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Системное автоматизированное проектирование

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?aaeeioaoieee,

Yeaeo?iieee e Aaoiiaoeee

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Einoeooo(Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao)

N.A.Oeoia

Eaeoeee ii aeenoeeieeia:

“Nenoaiiia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea”

1996

EAEOeEss (1

Oaia: “Nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?ioeann

?ac?aaioee ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u”

OeAEUe CAIssOEss:

1. Iciaeiieoue n iniiaiuie iiiyoeyie nenoaiiiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey a i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

2. Eco/eoue no?oeoo?o nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai iaania/aiey.

A?aiy: 2 /ana

Eeoa?aoo?a: Aooaeia A.A. e ae?. Ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee ia YAI. I.:
?aaeei e naycue, 1987, no?. 119-124.

IAUEA NAAAeAIEss I I?IAEOE?IAAIEE

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii inoaiiaeiny ia ?anniio?aiee ?yaea iiiyoee.

NENOAIA – oeaeinoiia ia?aciaaiea, ninoiyuaa ec acaeiinaycaiiuo
(acaeiiaeaenoaothueo) eiiiiiaio, (yeaiaioia, /anoae) e iaeaaeathuaa
naienoaaie, ia naiaeeiuie e naienoaai yoeo eiiiiiaio e ia auaiaeeiuie ec
ieo.

A i?eaaaeaiiii ii?aaeaeaiee caoeene?iaaii iniiaiia naienoai nenoaiu – aa
oeaeinoiinoue, aaeeinoai, aeinoeaaaiia /a?ac iin?aaenoai ii?aaeaeaiiuo
acaeiinaycae (acaeiiaeaenoaee) yeaiaioia nenoaiu e i?iyaeythuaany a
aicieeiiaaiee iiauo naienoa, eioi?uie yeaiaiou nenoaiu ia iaeaaeatho.
Aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeeth/aao iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe
eiioeaioeee nenoaiu.

Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeyoue, /oi ?aaeueiua nenoaiu
nouanoaotho a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie e neaaeiaaoaeueii,
acaeiiaeaenoaotho n ie?oaeathuae eo n?aaeie e oa?aeoa?ecothony oaie eee
eiuie ia?aiaiiuie ai a?aiaie aaee/eiaie.

Aaaeiui oaaii ia iooe io aa?aaeueiiai e oi?iaeueiiio ii?aaeaeaieth
nenoaiu yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iiaeaee nenoaiu.

IIAeAEUe – (iaeioi?ie enoiaeiie nenoaiu) nenoaia, a eioi?ie io?aaeathony
ii ii?aaeaeaiiui caeiiai oa eee eiua noi?iiu enoiaeiie nenoaiu.

N?aaee ?acee/iuo niiniaia iiaeaee?iaaiey aaaeiaeoaa ianoi caieiaao
iiaeaee?iaaiea n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa iaoaiaoeee – iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Oi?iaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea nenoaiu ii nouanoao naiaeeony e ii?aaeaeaieth
niioaaonoaothuae iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee.

A iniiao iino?iaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae nenoai iiaeao auoue
iieiaeaii neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea nenoaiu:

NENOAIA – ii?aaeaeyaony caaeaieai iaeioi?ie niaieoiiinoe aaceniuo
iiiaeanoa (yeaiaioia, eiiiiiaio nenoaiu), naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie ?yaeii
ioiioaiee, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo oai eee eiui i?aaeeai (aeneiiai) ni/aoaiey
eae yeaiaioia iiiaeanoa , oae e naieo ioiioaiee.

Iineaaeiaa ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeeo iaiaoiaeeioth iniiao aeey
oi?iaeecaoeee. A i?inoaeoeo neo/ayo yoi ii?aaeaeaiea iienuaaao nenoaio
eae iaeii eee ianeieueei acaeiinaycaiiuo ioiioaiee, caaeaiiuo ia iaeiii
eee ianeieueeeo iiiaeanoaao. A oi aea a?aiy aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea
aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoue ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia oaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey
iaeiie e oie aea nenoaiu, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea eo eiiiiceoeee.
Iineaaeiaa eiaao ianoi a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiiaianiaeoiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoaiu.

I?IAEOE?IAAIEA – eiiieaen ?aaio ii enneaaeiaaieth, ?an/aoai e
eiino?oe?iaaieth iiaiai ecaeaeey eee iiaiai i?ioeanna.

A iniiaa i?iaeoe?iaaiey – ia?ae/iia iienaiea – oaoie/aneia caaeaiea.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea iacuaatho AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIUI, anee inouanoaeyaony
i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iiai iienaiey i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee /aeiaaea n
YAI, e aaoiiaoe/aneei, anee ana i?aia?aciaaiey auiieiythony aac
aiaoaoaeuenoaa /aeiaaea oieueei n eniieueciaaieai YAI.

NENOAIA AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIIAI I?IAEOE?IAAIEss –
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneay nenoaia, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie
iiae?acaeaeaiey i?iaeoiie i?aaiecaoeee e eiiieaen n?aaenoa
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio eciaiaieth iaoiaeia
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Aianoa n oai, nio?aiythony iiiaea iieiaeaiey e i?eioeeiu o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oaeea eae:

iaiaoiaeeiinoue aei/ii-ea?a?oe/aneiai iiaeoiaea,

aeaeaiea i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia yoaiu,

aeaeaiea ia o?iaie i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iauaeoao.

ACAEIIAeAENOAEA ?AC?AAIO*EEIA ?AAeEIYEAEO?IIIIE AIIA?AOO?U

N NENOAIIE AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIIAI I?IAEOE?IAAIEss

I?iaeoe?iaaiea ecaeaeee ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iiiaiyoaiiue i?ioeann (eoa?aoeaiue). A oiaea i?iaeoe?iaaiey
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ooi/iyaony e aeaoaeece?oaony iienaiea aoaeouaai
ecaeaeey. Yoio i?ioeann i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea iiiaeo o?iaiae iienaiey.
Ia ?en.1 ecia?aaeai i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey a aeaea niaieoiiinoe
iniiaiuo yoaiia e ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo ieie, iieacaiu iniiaiua aeaeu
aeieoiaioaoeee , iieo/aaiua i?e auiieiaiee yoaiia.

Iai?eia?, yneeciue i?iaeo yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii yneeciiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yneeciue i?iaeo neoaeeo enoiaeiui
aeieoiaioii aeey oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Ia?aoiaeu io iaeieo yoaiia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ae?oaei a iai?aaeaiee naa?oo
aiec anoanoaaiiu e niioaaonoaotho ii?iaeueiiio oiaeo. Ia?aoiaeu a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo aicieeatho, eiaaea ia iineaaeothueo
noaaeeyo i?iaeoe?iaaiey auyaeyaony iaaiciiaeiinoue i?aeoe/aneie
?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiee, i?eiyouo ia i?aaeoanoaothueo yoaiao. Yoi
canoaaeyao i?iaeoe?iaueeia ia?aniao?eaaoue ?aiaa i?eiyoua
?aoaiey. Eiiaaea ioeaee i?iyaeythony ia yoaiao ecaioiaeaiey na?eeiie
i?iaeoeoeee eee aeaaea a oiaea yenieoaoaoeee.

Yoaiu Aeieoiaioaoeey

?en.1. Yoaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey e auioneaaiay aeieoiaioaoeey

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?ioiaeaeaiey yoaiia ?ac?aaioee ecaeaeey, oeaee e
caaea/e, noiyuea ia?aae i?iaeoe?iaueeaie ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao, ninoaa
i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee e o?aaiaaiey e iae ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu
niioaaonoaothueie AINOaie.

E?aoei ioa?aeoa?ecoai iniiaiua yoaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

IIAeAIOIAEOAEUeIUE YOAI.

Iniiaiay caaea/a – eco/aiea iacia/aiey ecaeaeey, oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee e
i?iecaiaenoa, ia eioi?uo i?aaeiieaaaaony aai ecaioiaeaiea. Oeaeue
yoaia – ?ac?aaioea oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey (OC), a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony
eioi?iaoeey i iacia/aiee , iniiaiuo oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao,
oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee, o?ainii?oe?iaee e o?aiaiey.

YNEECIIA I?IAEOE?IAAIEA.

Iniiaiay caaea/a – ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe ?ac?aaioee ecaeaeey a
niioaaonoaee o?aaiaaieyi OC. I?e yoii ii?aaeaeytho oaoie/aneoth
iniiao ecaeaeey (oece/aneea yeaiaiou e aeaoaee), i?eaioe?iai/ioth
ioeaieo ninoaaa e eiee/anoaa iai?oaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaaouaatho
no?oeoo?o, ii?aaeaeytho oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ecaeaeey e ono?ienoa,
aoiaeyueo a aai ninoaa.

I?e yoii iiaeao auyaeoueny iaaiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey ecaeaeey,
ioaa/athuaai o?aaiaaieyi OC. A yoii neo/aa o?aaoaony ei??aeoe?iaea
OC n iineaaeothuei aai ooaa?aeaeaieai caeac/eeii, eeai aeaeueiaeoay
?ac?aaioea i?ae?auaaony.

OAOIE*ANEIA I?IAEOE?IAAIEA

Caaea/e :

– iiae?iaiay ?ac?aaioea i?eioeeia ?aaiou ecaeaeey e anao aai
ninoaaiuo aeieia;

– ooi/iaiea oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee;

– ?ac?aaioea eiino?oeoeee aeieia, oceia e anaai ecaeaeey;

– iieo/aiea eiino?oeoi?neeo oa?aeoa?enoee;

– niaeaniaaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey anao ninoaaiuo /anoae ecaeaeey;

– ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee eo ecaioiaeaiey;

– ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiaee nai?ee e iaeaaeee, iaoiaeeee e
i?ia?aiiiuo eniuoaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeieaeii auoue iiaeaioiaeaii i?iecaiaenoai iiuoiiai
ia?acoea.

?AAI*AA I?IAEOE?IAAIEA

Iniiaiay caaea/a – ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee e iai?oaeiaaiey
aeey na?eeiiai auionea ecaeaeey.

Aiaae?aiea nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey (NAI?) ia eciaiyao
nooe i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Oai ia iaiaa, oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe
?ac?aaio/eea n aiaae?aieai NAI? nouanoaaiii iaiyaony, oae eae ?ac?aaioea
ecaeaeey a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiii aa?eaioa i?aaeiieaaaao niaeaniaaiiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea iia?aoi?a e YAI. Yoi iaania/eaaao nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoa.

A i?ioeanna aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iia?aoi?a aiceaaathony
oai?/aneea ooieoeee. Eae i?aaeei, yoi naycaii n auai?ii aa?eaioa
?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeaiey no?oeoo?u, iaoiaea ?an/aoa e ae?. Yoe ooieoeee
o?oaeii oi?iaeeciaaoue. Caeanue iiuo e oaeaio eiino?oeoi?a,
eiaeaia?a ii?aaeaeytho eiia/iue ?acoeueoao.

YAI ii?o/atho ?ooeiioth ?aaioo. Ia?a/eneei aa iniiaiua aeaeu:

– o?aiaiea e iaeiieaiea a iaoeiiii a?oeaa naaaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo
?ac?aaio/eeo;

– iiene e auaea/a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ni?aaie ii cai?inai iieueciaaoaey
(oeiiaua ?aoaiey, oa?aeoa?enoeee oceia, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth,
naaaeaiey ia o?iaia caiania eiiieaeoothueo iaoa?eaeia e ae?.);

– iaania/aiea ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey oaenoiaie eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee,
nicaeaaaaiie eiaeaia?ii;

– aaoiiaoe/aneia au/a?/eaaiea a?aoe/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee (/a?oaaee
aeaoaeae, noaiu yeaeo?e/aneea e ae?.);

– ?aoaiea iaeioi?uo /anoiuo, oi?ioi aeai?eoiece?iaaiiuo caaea/,
eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna ecaeaeee. I?eiaiaieoaeueii e ?ac?aaioea
?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u oi?ioi aeai?eoiece?iaaiiuie caaea/aie
yaeythony neaaeothuea:

– iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey oiai eee eiiai ocea ii iienaieth aai
i?eioeeieaeueiie yeaeo?e/aneie noaiu i?e caaeaiiii aoiaeiii
aicaeaenoaee,

– o?anne?iaea niaaeeiaiee ia yoaia eiino?oe?iaaiey ieaou ia/aoiiai
iiioaaea,

– ?an/ao oaieiauo ?aaeeiia oceia aiia?aoo?u,

– iino?iaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iaoiaea oi/ae naa?eaiey ieaou e ae?.

..I?IOeANN I?IAEOE?IAAIEss ECAeAEEE YEAEO?IIIIE OAOIEEE

o?iaiae),

– auaeaeaiey aniaeoia iienaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

O?iaie aano?aae?iaaiey E ?AAeEIYEAEO?IIIIE AIIA?AOO?U

?anniio?ei ianeieueei iiaeaii?inia.

1. O?iaie aano?aae?iaaiey e aniaeou iienaiee i?iaeoe?oaiuo iauaeoia.

Aieueoeinoai aeaeia yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee e ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u,
a oaeaea aieueoea e naa?oaieueoea eioaa?aeueiua noaiu ioiinyony e
neiaeiui nenoaiai.

Aeaaeei ii?aaeaeaiea neiaeiie nenoaiu.

NEIAEIAss NENOAIA – nenoaia, iaeaaeathuay, ii e?aeiae ia?a, iaeiei ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo i?eciaeia:

a) aeiioneaao ?acaeaiea ia iiaenenoaiu, eco/aiea eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo,
n o/aoii aeeyiey ae?oaeo iiaenenoai a ?aieao iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e, eiaao
niaea?aeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?;

a) ooieoeeiie?oao a oneiaeyo nouanoaaiiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e
aicaeaenoaea n?aaeu ia iaa iaoneiaeeaaao neo/aeiue oa?aeoa? eciaiaiey aa
ia?aiao?ia eee no?oeoo?u;

a) inouanoaeyao oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue auai? naiaai iiaaaeaiey.

I?ioeann eo i?iaeoe?iaaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie ?acia?iinoueth
?aoaaiuo caaea/, iaee/eai aieueoiai /enea aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia,
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth o/aoa ?aciiia?aciuo oaeoi?ia.

A iniiaa i?iaeoe?iaaiey neiaeiuo nenoai aei/ii-ea?a?oe/aneee iiaeoiae.
Nouiinoue aei/ii-ea?a?oe/aneiai ninoieo a oiaiueoaiee neiaeiinoe
?aoaaiie i?iaeoiie caaea/e. Yoi inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao:

– auaeaeaiey ?yaea o?iaiae aano?aae?iaaiey (ea?a?oe/aneeo ?acee/athony
noaiaiueth aeaoaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iauaeoa.

Yoaiu ienoiaeyuaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey:

Eiiiiiaiou iauaeoa, ?anniao?eaaaiua eae yeaiaiou ia iaeioi?ii o?iaia n
iiia?ii k, iienuaathony eae iiaenenoaiu ia ninaaeiai o?iaia n iiia?ii
k+1.

Ioiineoaeueii aniaeoia iienaiey iauaeoa.

Aniaeou iiaoo auoue:

– ooieoeeiiaeueiua,

– eiino?oeoi?neea,

– oaoiieiae/aneea.

a) Ooieoeeiiaeueiua aniaeou iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia:

– nenoaiiue,

– ooieoeeiiaeueii- eiae/aneee,

– noaiioaoie/aneee,

– eiiiiiaioiue.

Ia nenoaiiii o?iaia a ea/anoaa nenoai auaeaeytho eiiieaenu. I?eia?aie
eiiieaenia iiaoo auoue YAI, ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay noaioeey. A ea/anoaa
yeaiaioia auaeaeytho aeiee (ono?ienoaa) aiia?aoo?u i?ioeanni?, iiaeai,
ia?aaeao/ee.

Ia ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneii o?iaia yoe aeiee ?anniao?eaatho eae
nenoaiu, ninoiyuea ec yeaiaioia. Yeaiaioaie yaeythony ooieoeeiiaeueiua
oceu – n/ao/eee, aeaoeo?aoi?u, ioaeaeueiua o?eaaa?u, aaioeee, oneeeoaee,
iiaeoeyoi?u e ae?.

Ia noaiioaoie/aneii o?iaia ooieoeeiiaeueiua oceu iienuaathony eae
nenoaiu, ninoiyuea ec yeaiaioia ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiuo noai – o?aicenoi?ia,
eiiaeainaoi?ia, ?acenoi?ia e ae?.

Ia eiiiiiaioiii o?iaia ?anniao?eaathony i?ioeannu, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi
a noaiiuo eiiiiiaioao.

a) Eiino?oeoi?neiio aniaeoo i?enoua naiy ea?a?oey eiiiiiaio. Iia
aeeth/aao ?acee/iua o?iaie iienaiey ?ai, noiae, iaiaeae, oeiiauo
yeaiaioia caiaiu, aeene?aoiuo eiiiiiaio e iee?inoai, oiiieiae/aneeo
o?aaiaioia ooieoeeiiaeueiuo y/aae e ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaio a e?enoaeeao
eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai.

2. Iia?aoeee, i?ioeaaeo?u e yoaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

I?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeaeeony ia yoaiu.

YOAI I?IAEOE?IAAIEss – oneiaii auaeaeaiiay /anoue i?ioeanna
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ninoiyuay ec iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo i?iaeoiuo
i?ioeaaeo?. Iau/ii yoai aeeth/aao i?ioeaaeo?u, eioi?ua naycaiu n
iieo/aieai iienaiey a ?aieao iaeiiai aniaeoa e iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
o?iaiae aano?aae?iaaiey. Eiiaaea a i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey auaeaeytho
oo eee eioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?ioeaaeo? iiae iacaaieai “ia?o?oo
i?iaeoe?iaaiey”.

Yoaiu, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeyony ia i?ioeaaeo?u e iia?aoeee.

I?IOeAAeO?A – oi?iaeeciaaiiay niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee, auiieiaiea
eioi?uo caeai/eaaaony i?iaeoiui ?aoaieai.

I?IAEOIIA ?AOAIEA – i?iiaaeooi/iia eee ieii/aoaeueiia iienaiea iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iaiaoiaeeiia e aeinoaoi/iia aeey ?anniio?aiey e
ii?aaeaeaiey aeaeueiaeoaai iai?aaeaiey eee ieii/aoaeueiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

I?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey
i?ioeaaeo? e yoaiia.

