yeaeo?iiiia ienueii niiniaii aeinoe/ue aaiiaioa a
ethaie oi/ea caiiiai oa?a. Ii oaeea n?iee aeinoaaee ienueia aiciiaeiu
oieueei iaaeaeo ii/oiauie yueeaie, iinoiyiii (on-line) iiaeeeth/aiiuie e
Eioa?iao. ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa iooue yeaeo?iiiie ei??aniiiaeaioeee aeey
iaeaieaa /anoiai neo/ay IP-niaaeeiaiey ii iau/iie oaeaoiiiie eeiee.

Iinea oiai, eae ienueii iaienaii, iii aoaeao ia?aaeaii ia neaaeothuee
eiiiuethoa? ii Aaoae eiiaiaea a i/a?aaeiii naaina nayce n i?iaaeaea?ii.
Yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue n?aco aea, eee aea aeiaeeaeaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiiai
/ana. Eae oieueei ienueii iiiaaeao ia eiiiuethoa?, eiathuee iinoiyiiia
niaaeeiaiea n eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth, iii ia?aaioaaony a ii?yaeea iauae
i/a?aaee ienai (ia ii/oiaii na?aa?a eo iiaeao neiieoueny cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai io anao aaiiaioia, oae /oi iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny a?aiy aeey
eo ia?aaioee e ioi?aaee). Iooue, ii eioi?iio iieaeao ienueii, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeai ec aae?ana ienueia n o/aoii nouanoaothueo IP-eaiaeia. Iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie, eiathueie iinoiyiiia iiaeeeth/aiea e Eioa?iao, ienueii
«iooaoanoaoao» iau/ii aanueia ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie (ianeieueei naeoiae
aeey ienueia iaaieueoiai ?acia?a). Anee aae?anao ia eiaao iinoiyiiie
nayce n Eioa?iao, oi ienueii aoaeao aeiaeeaeaoueny ia oaeaeaiiii
eiiiuethoa?a aeeaeaeoaai naaina nayce aae?anaoa n aai i?iaaeaea?ii.
Iiyoiio, oioy ienueii i/aiue auno?i i?ieaeao ii eiiiuethoa?iie naoe, iii
iiaeao aeieai caaea?aeaoueny, iiea iiiaaeao ia eiiiuethoa? aae?anaoa.

I?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ia?anueeo ienai, iiaoo eiaoue ?aciua
iano?ieee. Oae, a i?ia?aiia iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu ?acee/iua e?eoa?ee
iaaeinoeaeeiinoe aaiiaioa e niiniau iiaaaeaiey. Ia aaeaaaynue a
iiae?iaiinoe, ioiaoei, /oi anee aicieeatho i?iaeaiu i?e ia?aaea/a
ienueia, oi aeaeaaony iaeioi?ia /enei iiiuoie ia?aaea/e /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, iinea /aai — anee i?iaeaiu
nio?aieeenue — ienueii aoaeao aica?auaii ioi?aaeoaeth n ioiaoeie i
iaaeinoeaeeiinoe aae?anaoa.

Iooue ienueia, ana n?iee aai ia?anueee aeieoiaioe?othony. Eo iiaeii
iiniio?aoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, auaaaey ia ye?ai caaieiaie ienueia.

No?oeoo?a yeaeo?iiiiai ienueia

Yeaeo?iiiia ienueii eiaao /aoeoth no?oeoo?o, iicaieythuoth aio aeinoe/ue
aae?anaoa a ethaie oi/ea ieaiaou. Iiyoiio aeey iaienaiey ienueia
eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea oi?iao
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou. Eiia/ii iiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue ienueii a ethaii
oaenoiaii ?aaeaeoi?a, ii /oiau ioi?aaeoue aai, oaeno iaaei aoaeao
eiii?oe?iaaoue a ii/oiaoth i?ia?aiio.

Yeaeo?iiiia ienueii eiaao ianeieueei iieae, eioi?ua ioaeii caiieieoue
aei ioi?aaee.

From «Io eiai» Ii oiie/aieth a yoi iiea aaoiiaoe/anee iiaenoaaeyaony Aao
ee/iue ii/oiaue aae?an. Iaeioi?ua ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho
ioi?aaeoue ienueii io eiaie ae?oaiai iieueciaaoaey a i?aaiecaoeee.
*anoi yoi iiea «ii oiie/aieth» aeaaea e ia ioia?aaeaaony ia ye?aia.

Oi «Eiio» Iaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea. A iaai aiineony aae?an
/aeiaaea, eioi?iio i?aaeiacia/aii ienueii i?aaeoaey ienueia, a a iiea
oaiu — oaia i?eoaaeoaai ienueia n aeiaaaeaieai a ia/aei neiaieia Re (io
reply).

NN «Eiiey» A yoi iaiaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea iiaeii caianoe
yeaeo?iiiua aae?ana oao ethaeae, eiio Au oioeoa iai?aaeoue eiiee
ienueia.