?acee/atho aeaa niiniaa i?iaeoe?iaaiey (aeaa oeia ia?o?ooia):

– ainoiaeyuaa i?iaeoe?iaaiea,

– ienoiaeyuaa i?iaeoe?iaaiea.

Ainoiaeyuaa i?iaeoe?iaaiea (nieco-aaa?o) eiaao ianoi, anee
i?iaeoe?othony oeiiaua iauaeou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey eniieueciaaiey a
ea/anoaa yeaiaioia ai iiiaeo iauaeoao ia aieaa aunieeo o?iaiyo ea?a?oee
(iai?eia?, na?eeiua iee?inoaiu, noaiaea?oiua y/aeee iao?e/iuo aieueoeo
eioaa?aeueiuo noai).

Ienoiaeyuaa i?iaeoe?iaaiea ioaaouaaao oa o?iaie, ia eioi?uo
i?iaeoe?othony iauaeou, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa
yeaiaioia a iaeiie eiie?aoiie nenoaia.

I?iaeoe?iaaieth naienoaaiai eoa?aoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?. I?e yoii
i?eaeeaeaiea e ieii/aoaeueiiio aa?eaioo inouanoaeyaony iooai
iiiaie?aoiiai auiieiaiey iaeiie e oie aea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
i?ioeaaeo? n ei??aeoe?iaeie enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. Eoa?aoeee iiaoo
ioaaouaaoue ?acee/iua /anoe i?iaeoe?iaaiey, aeeth/athuea eae ianeieueei
iia?aoeee, oae e ianeieueei yoaiia.

I?EIA? 1.

– nenoaiioaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (aiaeec oaeoeei-oaoie/aneeo
o?aaiaaiee ia i?iaeoe?oaiue eiiieaen, ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?iuo noai);

– noaiioaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ( ?ac?aaioea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e
i?eioeeieaeueiuo noai);

– eiino?oeoi?neia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ( auai? oi?iu, eiiiiiiaea e ?aciauaiea
eiino?oeoeaia, o?anne?iaea iaaeniaaeeiaiee, ecaioiaeaiea eiino?oeoi?neie
aeieoiaioaoeee);

– oaoiieiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ( ?ac?aaioea ia?o?ooiie e
iia?aoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneie aacu).

I?EIA? 2.

Yoaiu ainoiaeyuaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey AEN:

– i?eai?ii-oaoiieiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (auai? aaciaie oaoiieiaee,
auai? oiiieiaee eiiiiiaioia, ?an/ao aeeoooceiiiiai i?ioeey);

– noaiioaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ( neioac i?eioeeieaeueiie
yeaeo?e/aneie noaiu, iioeiecaoeey ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia, noaoenoe/aneee
aiaeec i?eiaieoaeueii e oeiiaui y/aeeai AEN);

– ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (neioac eiiaeiaoeeiiiuo
noai, ?aaeecaoeey iaiyoe, neioac eiio?iee?othueo e aeeaaiinoe/aneeo
oanoia);

– eiino?oeoi?nei-oiiieiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (?aciauaiea yeaiaioia,
o?anne?iaea iaae- niaaeeiaiee, i?iaa?ea niioaaonoaey oiiieiae/aneie e
yeaeo?e/aneie noai , ?anneiaiea, au/a?/eaaiea iineieiie oaoiieiaee).

3. Eeanneoeeaoeey ia?aiao?ia i?iaeoe?oaiuo iauaeoia.

A iienaieyo i?iaeoe?oaiuo iauaeoia oeao?e?otho ia?aiaiiua e eo
ia?aiao?u. N?aaee ia?aiaiiuo auaeaeytho:

– oaciaua ia?aiaiiua – oa?aeoa?ecotho oece/aneia eee eioi?iaoeeiiiia
ninoiyiea iauaeoa.

Ia?aiao?u ?acaeaeytho ia ?yae a?oii. E eo /eneo iiaeii ioianoe
neaaeothuea:

– aiaoiea ia?aiao?u – oa?aeoa?ecotho naienoaa aiaoiae ii ioiioaieth e
enneaaeoaiiio iauaeoo N?aaiaiea ianeieueeeo iieeiiieaeueiuo e
yeniiiaioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee

Oaaeeoea 1 iicaieyao n?aaieoue nei?inoe ?inoa ianeieueeeo oeie/iuo
n?aaeu;

Iieeiiieaeueiua aeai?eoiu e o?oaeii?aoaaiua caaea/e

?aciua aeai?eoiu eiatho ?acioth a?aiaiioth neiaeiinoue e auyniaiea
oiai, eaeea aeai?eoiu aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu e eaeea niaa?oaiii ia
yooaeoeaiu aoaeao anaaaea caaenaoue io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. Aeey
?aoaiey yoie caaea/e i?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuee iiaeoiae – aaiaeyony
iiiyoey:

iieeiiieaeueiue aeai?eoi;

yeniiiaioeeaeueiue aeai?eoi.

Iieeiiieaeueiue aeai?eoi (iieeiiieaeueiie a?aiaiiie neiaeiinoe) – yoi
aeai?eoi, a?aiaiiay neiaeiinoue eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony au?aaeaieai
(((((((, aaea (((( – iieeiiieaeueiay ooieoeey, ( – aoiaeiay aeeeia.

Aeai?eoi, a?aiaiiay neiaeiinoue eioi?iai ia iiaeaeaaony oaeie ioeaiea
iacuaaaony yeniiiaioeeaeueiui.

Oaaeeoea 1.

Ooieoeey a?aiaiiie ?acia?iinoue, (

neiaeiinoe 10 20 30 40 50 60

( 10-5 n 2*10-5 n 3*10-5 n 4*10-5 n 5*10-5 n 6*10-5 n

(2 10-4 n 4*10-4 n 9*10-4 n 16*10-4 n 25*10-4 n 36*10-4 n

(3 10-3 n 8*10-3 n 27*10-3 n 64*10-3 n 125*10-3 n 216*10-3 n

(5 0,1 n 3,2 n 24,3 n 1,7 iei 5,2 iei 13,0 iei

2( 0,001 n 1 n 17,9 iei 12,7 aeiae 35,7 eao 366 noieaoee

3( 0,059 n 58 iei 6,5 eao 3855 noieaoee 2*108 noieaoee 1,3* 1013
noieaoee

Auno?iaeaenoaea YAI 1000000 iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo.

Oaaeeoea 2.

Auno?iaeaenoaea YAI

106 108 109

(1 100*(1 1000*(1

(2 10*(2 31,6*(2

(3 4,64*(3 10*(3

(4 2,5*(4 3,9*(4

(5 (5+6,64 (5+9,97

(6 (6+4,19 (6+6,29

iieeiiieaeueiuo e yeniiiaioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee.

?acee/ea iaaeaeo oeie/iuo iieeiiieaeueiuie e yeniiiaioeeaeueiuie
aeai?eoiaie i?iyaeyaony aieaa oaaaeeoaeueii, anee i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
aeeyiea oaaee/aiey auno?iaeaenoaey YAI ia a?aiy ?aaiou aeai?eoia.
Oaaeeoea 2 iieacuaaao, ianeieueei oaaee/eony ?acia? caaea/, ?aoaaiie ca
1 /an, anee auno?iaeaenoaea aic?anoao a 100 e 1000 ?ac. Aeaeii, /oi aeey
ooieoeee 2( oaaee/aiea nei?inoe au/eneaiee a 1000 ?ac i?eaiaeeo eeoue e
oiio, /oi ?acia? caaea/e, ?aoaaiie ia iae ca 1 /an aic?anoao ia 10.

Ooieoeey a?aiaiiie

neiaeiinoe

(2

(2

(2

(2

2(

3(

((-caaea/e

Auaeaeaii 2 eeanna o?oaeii ?aoaaiinoe:

1. Aeey iouneaiey ?aoaiey o?aaoaony yeniiiaioeeaeueiia a?aiy.

2. Eneiiia ?aoaiea ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi ia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaii
a aeaea au?aaeaiea, aeeeia eioi?iai ia?aie/aia iaeioi?ui iieeiiiii. Yoe
caaea/e a eo?na ?anniao?eaaoueny ia aoaeoo.

Ia?aua ?acoeueoaou i o?oaeii ?aoaaiuo caaea/ao auee iieo/aiu
Oueth?eiaii. Ii aeieacae, /oi iaeioi?ua caaea/e “ia?ac?aoeiu” a oii
niunea, /oi aiiaua ia nouanoaoao aeai?eoia eo ?aoaiey. Iaeioi?ua caaea/e
ii oai?ee aaoiiaoia, oai?ee oi?iaeueiuo ycueia e iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee
yaeythony o?oaeii ?aoaaiuie.

((-iieiay caaea/a – yoi caaea/a, e eioi?ie naiaeeony ca iieeiiieaeueiie
a?aiy ethaay caaea/a ec eeanna ((-caaea/. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey e oai?eth ((-caaea/ ?ac?aaioae N.Eoe a 1971 aiaeo. Ei
ii?aaeaeaii iiiyoea naiaeeiinoe ca iieeiiieaeueiia a?aiy. Anee iaeia
caaea/a naiaeeony ca iieeiiieaeueiia a?aiy e ae?oaie, oi ethaie
iieeiiieaeueiue aeai?eoi – ?aoaiea ae?oaie caaea/e iiaeao auoue
i?aa?auai a iieeiiieaeueiue aeai?eoi ia?aie caaea/e.

Auaeaeai eeann caaea/ ?aniiciaaaiey naienoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu
ca iieeiiieaeueiia a?aiy ia iaaeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii au/eneeoaeueiii
ono?ienoaa. Aeieacaii, /oi ethaay caaea/a ec eeanna ((-caaea/ iiaeao
auoue naaaeaia e caaea/a auiieieiie ca iieeiiieaeueiia a?aiy.

Nouanoaotho 6 iniiaiuo eeannia ((-iieiuo caaea/:

1. Caaea/e auiieieiinoe.

2. O?aoia?iia ni/aoaiea.

3. Aa?oeiiia iie?uoea.

4. Iiene eeeee.

5. Aaieeueoiiia oeeee.

6. ?acaeaiea.

– aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u – oa?aeoa?ecotho naienoaa yeaiaioia ;

– auoiaeiua ia?aiao?u – oa?aeoa?ecotho naienoaa nenoai;

– ia?aie/aiey auoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia.

I?EIA? 3.

I?eiaieoaeueii e iia?aoeeiiiiio oneeeoaeth:

a) ia?aiaiiua

– oaciaua ia?aiaiiua – iai?yaeaiea e oiee anao aaoaae (?anniao?eaathony
eae ooieoeee a?aiaie eee /anoiou);

a) ia?aiao?u

– aiaoiea ia?aiao?u – iai?yaeaiey enoi/ieeia ieoaiey, ia?aiao?u
aoiaeiuo neaiaeia e iaa?ocee, oaiia?aoo?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu;

– aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u – iiieiaeu ?acenoi?ia, aa?uea?iua aieinoe e
oaieiaua oiee ia?aoiaeia a o?aicenoi?ao, aieinoe eiiaeainaoi?ia;

– auoiaeiua ia?aiao?u – eiyooeoeeaio oneeaiey ia n?aaeieo /anoioao,
iieina i?iioneaiey, iio?aaeyaiay iiuiinoue, aeeiaie/aneee aeeaiacii;

– ia?aie/aiey – aa?oiea a?aieoeu aeiionoeiuo cia/aiee eiyooeoeeaioia
oneeaiey, iieinu i?iioneaiey, aeeiaie/aneiai aeeaiaciia.

I?eiaieoaeueii e au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaia:

a) ia?aiaiiua

– oaciaua ia?aiaiiua – ninoiyiey ioaeaeueiuo ono?ienoa;

a) ia?aiao?u

– aiaoiea ia?aiao?u – ia?aiao?u aoiaeiuo enoi/ieeia cayaie;

– aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u – aieinoe caiiieiathueo ono?ienoa,
auno?iaeaenoaea i?ioeanni?ia, /enei eaiaeia;

– auoiaeiua ia?aiao?u – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu, eiyooeoeeaio
caa?ocee iai?oaeiaaiey, aa?iyoiinoue ?aoaiey iinooiathueo caaea/,
n?aaeiea aeeeiu i/a?aaeae cayaie ia ianeoaeeaaiea;

– ia?aie/aiey – ieaeiea a?aieoeu aeiionoeiuo aeeaiaciiia cia/aiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, eiyooeoeeaioia caa?ocee iai?oaeiaaiey, aa?iyoiinoe
ianeoaeeaaiey cayaie.

I?e aei/ii-ea?a?oe/aneii iiaeoiaea aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u k -ai o?iaiy
yaeythony auoiaeiuie ia?aiao?u (k+1) -ai o?iaiy. I?e iiiaianiaeoiii
?anniio?aiee nenoai, aeeth/athueo oece/anee ?acii?iaeiua iiaenenoaiu,
?ieue aiaoieo ia?aiaiiuo aeey aeaiiie iiaenenoaiu ea?atho oaciaua
ia?aiaiiua ae?oaeo iiaenenoai. Iie aeeytho ia ?anniao?eaaaioth
iiaenenoaio.

Aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u yaeythony neo/aeiuie aaee/eiaie ec-ca ?aca?ina
ia?aiao?ia eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee, iaoa?eaeia e ianoaaeeueiinoe
oneiaee ecaiaeaiey. Auoiaeiua ia?aiao?u oaeaea eiatho neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?
neaaenoaea neo/aeiuo cia/aiee aioo?aiieo ia?aiao?ia.

4. Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?.

Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo? i?eaaaeaia a oaae.1.

OAAEEOeA 1. I?IAEOIUA I?IOeAAeO?U

Iaeiiaa?eaioiue Iiiaiaa?eaioiue

Noaoeee *oanoaeoaeueiinoe

Aeeiaieee Noaoenoe/aneee

A /anoiie iaeanoe ?an/ao caaeneiinoae

auoiaeiuo
ia?aiao?ia

Noaoeeiia?iuo ?aaeeiia io aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo

ia?aiao?ia

Onoie/eainoe

?an/ao aioo?aiieo

ia?aiao?ia

Iioeiecaoeey ia?aiao?ia

Iioeiecaoeey aeiioneia

Iioeiecaoeey oaoie/aneeo

o?aaiaaiee

A i?ioeaaeo?ao aiaeeca ioeaieaathony aa?eaiou iino?iaiey iauaeoia, a a
i?ioeaaeo?ao neioaca – ?ac?aaaouaathony.

Iaeiiaa?eaioiue aiaeec caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee aaeoi?a auoiaeiuo
ia?aiao?ia Y i?e caaeaiiuo:

– no?oeoo?a nenoaiu,

– cia/aieyo aaeoi?ia ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia X,

– cia/aieyo aiaoieo ia?aiao?ia Q.

No?oeoo?a nenoaiu caaeaia, anee caaeaiu ia?a/aiue oeiia yeaiaioia e
niinia eo nayce ae?oa n ae?oaii a ninoaaa nenoaiu. Ii ecaanoiie
no?oeoo?a e cia/aieyi X e Q iiaoo auoue nicaeaiu oece/aneay eee
iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaee e ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiey iiaeaee ioeaiaiu
cia/aiey gia?aiao?ia aaeoi?a Y.

I?eaieaiinoue iieo/aiiuo cia/aiee auoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia ec aaeoi?a Y
ii?aaeaeyaony iooai niiinoaaeaiey eo ni cia/aieyie ia?aiao?ia ec aaeoi?a
T, oeacaiiuo a oaoie/aneii caaeaiee (OC).

O?aaoaiia ii OC niioiioaiea iaaeaeo cia/aieyie ia?aiao?ia yi e ti ,
i=1,n iacuaatho oneiaeai ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ii ia?aiao?o yi.