ANN «Iaaeaeeiay eiiey» Iaiaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea. A iaai
caiinyony aae?ana ethaeae, eioi?ui iaaei ioi?aaeoue eiiee ienueia, ii
oae /oiau aae?anao ia ciae, /oi eiiee ienueia ioi?aaeaiu aua eiio-eeai
(aae?ana a iiea NN ?annueathony anai iieo/aoaeyi ienueia).

Subject «Oaia» Iaiaycaoaeueiia, ii aeaeaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea.
Iiea oaeiaii iniaaiii aeey i?eaioaoeee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ienueii
nio?aiaii a a?oeaa.

Oaeno ienueia. A yoii iiea Au, nianoaaiii aiai?y, e ieoaoa naii ienueii.

4.2 Yeaeo?iiiua aae?ana a Internet

Yeaeo?iiiue aae?an a Eioa?iao anaaaea eiaao aeae
[email protected]+.domen?.domen2. … domen

Postbox — yoi eiy ii/oiaiai yueea aae?anaoa. Ca ciaeii eiae/aneiai «e»,
/anoi iacuaaaiiai «niaa/eie», neaaeoao aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia eioi?ii
yoio yuee iaoiaeeony. Aae?an iaaei aaiaeeoue aac ioeaie, oae eae ethaay
aaeeie/iay ioeaea i?eaaaeao e iaaiciiaeiinoe aeinoaaee yeaeo?iiiiai
ienueia.

?aaioaoue n oaeeie aae?anaie ia i/aiue oaeiaii. Iiyoiio ii/oiaua
i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho oeacuaaoue a iiea aae?ana iau/iua eiaia, iai?eia?,
«Ivanov S.». Ii i?e yoii a aae?aniie eieaeea i?ia?aiiu aeieaeii auoue
oeacaii niioaaonoaea aeaiiiai eiaie yeaeo?iiiiio aae?ano. Ienueii aoaeao
ioi?aaeaii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aeey aeaiiiai eiaie aoaeao iaeaeai
niioaaonoaothuee aio yeaeo?iiiue aae?an. Aeiaieueii /anoi aicieeatho
neooaoeee, eiaaea ii/oo i?eoiaeeony ?annueaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ii iaeiei e
oai aea aae?anai. A yoii neo/aa ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho
noi?ie?iaaoue nienie ?annueee. Nicaeaa ii i?aaeeai i?ia?aiiu yoio nienie
e aeeth/ea a iaai ana iaiaoiaeeiua aae?ana (iiaeii, iai?eia?, iiiauaoue
a iaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeieoiaiou, a aeaeueiaeoai aeinoaoi/ii aoaeao
oeacaoue a iiea aae?ana eiy yoiai nienea, /oiau ienueii auei ioi?aaeaii
anai aai /eaiai).

4.3 O?aaiaaiey e oaenoo ienueia

Oaeno iau/iiai yeaeo?iiiiai ienueia iiaeao niaea?aeaoue oieueei
ASCII-neiaieu. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ienueii ia iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay
neiaieu oi?iaoe?iaaiey oaenoa (auaeaeaiey iieoaee?iui, eo?neaii,
?acia?ii eaaey, aueeth/eie e o.i.). Iiyoiio, anee oaeno iiaeaioiaeai a
ae?oaii ?aaeaeoi?a, oi ii iiaeao auoue anoaaeai a ienueii oieueei eae
nio?aiaiiue aac oi?iaoe?iaaiey (text only).Ia i?aeoeea i?eiyoi
eniieueciaaoue aeey auaeaeaiey oaenoa a ienueia neaaeothuea i?eaiu:
/oiau auaeaeeoue iaeii eee ianeieueei neia a i?aaeeiaeaiee, eo ia/eiatho
e caeai/eaatho n neiaiea iiae/a?eeaaiey. Neaaeoao oaeaea o/eouaaoue, /oi
ia ?acia? ienueia nouanoaotho ia?aie/aiey, iaeeaaeuaaaiua i?ia?aiiaie,
i?iecaiaeyueie ni?oe?iaeo e ia?anueeo ienai. Oae, eiino?aiiua ii/oiaua
na?aa?a ia ia?anueatho ienai, aieueoeo 1 Iaaeoa. Iaeioi?ua noa?ua
ii/oiaua nenoaiu a iaoae no?aia eiatho ia?aie/aiey ia iauai ienueia
ieiei 60 Eaaeo. Oaeie iauai ?aaeei aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao oieueei iaeiiai
oaenoa. Iau/ii yoi naycaii n ia?anueeie aioo?e ienueia oaeeia.

I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi ec-ca eiaee?iaee oaeea aai iauai
aic?anoaao i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 20%; iiyoiio iaeneiaeueiue enoiaeiue
?acia? oaeea, eioi?ue iiaeii ia?aneaoue a ienueia, aeieaeai auoue
niioaaonoaaiii oiaiueoai.

I?e eioaineaiie ia?aienea nyeiiiieoue a?aiy iiiiaeao aiciiaeiinoue
i?ia?aiiu aaoiiaoe/anee anoaaeyoue a oaeno ienueia ca?aiaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiua o?acu. Iai?eia?, iiaeii oeacaoue, /oiau a eiiaoe ienueia
aaoiiaoe/anee anoaaeyeenue neiaa i?iuaiey e oaieeey.

Ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu eiatho ?aaeei ioaaoa aaoi?o ienueia. A yoii neo/aa
aaoiiaoe/anee nicaeaaony ienueii, a iiea aae?ana eioi?iai oeacuaaaony
aae?an aaoi?a ienueia, a a oaeno Aaoaai ienueia aeeth/aaony oaeno
ienueia, ia eioi?ia ieoaony ioaao (oeeoe?iaaiea ienueia). *oiau
ioee/eoue oeeoe?iaaiiue oaeno, eaaeaeay no?iea aai ia/eiaaony n neiaiea
«>» e /anoi, a ia/aea no?iee oeacuaathony eieoeeaeu aaoi?a yoiai oaenoa.

Oi?ioei oiiii n/eoaaony oeeoe?iaaiea ienueia oieueei a iaiaoiaeeiii
iauaia.

Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou au?aaioaeny naie aea?aii,
eioi?ue aanueia /anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue a ienueiao. Ia?a/ie nie?auaiee
eaaei iiaeii iieo/eoue n aeeaeaeoeo BBS eee io oao, eoi aeaaii
?aaioathueo n yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie.

4.4 Ia?anueea oaeeia a ienueia

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, a ienueia iiaeii ia?anueaoue oaeeu. Oae eae aeey
yoiai oaeeu iiaeaa?aathony niaoeeaeueiiio eiaee?iaaieth, aeeaaeuaaoue eo
a ienueii neaaeoao niioaaonoaothueie eiiaiaeaie i?ia?aiiu. Anee
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ?acia? ienueia iinea yoiai i?aauneo nouanoaothuee
eeieo, oi oaee iiaeii ?ac?acaoue ia ianeieueei eoneia e ia?aneaoue a
niioaaonoaothuai /enea ienai.

Naiue i?inoie niinia aeey yoiai — yoi a?oeae?iaaoue oaee n ?ac?aceie aai
ia /anoe ioaeiiai ?acia?a.

4.5 Naienoaa ienueia

Eaaeaeia ienueii eiaao ianeieueei i?eciaeia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
i?aaeea ?aaiou i?ia?aiiu n iei e iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu iieueciaaoaeai.
Ioiaoei eeoue iniiaiua.

I?ei?eoao ienueia. Ia ii/oiauo na?aa?ao iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii, /oi
ia?aaioea ii/ou e ioi?aaea aa inouanoaeyaony, iai?eia?, eaaeaeua 15
ieioo a ii?yaeea iauae i/a?aaee. Anee iaaei, /oiau ienueii auei
iacaiaaeeeoaeueii ioi?aaeaii aia anyeie i/a?aaee, oi neaaeoao
onoaiiaeoue aeey iaai «aunieee i?ei?eoao».

Niiauaiey i aeinoaaea. Iiaeii onoaiiaeoue a naienoaao ienueia, /oiau
aaoiiaoe/anee aue iai?aaeai ioaao, eae oieueei ienueii aoaeao
aeinoaaeaii aei ii/oiaiai yueea aae?anaoa eee, eae oieueei ii i?i/oao
aai.

Caaieiaie ienueia. I/aiue iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii ecaea/ue ec
caaieiaea ienueia, a iai oeacuaathony eae ana ii/oiaua nenoaiu, /a?ac
eioi?ua ienueii auei aeinoaaeaii, oae e a?aiy eo i?ioiaeaeaiey.

4.6 Nienee ?annueee

Ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho ioi?aaeyoue ienueia ia oieueei iaeiiio
aae?anaoo, ii e i?aaieciauaaoue ?annueeo ii nieneo aae?ania. I?e/ai
i?ia?aiio iiaeii iano?ieoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ienueia, aae?aniaaiiua
ia eaeie-oi eiie?aoiue aae?an, aaoiiaoe/anee ?annueaeenue a niioaaonoaee
n eiathueiny nieneii.

Oaeie na?aen a Eioa?iao iacuaaaony nienie ?annueee. Iauyaeyaony oaia, ii
eioi?ie aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai iiaieyie, oeacuaaaony aae?an, ia
eioi?ue ioaeii iai?aaeyoue naie ienueia. Ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeea
aeeth/aiey Aaoaai aae?ana a yoio nienie ?annueee (iiaeienea). Iau/ii —
oae aea eae e aeey eiioa?aioeee — aeey iiaeienee ia aeaiiue nienie
?annueee ioaeii ioi?aaeoue ienueii ni no?ieie.

I?aeiouanoaa eniieueciaaiey nieneia ?annueee — yoi iia?aoeaiinoue
iieo/aiey iiaie eioi?iaoeee anaie caeioa?aniaaiiuie noi?iiaie.