Oneiaey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a neaaeothuai aeaea:

yi <= t i, (1)oi >= t i, (2)

tii <= y i <= tai (3)Caaea/e iiiaiaa?eaioiiai aiaeeca caeeth/athony a ii?aaeaeaiee eciaiaiee aaeoi?a Y i?e caaeaiiuo eciaiaieyo aaeoi?ia X e Q.E oeiiaui i?ioeaaeo?ai iiiaiaa?eaioiiai aiaeeca ioiinyony neaaeothuea:- aiaeec /oanoaeoaeueiinoe - ioeaiea aeeyiey aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo ia?aiao?ia ia auoiaeiua. I?e yoii inouanoaeyaony ?an/ao eiyooeoeeaioia /oanoaeoaeueiinoe;- noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec - ioeaiea caeiia e (eee) /eneiauo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ani?aaeaeaiey aaeoi?a Y i?e caaeaiiuo noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaieyo i ?ani?aaeaeaiee neo/aeiiai aaeoi?a O.I?e neioaca auaeaeytho i?ioeaaeo?u ia?aiao?e/aneiai e no?oeoo?iiai neioaca. I?e ia?aiao?e/aneii neioaca ii?aaeaeythony /eneiaua cia/aiey ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia i?e caaeaiiuo no?oeoo?a iauaeoa e aeeaiaciia aiciiaeiiai eciaiaiey aiaoieo ia?aiaiiuo. Anee i?e yoii noaaeony caaea/a aeinoeaeaiey yeno?aioia iaeioi?ie oeaeaaie ooieoeee, oi auiieiyaony i?ioeaaeo?a iioeiecaoeee.I?e iioeiecaoeee ia?aiao?ia ii?aaeaeythony iiieiaeueiua cia/aiey aioo?aiieo ia?aiao?ia, i?e iioeiecaoeee aeiioneia - aeiiieieoaeueii aeiionee ia aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u, i?e iioeiecaoeee oaoie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee ?aoaaony caaea/a iioeiaeueiiai iacia/aiey oaoie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e auoiaeiui ia?aiao?ai iauaeoa.A aieueoeinoaa ia?o?ooia i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?ioeaaeo?u neioaca e aiaeeca iaoiaeyony ai acaeiinayce. Ia ?en. 2 iieacaia noaia oeiiaiai ia?o?ooa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.Iinea oi?ie?iaaiey OC (enoiaeiiai iienaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey) e auai?a (neioaca) ia?aiia/aeueiiai aa?eaioa no?oeoo?u e cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia neaaeoao aiaeec iauaeoa. Anee i?e aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue niioaaonoaea neioace?iaaiiie no?oeoo?u enoiaeiiio iienaieth, oi aiaeec iacuaatho aa?eoeeaoeeae i?iaeoa.?acee/atho aa?eoeeaoeeth ia?aiao?e/aneoth e no?oeoo?ioth. I?e ia?aiao?e/aneie aa?eoeeaoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony niioaaonoaea iaeanoae ?aaioiniiniaiinoe aeaoo n?aaieaaaiuo aa?eaioia iauaeoa. I?eia?ii ia?aiao?e/aneie aa?eoeeaoeee yaeyaony i?ioeaaeo?a onoaiiaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oeiiaiai yeaiaioa caiaiu (OYCa). I?e no?oeoo?iie aa?eoeeaoeee i?iaa?yaony niioaaonoaea no?oeoo? iauaeoa, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeaoiy ?acee/iuie iienaieyie. I?eia? no?oeoo?iie aa?eoeeaoeee - onoaiiaeaiea eciii?oecia a?aoia, eioi?ua iienuaatho oiiieiaeth e i?eioeeieaeueioth yeaeo?e/aneoth noaio oeiiaiai yeaiaioa caiaiu.Iau/ii ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea ioiineoaeueii oeo/oaiey ia?aiia/aeueiiai aa?eaioa. Yoi auiieiyaony iooai eciaiaiey /eneiauo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia. Aeaiiue i?ioeann iiaeii oi?iaeeciaaoue e i?aaenoaaeoue eae ?aoaiea caaea/e ia?aiao?e/aneie iioeiecaoeee.Anee iinea caaa?oaiey iioeiecaoeee o?aaiaaiey OC ia auiieiaiu, oi i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea ia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u. Iinea yoiai inouanoaeyaony oeacaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iia?aoeee.Anee ia oaeaaony iieo/eoue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou, noaaeony aii?in ioiineoaeueii ei??aeoeee OC.Iieiue e ouaoaeueiue aiaeec o?aaoao aieueoeo iaoa?eaeueiuo e a?aiaiiuo cao?ao. Iiyoiio ia ia?auo eoa?aoeeyo a ia?o?ooa, iieacaiiii ia ?en.2, auiieiytho oi?iuaiiue aiaeec.Eniieueciaaiea neiaeiuo iiaeaeae, i?iaaaeaiea ia?aiao?e/aneie aa?eoeeaoeee e ananoi?iiiaai iiiaiaa?eaioiiai aiaeeca oeaeaniia?acii eeoue ia caaa?oathueo eoa?aoeeyo.Aeey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey oa?aeoa?iu aieueoea cao?aou ia aiaeec. I?eia?aie iiaeiaiuo caaea/ yaeythony oaeea eae ii?aaeaeaiey ninoaaa ono?ienoa au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu e niiniaia eo acaeiiaeaenoaey eee caaea/ ?ac?aaioee i?eioeeieaeueiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo noai. Aeey yoeo caaea/ iau/ii i?eiaiytho ya?enoe/aneea niiniau neioaca no?oeoo?u n ia?aai?ii iaaieueoiai /enea aa?eaioia. Iniiaiua oneeey cao?a/eaathony ia auiieiaiea iiiaiaa?eaioiiai aiaeeca e iioeiecaoeee.Anee oaeaaony i?aaieciaaoue i?eaeeaeaiioth ioeaieo aa?eaioia no?oeoo?u ia iniiaa eaaei i?iaa?yaiuo e?eoa?eaa, oi aiciiaeai i?iniio? aieueoiai /enea aa?eaioia no?oeoo?u. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oi?iaeeciaaoue i?ioeann ?aoaiey caaea/e neioaca.N iiaeiaiui noaeeeaathony i?e ?aoaiee eiiiooaoeeiiii-iiioaaeiuo caaea/ eiino?oeoi?neiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e caaea/ ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey eiiaeiaoeeiiiuo noai oeeo?iaie aaoiiaoeee.Io i?aaeuaeouaai yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaieyNEIOACIIOEIECAOeEssIoi?ieaiea oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee e ia?aoiaee neaaeothuaio yoaio i?iaeoe?iaaiey?en.2. Noaia oeiiaiai ia?o?ooa i?iaeoe?iaaieyNO?OEOO?A NAI?Iiaenenoaiu NAI?i?iaeoe?othueo iiaenenoai.- iiaenenoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeaoaeae e nai?i/iuo aaeeieoe,- iiaenenoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey oiiieiaee AEN ,- iiaenenoaia oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.I?eia?u ianeoaeeaathueo iiaenenoai:- iiaenenoaia a?aoe/aneiai ioia?aaeaiey iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey,- iiaenenoaia aeieoiaioe?iaaiey,- iiaenenoaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iienea.A caaeneiinoe io ioiioaiey e iauaeoo i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?iaeoe?othuea iiaenenoaiu aeaeyo ia:- iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua,- iauaeoii-iacaaeneiua.A Auaeaeytho iiaenenoaiu i?iaeoe?othuea e ianeoaeeaathuea. I?iaeoe?othuea iiaenenoaiu auiieiytho i?iaeoiua i?ioeaaeo?u e iia?aoeee. Ianeoaeeaathuea iiaenenoaiu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo iiaenenoaiao auiieiythony i?ioeaaeo?u e iia?aoeee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n eiie?aoiui oeiii iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey; a iauaeoii-iacaaeneiuo - oieoeoee?iaaiiua i?ioeaaeo?u e iia?aoeee.Aeaeu iaania/aiey NAI?A NAI? auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu iaania/aiey:- iaoiaee/aneia,- iaoaiaoe/aneia,- i?ia?aiiiia,- oaoie/aneia,- eeiaaenoe/aneia,- eioi?iaoeeiiiia,- i?aaiecaoeeiiiia.Iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea - aeieoiaiou , a eioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiu ninoaa, i?aaeea ioai?a e yenieoaoaoeee n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey.Iaoaiaoe/aneia iaania/aiea - niaieoiiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey i?ioeanna aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea - niaieoiiinoue i?ia?aii, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a caaeaiiie oi?ia, aianoa n i?ia?aiiiie aeieoiaioaoeeae.Oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea - niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiiaeaenoaothueo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aeey aaiaea, o?aiaiey, ia?a?aaioee, ia?aaea/e i?ia?aii e aeaiiuo, i?aaiecaoeee iauaiey iia?aoi?a n YAI , ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee.Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea - niaieoiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a caaeaiiie oi?ia naaaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oii /enea iienaiey noaiaea?oiuo i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?, oeiiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, oeiiauo yeaiaioia, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee, iaoa?eaeia e ae?.I?aaiecaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea - niaieoiiinoue aeieoiaioia, ii?aaeaeythueo ninoaa i?iaeoiie i?aaiecaoeee e aa iiae?acaeaeaiee, eo ooieoeee, nayce iaaeaeo ieie e eiiieaenii n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee.O?iaie NAI?Oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea nia?aiaiiuo NAI? eiaao ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o. I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea o?iaie:- oeaio?aeueiue au/eneeoaeueiue eiiieaen (OeAE ),- aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa ( A?I ),- eiiieaen ia?eoa?eeiiai i?ia?aiiii-oi?aaeythuaai iai?oaeiaaiey.Oeaio?aeueiue au/eneeoaeueiue eiiieaen i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ?aoaiey neiaeiuo caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey. I?aaenoaaeyao niaie YAI n?aaeiae eee aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe n oeiiaui iaai?ii ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa. Aiciiaeii ?anoe?aiea yoiai iaai?a iaeioi?uie n?aaenoaaie ia?aaioee a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe a OeAE iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny iiiaii?ioeanni?iua eee iiiaiiaoeiiua eiiieaenu.A?Iu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aoaiey n?aaieoaeueii ianeiaeiuo caaea/ e i?aaiecaoeee yooaeoeaiiai iauaiey iieueciaaoaey NAI? n eiiieaenii oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa. Aeeth/aao a naie ninoaa ieie-YAI e (eee) iee?i-YAI , a?aoe/aneea e neiaieueiua aeenieae, eii?aeeiaoinuaiueee, ono?ienoaa neiaieueiiai e a?aoe/aneiai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey e ae?oaea n niioaaonoaothuei aaciaui e i?eeeaaeiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai. Aeey iaeioi?uo A?I oa?aeoa?ai eioa?aeoeaiue ?aaeei ?aaiou n ia?aaioeie a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee.Eiiieaen ia?eoa?eeiiai i?ia?aiiii-oi?aaeythuaai iai?oaeiaaiey i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iieo/aiey eiino?oeoi?nei-oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee e oi?aaeythueo i?ia?aii ia iaoeiiuo iineoaeyo aeey eniieieoaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo aaoiiaoia. A aai ninoaaa eniieieoaeueiia i?ia?aiiii-oi?aaeythuaa iai?oaeiaaiea , n?aaenoaa aeeaeiaiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. A ninoaaa YAI n aieueoei iauaiii aiaoiae iaiyoe. Iiaeiaiua eiiieaenu iau/ii iacuaatho oaoiieiae/aneeie. Ia aeaiiii iai?oaeiaaiee ?aoathony caaea/e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey, oe?aaee?iaaiey, a?oeaiiai nii?iaiaeaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeee e ae?.Iaee/ea oeacaiiuo o?iaiae i?eaiaeeo e niioaaonoaothuae no?oeoo?a i?ia?aiiiiai e eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey NAI?. A ?acoeueoaoa o?iaie OeAE, A?I e OE , ia?aiia/aeueii auaeaeyaiua eae o?iaie oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey, noaiiayony o?iaiyie NAI?.Nouanoaothuea NAI? aeaeyony ia iaeii-, aeaoo- e o?aoo?iaiaaua. A iaeiio?iaiaauo NAI?, iino?iaiiuo ia iniiaa OeAE, auiieiythony i?ioeaaeo?u, oa?aeoa?ecothueany aunieie o?oaeiaieinoueth au/eneaiee i?e n?aaieoaeueii iaeuo iauaiao enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. A iaeiio?iaiaauo NAI? ia iniiaa A?I auiieiythony i?ioeaaeo?u, a eioi?uo iauaiu au/eneaiee e auioneaaiie aeieoiaioaoeee n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeeee. A iaeiio?iaiaauo oaoiieiae/aneeo eiiieaenao niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony a ?acoeueoaoa iaaaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a ecaioiaeaiea aa aaoiiaoece?iaaii. I?e yoii iauai auioneaaiie aeieoiaioaoeee iiaeao auoue aieueoei.A aeaooo?iaiaauo NAI? aiciiaeiu ni/aoaiey OeAE-A?I, OeAE-OE, A?I-OE.A iaeaieueoae noaiaie aiciiaeiinoe aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey neiaeiuo iauaeoia ?aaeecothony a o?aoo?iaiaauo NAI?, aeeth/athueo OeAE , A?Iu e OE.Naycue n aeaeei aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii.Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea ecaeaeee caeai/eaaaony ecaioiaeaieai eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee e oi?aaeythueo i?ia?aii ia iaoeiiuo iineoaeyo. Ia caaa?oathueo yoaiao i?iaeoe?iaaiey aiinyony oaoiieiae/aneea aeiiieiaiey e ei??aeoeee. Aeaeaa ecaioaaeeaaaony i?iaiue ia?acaoe. Iinea aai aiaeeca inouanoaeyaony aooanoaoeey i?iaeoa. Yoi iaania/eaaaony ia iniiaa aaaaeaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eeiee a ninoaa oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena.Aooanoiaaiiua iaoeiiua iineoaee n oi?aaeythueie i?ia?aiiaie a aeaeueiaeoai eiie?othony. Ia eo iniiaa auiieiyaony ia?ano?ieea eniieieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia ecaioiaeaiea ae?oaiai ecaeaeey. Ioia/aiiia yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee aeaeiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.AUAIAeU:1. ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua yoaiu i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u. Iieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeannia i?iaeoe?iaaiey.2. Ii?aaeaeaiu iiiyoea nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, aa iacia/aiea, no?oeoo?a, naycue n aeaeei aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaai.EAEOeEss (2Oaia: “Au/eneeoaeueiua naoe e A?Iu”IAIAOIAeEIINOUe NICAeAIEssOa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acianaiea ioaeaeueiuo YAI e eiiieaenia NAI? aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeth/aiey a ninoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aiia?aoo?u nii?yaeaiey, ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e oaeaia?aaioee. I?e yoii oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa e?oiiuo NAI? no?oeoo?ii iauaaeeiythony a au/eneeoaeueiua naoe. I?aeiouanoaa i?aaiecaoeee au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae NAI? caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai:1 . Iieueciaaoaee, ?aaioathuea ia aiia?aoo?a a eiie?aoiii iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, iieo/atho aeinooi e aacai aeaiiuo e i?ia?aiiiui n?aaenoaai, eioi?ua eiathony a ae?oaeo oa??eoi?eaeueii ?acianaiiuo oceao au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. Yoi ?anoe?yao ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe NAI?.2. Iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue iioeiaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaa?ocee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie YAI, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey eiie?aoiiio iieueciaaoaeth a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe cia/eoaeueiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia.3. Iiauoaaony iaaeaaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa NAI?.EEANNEOEEAOeEss AU*ENEEOAEUeIUO NAOAEAu/eneeoaeueiua naoe NAI? eeanneoeoee?othony ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia. A oaaeeoea 2 i?aaenoaaeaia yoa eeanneoeeaoeey.I?eciae eeanneoeeaoeeeau/eneeoaeueiuo naoae Oei naycae I?eia/aieaOiiieiaeynaycae ?aaeeaeueiay (caacaeiia?aciay)Eieueoeaaay?aaeeaeueii-eieueoeaaay?ani?aaeaeaiiay (aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiay) Iau/iua aeaooo?iaiaaua NAI?,a eioi?uo eiaaony oeaio?aeueiueau/eneeoaeueiue eiiieaen eianeieueei A?IiaNinoaa n?aaenoaia?aaea/e aeaiiuo Iaeii?iaeiay Ninoieo ecNiinia ia?aaea/eaeaiiuo N iaeiiiooe?oaiuie eaiaeaieN eiiiooaoeeae eaiaeiaN eiiiooaoeeae niiauaieeN eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoiaNi niaoaiiie eiiiooaoeeaeA naainao nayce ia?acothony o?aiceo-iua eaiaeu iaaeaeo naycuaaaiuie oceaie naoeIiyoaiiay ia?aaea/a niiauaiee /a?ac oeaio?u eiiiooaoeee niiauaieeIiyoaiiay ia?aaea/a iaeaoia eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeiuNi/aoaiea eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia niiauaiee, iaeaoiaNiinia oi?aaeaiey Oeaio?aeeciaaiiayAeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiay Oi?aaeaiea iioieaie aeaiiuo inouanoaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui oceii nayceOi?aaeaiea iioieaie aeaiiuo ?ani?aaeaeaii ii oceai naoeOaeaeaiiinoue oceia EieaeueiayAeenoaioeeiiiay ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo oceaie ia?aie/aiu caaeaiiie aaee/eiie L?annoiyiey i?aauoatho aaee/eio LIa ?en.3. i?aaenoaaeai i?eia? au/eneeoaeueiie naoe NAI?, a eioi?ie ieaeiee o?iaaiue ia?acotho eiiieaenu DMS-2, aa?oiee o?iaaiue - OeAE ia iniiaa aunieii?iecaiaeaeueiie YAI oeia IBM-370.8 eiiieaenia IDS-3 ia?acotho aianoa n niioaaonoaothuei DMS-2 ?aaeeaeueioth naoue, oceu DMS-2 naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii ?ani?aaeaeaiioth naoue.e IDS-3 e IDS-3?en.3. I?eia? au/eneeoaeueiie naoe NAI?Ono?ienoaa oaeaia?aaioee, nii?yaeaiey e ia?aaea/e aeaiiuoYoe ono?ienoaa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?aaiecaoeee nayce n oaeaeaiiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie e aeey iaaeiaoeiiiai iaiaia aeaiiuie a iiiaio?iaiaauo e naoaauo NAI?. ?acee/atho nenoaiu nayce (oaeaoiiiua e oaeaa?aoiua eaiaeu, ?aeaeiua e eaaaeueiua eeiee), ioeueoeieaeni?u ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo (IIAe), aiia?aoo?o ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo(AIAe), aaiiaioneea ioieou (AI) e eioa?oaenu (E).ono?ienoaa:- EYAI - eieeaeoeaiay YAI,- IE - ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa?,Ioeueoeieaeni? ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iiaeeeth/aaony e ioeueoeieaeniiio eaiaeo aaiaea-auaiaea /a?ac noaiaea?oiue eioa?oaen e oi?aaeyao ia?aaea/ae e /anoe/iie ia?aaioeie eioi?iaoeee io YAI ia aaiiaioneea ioieou e ae?oaea YAI. Aiciiaeii nieaeaiea iaa?ocee ia oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni? YAI, anee ia?aaioea auiieiyaony /anoe/ii a IIAe. A yoii neo/aa ii noaaeony i?ioeanni?ii oaeaia?aaioee aeaiiuo (i?ioeanni?ii ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo).Aiia?aoo?a ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iaania/eaaao nii?yaeaiea ioeueoeieaeni?ia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e aaiiaioneeo ioieoia n eaiaeaie nayce. Aaiiaioneea ioieou ia?aaeatho YAI e i?eieiatho io iaa eioi?iaoeeth.Anee aaiiaioneea ioieou i?iaiaeyo i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth ia?aaioeo iieo/aaiuo e ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo, eo iacuaatho "eioaeeaeooaeueiuie" aaiiaioneeie ioieoaie.Aiia?aoo?a ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aeeth/aao neaaeothuea ono?ienoaa:- iiaeaiu e ono?ienoaa i?aia?aciaaiey neaiaeia,- aucuaiua ono?ienoaa aeey eiiiooe?oaiuo eeiee nayce,- ono?ienoaa caueou io ioeaie.Iiaeai (ono?ienoai iiaeoeyoeee e aeaiiaeoeyoeee) i?aia?acoao aeaie/iua neaiaeu io ioeueoeieaeni?a eee aaiiaioneiai ioieoa a iiaeoee?iaaiiua neaiaeu ia ianouae /anoioa aeey eo ia?aaea/e ii eeieyi nayce, a i?e i?eaia inouanoaeytho ia?aoiia i?aia?aciaaiea (aeaiiaeoeyoeeth).Aaiiaioneee ioieo ninoieo ec iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa ni niaoeeaeueiui ono?ienoaii oi?aaeaiey. Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey iaania/eaaao ?aaioo ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa, eae aaoiiiiioth oae e iiae oi?aaeaieai YAI. Eioa?oaenu niaeanotho ?aaioo ioaeaeueiuo aeieia ii o?iaiyi eiae/aneeo neaiaeia e eiino?oeoeeyi ?acuaiia. Aiia?aoo?a ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo auaaao:- ieceinei?inoiay (ni nei?inoyie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee - aei 200 aeo/nae (ii noaiaea?oiui oaeaa?aoiui eaiaeai),- n?aaeianei?inoiay - aei 4800 aeo/nae (ii eaiaeai oiiaeueiie /anoiou),- aunieinei?inoiay - aieaa 4800 aeo/nae (ii oe?ieiiieiniui eaiaeai).?ANI?AAeAEAIIUA AU*ENEEOAEUeIUA NAOEI?eia? ?ani?aaeaeaiiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe NAI? i?eaaaeai ia ?en 4.?ani?aaeaeaiiay naoue niaea?aeeo eieaeueioth au/eneeoaeueioth naoue eieueoeaaiai oeia, eioi?ay iauaaeeiyao ?aciioeiiua YAI e ia?eoa?eeiua - AAe - a?aoe/aneee aeenieae,- Ae - aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaie aeenieae,- AI - a?aoiiino?ieoaeue?en.4. ?ani?aaeaeaiiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue NAI?.- IIE - ioeueoeieaeni? - eiioeaio?aoi?,- I - iiaeai,- O - oaeaoiiiue eaiae,- AAI - YAI aeaeiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,- ON - ocae nayceIaneieueei aoiaeia a naoue iauaaeeiaiu a ioeueoeieaeni?a-eiioeaio?aoi?a aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii auaeaeaiiiio oaeaoiiiiio eaiaeo. Ia ae?oaie noi?iia eaiaea IIE ?aaeeaeueii niaaeeiyao ?yae ?aciioeiiuo YAI, a oii /enea e YAI aeaeiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.Iaeei ec aoiaeia eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe /a?ac iiaeai eiaao auoiae a oaeaoiiioth naoue. I?e yoii iaania/eaaaony naycue eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe n ethaui aaiiaioii, eiathuei aiaeiaiaue auoiae. A yoii neo/aa aiciiaeia eii?aeeiaoeey i?ioeannia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ecaioiaeaiey /a?ac eiiiooe?oaiua eaiaeu nayce.AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIUA ?AAI*EA IANOA I?IAEOE?IAUEEIAIACIA*AIEAAaoiiaoece?iaaiiia ?aai/aa ianoi (A?I) i?iaeoe?iaueea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao iia?aoeaiue e eaaeee aeinooi iia?aoi?a e YAI e iiiiaaao ?aaeecaoeee eoa?aoeeiiiuo oeeeeia i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e aeeaeiaiaii ?aaeeia ?aaiou.A?I iicaieyao iaiaieaaoueny n YAI eioi?iaoeeae a a?aoe/aneie oi?ia.Ooieoeeiiaeueii A?Iu iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa iniiau aaoiiiiiuo NAI? eee iiaenenoai ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneiai, noaiioaoie/aneiai, i?eai?ii-oaoiieiae/aneiai, eiino?oeoi?neiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey ?acee/iuo NAI? ?YA.Eiiieaenu A?I iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ea/anoaa:- iaeiiai ec o?iaiae iiiaio?iaiaauo NAI?,- ?aai/eo iano ia o?iaia OeAE,- oaoiieiae/aneeo eiiieaenia aeey aaeaioaoeee eiino?oeoi?neiai i?iaeoa e ?acee/iiio oaoiieiae/aneiio iai?oaeiaaieth,- iaeiiai ec oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?o?ooia, aeeth/ay niaianoioth ?aaioo n oi?aaeythueie YAI oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena a ?aaeeia ia?aoiie nayce,- eino?oiaioaeueiuo eiiieaenia aeey ?ac?aaioee nenoaiiiai e i?eeeaaeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey iiaenenoai NAI?.?anniio?ei aeaa ?aaeeia ?aaiou A?I: aaoiiiiiue e iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n OeAE.A aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia A?I eniieuecothony aeey ?aoaiey ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeoiuo caaea/, ia o?aaothueo aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e aieueoiai iauaia iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. Eae i?aaeei, iie naycaiu n ?aaeaeoe?iaaieai a?aoe/aneie e oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee e aa aeieoiaioe?iaaieai.I?eia?u i?iaeoiuo caaea/:- i?iaeoe?iaaiea ia/aoiuo ieao e iaoaie/aneeo oceia n auioneii eiiieaeoia oi?aaeythueo ia?oieaio e aeieoiaioaoeee;- i?iaeoe?iaaiea oioioaaeiiia iee?inoai NA* oceia e iee?iiieineiauo o?aeoia;- iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeythueo ia?oieaio aeey noaieia n /eneiaui i?ia?aiiiui oi?aaeaieai;- i?iaeoe?iaaiea eiino?oeoeaia.A ?aaeeia iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n OeAE oaoie/aneea i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa A?I ea?atho ?ieue eioa?aeoeaii-a?aoe/aneiai eiiieaena NAI? e iaania/eaatho auiieiaiea i?iaeoiuo iia?aoeee. Iniiaiia iacia/aiea A?I a yoii neo/aa - iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiiai iauaiey i?iaeoe?iaueea ni n?aaenoaaie aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey.I?eia?u i?iaeoiuo caaea/:- aaiae e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea aieueoeo ianneaia aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo e caaeaiee;- oi?aaeaiea ?aaeeiaie ?aaiou NAI?,- ioia?aaeaiea e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey;- auione oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee;- iiaeaee?iaaiea e iioeiecaoeey yeaiaioia e noai AEN;- eiiiiiiaea e o?anne?iaea ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea e iee?inai?ie;- nicaeaiea e iiiieiaiea aaieia aeaiiuo.OAOIE*ANEEA N?AAeNOAA A?IA A?Iao oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa a?oiie?othony (ni. ?en.5) aie?oa aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiie ieie-YAI. Iia naycaia n ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie, eiiieaenaie, o?iaiyie eee ae?oaeie NAI?aie eaiaeaie aunieie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe.E eaiaeai /a?ac eioa?oaen oeia "Iauay oeia" iiaeeeth/athony oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ?aai/eo iano. Iie ninoiyo ec oaenoiauo e a?aoe/aneeo n?aaenoa aaiaea-auaiaea. Aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea iee?i-YAI n iia?aoeaiui e aiaoieie caiiieiathueie ono?ienoaaie. Ninoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa A?Iia aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea 4.A)- nenoaio oi?aaeaiey aacie aeaiiuo iauaai iacia/aiey;- ni?aai/ii-iao/athuoth.?acaeoea oaoiieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey e niaoeeaeueiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey naycaii n aiaae?aieai a?eaaaeiiai iaoiaea. Aai nouanoai caeeth/aaony a iaeiia?aiaiiie ?aaioa ianeieueeeo i?iaeoe?iaueeia ia n?en.5. No?oeoo?a oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa A?I (a) e ninoaa aiia?aoo?u ?aai/eo iano (a).Oaaeeoea 4Iiaeaeue A?I Iacia/aiea Ninoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoaA?I-?-01 Ieieiaeueiue aaciaue eiiieaeo eae iniiaa ae?oaeo aa?eaioia YAI oeia NI, ICO aieinoueth 8E neia, 16 ?ac?yaeia, IIAe 1370, aeenieae VT-340A?I-?-02 ?aciauaiea, ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea a?aoe/aneie e oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee, aeeaeiaa n OeAE NAI? ia aaca AN YAI A?I-?-01 n a?aoe/aneei aeenieaaiYIA-400A?I-?-03 Eino?oiaioaeueiue eiiieaen aeey ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey A?I-?-01 n ono?ienoaii iicae/iie ia/aoe DZM-180EIIIEAENE?IAAIEA A?INinoaa aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa A?I iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue A?I aaoiiiiii eee a ianeieueeeo aa?eaioao nii?yaeaiey n ae?oaie aiia?aoo?ie.A?Iu n iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie ?aai/eie ianoaie iiaoo iauaaeeiyoueny a iineaaeiaaoaeueiue eiiieaen. Eiiieaen iano?aeaaaony ia ?aoaiea iaeiie eee ?yaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ia ia?o?ooa i?iaeoe?iaaiey caaea/ (?en.7.a).Iai?eia?, aaiae caaeaiey ia ?ac?aaioeo ia/aoiuo ieao, neioaene/aneee eiio?ieue e ?aciauaiea yeaiaioia auiieiytho ia ia?aii A?Ia e ii eaiaeo nayce ia?aaeatho ia aoi?ie A?I. Ia iai i?iaiaeeony o?anne?iaea, ei??aeoe?iaea e ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee aeey ecaioiaeaiey eiiieaeoa eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee ia o?aoee A?I.Iiaeiaiay ia?o?ooii-niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay eiioeao?aoeey iicaieyao ono?aieoue iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua cao?aou a?aiaie ia niaio iaaieoiuo iineoaeae, caa?oceo nenoai e ia?aie/eoue eiee/anoai ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa.Iino?iaiea eioi?iaoeeiiii-a?aoe/aneeo eiiieaenia aeey NAI? ia aaca A?I (?en.7.a, a, a, a) ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe e oaaee/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey NAI?. IA OeAE auiieiythony i?ia?aiiiua iiaeoee ii aee?aeoeaai n A?Iia, a aaiae, eiio?ieue, auaiae e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony iieueciaaoaeai ia n?aaenoaao A?I.A yoii neo/aa o?aaoaony oaeaeaiiia ?aciauaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa A?I e OeAE. Aeey yoiai eniieuecothony ono?ienoaa nii?yaeaiey (a?oiiiaua ono?ienoaa nii?yaeaiey - AON e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua EON), oaeaoiiiua eaiaeu nayce , ioeueoeieaeni?u e aiia?aoo?a ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.?en.7. Aa?eaiou eniieueciaaiey A?I a NAI?:a - a?oiiiaia A?I;a - ia?o?ooii-i?eaioe?iaaiiia A?I;a - ea?a?oe/anee naycaiiua OeAE-A?I;a - oaeaeaiiua A?I a ea?a?oe/aneeo NAI?.IA?NIAEOEAU ?ACAEOEss A?IAeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea A?I naycaii n:- eniieueciaaieai iiauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,- ?ac?aaioeie iiaiai aaciaiai e i?eeeaaeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,- ?acaeoeai oaoiieiaee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey,- iauaaeeiaieai A?I a ea?a?oe/aneea e naoaaua no?oeoo?u.Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho i?ioanneiiaeueiua ia?niiaeueiua YAI n eniieueciaaieai i?ioeanni?ia 386 e 486 e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo, a oaeaea niioaaonoaothuaai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.Ia?aiao?u iiauo A?I:- auno?iaeaenoaea - 5-10 iei.ii/nae,- iauai aiaoiae iaiyoe - aei 500 Iaaeo,- nei?inoue iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ii eaiaeai nayce - nauoa 2 Iaaeo/nae.?aai/ea ianoa aoaeoo iai?oaeiaaiu oeaaoiuie a?aoe/aneeie aeenieayie n ?aaaia?aoeeae eee ?ano?iauie n ?acia?aie ye?aia aei 50 ni ii aeeaaiiaee e i?iaeoeeiiiuo n ieiuaaeueth ye?aiia a ianeieueei eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia.Aaciaia i?ia?aiiiia e eeiaaenoe/aneia iaania/aiey aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue a naay:- n?aaenoaa nicaeaiey iiiaiiaoeiiuo naoaauo e ea?a?oe/aneeo no?oeoo?;- iiieoi?ioth nenoaio;- iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie;aycaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii A?Iaie ii ?ac?aaioea eiaeee e noaiioaoieee AEN, oiiieiaee AEN e ia/aoiuo ieao, eiino?oeoeee oceia e aeieia ecaeaeee ?YA.EIIIEAENE?IAAIEA OAOIE*ANEEO N?AAeNOA NAI?Eiiieaeoiaaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa NAI? i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa neaaeothueo o?aaiaaiee:- iieiiou,- oieoeeaoeee,- ?anoe?yaiinoe,- ?aca?ae?oaiinoe,- yeiiiie/iinoe ?ac?aaioee e yenieoaoaoeee,- yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai oaeianoaa e oaoiieiae/iinoe.Iieiioa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa icia/aao iaee/ea a NAI? iaai?a oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa anao a?oii aeey auiieiaiey iia?aoeee ii anaio oeeeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.Oieoeeaoeey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa icia/aao eniieueciaaiea iaeiioeiiuo aaeeieoe iai?oaeiaaiey aeey auiieiaiey iaeieo e oao aea ooieoeee ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo NAI?.?anoe?yaiinoue (ioe?uoinoue) oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a ninoaaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ii eciaiaieth o?aaiaaiee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e noaiaie aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oaeaea iiyaeaiey iiauo aieaa niaa?oaiiuo oeiia iai?oaeiaaiey.?aca?ae?oaiinoue oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ?aaeecoaony aeoaee?iaaieai oao eee eiuo n?aaenoa e iicaieyao nieceoue aeeyiea eo naiaa e ioeacia ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea NAI?. Ecauoie oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ia oieueei iiauoaao aeeao/anoue NAI?, ii e yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai oniaoiie ia?aaioee iioiea caaea/, eioaineaiinoue eioi?iai eciaiyaony ai a?aiaie.Yeiiiie/iinoue ?ac?aaioee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa iicaieyao oaeaoaaeoue nicaeaiea e aiaae?aiea NAI? ca n/ao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai iiiaiyoaiiiai aaiaea iai?oaeiaaiey e ia?aueaaiey iiuiinoe NAI? n iaaieueoei iia?aaeaieai ioiineoaeueii ?inoa oaeoueo iio?aaiinoae.Yeiiiie/iinoue yenieoaoaoeee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa iicaieyao nieceoue iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua iioa?e ca n/ao ni/aoaiey ?aaeeiia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie n iaeaoiie ia?aaioeie, eieeaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aai/eo iano.Yenieoaoaoeeiiiia oaeianoai oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa iicaieyao oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ?ac?aaio/eea e nieceoue o?iaaiue ioeaie i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iia?aoi?a n YAI ca n/ao niaa?oainoaa i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiiai iaania/aiey.Oaoiieiae/iinoue oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony noaiaiueth niioaaonoaey ninoaaa iai?oaeiaaiey ia?a/ith i?iaeoiuo iia?aoeee, naienoaaiiuo i?eiaiyaiie oaoiieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey caaeaiiiai iauaeoa.A niioaaonoaee n yoeie o?aaiaaieyie a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eciaiu iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciuie NAI? ec oieoeoee?iaaiiuo iiaeoeae. Iie eiatho aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoua oaoie/aneea e aaciaua i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa. A ninoaaa ia?eoa?eeiuo iiaeoeae oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee "eioaeeaeooaeueiua oa?ieiaeu" e "eiaeaia?iua a?aoe/aneea noaioeee", nicaeaaaaiua ia iniiaa iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo au/eneeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.Auaiaeu:1. ?anniio?aiu iacia/aiea, no?oeoo?a NAI?, oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa.2. ?anniio?aiu iacia/aiea, no?oeoo?a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo iano i?iaeoe?iaueeia e eo aiciiaeiinoe ii nicaeaieth aiia?aoo?u.3. Ii?aaeaeaiu ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey.IAE?INO?OEOO?UAAAAeAIEAOai?aoe/aneea iniiau iae?inaoaaiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth i?ioeannia ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee a iicaa auee caeiaeaiu Iaeeaeieii e Ieoonii .Iie eco/eee iiaeaeueioth iae?iiioth naoue, i?aaenoaaeythuothniaie niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia( iacaaiiuo oi?iaeueiuie iae?iiaie),iaiaieaathueony iaaeaeo niaie eioi?iaoeeae n iiiiuueth iai?aaeaiiuo naycae. Eaaeaeue ec oi?iaeueiuo iae?iiia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inoie i?ioeanni?, inouanoaeythuee noiie?iaaiea neaiaeia, eioi?ua iinooiatho ia aai aoiaeu. Aai ninoiyiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aioo?aiiae ia?aiaiiie , i?eieiathuae cia/aiea 0 ( ianneaiia ninoiyiea), anee noiia neaiaeia ia aoiaeao iaiueoa oeene?iaaiiiai ii?iaa, e 1 ( aeoeaiia ninoiyiea, a eioi?ii iae?ii niiniaai iinueaoue niiauaiey ae?oaei iae?iiai a naoe ), anee oeacaiiay noiia i?aauoaao ii?ia. Aaoi?aieiieacaii, /oi naoue oaeeo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia a i?eioeeia niiniaia auiieiyoue ?acee/iua eiae/aneea ooieoeee e ii naiae au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoe niiinoaaeia n au/eneeoaeueiuie iaoeiaie oiiiaeiaiianeiai oeia.Iicaeiaa O. ?icaiaeaoo i?aaeeiaeee a?oeoaeoo?o iae?iiiie naoe, iieo/eaooth iacaaiea ia?naio?iia . Yoi aucaaei aieueoie eioa?an, iineieueeo ioe?uaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa, niiniaiuo ?aoaoue eioaeeaeooaeueiua caaea/e, oaeea eae ?aniiciaaaiea ia?acia.Iniiaiui yeaiaioii ia?naio?iia yaeyaony ii?iaiaue aaioeeue, aiaeiae/iue oi?iaeueiiio iae?iio Iae-Eieeaea e Ieoona. Ii inouanoaeyao noiie?iaaiea n ii?aaeaeaiiuie aanaie neaiaeia, iinooiathueoio ae?oaeo iae?iiia, e ia?aoiaeeo a ninoiyiea eiae/aneie aaeeieoeu(eee iaiai?io, ioey), anee yoa noiia i?aauoaao ii?iaiaia cia/aiea.A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaaethaeaaony ?ino aeoeaiinoe a iaeanoe oai?ee e oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee eneonnoaaiiuo iae?iiiuo naoae, a eaeaeiii ioiioaiee aeeceeo e ia?naio?iio ?icaiaeaooa. A ?aaioao Aiaea?niia, A?innaa?aa, Eioiiaia, Oiioeeaea e ae?., auiieiaiiuo a eiioea 70-o - ia/aea 80-o aiaeia, auee ?ac?aaioaiu aieaa neiaeiua e aeaeea a?oeoaeoo?u naoae, ninoaaeaiiuo ec iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia, e eco/aiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe oaeeo nenoai. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yoio i?ioeann i?ienoiaeee ia oiia iauaai aic?anoaiey eioa?ana e iiiaii?ioeanni?iui nenoaiai(e eioi?ui ioiinyony a oii /enea e iae?iiiua naoe) e e ?aaeecaoeee ia ieo ia?aeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Ni/aoaiea a a?oeoaeoo?a iae?iiiuonaoae ianne?iaaiiiai ia?aeeaeecia i?e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee n eniieueciaaieai yeaiaioia-naycae ( aiaeiaia neiainia a aeieiaee ) ia noaaeee iao/aiey nenoaiu auaeaeeei iae?iiiua naoe a naiinoiyoaeueiueeeann iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo au/eneeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa.Caeanue ?anniio?ei iniiaiua a?oeoaeoo?u iae?iiiuo naoae, eo iauea e ooieoeeiiaeueiua naienoaa e iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua aeai?eoiu iao/aiey naoae.INIIAIUA A?OEOAEOO?U E INIAAIIINOEIa ?en.1 i?eaaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey iae?inaoaauo nenoai.?en.1. Aeeaa?aiia, eeethno?e?othuay naycue iae?inaoaauo no?oeoo? n iiiaii?ioeanni?iuie a?oeoaeoo?aie.FAN - i?ioeanni? n ?ani?ino?aiaieai aicaoaeaeaiey.N?aaee i?eciaeia, ioee/athueo iae?iiiua naoe, /anoi iacuaatho ianne?iaaiiue ia?aeeaeeci i?e au/eneaieyo, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey naoae iooai iao/aiey eee aaeaioaoeee. Auaeaeythooaeaea eieaeueiinoue iaiyoe eaaeaeiai ec iae?iiia.YEAIAIOU ENEONNOAAIIUO IAE?IIIUO NAOAE - IAE?IIU E NAssCEIae?iiiay naoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia aeaoo oeiia-i?ioeanni?ia, iacuaaaiuo iae?iiaie, e yeaiaioia ( a iauai neo/aa oaeaea i?ioeanni?ia) - iacuaaaiuo naycyie iaaeaeo iae?iiaie.Iae?ii - i?ioeanni? niaoeeaeueiiai aeaea, eioi?ue eiaao iaeei auoiae e iaeioi?ia /enei aoiaeia (N) (?en.2.). Eae i?aaeei, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ana iae?iiu auiieiytho iaeeiaeiaoth, n?aaieoaeueii i?inooth ooieoeeth). Auoiaeiie neaiae iae?iia ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth noiiu i aeaea] ,aaea g - iaeeiaeiay ooieoeey, ii?aaeaeaiiay aeey eaaeaeiai oeia iae?iia, I - ii?ia. Ii?iaiaiio yeaiaiooi Iaeeaeiea e Ieoona niioaaonoaoao ooieoeey g(x), eiathuay aeae nooiaiueee ( ?en.3.a).Aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey iaeioi?uo iae?iiiaeiaiuo yeaiaioia iiaeoiaeeo ooieoeey, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?en.3 a, aeaea g(x) = 1 - O (x).Iaeeiaeiua ooieoeee aieaa iauaai aeaea, a eioi?uo ia?aoiaeiay iaeanoue eiaao eiia/ioth oe?eio a , ecia?aaeaiu ia ?en.3. a e a. Iae?iiu oaeiai oeia oaeiaiu aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey aiaeiaiauo iae?iiiuo naoae.?en.3. I?eia?u iaeeiaeiuo ooieoeee ioeeeea iae?iiia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey naoae.( ni. ?en.1 ), n eioi?uie noiie?othony aoiaeiua neaiaeu ia eaaeaeii iae?iia. I?e yoii ioia?aoeey aoiaeia anao iae?iiia i?aaeiieaaaaony niaeaniaaiiie n ioia?aoeeae iae?iiia a naoe. I?e aoi?ii niiniaa ana aoiaeu a iae?ii i?aaeiieaaathony yeaeaaeaioiuie, i?e iao/aiee eciaiythony naienoaa naycae ( iai?eia?, eo nii?ioeaeaiey, aieinoe eee eiyooeoeeaiou oneeaiey aoiaeyueo a ieo oneeeoaeae ). N oi/ee c?aiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey yoe niiniau iiaoo ia ?acee/aoueny. Iaeiaei i?e oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee a caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiie oaoiieiaee iiaeao ieacaoueny i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae iaeei ec oeacaiiuo niiniaia. Iai?eia?, ii?iaiaue aaioeeue ioiineonye ia?aiio oeio, a naoue ec aiaeiaiauo oneeeoaeae n ianuuaieai - ei aoi?iio.OEIU A?OEOAEOO?a) Naoe OiioeeaeaIiaeaeue, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Oiioeeaeii, ioiineony e oeio aeia?iuo (eee eae aa?eaio, aeiiey?iuo, eiaaea, ia?aiaiiay, iienuaathuay aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea iae?iiia, iiaeao i?eieiaoue e io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea, iai?eia? +1 e -1), a aa iao/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aa?eaio iao/aiey n noia?aeci?ii. Iia iniiauaaaony ia iaeioi?uo aiaeiaeyo n oece/aneeie nenoaiaie, a /anoiinoe, ni nieiiauie noaeeaie , a oaeaea n iaeeiaeiuie aeeiaie/aneeie nenoaiaie, iaeaaeathueie iiaeoiaeyuae no?oeoo?ie aoo?aeoi?ia a oaciaii i?ino?ainoaa. Eaaeaeue oaeie aoo?aeoi? iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ioaeaeueiay caienue eioi?iaoeee ( ia?aca ) a iaiyoe nenoaiu. ?aeaenaoeey nenoaiu ec i?iecaieueiiai ia/aeueiiai ninoiyiey ( eiathuaai niune i?aaeuyaeaiiiainoeioea) e onoie/eaie oi/ea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oece/aneoth aiaeiaeth ainnoaiiaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ii aeinoaoi/iie aa /anoe - ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia.), aaea= 0 eee 1 - iienuaaao ninoiyiea i-ai iae?iia. Ninoiyiea nenoaiu, eioi?iio niioaaonoaoaoiaeia ec aa?oei aaeeie/iiai aeia?eoaa a N- ia?iii i?ino?ainoaa, iaiyaony ai a?aiaie ii neaaeothuaio aeai?eoio. Eaaeaeue iae?ii eciaiyao naia ninoiyiea a neo/aeiue iiiaio a?aiaie ni n?aaeiae nei?inoueth w oae, /oi a neaaeothuee iiiaio neo/aeii aua?aiiue yeaiaio n iiia?ii i i?eieiaao cia/aieye(2).. Iiyoiio a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iiaeiii?inoi aiai?eoue i iiaeaeyo (0,1) e (+_1), ii?aaeaeyy oai naiui aiciiaeiua ninoiyiey yeaiaioia i?e ioeaauo ii?iaao., s= 1,..., n eniieuecoaony iao?eoea naycae neaaeothuaai aeaea:(3)A oaeie naoe aicaeaenoaea ia i-iae?ii aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny au?aaeaieai aeey "neeu"( yaeythuaeny aiaeiaii iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea a iae?iaeieiaee)= 0.n?aaeiaa cia/aiea /eaia a neiaeao ?aaii ioeth, anee s-=s'. Oiaaea ni?aaaaeeeai au?aaeaiea:=0.onoie/eai( ai anyeii neo/aa , i?e n < N ). Aiciiaeii iiyaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo onoie/eauo ninoiyiee naoe, ia niaiaaeathueo n aaeoi?aie iaiyoe - "eiaeiua ia?acu ".Aeeiaieea iae?iiiie naoe, iienuaaaiay o?aaiaieyie (2)-(3), eiaao a ea/anoaa aoo?aeoi?ia oieueei onoie/eaua noaoeeiia?iua oi/ee. A neo/aa neiiao?e/iie iao?eoeu O a nenoaia aiciiaeii iaee/eaaieueoiai /enea noaoeeiia?iuo ninoiyiee. Oai?ey aeene?aoiuo naoae Oiioeeaea iieo/eea a iineaaeiaa a?aiycia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea. Aiciiaeiinoue aaaaeaiey ooieoeee, eiathuae niune yia?aee, oiaiueoathuaeny a i?ioeanna ?aeaenaoeee ia/aeueiiai ninoiyiey nenoaiu, iicaieeea i?eiaieoue aeey enneaaeiaaiey nenoaiuoi?ioi ?ac?aaioaiiue aiia?ao noaoenoe/aneie oeceee. A /anoiinoe, aaaaeaiea nii?yaeaiiie e yia?aee aaee/eiu - yooaeoeaiie "oaiia?aoo?u" - iicaieeei enneaaeiaaoue no?oeoo?o onoie/eauo ninoiyiee e aic-iiaeiinoe eo eciaiaiey a i?ioeanna iao/aiey .Aiciiaeia ?aaeecaoeey iae?iiiie naoe ia aiaeiaiauo yeaiaioao (iia?aoeeiiiuo oneeeoaeyo). Yoi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ eiiaeiaoi?iie iioeiecaoeee, eiiieaiyaea?a, caaea/a i?ane?anea ea?o, caaea/a iioeiecaoeee ?aciauaiey yeaeo?iiiuo yeaiaioia ia /eia.a) NAOUe EINEIEinei i?aaeeiaeee iiaeaeue iae?iiiie naoe n neio?iiiie aeeiaieeie, eioi?ay iieo/eea iacaaiea aeaoiai?aaeaiiie annioeeaoeaiie iaiyoe ( bidirectional associative memory, BAM). Iia i?aaenoaaeyao eioa-?an aeey iioe/aneeo ?aaeecaoeee iae?iiiuo naoae. A yoie iiaeaee any niaieoiiinoue iae?iiia ?acaeaeaia ia iiaeiiiaeanoaa ( aiiaua aiai?y, ?acee/iie iiuiinoe) - A e A . Naoue ono?iaia oaeei ia?acii, /oino?ieony ii i?aaeeo:iii eiaao aeae noiiu i?yiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aaeoi?ia iaiyoe?en. Noaia iiaeaee aeaoiai?aaeaiiie annioeeaoeaiie iaiyoe Einei.Aeeiaieea yoie nenoaiu iienuaaaony ia?ie o?aaiaiee,.). Yoe oi/ee aeinoeaathony).Eiathony iiaeeoeeaoeee iae?iiiie naoe Einei:- ca n/ao aaaaeaiey iao?eoe nayce iauaai aeaea ( anneiao?e/iuo, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo i?eioeeio "aeaoaeueiiai aaeaina"),- ca n/ao aaaaeaiey iaioeaauo ii?iaia, /oi iicaieyao oaaee/eoue /enei onoie/eauo ninoiyiee nenoaiu ( eo /enei a iauai neo/aa N iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo 1 e 2 ).a) OAIIEIAIAA NAOUeOaiieiaiaa naoue i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. .Iia ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae. Ieaeiyy iiaenaoue neoaeeo aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ii aoiaeo - aeia?iiio aaeoi?o aeeeiie N - ia/aeueiiai ninoiyiey aeey iae?iiia aa?oiae iiaenaoe. *enei iae?iiia a iae M.aeey ieaeiae iiaenaoe onoaiaaeeaathony ii neaaeothuei i?aaeeai:= N/2 , i=1,...,N , j=1,..., M, (4).- i-ue yeaiaio j-ai aaeoi?a iaiyoe (/enei iae?iiia a n?aaeiai neia M niaiaaeaao n /eneii caienaiiuo ia?acia).?en. Noaiaoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea oaiieiaiaie naoe.A aeaiiie naoe auiieiythony eoa?aoeee aeey iae?iiia aa?oiae iiaenaoei?e ia/aeueiii oneiaee.Ooieoeey g a yoeo au?aaeaieyo niioaaonoaoao ?en.3a, i?e/ai aeeiaieea /oanoaeoaeueia e auai?o aaee/eiu ia?aoiaeiie iaeanoe a. I?ioeann eoa?aoeee i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea auoiaeu anao iae?iiia,ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai, ia noaioo io?eoeaoaeueiuie.Eiaaony ae?oaia iacaaiea naoe Oaiieiaa - naoue n eaoa?aeueiui oi?iiaeaieai ( yaeaiea eaoa?aeueiiai oi?iiaeaiey oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii a iae?ioeceieiaee).a) IA?OeAIO?IIUI?inoaeoee ia?naio?ii ninoieo ec iaeiiai neiy iae?iiia, niaaeeiaiiuo naycyie n N aoiaeaie. Niioaaonoaothuay noaia i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. ., i=1,...,N , j=1,...,M (M - /enei iae?iiia - ii?iaiauo yeaiaioia a neia). Eaaeaeue ec iae?iiia inouanoaeyao iaeeiaeiia i?aia?aciaaiea neaiaeia, iinooiathueo ia aai aoiae, niaeanii au?aaeaieth (1), (6)} ia eeannu iin?aaenoaii aeia?ieineinoae. Iie ii?aaeaeythony o?aaiaieyie aeaea:Iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue ia aieaa 2 oaeeo eeannia. Aana naycae e ii?iae iiaoo auoue oeene?iaaiiuie eeai eciaiyoueny aaeaioeaii. I?inoaeoee aeai?eoi aaeaioaoeee aue i?aaeeiaeai ?icaiaeaooii.?anniio?ei neo/ae, eiaaea I=1.A yoii neo/aa ia?naio?ii inouanoaeyao ?acaeaiea iiiaeanoaa anao aoiaeia ia aeaa eeanna(j= 1 ) i?iecaiaeeony iinea eaaeaeiai au/eneaieyauoiaea iae?iia a niioaaonoaee n au?aaeaieai ( 6 ) i?e iiaea/a ia aoiae naoe i/a?aaeiiai aaeoi?a iao/athuae auai?ee:aaea 0 < n <= 1, y (t) - ninoiyiea auoiaea iae?iia i?e aoiaeiii aaeoi?a x(t), aeey eioi?iai aeaeaaiui aaeoi?ii yaeyaony d(t). Anee auoiae niaiaaeaao n aeaeaaiui aaeoi?ii, nayce ia eciaiythony.?icaiaeaoo iieacae, /oi anee aoiaeiua aaeoi?u , i?eiaaeeaaeauea iii/a?aaeii iaeiiio ec aeaoo eeannia, ?acaeaeeiu a i?ino?ainoaa aoiaeia iaeioi?ie aeia?ieineinoueth, oi oeacaiiue aeai?eoi noiaeeony.Iaaeinoaoeii i?inouo iaeiineieiuo ia?naio?iiia yaeyaony iaaiciiaeiinoue iino?ieoue neiaeioth ?acaeaeythuoth aeia?iiaa?oiinoue a i?ino?ainoaa aoiaeia. Aeey oiai, /oiau yoi naeaeaoue, eniieuecotho aieaaneiaeiua iiaeaee - iiiaineieiua ia?naio?iiu ( ni. ?en. ). A yoeo iiaeaeyo aaiaeyony "ne?uoua" neie iae?iiia, yeaiaiou eioi?uo ia naycaiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii n aoiaeaie e auoiaeaie nenoaiu.Aeaooneieiua ia?naio?iiu iicaieytho oi?ie?iaaoue auioeeua iaiei/ee a i?ino?ainoaa aoiaeia(ioaa/athuea oiio eee eiiio eeanno).O?aoneieiua ia?naio?iiu aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iino?ieoue iaeanoe i?iecaieueiie neiaeiinoe. I?e yoii ia?aie/aiea oieueei ia /enei eniieuecoaiuo a naoe iae?iiia.Iaeiaei, iao/aiea oaeeo naoae yaeyaony aanueia o?oaeiaieei i?ioeannii e aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo iao?eoe naycae iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue niaoeeaeueiua aeai?eoiu.AEAI?EOIU IAO*AIEss IAE?IIIUO NAOAEAiciiaeiinoue iao/aiey yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth iae?inaoaaiai iiaeoiaea e iino?iaieth nenoai ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Eiaaony aieueoia /enei aa?eaioia i?ioeaaeo? iao/aiey iae-?iiiuo naoae. Iie iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa eeanna: iao/aiea n noia?aeci?ii e iao/aiea aac noia?aeci?a eee naiiiao/aiea. Eniieueciaaiea oiai eee eiiai aeai?eoia iao/aiey a cia/eoaeueiie ia?aii?aaeaeyaony a?oeoaeoo?ie naoe.IAO*AIEA N NOIA?AECI?II, s=1,...,N }, eaaeaeiio ec eioi?uo iinoaaeai a niioaaonoaea ii?aaeaeaiiue auoiaeiie aaeoi? ec iiiaeanoaa, p,...M }. ?acia?iinoe aoiaeiiai N e auoiaeiiai M aaeoi?ia iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue. I?ioeaaeo?a iao/aiey i?iecaiaeeony i?e caaeaiiie oiiieiaee naycae iaaeaeo iae?iiaie. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii iiaeia?aoueeo aana oaeei ia?acii, /oiau i?e iiaea/a ia aoiae naoe ethaiai aoiaeiiai aaeoi?a ec iao/athuae auai?ee ia aa auoiaea oi?ie?iaaeny i?aaeeueiue auoiaeiie aaeoi?.Naoue, oaeiaeaoai?ythuay yoiio o?aaiaaieth, yaeyaony iao/aiiie.Iaeiei ec ia?auo aeai?eoiia, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aeey iao/aiey ia?naio?iiia aua a 60-o aiaeao, aue aeai?eoi Oeae?io-Oiooa.?anniio?ei aai. Aeai?eoi i?aaeiieaaaao auiieiaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oaaia. Eaaeaeue oaa a naith i/a?aaeue ninoieo ec aeaoo yoaiia.YOAI 1. Ia aoiae naoe iiaeaaony iaeei ec aaeoi?ia iao/athuae auai?ee. Ia auoiaea naoe caaeaaony aeaeaaiue auoiaeiie aaeoi?. Aana anao naycae, niaaeeiythueo aeoeaiua aoiaeiua e auoiaeiua iae?iiu, oaaee/eaathony ia iaeoth aaee/eio del.YOAI 2. Ia aoiae naoe iiaeaaony oio aea aaeoi? ec iao/athuae auai?ee. Iae?iiiie naoe i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue a niioaaonoaee n eiathueieny aanaie naycae naiie onoaiiaeoue ia auoiaea ii?aaeaeaiiue aaeoi?. Anee iao niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo aoiaeiui e auoiaeiui aaeoi?aie, oi aana naycae, niaaeeiythueo aeoeaiua aoiaeiua e auoiaeiua iae?iiu, oiaiueoathony ia oo aea aaee/eio del.Anee naoue i?aaeeueii onoaiiaeea auoiaeiie aaeoi?, oi iao/aiea caaa?oaaony. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa - iao/aiea i?iaeieaeaaony.I?eioeeieaeueiay o?oaeiinoue, i?enouay ?anniao?eaaaiiio iiaeoiaeo, ninoieo a oii, /oi aeey iiiaeo iao/athueo auai?ie iaaiciiaeii i?iaanoe iaiaoiaeeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea naycae iaaeaeo iae?iiaie ia?naio?iia. Oeacaiiia ( iaaiciiaeiinoue iao/aiey i?iecaieueiiio iaai?o ia?acia) i?enoua, ii-aeaeeiiio, anai iae?iiiui naoyi. Ia?aoiia ni?aaaaeeeai eeoue aeey naoae, niaea?aeaueo aaneiia/iia /enei iae?iiia,eiathueo aeaa neiy e anee auiieiythony ia?aie/aiey ia oa?aeoa?enoeee auoiae-aoiae iae?iia.Aeaaea i?e nouanoaiaaiee eneiiiai ioia?aaeaiey i?iaeaia iao/aiey iae?iiiie naoe noaeeeaaaony n na?ueaciuie o?oaeiinoyie. Iie naycaiu n oai, i?iaeaia iao/aiey iae?iiiuo naoae ioiineony e eeannoNP-neiaeiuo. O.a. ia nouanoaoao aeai?eoia, eioi?ue au ca iieeiiieaeueiia a?aiy ( a?aiy, ?anoouaa n ?acia?ii naoe ia auno?aa iieeiiia eiia/iie noaiaie) ?aoee caaea/o o?aaoaiie iiaeeoeeaoeee naycaenaoe. Iiyoiio , i?e i?aeoe/aneii iao/aiee iae?iiiuo naoae ( a /anoiinoe, iiiaineieiuo naoae) iaecaaaeii eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo ya?enoee, iicaieythueo ca ia?aie/aiiia a?aiy iaeoe i?eaeeaeaiiia?aoaiea caaea/e iao/aiey.Eiaaony aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai ya?enoe/aneeo iaoiaeia, n?aaee ieo iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iaoiae "ia?aoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ioeaee" ( back- propagation error, BPE ).Aeai?eoi BPE i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiauaiea iaoiaea iaeiaiueoeo eaaae?aoia i?eiaieoaeueii e iiiaineieiui ia?naio?iiai. A aeaiiii iaoiaea ieieiece?oaony n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iay ioeaea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneei auoiaeii ia?naio?iia e aeaeaaiui auoiaeiui aaeoi?ii. Ia/aeueiua aana e ii?iae i?eieiathony ?aaiuie neo/aeii aua?aiiui /eneai. Caoai ia aoiae naoe iineaaeiaaoaeueii iiaeathony aaeoi?u ec iao/athuae auai?ee e iiaeeoeoee?othony nayce iaaeaeo iae?iiaie, ia/eiay n iineaaeiaai neiy.I?aaenoaaei oeaiiinoioth ooieoeeth a aeaea:aaea V - oaeoe/aneea cia/aiey ninoiyiey iae?iiia, au/eneaiiua n o/aoii oaeoueo cia/aiee naycae iaaeaeo iae?iiaie. A yoii au?aaeaiee noiia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia iae?iiu iineaaeiaai ( auoiaeiiai) neiy.Eciaiaiea aania naycae ia eaaeaeii oaaa aeai?eoia i?iecaiaeeony ii i?aaeeo:aaea > 0 – ia?aiao?. Au/eneyy i?iecaiaeioth a yoii au?aaeaiee, aeey
auoiaeiiai neiy iae?iiia iieo/ei:

.

Caoai iineaaeiaaoaeueii au/eneythony eciaiaiey eiyooeoeeaioia ia
i?aaeoanoaothueo neiyo.

Oaeie niinia iiaeeoeeaoeee naycae a naoe iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeoue a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey iao/aiey naoe. Aiiaua , a?aiy
iao/aiey nouanoaaiii caaeneo io o?aaoaiie neiaeiinoe ?acaeaiey

i?ino?ainoaa aiciiaeiuo aoiaeia naoe ia iiaeeeannu ( iai?eia?, anee
iino?ieoue ianayciua iaeanoe ).

3.2. IAO*AIEA AAC NOIA?AECI?A

Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae i?eiaiei e iae?iiiui naoyi
A?innaa?aa-Ea?iaioa?a e Eioiiaia. Oaeea naoe eiatho ae?oaia iacaaiea –
naiii?aaiecothueany naoe. I?ioeann eo iao/aiey auaeyaeeo eae i?ioeann
aicieeiiaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo naienoa i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee nenoaiu n
aiaoiei ie?ii. Naoe oaeiai oeia iaeaieaa aeecee ii naiei naienoaai e
ia?aaiiaaniui oece/aneei, oeie/aneei eee aeieiae/aneei nenoaiai, a
eioi?uo aiciiaeii ia?aciaaiea aeenneiaoeaiuo no?oeoo?. ?aniiciaiea
ia?acia e iao/aiea, ii-aeaeeiiio, oanii naycaiu n aii?inii i
eieeaeoeaiii iiaaaeaiee nenoai, aeeth/athuei iiiaeanoai /anoeoe.

Nouiinoue iao/aiey aac noia?aeci?a iiaeii iiynieoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii. Aeey yoiai ?anniio?ei aeeiaie/aneoth nenoaio, yeaiaiou eioi?ie
( iae?iiu) acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie e oa?iinoaoii.

Ninoiyiea i-ai iae?iia aoaeai iienuaaoue iai?a?uaiie ia?aiaiiie m
(t) ( t – a?aiy ), eciaiythuaeny a eioa?aaea – m<= m <=+m .I?aaeiieiaeei oaeaea, /oi yia?aey nenoaiu yaeyaony eaaae?aoe/iie ooieoeeae aeaea( 7 )Aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue aaee/eio( 8 ).,( 9 )( 10 )Aeiaaaeaiiua a yoe o?aaiaiey iaeeiaeiua neaaaaiua (f, F) i?aiyonoaotho iaia?aie/aiiiio aic?anoaieth aaniethoiuo aaee/ei m e O: a ?aieao eaa?aiaeaaie noaiu iie iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu a au?aaeaiea (9 ) a aeaea iioaioeeaeia, auno?i aic?anoathueo aaeece oi/ae + -m e + - T ( i?aaeaeueiia cia/aiea aeey eiyooeoeeaioia iao?eoeu naycae).i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eaiaeaaaiianeea enoi/ieee ooia. A iae?iaeieiaee ooi aicieeaao aneaaenoaea ianeiaioe/aneeo acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo iae?iiaie e auaeaeaieai iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia. A yeaeo?iiiuo iiaeaeyo iae?iiiuo naoae enoi/ieeii ooia iiaoo auoue yeaeo?e/aneea oeoeooaoeee a oeaiyo. A i?inoaeoai neo/aa ooi iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aaaaeaieai yooaeoeaiie oaiia?aoo?u:> = 0 ,

aaea neiaee iaicia/atho on?aaeiaiea ii a?aiaie.

= 0, iinea ieii/aiey yoiai i?ioeanna iieo/ei

,

caaenyo io aeeeoaeueiinoe iao/aiey. Oaeei ia?acii, o?aaiaiey (9)
e (10) iienuaatho i?ioeann caiiieiaiey iinooiathuae a nenoaio
eioi?iaoeee a aeaea iao?eoe naycae oaaaianeiai aeaea.

= 0. Iiaeii ?anniio?aoue i?ioeaiiieiaeiue neo/ae, eiaaea aei ia/aea
iao/aiey iae?iiiay naoue eiaao aieueoia /enei onoie/eauo ninoiyiee.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aeiieie?otho aeoaieea yia?aaoe/aneea ieieioiu,
eioi?ua iiaoo ia?aciauaaoue no?oeoo?o aea?aaa. I?ioeaaeo?a iao/aiey
aeieaeia i?eaiaeeoue e naeaeoeee ia?acia . A i?ioeanna iao/aiey
cao/eaaaiue ia?ac caaeaaony a ea/anoaa ia/aeueiiai ninoiyiey naoe e
yaiethoeeiie?oao e iaeioi?iio aoo?aeoi?o, yia?aey eioi?iai oiaiueoaaony
ca n/ao neiiioe/aneeo eciaiaiee ( a /anoiinoe, anee a?aiy ?aeaenaoeee
iaiueoa a?aiaie iao/aiey), a iaeanoue i?eoyaeaiey niauaaony e
oaaee/eaaaony ca n/ao

i?eniaaeeiaiey ninaaeieo iaeanoae. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeann naeaeoeee
ioee/aaony io ?aaeeia iao/aiey, ?anniio?aiiiai ?aiaa oai /oi
eniieuecoaony aiaoiaa iiea.

INIIAIUA OOIEOeEE IAE?IIIUO NAOAE

ANNIOeEAOEAIAss IAIssOUe E EAOAAI?ECAOeEss

Iiae annioeeaoeaiie iaiyoueth ( eee iaiyoueth, aae?anoaiie ii
niaea?aeaieth) iiieiaaony niiniaiinoue nenoaiu iae?iiia, iai?eia?, iicaa
ieaeiieoathueo ainnoaiaaeeaaoue oi/ioth eioi?iaoeeth ii iaeioi?ie

aa /anoe. E yoiio ii?aaeaeaieth aeecie i?ioeann eaoaai?ecaoeee –
ioianaiea i?aaeuyaeaiiiai iauaeoa e iaeiiio ec eeannia. Iiiaea ec
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy naoae niiniaiu oaeoe/anee
inouanoaeyoue yoe ooieoeee. I?e yoii e?eoa?ee, ii eioi?ui
inouanoaeyaony ioianaiea iauaeoia e oiio eee eiiio eeanno (
?aniiciaaaiea) , ?acee/iu a ?aciuo iiaeaeyo.

?anniio?ei a ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeaeue Oiioeeaea.

, ?aaiia /eneo yeaiaioia, ioee/athueo yoe aaeoi?u. Iiaenoaaeyy yoi
au?aaeaiea a ( 7 ), iieo/ei neaaeothuaa au?aaeaiea aeey yia?aee:

.

.

A neo/aa n = 2 au?aaeaiea aeey yia?aee eiaao aeae

.

.

Ooieoeeth eaoaai?ecaoeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoue iae?iiiua naoe ae?oaeo
oeiia, i?e yoii eaaeaeay ec naoae aeaeaao yoi ii ?aciiio. Oae, anee
naoue Oiioeeaea ioiineo e iaeiiio onoie/eaiio aaeoi?o ana noeioeu,
iiiaaoea a iaeanoue aai ciiu i?eoyaeaiey, oi naoue Oaiieiaa ioiineo
eaaeaeue aoiaeiie aaeoi? e aeeaeaeoaio aaeoi?o, caienaiiiio a iaiyoue.

AU?AAIOEA I?IOIOEIA E IAIAUAIEA

?acee/iua oeiu iae?iiiuo naoae aeiioneatho aiciiaeiinoue eo
iao/aiey aeey auiieiaiey aeai?eoiia ia?aaioee aoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee. I?e
yoii a iao/athuae auai?ea iiaeao ia niaea?aeaoueny iieiiai iienaiey

i?aaeeaaaaiuo aeai?eoiia.

?anniio?ei aeaa i?eia?a:

– au?aaioea i?ioioeia a iiaeaee Oiioeeaea ( ia?aciaaiea onoie/eaiai
ia?aca a iaiyoe, ia niaea?aeaaoaainy n?aaee iao/aaiuo aaeoi?ia),

– iaiauaiea ii eiaeoeoeee.

I?e oaaee/aiee /enea ia?acia a iaiyoe ieieiaeueiua cia/aiey
yia?aee, au/eneaiiua n iiiiuueth au?aaeaiey (7) e niioaaonoaothuea
?acee/iui caienaiiui aaeoi?ai, iiaoo ia/aoue neeaaoueny.

.

ia aaee/eio del i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea yia?aee, niioaaonoaothuae yoiio
aaeoi?o, ia aaee/eio del E.

( o.a. yaeythueeny a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea on?aaeiaieai iaeioi?iai
/enea ia?acia e inoathueeny a iaiyoe /aeiaaea ia?yaeo n
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaeuyaeyaoeieny ia?acaie) , iieo/ee iacaaiea
i?ioioeia.

Nouiinoue iaiauaiey ii eiaeoeoeee iiaeii iiiyoue ia neaaeothuai
i?eia?a. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iiiaeanoai aoiaeia naoe ?acaeaeaii ia aeaa
/anoe, eiaee?othuea niioaaonoaaiii aeaa “ia?aca”. Iai?eia?, yoi
iiaoo auoue aeaa /enea eeai aeaa ecia?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoia. Auoiaeiie
neie ia?naio?iia ionoue niaea?aeeo iaeei aeia?iue iae?ii. I?e iao/aiee
aoaeai no?aieoueny e oiio , /oiau ia auoiaea naoe auea 1, anee ia?acu
ia aoiaea niaiaaeatho e 0 , a i?ioeaiii neo/aa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
o?aoneieiay naoue iiaeao auoue iao/aia ii oeacaiiiio i?aaeeo, e
niiniaia ii?aaeaeyoue niaiaaeaiea ia?acia ia aoiaea ( eee neiiao?eth
aoiaeiiai aaeoi?a, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa iaeii e oi aea). Oaeei ia?acii,
naoue ii eiaeoeoeee iao/aaony onoaiaaeeaaoue niaiaaeaiea aeaoo

aaeoi?ia, oioy i?e iao/aiee yaiia ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey niaiaaeaiea
ia i?eaiaeeeinue. Ii yoiio aea i?eioeeio iiaeii iao/eoue iae?iiioth
naoue neeaaeuaaoue /enea.

CAEETH*AIEA

I?aeoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u iao/aiey iae?iiiuo naoae /anoi
noaeeeaathony n iaaiciiaeiinoueth aeiaeoueny io naoe aeaeaaiiai
iiaaaeaiey. ?aiaa oiiieiaeenue iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu oaeiai ?iaea:

– ionoonoaea noiaeeiinoe i?ioeanna iao/aiey ia?naio?iiia,

– eiaeiay iaiyoue a iiaeaee Oiioeeaea.

I?e/eiu yoiai iiaoo ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa a?oiiu.

1. Cia/eoaeueiia a?aiy iao/aiey iae?iiiuo naoae a neiaeiuo neo/ayo.

2. I?eioeeieaeueiay iaaiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiie
no?oeoo?u oaciaiai i?ino?ainoaa a caaeaiiie iiaeaee iae?iiiie naoe.

Iaeanoue i?eeiaeaiey iae?iiiuo naoae cia/eoaeueia e ?anoe?yaony.

Yoio i?ioeann eaeao ii ?yaeo iai?aaeaiee. E eo /eneo iiaeii
ioianoe neaaeothuea:

– iiene iiauo iaeeiaeiuo yeaiaioia , eioi?ua iiaee au
?aaeeciauaaoue neiaeiia eieeaeoeaiia iiaaaeaiea a ainaiaea,

– ?ac?aaioea iiauo a?oeoaeoo? iae?iiiuo naoae, ia?niaeoeaiuo n
oi/ee c?aiey eo ?aaeecaoeee ia yeaeo?iiiie, iioe/aneie e
iioiyeaeo?iiiie yeaiaioiie aaca,

– iiene iaeanoae i?eeiaeaiey iae?iiiuo naoae a nenoaiao
oi?aaeaiey, ?iaioioaoieea, nenoaiao ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee,
?aniiciaaaiey ?a/e.

EAEOeEss (3

NENOAIA AAOIIAOE*ANEIAI AAIAeA EIOI?IAOeEE A YAI

1. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai aaiaea

Cicaeaoaee NAI? iiieii auyaeaiey iiiaeanoaa caaea/, ?aoaaiuo nenoaiie, e
?ani?aaeaeaiey eo iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e YAI aeieaeiu oaeaea ia iniiaa
aiaeeca o?aaiaaiey iieueciaaoaey ii?aaeaeeoue niiniau iauaiey /aeiaaea n
iaoeiie. Iineaaeiaa i?aaeiieaaaao auai? iiaeoiaeyueo n?aaenoa aeeaeiaa
e onoaiiaeaiea ycueia iauaiey.

I?iaeoiaiiue auai? ycuea ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a nicaeaiee
oai?/aneie ianoaiiaee aeey /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey. AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau iia?aoi?, iaoiaeyueeny ca
oa?ieiaeaie A?Ia, iauaeny n nenoaiie a i?eau/iie aeey iaai oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee. Anyeay caiaia i?eau/iuo e oaeiaiuo ycueia
ia iaiaa oaeiaiua i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

A ea/anoaa ycueia iauaiey anoanoaaiii eniieueciaaoue ycuee ecia?aaeaiee.
I?eia?aie iiaeiaiuo ycueia yaeythony ycuee, ia?aciaaiiua a?aoe/aneeie
aeieoiaioaie (i?eioeeieaeueiuie, ooieoeeiiaeueiuie, yeaeo?e/aneeie
noaiaie, noaiaie ?aciauaiey yeaiaioia, yneecaie oiiieiaee neiaa
ia/aoiiai iiioaaea e ae?.).

Ae?oaea niiniau iienaiey oiai, /oi ecia?aaeaii ia a?aoe/aneii
aeieoiaioa, cao?oaeiytho i?ioeann aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii.

I/aaeaeii, /oi e a neo/aa, eiaaea eioi?iaoeey a?aoe/aneiai oeia
ia?aaeaaony io /aeiaaea e YAI , yoio i?ioeann aeieaeai auoue aeey
/aeiaaea noieue aea i?inoui e eaaeei. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
a nia?aiaiiuo NAI? oaoiieiaey aaiaea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?oaeiaieoth e aeeeoaeueioth i?ioeaaeo?o. Na?eeii
auioneaaiua ono?ienoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iaania/aiey i?ioeanna
aaiaea a YAI a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, iicaieytho aeaeaoue yoi a
iieoaaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia.

Iieoaaoiiaoe/aneea a?aoe/aneea ono?ienoaa aaiaea aeaiiuo o?aaotho, /oiau
iia?aoi? i?e iiiiue niaoeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa (uoia) iaioae ana
oa?aeoa?iua oi/ee aeieoiaioa e niiauee iaoeia oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo
oi/ae.