4.7 Eiioa?aioeee

Aiiaua aiai?y, eiioa?aioeee — yoi oaeoe/anee oio aea aaoiiaoe/anee
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue nienie ?annueee yeaeo?iiiuo ienai ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
oaiaoeeai. A ?aieao oaiu eiioa?aioeee Au ieoaoa ienueii, ioi?aaeyaoa
aai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue aae?an, — e ienueii aoaeao aaoiiaoe/anee ?acineaii
anai, eoi iiaeienaeny ia aeaiioth eiioa?aioeeth. Eiioa?aioeee
ioee/athony io nieneia ?annueee oai, /oi niiauaiey a ieo ?annueathony ia
eiie?aoiiio iieueciaaoaeth, a o?aiyony ii iiiaei na?aa?ai, niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiui aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey eiioa?aioeee. Ia yoeo na?aa?ao
niiauaiey iaoiaeyony ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, caoai oaeaeythony.
Iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo iaiai iaaeaeo na?aa?aie iiauie niiauaieyie.

Eiioa?aioeee — aeeaie i?aaieci. Iie nouanoaotho, iiea anoue ethaee,
ieoouea a ieo. Iie oie?atho, anee aaoi?u oa?ytho e iei eioa?an. *enei
niiauaiee a eiioa?aioeee ioee/aaony io oaiu e oaia: anoue eiioa?aioeee,
aaeaaeiaaiia /enei niiauaiee eioi?uo en/eneyaony aeanyoeaie, anoue
eiioa?aioeee n iaeiei-aeaoiy niiauaieyie a ianyoe. Iau/ii ia na?aa?a
iiainoae iiaeii oaeaeaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ianeieueei ouny/ oai
eiioa?aioeee. A i?eioeeia ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea i?aaieciaaoue e iiaoth
eiioa?aioeeth, ii, eae i?aaeei, i?aaeiieaaaaiay oaiaoeea oaea io?aaeaia
a eaeie-eeai ec nouanoaothueo eiioa?aioeee.

O/anoaoy a eiioa?aioeeyo, iiaeii anaaaea iaoiaeeony a eo?na iineaaeieo
niauoee, iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeioth eiinoeueoaoeeth e iiiiuue.

N ?acaeoeai eiioa?aioeee niaa?oainoaiaaeny e iaoaieci /oaiey iiainoae.
Iaeaieaa oaeiaiui yaeyaony /oaiea eiioa?aioeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
«iiainoiuo» eiiiuethoa?ia. Aeey yoiai, iai?eia?, iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia i?ia?aiia Microsoft Internet Explorer. Au oeacuaaaoa a iae
na?aa?, ia eioi?ii o?aiyony niiauaiey eiioa?aioeee, auae?aaoa
(iiaeienuaaaoanue) aeaeaaiua oaiu e anei?a iinea yoiai aeaeeoa ia ye?aia
caaieiaee niiauaiee.

Ioia/aiiua niiauaiey eiie?othony ia eiiiuethoa?, e iiaeii i?i/eoaoue eo
oaeno. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaenou eiioa?aioeee iiaeii neiie?iaaoue ia
eiiiuethoa? e i?i/eoaoue eo oaea iinea caaa?oaiey naaina nayce n
i?iaaeaea?ii. I?ia?aiia aaoiiaoe/anee ioneaaeeaaao iiaua niiauaiey,
iiaeii, iai?eia?, auaanoe ia ye?ai oieueei iai?i/eoaiiua ienueia eee aea
nio?aieoue ia naiai eiiiuethoa?a ioia/aiiua iiainoe.

Aeey ?aaiou yoie i?ia?aiiu iaiaoiaeeii iiaeeeth/aiea ii i?ioieieo IP.
Anee aea ia eiiiuethoa?a eiaaony oieueei yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa, oi iiaeii
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo ii i?eioeeio iiaeienee. Ia aaoiiaoe/aneee ii/oiaue
na?aa? (aai aae?an ioaeii ooi/ieoue o i?iaaeaea?ia) ieoaony ienueii, a
oaenoa eioi?iai oeacuaaaony neaaeothuay no?iea:

Subscribe- iacaaiea eiioa?aioeee

Yoi ienueii aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aaaouaaaony, e ana niiauaiey eiioa?aioeee
aoaeoo ia?anueaoueny ia Aao ii/oiaue yuee. Aeey ioeaca io iiaeienee
neaaeoao ioi?aaeoue neaaeothuaa ienueii:

Unsubscribe- iacaaiea eiioa?aioeee

Aiiaua aiai?y, iieiue nienie eiiaiae ii/oiaiai na?aa?a iiaeii iieo/eoue,
anee ioineaoue ienueii n iaeiei neiaii «help».