Aeaiiue o?oae eeoai i?eciaeia oai?/anoaa e aai iau/ii ii?o/aee
iia?aoi?o. Oaeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iaaeaeo ?ac?aaio/eeii e iia?aoi?ii
neiei/iiai aaoiiaoa ia?ooaao aaeeinoai oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna e nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiia caaii a oeaii/ea aai iauaiey n YAI. Yoa oeaii/ea
neoaeeo enoi/ieeii aeiiieieoaeueiuo ioeaie, eioi?ua a aeaeueiaeoai
iaiaoiaeeii iouneeaaoue e eni?aaeyoue.

I?iaiaeeeenue ioeaiee o?oaeiaieinoe i?ioeanna aaiaea a?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a iieoaaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia aaiaea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee
n /a?oaaea ia/aoiie ieaou ?acia?ii 150*300 ii, niaea?aeauae aei 1500
eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie e aei 1200 niaaeeiythueo eo eeiee. A?aiy aaiaea
eioi?iaoeee a yoii neo/aa – 16 /ania.

I?e yoii i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi i?ioeann aeeth/aao oaeaea e
?aaeaeoe?iaaiea ecia?aaeaiey.

Aeueoa?iaoeaie oaoiieiaee n/eouaaiey a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee e
eniieueciaaieai neiei/iuo ieaioaoia yaeyaony oaoiieiaey, iniiaaiiay ia
i?eiaiaiee nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey ecia?aaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii
n a?aoe/aneiai aeieoiaioa.

A yoii neo/aa aeinoeaaaony nouanoaaiiue auea?uo ai a?aiaie aaiaea
eioi?iaoeee. I?eiaieoaeueii e ono?ienoao ON-6030 (aaoiiaoe/aneiai
n/eouaaiey e eiaee?iaaiey a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee) aaiae inouanoaeyaony
a 12 ?ac auno?aa.

?anniio?ei ?acee/iua aniaeou iino?iaiey nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey
a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, o?aaiaaiea e aeieoiaioai, iienaiey aeai?eoiia
?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo yoaiia ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee, a oaeaea
iaania/aiey aunieie aeinoiaa?iinoe n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee.

2.O?aaiaaiey e aeieoiaioai, aaoiiaoe/anee n/eouaaaiui nenoaiie

2.1. Iauea naaaeaiey

Aeieoiaio yaeyaony iineoaeai eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue
aaaaeaia a YAI a ea/anoaa enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey oie eee eiie
i?ia?aiiu, aoiaeyuae a iaeao i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii NAI?.

Iai?eia?, i?eioeeieaeueiay yeaeo?e/aneay noaia ii?aaeaeaiiiai ocea
?aaeeiaiia?aoo?u iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey
oaeeo i?ia?aii, eae iiaeaee?iaaiea, aaia?aoeey aeeaaiinoe/aneeo oanoia
ocea, aeai?eoie/aneia eiino?oe?iaaiea ieaou ia/aoiiai iiioaaea, ia
eioi?ie aoaeao ?aaeeciaai ocae e ae?.

E aeieoiaioai, i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey,
i?aaeuyaeythony i?ioeai?a/eaua o?aaiaaiey. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
ecia?aaeaiea ia iai aeieaeii eaaei aini?eieiaoueny /aeiaaeii, a n
ae?oaie – nenoaiie aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey. Yoi icia/aao, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, /oi oneiaiua a?aoe/aneea iaicia/aiey, eniieuecoaiua eae
o?aaiaiou ecia?aaeaiey, aeieaeiu auoue i?eau/iuie aeey /aeiaaea.

A neo/aa i?eioeeieaeueiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo noai yoi oneiaiua a?aoe/aneea
iaicia/aiey yeaiaioia noaiu, iaicia/aiey yeaeo?e/aneeo naycae, neiaieu e
no?iee neiaieia, ?aaeaiaioe?oaiuie niioaaonoaothueie AINOaie.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeieoiaiou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aaiaea a
YAI, eae i?aaeei, ecaioaaeeaathony /aeiaaeii a?o/ioth. Aneaaenoaea yoiai
ecia?aaeaiea iiaeao nouanoaaiii ioee/aoueny io eaeaaeueiiai. Eiie?aoiua
ioeeiiaiey io eaeaaeueiiai iiyaeythony, a /anoiinoe, a oii, /oi aianoi
i?yiie eeiee ia yneeca, /a?oaaea eee noaia i?enoonoaoao aieienoay eee
ano?a/athony “iaaeiaiaeu”, “ia?aaiaeu” eeiee. Oa?aeoa? iaienaiey
neiaieia oaeaea eciaiyaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. I?e yoii /anoi eo
ia/a?oaiea cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io ?aaeaiaioe?oaiiai noaiaea?oaie,
iaeiaei /aeiaae ia eniuouaaao cao?oaeiaiee a aini?eyoee eioi?iaoeee.

A naith i/a?aaeue nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee
aanueia /oanoaeoaeueiu e ioeeiiaieyi ecia?aaeaiey io eaeaaeueiiai. Yoi
ia icia/aao, /oi iie ia iiaoo i?aaeeueii aini?eieiaoue ecia?aaeaiey,
niaea?aeauea aeaoaeou.

Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioaeaaaoue io/ao a oii, /oi neiaeiinoue nenoai,
iaeaaeathueo niiniaiinoueth eaii?e?iaaoue aeaoaeou eniieiaiey aeieoiaioa
/aeiaaeii e i?aaeeueii n/eouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, nouanoaaiii auoa ii
n?aaiaieth n nenoaiaie, oaeeie niiniaiinoyie ia iaeaaeathueie.

Eiie?aoii yoi iiaeao o?ainoi?ie?iaaoueny a aieaa aunieea aiia?aoo?iua
cao?aou eee a oaaee/aiea cao?ao a?aiaie ia ?aaeecaoeeth aeai?eoiia
ia?aaioee. Oai ia iaiaa ieeaeay ec oaoie/aneeo nenoai naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy
eee aeeaeaeoaai aoaeouaai ia a ninoiyiee eiieo?e?iaaoue n /aeiaa/aneeie
niiniaiinoyie a aini?eyoee ?aaeueiuo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee. Ethaie
nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue aeey ia?aaioee
aeieoiaio oaeiai eniieiaiey, /oi iia ia ni?aaeony n aai ia?aaioeie, a oi
a?aiy eae /aeiaae eaaei i?i/eoaao yoio aeieoiaio.

Ia iniiaa ioia/aiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi aeieoiaiou,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai aaiaea aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe
?yaeo o?aaiaaiee.

I?e ?ac?aaioea o?aaiaaiee iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue:

– oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ano?iaie aiia?aoo?u n/eouaaiey,

– i?eaieaiinoue o?aaiaaiee e eniieiaieth aeieoiaioa aeey eiino?oeoi?a
aai ?ac?aaaouaathuaai,

– neiaeiinoue e auno?iaeaenoaea aeai?eoiia ia?aaioee.

Iieoai o?aaiaaiey e ecia?aaeaieyi ia yneecao neiaa oiiieiaee ieao
ia/aoiiai iiioaaea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a n/eouaaiee eioi?iaoeee n yneecia neiaa oiiieiaee ieao
ia/aoiiai iiioaaea naycaia n aaoiiaoecaoeeae i?iaeoe?iaaiey e
ecaioiaeaiey eo oioioaaeiiia.

Ecia?aaeaiea ia yneeca neiy oiiieiaee ieaou ia/aoiiai iiioaaea
ninoieo ec oneiaiuo a?aoe/aneeo iaicia/aiee eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie aeey
auaiaeia iaaaniuo yeaiaioia (iee?inoai), a?aieoe iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee
o?aaoaiie oi?iu, oeacaoaeae o?ann i?ieiaeaiey ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia. N
iiiiuueth ia?a/eneaiiuo ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa iiaeii nicaeaoue
?enoiie oiiieiaee neiy ethaie ieaou.

Ecia?aaeaiey neiaieia iiaeii nicaeaoue n?aaenoaaie iienaiey o?ann
ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea. Iniaaiiinoueth yneeca yaeyaony oi, /oi a iai
i?eiaiyaony eii?aeeiaoiay naoea aeey iao?e/aneie i?eaycee yeaiaioia
ecia?aaeaiey. Oaa eii?aeeiaoiie naoee ?aaai 5 eee 2.5 ii, anee aeey
eniieiaiey yneeca neiy oiiieiaee aua?ai ianooaa 4:1 eee 2:1
niioaaonoaaiii. Iao?e/aneay i?eaycea eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie aeey oneiaiuo
a?aoe/aneeo iaicia/aiee inouanoaeyaony iooai iiiauaiey oeaio?a oneiaiiai
a?aoe/aneiai iaicia/aiey a ocae eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Aeey inoaeueiie
/anoe ecia?aaeaiey yneeca i?eaycea i?iecaiaeeony eeoue aeey oi/ae
eceiia eeiee ?enoiea. Oaeea oi/ee aeieaeiu auoue iiiauaiu a oceu
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

?anniio?ei,/oi i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ecia?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey
yeaiaioia ?enoiea ia yneecao neiaa oiiieiaee.

a) Eiioaeoiua ieiuaaeee

Eiioaeoiua ieiuaaeee e?oaeie oi?iu ecia?aaeathony a aeaea e?anoia,
oeaio?u eioi?uo niaiaaeatho n oceaie eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.
Ai?eciioaeueiue e aa?oeeaeueiue oo?eoe e?anoa eiatho aeeeio 1
aeene?aou.

?acee/atho eiioaeoiua ieiuaaeee ianeieueeeo oeiia a caaeneiinoe io
aeeaiao?a iaeanoe, eioi?oth iie caieiatho. Yoi auiieiyaony n iiiiuueth
a?oiiu oi/ae. Iie iiiauathony a oceao eii?aeeiaoiie naoee e
?aniieaaathony ia noi?iiao ieieiaeueiiai ii ?acia?o eaaae?aoa ec eeiee
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, eioi?ue ioaaouaaao oeaio? e?anoa eiioaeoiie
ieiuaaeee e?oaeie oi?iu. ?acia? noi?iiu eaaae?aoa – 2 aeene?aou .
*enei oi/ae a a?oiia oeacuaaao oei eii?aeeiaoiie ieiuaaeee.

a) a) a) a)

?en. 1. Ecia?aaeaiey eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu ia yneecao neiaa
oiiieiaee.

Oaaeeoea 1.

Eiee/anoai oi/ae Oei Aeeaiao?, ii

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 2

3

7

4

8

31

80 2,125

2,5

2,75

3

3,25

3,5

4

Oaaeeoea 2

*enei oi/ae Oe?eia i?iaiaeieea

1

2

3

4 0,625

1,25

1,875

2,5

a) Ia/aoiua i?iaiaeieee

Ia/aoiua i?iaiaeieee ecia?aaeathony ia yneeca io?aceaie i?yiuo eeiee
/aou?ao iai?aaeaiee: ai?eciioaeueiia, aa?oeeaeueiia e aeaa
aeeaaiiaeueiuo, o.a. i?ioiaeyuea iiae oaeii 45 a?aaeonia e eeieyi
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua io?acee i?iaiaeyony
oieueei ii eeieyi eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, a aeeaaiiaeueiua – /a?ac oceu
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

Oi/ee eceiiia, ?acaaoaeaiee eeiee, ecia?aaeathueo ia/aoiua i?iaiaeieee
aeieaeiu niaiaaeaoue n oceaie eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. A nayce n oai, /oi
oe?eia i?iaiaeieea ia ?acee/iuo o/anoeao aeieaeia iiaeao ioee/aoueny,
iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaeyoue ecia?aaeaiea ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia ia
o/anoee iaeii?iaeiinoe. I?e yoii eiathony a aeaeo o/anoee iaeeiaeiaie
oe?eiu, iie niaaaeathony oeacaoaeyie oe?eiu.

?acaeaeaiea ecia?aaeaiey ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia ia o/anoee iaeii?iaeiinoe
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oeacaoaeae a?aieoe iaeii?iaeiinoe. Iie
auaatho oneiaiuie e aaniethoiuie. Oneiaiuie iiaoo neoaeeoue eceii
i?iaiaeieea e ?acaaoaeaiea i?iaiaeieea.

Aaniethoiue oeacaoaeue a?aieoe iaeii?iaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
io?acie i?yiie eeiee, eiathuee aeeeio 1 aeene?aoo. Oaeie io?acie iaeiei
eiioeii enoiaeeo ec oi/ee, eaaeauae ia i?iaiaeieea e yaeythuaeny
a?aieoeae eciaiaiey iaeii?iaeiinoe. A?aieoea eciaiaiey iaeii?iaeiinoe
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoueny a iaeiii ec oceia eii?aeeiaoiie
naoee. Iai?aaeaiea i?iaaaeaiey oo?eoa aaniethoiiai oeacaoaey a?aieoeu
iaeii?iaeiinoe aeieaeii auae?aoueny ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e i?eaioaoeee
i?iaiaeieea a oi/ea, ec eioi?ie ii enoiaeeo.

A neo/aa, anee a oi/ea ia?ooaiey iaeii?iaeiinoe i?iaiaeiee i?aoa?iaaaao
eceii eee ?acaaoaeyaony, aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau oo?eo oeacaoaey a?aieoe
iaeii?iaeiinoe aue ia?iaiaeeeoey?ai iaeiie ec aaoaae i?iaiaeieea,
iiaeoiaeyuae e yoie oi/ea.

Oeacaoaeue oe?eiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio oi/ae, ?aciauaaiuo a
?ac?uaa eeiee ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea. *enei oi/ae naycaii ni cia/aieai
oe?eiu (oaae.2). Anee iaeia ec oi/ae a?oiiu caiaiaia oo?eoii (aeeeia 1
aeene?aou), iai?aaeaiiui ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii eeiee i?iaiaeieea, oi oiaaea
oeacaoaeue oe?eiu ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeiieie?othuee, a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa – eae i?inoie. Aeaenoaea aeiieie?othuaai oeacaoaey
?ani?ino?aiyaony a iaa noi?iiu io iaai e i?ae?auaaony i?e ano?a/a n
aaniethoiui oeacaoaeai e i?e ia?aoiaea /a?ac oneiaiue oeacaoaeue,
niaea?aeauee i?inoie oeacaoaeue oe?eiu.

Aeaenoaea i?inoiai oeacaoaey oe?eiu, eae e a neo/aa aeiieie?othuaai
oeacaoaey, ?ani?ino?aiyaony a iaa noi?iiu io iaai e i?ae?auaaony i?e
ano?a/a n aaniethoiui oeacaoaeai e i?e ano?a/a n oneiaiui oeacaoaeai,
anee ii ae?oaoth noi?iio oeacaoaey aeaenoaoao aeiieie?othuee oeacaoaeue
oe?eiu.

Ia ?en.2 iieacai o?aaiaio yneeca neiy oiiieiaee aeey ia/aoiiai
i?iaiaeieea e niioaaonoaothuee aio o?aaiaio aeaea ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea.

?en. 2. Ia/aoiue i?iaiaeiee, a – o?aaiaio yneeca, a – o?aaiaio ia/aoiie
ieaou.

Iniaaiiinoueth ?aaeueiuo ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea yaeyaony oi, /oi a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia/aoiua i?iaiaeieee ia ieo auiieiythony iaeiie e
oie aea oe?eiu. N o/aoii yoiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa ethaay oeacaiiay a oaae.2
oe?eia iiaeao auoue iauyaeaia iniiaiie. Iauyaeaiea oe?eiu ia/aoiiai
i?iaiaeieea iniiaiiai oeia inouanoaeyaony iieueciaaoaeai ia?aae naainii
aaiaea aeieoiaioa a oi?ia niioaaonoaothuaai niiauaiey i?ia?aiia
ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiey.

Aiaeiae/ii aeey eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie.

a) Iaeanoe iaoaeeecaoeee

Iaeanoe iaoaeeecaoeee ecia?aaeathony nenoaiie caieioouo eiioo?ia.
Eiioo?a iiaoo auoue aioo?aiieie eeai aiaoieie. Yoi ii?aaeaeyaony
oeacaoaeai eiioo?a. A ea/anoaa aai neoaeeo io?acie i?yiie eeiee aeeeiie
a 1 aeene?aoo. Iaeei ec aai eiioeia aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny ia eeiee
eiioo?a a ocea eii?aeeiaoiie naoee e ninoaaeyoue n iae oaie 45
a?aaeonia. Naiaiaeiue eiiaoe oeacaoaey eiioo?a iieacuaaao iaeanoue
iaoaeeecaoeee.

Eeiee eiioo?ia ecia?aaeathony io?aceaie aa?oeeaeueiuo, ai?eciioaeueiuo e
aeeaaiiaeueiuo eeiee, i?ioiaeyueo ii eeieyi eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Ethaua
io?acee aeieaeiu ia/eiaoueny e caaa?oaoueny a oceao eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

I?e ?ac?aaioea neiy oiiieiaee ieaou ia/aoiiai iiioaaea eiino?oeoi?o
/anoi i?eoiaeeony eniieueciaaoue oeiiaua o?aaiaiou ecia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua
naie iiaoo auoue aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiuie ?enoieaie. Aeey oi?iuaiey caaea/e
aaiaeyony aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa ecia?aaeaiey – yeaiaiou
aeaeeioa/iiai oeia.

Iiae ieie iiae?acoiaaathony a?oiiu yeaiaioia, oi?ia e acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea eioi?uo oeene?iaaiu. I?eia?aie oaeeo a?oii iiaoo neoaeeoue
?yae eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie, iee?inoaiu ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia eee
niaieoiiinoue eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie aeey ?acuaia. Ia yneeca oaeea a?oiiu
ecia?aaeathony a aeaea ieiuaaeee, aianoi eioi?ie a eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
ia?aaioee yneeca iiaenoaaeyaony iiae?acoiaaaaiay a?oiia.

Aeey i?inoiou eceiaeaiey ia?aie/einy i?eia?aie yeaiaioia aeaeeioa/iiai
oeia aeey ecia?aaeaiey iaeiiai ?yaea eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie iee?inoai
n ieaia?iuie auaiaeaie.

?en. 3. Ecia?aaeaiea iaeanoe iaoaeeecaoeee

A?aieoeu yeaiaioia aeaeeioa/iiai oeia iaeiiai ?yaea eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie
eiatho aeae i?yiioaieueieea, oe?eia eioi?iai ?aaia 1 aeene?aoa. Aeeeia
i?yiioaieueieea caaeneo io oeia ei?iona iee?inoai.