Aeey eaaeaeie eiioa?aioeee nouanoaotho i?aaeea, eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny. Yoe i?aaeea ia?eiaee/anee ?annueathony anai
iiaeien/eeai. Iau/ii ia iaeeaaeuaaaony ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee, e?iia
o?aaiaaiee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oaiaoeee eiioa?aioeee, cai?aoa ee/iie
ia?aienee e inei?aeaiee o/anoieeia.

Eiioa?aioeee auaatho ia iiaeaee?oaiua e iiaeaee?oaiua. A ia?aii neo/aa
ethaia ienueii a eiioa?aioeeth aoaeao aaoiiaoe/anee ?acineaii anai
o/anoieeai. Ai aoi?ii — iii nia/aea iiiaaeaao e iiaea?aoi?o, eioi?ue
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea, noieo ee yoi ienueii iai?aaeyoue anai iiaeien/eeai. A
eaaeaeii aa?eaioa anoue naie iethnu e ieionu, ii anee Au n /ai-oi
i?eioeeieaeueii ia niaeaniu, oi anaaaea iiaeaoa i?aaieciaaoue naith
eiioa?aioeeth.

5. WWW

Iaeaieaa iiioey?iui a iineaaeiaa a?aiy yaeyaony iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee n
oae iacuaaaiuo WWW-na?aa?ia ii i?ioieieo http.

Iacaaiea WWW — World Wide Web — auei aaaaeaii Tim Berners-Lee
(eaai?aoi?ey CERN). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoei oa?ieiii, eiiaaea
ia?aaiaeeiui eae anaie?iay iaooeia, i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue niaieoiiinoue
aeieoiaioia ai anai ie?a, eioi?ua eiatho aeia?oaenoiaua nnueee (nnueee
ia ae?oaea aeieoiaiou, a oii /enea e ia ae?oaeo na?aa?ao) e iiaoo auoue
i?iniio?aiu n eniieueciaaieai i?ioieiea http.

WWW-na?aa?a (eee Web-na?aa?a) i?aaeinoaaeytho a Internet oaenoiaoth e
a?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth. Iau/ii yoa eioi?iaoeey ioi?ieaia aiaeiae/ii
no?aieoeai «aoiaaeiiai aeieoiaioa», oae /oi i?eiyoi aiai?eoue, /oi a
naoue i?aaeinoaaeyaony «no?aieoea eioi?iaoeee». Eaaeaeue aeieoiaio
iiaeao niaea?aeaoue iiiai aioo?aiieo nnueie. Ii ana aea iaeia no?aieoea
aoaeao yaeyoueny aeaaiie, ia/aeueiie. Aa iacuaatho «home page». Anee ia
iaeiii na?aa?a iaoiaeeony ianeieueei oai aeieoiaioia, ia naycaiiuo ae?oa
n ae?oaii nnueeaie, oi aiai?yo, /oi ia na?aa?a iaoiaeeony ianeieueei
home pages. Iau/ii yoi naienoaaiii na?aa?ai oe?i, i?aaeinoaaeythueo
oneoae iiaeaea?aeaiey home pages noi?iiiei i?aaiecaoeeyi.

Anee inouanoaeyaony eiioaeo n oaeaeaiiui WWW-na?aa?ii, oi a ieia
i?ia?aiiu iiyaeony ecia?aaeaiea no?aieoeu aeieoiaioa. Iau/ii
?ac?aaio/eee no?aieoeu i?eeaaatho iiiai oneeee, /oiau no?aieoea «oi?ioi
niio?aeanue». Iie eniieuecotho aeey ioi?ieaiey ?acee/iua oeaaoa,
iiiai/eneaiiua oeaaoiua eeethno?aoeee e ioeueoeieeeaoeee. Nia?aiaiiua
i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho aeaaea aeeth/aoue a no?aieoeo aoaeei- e aeaeai
eeeiu. Eiia/ii, iauai ia?anueaaiie ii naoe eioi?iaoeee i?e yoii ?acei
oaaee/eaaaony e ?ac?aaio/eeai i?eoiaeeony auae?aoue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
nei?inoueth iieo/aiey no?aie/ee iieueciaaoaeai e aiciiaeiinoyie aa
ioi?ieaiey.

Aeey i?iniio?a oaeeo no?aieoe iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu,
a oii /enea iiiai i?ia?aii i?aaeinoaaeyaony aanieaoii. N?aaee ieo —
i?ia?aiia Microsoft Internet Explorer. Yoa i?ia?aiia nouanoaoao a
aa?neyo aeey Windows 3.11, Windows’95, Windows NT. A ea/anoaa aoi?ie
iaeaieaa iiioey?iie i?ia?aiiu neaaeoao iacaaoue Netscape Navigator. Ai
iiiaii yoe i?ia?aiiu aiaeiae/iu, ii iaeioi?ua aa?eaiou ioi?ieaiey
no?aieoe ?acee/ii aini?iecaiaeyony eaaeaeie ec ieo. I?e/ai /anoi aeaei
aeona, eaeiio aa?eaioo ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea.

Aeey ia/aea ?aaiou n WWW neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue naycue ii IP-i?ioieieo,
ioe?uoue i?ia?aiio i?iniio?a e iaa?aoue a no?iea aae?ana http:
\\aae?an_na?aa?a. *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, ii?aaeaeyaiay i?aaeaea anaai
ea/anoaii eaiaea nayce, ia ye?ai aoaeao auaaaeaia home page oaeaeaiiiai
na?aa?a. Iaeioi?ua neiaa aoaeoo ioia/aiu ae?oaei oeaaoii. Yoi
aeia?oaenoiaua nayce. Uaeeioa iuoueth ii oaeiio auaeaeaiiiio neiao (eee
eeethno?aoeee), iiaeaoue eiiaiaeo aeey auaiaea ia ye?ai
aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay naycaia n aeaiiui oa?ieiii. I?e/ai
i?ia?aiia ninoaaeaia oaeei ia?acii, /oi iiaeii iiianoue i?e yoii ia
ae?oaie na?aa?, iiaeao auoue aeaaea a ae?oaie no?aia. Iooaoanoaoy oaeei
ia?acii, iiaeii iieo/eoue iiiai iiaie e iieaciie eioi?iaoeee.

6. Iiene eioi?iaoeee a Internet

A Internet iiaeii iaeoe i?aeoe/anee ana: eoeeia?iua ?aoeaiou e
ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou i?aaeoaeuenoa, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e
eioi?iaoeeth ii iiaui aaoiiiaeeyi, yeaeo?iiiua aacaou e eeoau ii
eioa?anai…

I?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii iacaaoue oaio, eioi?iaoeee ii eioi?ie iao a
Internet.

Eiee/anoai eiiiuethoa?ia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e Internet, ii ?aciui ioeaieai
aeinoeaaao 15-30 ieeeeiiia. Aeanyoee ouny/ eiiiuethoa?ia ?aaioatho a
?aaeeia on-line (oi anoue aeinooiiu a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie). Iiyoiio
iiene ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee, oi/iaa ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa eiiiuethoa?ia, ia
eioi?uo iia i?aaenoaaeaia, noaiiaeony i/aiue neiaeiie caaea/ae.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aua, /oi iniiaiie iauai eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeai
ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. Oae /oi iaaei ciaoue ia oieueei, /oi eneaoue, ii e
eae yoi i?aaeeueii noi?ioee?iaaoue ia aiaeeeneii ycuea.

6.1 *oi euoo a Eioa?iao

Oaoiieiaey iienea, aae?ana iieneiauo nenoai ioee/athony a caaeneiinoe
io oiai, /oi iaaei iaeoe.

Iau/ii oioyo iaeoe:

• eii?aeeiaou /aeiaaea;

• aeaiiua ii i?aaiecaoeee;

• noaoueth a oaeaeiioa?aioeee;

• WWW-na?aa?;

• WWW-aeieoiaio.

Yoe oaoiieiaee iienea yaeythony iauai?eiyouie. I?eaeeceoaeueii ii
iaeeiaeiaui i?aaeeai ?aaioatho nouanoaothuea iieneiaua nenoaiu.

6.2 Oa?ieiieiaey

?acee/atho aeaa oeia iienea. Aiai?yo, /oi i?iecaiaeeony white-iiene,
anee oi/ii ecaanoiu ia?aiao?u iienea.

I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue, iai?eia?, iiene yeaeo?iiiuo aacao NOA,
ieooueo i nii?oa e o.i. A?aieoea iaaeaeo yoeie oeiaie iienea oneiaia.
Iau/ii white-iiene niaea?aeeo a naaa iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou yellow-iienea.

Whois – na?aa?a. Yoe na?aa?a i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey white-iienea a naoyo e
aieueoeo aacao aae?ania. ?aaioa n oaeei na?aa?ii i?iecaiaeeony ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai. *anoue na?aa?ia aeinooiia /a?ac WWW-oceu, /anoue
— /a?ac i?ia?aiio telnet.

Finger. Iieneiaay nenoaia aeey onoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo iieueciaaoaey ii aai
ii/oiaiio aae?ano. Eeeaioneay /anoue onoaiaaeeaaaony a Windows
iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioieieii TCP/IP. Iauai auaiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee ii
iieueciaaoaeth caaeneo io iieiiou ?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo aeaiiuo. E?iia yoiai
auaiaeeony aeaoa iineaaeiaai /oaiey ii/ou.

O500. Aeiaaeueiay ni?aai/iay neoaeaa, iauaaeeiythuay eieaeueiua
ni?aai/iua nenoaiu. Aeinooi e iae aiciiaeai /a?ac WWW-na?aa?a, eee
aeaaea ii/oiaui cai?inii.

Search engine. Iieneiaue na?aa? WWW-aeieoiaioia. Iau/ii iiene
i?iecaiaeeony ii eeth/aaui neiaai niioaaonoaothueo WWW-aeieoiaioia.
Aieueoeinoai iieneiauo na?aa?ia iicaieytho aaiaeeoue oneiaey ia
eeth/aaua neiaa (iai?eia?, oa?ieiu a oaenoa aeieoiaioa aeieaeiu
ano?aoeoueny ?yaeii) e ia?aie/eaaoue ciio iienea ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiaoeeie
(iieeoeea, nii?o, Eioa?iao e o.i.). Nouanoaotho iieneiaua na?aa?a,
eioi?ua o?ainee?otho naie cai?in ia ianeieueei ?acee/iuo iieneiauo
nenoai. Ii, o/eouaay, /oi i?e ia?aii iienea eiee/anoai iaeaeaiiuo
aeieoiaioia n eaaeaeiai na?aa?a iiaeao en/eneyoueny aeanyoeaie ouny/,
eniieueciaaoue eo neaaeoao oieueei aeey oaeoaeaiiiai iienea n /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiuie e?eoa?eyie.

Yellow Pages. Iieneiaue na?aa? i?aaiecaoeee.

Index sites. Na?aa?a, niaea?aeauea aieueoia eiee/anoai nnueie ia ae?oaea
na?aa?a (eee aeieoiaiou). Aiciiaeiinoe iienea iau/ii ia?aie/aiu
nouanoaothueie nnueeaie.

6.3 Oaoiieiaey iienea

A naoe ?aaioaao cia/eoaeueiia /enei ni?aai/iuo nenoai. Iaeioi?ua aae?ana
i?eaaaeaiu a I?eeiaeaiee. «Caeaey» ia oeacaiiue na?aa?, iieo/aaoue ia
ye?aia oi?io cai?ina, a eioi?oth iaaei aaanoe eioi?iaoeeth aeey iienea.
Iau/ii a oi?ia nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aie/aiey ciiu iienea
(iai?eia?, ii oaiaoeea). Iiaeii aaanoe ioaeiue oa?iei, ii?aaeaeeoue
iaeanoue iienea e iiiuoaoueny iieo/eoue ioaao.

Iiene i?iecaiaeeony aaoiiaoe/anee ia aaca o/aoa eiee/anoaa iaeaeaiiuo
neia ia na?aa?a. Ia eiiiuethoa? aoaeao ia?aaeaia ia?aay a?oiia
iaeaeaiiuo nnueie n eo/oeie iieacaoaeyie ii /eneo iaeaeaiiuo aoiaeaeaiee
eneiiuo neia. *anoi aianoa n nnueeie iiaeao auoue auaaaeaia e?aoeay
eioi?iaoeey ii aeieoiaioo. Anee n?aaee iaeaeaiiuo aeieoiaioia iao
ioaeiuo, oi iiaeii auaanoe neaaeothuoth a?oiio — iauaa /enei aeieoiaioia
iau/ii en/eneyaony ouny/aie. Aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aeoe ia na?aa?, ia
eioi?ii iaoiaeeony iaeaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey, aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi uaeeiooue
ii nnueea a ?acoeueoaoa iienea.

Iau/ii iiene ii ia?a eeth/aauo neia i?eaiaeeo e iieo/aieth aeanyoeia
ouny/ nnueie ia aeieoiaiou, niaea?aeauea yoe oa?ieiu. Oaeie iauai
?acoeueoaoia ?aaeei iicaieyao yooaeoeaii iouneaoue «aeai/oaeeio» n?aaee
ia eiathueo ioiioaiey e oaia iienea iaoa?eaeia. *oi iiaeii
iiniaaoiaaoue?

Ai-ia?auo, nocueoa ciio iienea. Iiiuoaeoanue ii?aaeaeeoue ia na?aa?ao
eaeiai i?ioeey, a eaeie no?aia e o.i. iaeaieaa aa?iyoii iiaeii
ano?aoeoue eioa?anoaiua iaoa?eaeu. Iiaeoiaeoa, eaeea ae?oaea eeth/aaua
neiaa iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iauaeou iienea, eniieueciaaoue ianeieueei
eeth/aauo neia.

Anee iauaeoii iienea oeacaiu ianeieueei oa?ieiia, oi iieneiaay nenoaia
euao aoiaeaeaiea eaaeaeiai neiaa a aeieoiaio iacaaeneii. Oi anoue,
iiaeii ?acoeueoaoii iienea iieo/eoue aeieoiaio, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo
oieueei iaeii neiai, ii ianeieueei ?ac. Iiyoiio i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
oa?ieiia, ii eioi?ui i?iecaiaeeony iiene, iiaeii e ioaeii eniieueciaaoue
eiae/aneea iia?aoeee.

Iai?eia?, aaiae neiai_1&neiai_2 canoaaeo eneaoue oa no?aieoeu, aaea
oiio?aaeai eae ia?aue, oae e aoi?ie oa?iei.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe iiene ii anai ecaanoiui iieneiaui
nenoaiai. A eaaeaeie ec ieo eniieuecoaony naiy, ianeieueei ioee/athuayny
io ae?oaeo oaoiieiaey iienea. Iiyoiio aaniethoii aiaeiae/iua iienee
iiaoo i?eaanoe e ?acee/athueiny ?acoeueoaoai. Aieueoeinoai iieneiauo
nenoai aanieaoiua, iiyoiio ie/oi ia iaoaao i?iaiaeeoue noieueei
iia?aoeee iienea, neieueei ioaeii.

A-o?aoueeo, i/aiue /anoi ?acoeueoao iiaeao i?eianoe iiene aeieoiaioia ia
iniiaa aiciiaeiuo nnueie ia ieo.

Ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea ecaanoiua aeieoiaiou iiaoo niaea?aeaoue
oiiieiaiea ioaeiuo oai. E oaea /a?ac aeia?oaenoiaua nayce a aeieoiaioao
aueoe ia aeaeaaiue enoi/iee. *anoi yoio iooue yooaeoeaai. Iiiuoaeoanue
iaeoe i?aaiecaoeee (WWW-na?aa?a), eiathuea i?ioeeue, noiaeiue n oaiie
iienea. Eiiaaea, /a?ac nnueee a aeieoiaioao yoeo na?aa?ia iiaeii aueoe
ia ioaeiua iaoa?eaeu.

A-/aoaa?ouo, iiiuoaeoanue iaeoe eiioa?aioeeth ii noiaeiie oaiaoeea.
*anoi aii?in, «a?ioaiiue» a oaeaeiioa?aioeeth, iicaieyao iieo/eoue
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai ni?aai/iie eioi?iaoeee.

7. *oi aua aiciiaeii a Eioa?iao

7.1 Telnet

Aua iaeia o?aaeeoeeiiiay i?ia?aiia. N iiiiuueth aa iiaeii
iiaeeeth/eoueny e ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o e caioneaoue i?ia?aiiu oaea ia
iai. Iau/ii telnet eniieuecoaony aeey oaeaeaiiuo iano?iae eiiiuethoa?a e
eniieueciaaiey na?aenia ia UNIX-eiiiuethoa?ao. *oiau ae
ainiieueciaaoueny, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia?ieue e eiy
aoiaea ia iaai.

7.2 «Eiiiaou niaauaiee», «aeeaay ?a/ue»

Oaea nae/an nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ?acaiaa?eaaoue /a?ac Eioa?iao eae
ii oaeaoiio. Nouanoaotho aeaaea niaoeeaeueiua eiioa?aioeee, /a?ac
eioi?ua iiaeii iaeoe ia?oia?a aeey ?acaiai?a. Aeey i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai
?acaiai?a ia eiiiuethoa?a aeieaeia auoue onoaiiaeaia caoeiaay ieaoa e
iee?ioii. Ooeeeou aeey ia?aaea/e ?a/aaiai niiauaiey iau/ii eaaei
aeinooiiu. Ii aeey aiciiaeiinoe ?acaiai?a iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau eaiae nayce
eiae ?aaeueioth i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo eeeiaaeo a
naeoiaeo. Ii a oneiaeyo iaoae no?aiu yoi i?aeoe/anee ia auiieieii aeey
aieueoeinoaa aaiiaioia.

Iiyoiio iu aeaaea e ia aoaeai oiiieiaoue i aiciiaeiinoe i?aaieciauaaoue
/a?ac Eioa?iao aeaeaieiioa?aioeee.

A aio nicaeaoue ae?ooaeueioth «eiiiaoo aeey ia?aaiai?ia» iiaeii. A yoii
aa?eaioa i?ia?aiia iaania/eaaao acaeiioth naycue ianeieueeeo /aeiaae. Au
iaae?aaoa ia ye?aia oaeno, e yoio oaeno iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony ia
ye?aia eiiiuethoa?ia anao iieueciaaoaeae, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e aeaiiie
«eiiiaoa». Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaoo aaiaeeoue oaeno ethaia eiee/anoai
ethaeae, ia ye?aia eo no?i/ee iaicia/athony eieoeeaeaie. I?ia?aiia aeey
i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai iaiaia aoiaeeo a ninoaa MS IE 3.0. Nouanoaotho e
oi?iuaiiua aa?eaiou, eioi?ua i?aaiecotho «?acaiai?» a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia
a?aiaie oieueei aeaoo /aeiaae (aiaeiae/ii i?ia?aiia Chat ec ninoaaa
Windows).

Ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey aeiaaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae i?aeoe/anee
aaca?aie/iu. Ii oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth eo iiea iaoaao ieceia ea/anoai
nayce e aei?iaiaecia oneoa i?iaaeaea?ia…

EEOA?AOO?A

Eaiei A. I., Ia/aieeia I. N., IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaeae. –
Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1993 – 1997 a.a.

Oao?ei TH. A., Iniiau eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee. – I. AAO. 1997 a.

Eaio Ieoa?, Eioa?iao. – I., THIEOE, 1996 a.

Aeaieaeiae/ A. I., Ia?ii E. A., Iniiau au/eneeoaeueiie iaoaiaoeee,
1960 a.

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