?en . 4. Yeaiaiou aeaeeioa/iiai oeia aeey eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie
(o?aaiaio yneeca).

E?aeiea eiioaeou a a?oiia eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie ecia?aaeathony ei?ioeeie
noi?iiaie i?yiioaieueieeia, inoaeueiua i?aaeiieaaathony ionoiyueie io
ninaaeieo ia 1 aeene?aoo. Anee eaeea-eeai niaaeiua eiioaeou a?oiiu
niaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie, oi oaeay naycue ecia?aaeaaony iaeeiiiui
io?aceii, i?iaaaeaiiui aioo?e i?yiioaieueieea neaaa iai?aai, naa?oo aiec
e niaaeeiythuei oceu, eaaeauea ia eeieyo eii?aeeiaoiie naoee,
niioaaonoaothueo niaaeeiyaiui eiioaeoiui ieiuaaeeai.

I?e ?ac?aaioea o?aaiaaiee e yneecai neiy oiiieiaee iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe aiia?aoo?u ?ano?iaiai n/eouaaiey. A /anoiinoe
?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue ono?ienoaa iaeeaaeuaaao ia?aie/aiey ia
ieieiaeueioth oieueio eeiee ecia?aaeaiey. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii, /oi ia
eioa?aaea aeeeiu, ?aaiie ieieiaeueiie oieueia eeiee, oeeaaeuaaeinue
aeaa ion/aoa ono?ienoaa. Oae, iai?eia?, aeey aiia?aoo?u ?ano?iaiai
n/eouaaiey oe?eia eeiee aeieaeia auoue ia iaiaa 0.5 ii.

Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?aao oeaao e?aneoaey, eioi?ui iaiinyony eeiee ia
aeieoiaio. Aieueoay /anoue ono?ienoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey n/eouaaiey
aeieoiaioia, niiniaia aini?eieiaoue eeoue /a?ii-aaeua ecia?aaeaiey. I?e
eniieueciaaiee aeaeoiai, naaoei-i?aiaeaaiai oeaaoia iie aoaeoo
aini?eieiaoueny eae aaeue.

Aicieeaao i?iaeaia aini?eyoey eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

Auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea nenoaiu aaciauo eeiee,
niaaaeaiiuo eii?aeeiaoiie ?aciaoeie. Nenoaia aaciauo eeiee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?yiioaieueiee, aioo?e eioi?iai caeeth/aii iiea
ecia?aaeaiey aeieoiaioa. Io eaaeaeie ec aaciauo eeiee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii
ae, aioo?ue i?yiioaieueieea, ninoaaeaiiiai ec aaciauo eeiee, iooiaeyo
?enee aeeeiie 5 ii. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ninaaeieie ?eneaie,
?aniieiaeaiiuie ia iaeiie e oie aea aaciaie eeiee, ?aaii oaao
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Iacia/aiea ?enie -iaicia/aoue eeiee
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

O/ao iniaaiiinoae aiia?aoo?u ?ano?iaiai aaiaea ieacuaaao aeeyiea e ia
auai? oneiaiuo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee, i?eiaiyaiuo ia aeieoiaioa. A
/anoiinoe, i?eiyoay nenoaia iaicia/aiee aeey yneecia neiaa oiiieiaee ia
aeiioneaao oaeia noiaeaeaiey eeiee, iaiueoeo 45 a?aaeonia. Yoi
nouanoaaiii oiaiueoaao yooaeocaieuaaiey iaeanoe, ?aciauaaiie aioo?e
ino?iai oaea i?e aai aa?oeia. Iineaaeiaa oi?iuaao ia?aaioeo
ecia?aaeaiee iinea ?ano?iaiai n/eouaaiey. I?aaeeiaeaiiua aeey yneecia
neiaa oiiieiaee iniiaiua yeaiaiou ecia?aaeaiey neiino?oe?iaaiu ec oaeeo
eiiiiiaioia, eae io?acee i?yiuo. I?e/ai yoe i?yiua iiaoo eiaoue oieueei
iaeii ec /aou?ao iai?aaeaiee, /oi nicaeaao nouanoaaiiua i?aaeiinueee
aeey aieaa i?inoie aeai?eoie/aneie ia?aaioee.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee o?aaiaaiee e yneecai neiaa oiiieiaee eiie?aoecaoeey
iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi ecaioiaeaiea yneeca aeieaeii oaeiaeaoai?youe
ii?aaeaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi, canoaaeyao aeeth/aoue a eo /enei ioieou,
aeenoeeieeie?othuea eniieieoaey yneeca. I?e yoii ?ac?uau a eeieyo ia
aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue 1 ii, ia?aaiaeu eeiee ia aeieaeiu auoue aieueoa 1
ii, io?acee i?yiuo ia aeieaeiu ioeeiiyoueny io eaeaaeueiuo i?yiuo aieaa
/ai ia 1 ii.

Ioia/aiiia ioiineoaeueii yneecia neiaa oiiieiaee ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea
aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eaeei aeieaeai auoue aeieoiaio,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey. Nicaeaiea nenoaiu
aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey aeey ae?oaiai oeia aeieoiaioa a eaaeaeii neo/aa
o?aaoao, eae ioia/aii ?aiaa, niaoeeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey.

Eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee Aaciaua eeiee

a

Iiea ecia?aaeaiey

c d

?enee

b

Aaciaua eeiee E?ae eenoa aoiaae

?en. 5. Aaciaua eeiee ia yneeca oiiieiaee

3. Yenia?eiaioaeueiay nenoaia aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey yneecia

neiaa oiiieiaee ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua nenoaiu aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey aeieoiaioia
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey io?aaioee iaoiaeia, aeai?eoiia ia?aaioee
ecia?aaeaiee, aaiaeeiuo a YAI n ?aaeueiuo aeieoiaioia aiia?aoo?ie
?ano?iaiai aaiaea. Oaeie yoai i?aaenoaaeyaony anoanoaaiiui e
iaiaoiaeeiui, iineieueeo ionoonoaoao aaeeiay iaoiaeeea nicaeaiey
iiaeiaiuo nenoai.

?anniio?ei iaeio ec oaeeo nenoai, i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey /oaiey yneecia
neiaa oiiieiaee ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea.

3.1. I?aaiecaoeey aeaiiuo a iaiyoe YAI.

A?aoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, n/eouaaaiay n iiiiuueth oioioaeaa?aoiiai
aiia?aoa, aia/aea ia?acoao a iaiyoe YAI aeaoia?ioth aeaie/ioth
iao?eoeo I , a eioi?ie aaeeie/iua cia/aiey niioaaonoaotho ca/a?iaiiui
yeaiaioa?iui o/anoeai ?ano?a ecia?aaeaiey, a ioeaaua – aaeui o/anoeai.

A i?ioeanna ia?aaioee enoiaeiay iao?eoea I o?ainoi?ie?oaony a
i?iiaaeooi/iia iienaiea, ninoiyuaa ec iao?eoeu eeiee e iao?eoeu oi/ae.

Eaaeaeue yeaiaio iao?eoeu eeiee e iao?eoeu oi/ae niioaaonoaoao iaeiiio
oceo eii?aeeiaoiie naoee ecia?aaeaiey. Yeaiaiou iao?eoeu eeiee
yaeythony 8-ie ?ac?yaeiuie. Iaee/ea aaeeieoeu a eaeii-eeai ?ac?yaea
oeacuaaao ia i?ioiaeaeaiea /a?ac ocae eii?aeeiaoiie naoee eeiee,
eiathuae iai?aaeaiea, cae?aieaiiia ca aeaiiui ?ac?yaeii (ni. ?en. 6)

Yeaiaio iao?eoeu eeiee

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

?en. 6. Co?oeoo?a caiene yeaiaioa iao?eoeu eeiee

?en 6.1 Co?oeoo?a caiene, iienuaathuae i?yiieeiaeiue

io?acie ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea.

Yeaiaiou iao?eoeu oi/ae oeacuaatho iaee/ea oi/ee ia ecia?aaeaiee a ocea
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. ?acoeueoao ?aniiciaaaiey yeaiaioia ieaou
i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea ianneaa iienaiee i?iaiaeieeia e eiioaeoiuo
ieiuaaeie. Iienaiea io?acea ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea eiaao oi?iao,
ecia?aaeaiiue ia ?en. 7.

Oei ia/aoiiai i?iaiaeieea ii?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n oaae.1.

A ia?aii 32-?ac?yaeiii neiaa iienaiey oeacuaaaony iiia? ocea
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee (yeaiaioa iao?eoeu eeiee), a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony
iaeei ec eiioeia i?yiieeiaeiiai io?acea i?iaiaeieea. Ai aoi?ii neiaa –
iiia? ocea ni aoi?ui eiioeii io?acea (?en.7) .

Iienaiea eiioaeoiie ieiuaaeee iiaeao eiaoue iaeei ec o?ao oi?iaoia,
iieacaiiuo ia ?en.7. Aeey eiioaeoiie a?oiiu iee?inoaiu iienaiea
i?aaenoaaeyaony a oi?iaoa 1, anee aieueoay noi?iia i?yiioaieueieea,
ecia?aaeathuaai a?oiio, ai?eciioaeueia eee a oi?iaoa 2, anee aieueoay
noi?iia i?yiioaieueieea, ecia?aaeathuaai a?oiio aa?oeeaeueia. A oi?iaoa
1 iiia? ocea oeacuaaao ia ieaeiee eiiaoe io?acea aaeeie/iie aeeeiu,
ecia?aaeathuaai eiioaeoioth ieiuaaeeo, a oi?iaoa 2 – ia eaaue eiiaoe
oaeiai io?acea. Oi?iao 3 eniieuecoaony aeey iienaiey eiioaeoiuo
ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu.

Ia?aiao? “eiee/anoai oi/ae” ii?aaeaeyao oei eiioaeoiie ieiuaaeee a
niioaaonoaee n oaae.2, a iiia? ocea oeacuaaao ia oeaio? eiioaeoiie
ieiuaaeee

Oi?iao 1

0 1 2 3 15 16 17 31

0 0 0 . . . 0 Iiia? ocea

Oi?iao 2

0 1 2 3 15 16 17 31

0 0 0 . . . 1 Iiia? ocea

Oi?iao 3

0 2 3 31

Eiee/anoai oi/ae Iiia? ocea

?en.7. No?oeoo?a caienae iienaiey eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie

3.2. Yoaiu ia?aaioee yneeca ieaou

I?ioeann aaiaea e i?ia?aiiiie ia?aaioee yneeca ieaou ia/aoiiai iiioaaea
?acaeo ia aeaa yoaia. Ia ia?aii – auiieiyaony aaiae ecia?aaeaiey e
i?aia?aciaaiea aai a iao?eoeu eeiee e oi/ae, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie aieaa eiiiaeoiia ii n?aaiaieth n /a?ii-aaeie iicaeeie iienaiea
yneeca. Ia aoi?ii -inouanoaeyaony ei??aeoeey iao?eoe eeiee e oi/ae,
?aniiciaaaiea yeaiaioia yneeca e iino?iaiea auoiaeiiai oaeea.

3.2.1. Oi?ie?iaaiea iao?eoe eeiee e oi/ae.

Ioa?aeoa?ecoai aieaa iiae?iaii ia?ae/ioth ia?aaioeo yneeca, o.a.
i?ioeann ia?aoiaea io iao?eoeu I e iao?eoeai eeiee e oi/ae. Ia?ae/iay
ia?aaioea yneeca inouanoaeyaony a o?e yoaia:

– ia?aaioea eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee,

– ia?aaioea ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee yneeca,

– ia?aaioea aa?oeeaeueiuo e iaeeiiiuo eeiee.

I?ia?aiiiay ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiey aaciauo eeiee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i iieiaeaiee eeiee naoee ia iiea ecia?aaeaiey.
Yoi iicaieyao ia iineaaeothueo yoaiao i?ia?aiiiie ia?aaioee
i?iecaiaeeoue ei??aeoe?iaeo cia/aiee eii?aeeiao oi/ae ecia?aaeaiey a
neo/aa ia?aeina i?e onoaiiaea ecia?aaeaiey.

?acoeueoaoii ia?aaioee ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee ecia?aaeaiey aeieaeii
auoue eo iienaiea a iao?eoea eeiee. Auaeaeaiea ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee
ecia?aaeaiey auiieiyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii. Aeaie/iay iao?eoea I
aeaeeony ia ciiu. Eaaeaeay ciia niaea?aeeo o?e no?iee ecia?aaeaiey. I?e
yoii iieiaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie no?iee ciiu ii?aaeaeyaony eii?aeeiaoaie
ia?u ai?eciioaeueiuo ?enie aaciaie eeiee, caaeathuae niioaaonoaothuoth
ai?eciioaeueioth eeieth eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Eaaeaeay oeaio?aeueiay
no?iea aianoa n i?eiueathueie e iae ninaaeieie no?ieaie ia?acoao
o?aono?i/ioth ciio iienea ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee. Iiene eeiee
inouanoaeyaony ii oa?aeoa?enoeea ciiu, iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa
aeecuthieoeee aoiaeyueo a yoo ciio no?ie. I?e yoii ieieiaeueiay aeeeia
eeiee n/eoaaony ?aaiie ?annoiyieth iaaeaeo aeaoiy ninaaeieie ?eneaie
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

Aeey eaaeaeie ec auaeaeaiiuo a ciia ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee iaoiaeeony
iiiaeanoai oceia eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ioiaeyo eeiee.
Niioaaonoaothuea yoei oceai yeaiaiou iao?eoeu eeiee niaaaeathony
iienaieai ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee.

A i?ioeanna iienea ai?eciioaeueiuo eeiee a ciia iienea iiaoo
iaia?oaeeaaoueny o/anoee, niaea?aeauea iooiaeyuea a aa?oeeaeueiii eee
aeeaaiiaeueiii iai?aaeaieyo io?acee. Eioi?iaoeey i ieo oeene?oaony
niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii e eniieuecoaony ia neaaeothuai yoaia
ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee.

Iienaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo e iaeeiiiuo eeiee ecia?aaeaiey auiieiythony iinea
aiaeeca o?aaiaioia ecia?aaeaiey, niaea?aeaueo neaaeu yoeo eeiee,
iaia?oaeaiiuo ia i?aaeuaeouai yoaia ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee. Ie?anoiinoue
ocea eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, aeec eioi?ie auee iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu eeiee,
ciiaee?oaony a oanoe iai?aaeaieyo: aaa?o, aiec, aaa?o e aeaai, aaa?o e
ai?aai, aiec e aeaai, aiec e ai?aai io ocea. Iienaiey iaia?oaeaiiuo a
ie?anoiinoe aeaiiiai ocea io?aceia eeiee aeiaaaeyaony a
niioaaonoaothuee yoiio oceo yeaiaio iao?eoeo eeiee. A neo/aa, anee
ciiaee?iaaiea, eieoeee?iaaiiia neaaeii eeiee, ia iaia?oaeeaaao
aa?oeeaeueiiai eee ai?eciioaeueiiai io?acea, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi oi/ea
auyaeaia e iaiaoiaeeii aianoe eciaiaiey a iao?eoeo oi/ae.

3.2.2. Auaeaeaiea iiiaeanoa o?aaiaioia ecia?aaeaiee

Ia neaaeothueo yoaiao inouanoaeyaony auaeaeaiea o?aaiaioia ecia?aaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia e iino?iaiea iienaiee aeey ieo.

Oaeeie o?aaiaioaie yaeythony oneiaiua a?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey:

– eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu,

– aeaeeioa/iuo a?oii,

– iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee,

– o/anoeia ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia.

?aniiciaaaiea ia?a/eneaiiuo iauaeoia iniiaaii ia auaeaeaiee eieaeueiuo
i?eciaeia eo ecia?aaeaiee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey oiai eee eiiai oeia. Oaeeie
i?eciaeaie yaeythony:

– oo?eoe niioaaonoaothuae aeeeiu e iai?aaeaiey a ecia?aaeaiee
eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu,

– niaoeeoe/aneia ?aniieiaeaiea oo?eoa-oeacaoaey eiioo?a iaeanoae
iaoaeeecaoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaioee naeaoiai iienaiey ecia?aaeaiey ieaou,
i?aaenoaaeaiiiai a aeaea iao?eoe eeiee e oi/ae ?aniiciaaaiea yeaiaioia
ecia?aaeaiey inouanoaeyaony a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

– eiioaeoiua ieiuaaeee,

– yeaiaiou aeaeeioa/iiai oeia,

3.2.4. ?acoeueoaou yenieoaoaoeee nenoaiu

1. I?e eniieueciaaiee ianooaaa aeieoiaioa 2:1 aicieeatho
iaoaeianoaa. Iie iaoneiaeaiu o?oaeiinoyie ecaioiaeaiey yneeca
/aeiaaeii. E?iia oiai,

o?iaaiue ioeaie, aeiioneaaiuo nenoaiie, i?eia?ii a 3 ?aca auoa,

/ai i?e eniieueciaaiee ianooaaa 4:1.

2. I?e aaiaea yneecia ?acia?aie 250 o 400 ii, auiieiaiiuo a ianooaaa 4:1
ia eenoa ieeeeiao?iaie aoiaae n iiiiuueth /a?iiai oeiianoa?a, n?aaeiaa
– a?aieoeu iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee,

– ia/aoiua i?iaiaeieee.

Iienaiey ?aniiciaiiuo yeaiaioia i?aaenoaaeythony a aeaea oaaeeoe. Iie
niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeeth i oeiao yeaiaioia e eo eii?aeeiaoao ia iiea
ecia?aaeaiey yneeca.

Ii ia?a ?aniiciaaaiey yeaiaioia ecia?aaeaiey iienaiea niioaaonoaothueo
eeiee e oi/ae oaeaeyaony ec iao?eoe eeiee e oi/ae.

Aeey ?aniiciaaaiey yeaiaioia aeaeeioa/iiai oeia i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
aaia?e?oaony eo iienaiea a aeaea o?aaiaioa iao?eoeu eeiee. Iiene
yeaiaioia ia ecia?aaeaiee ieaou inouanoaeyaony iaeiaeaieai iino?iaiiiai
oaeei ia?acii o?aoa?aoa ia iao?eoeo eeiee yneeca. ?aniiciaiiua yeaiaiou
aeaeeioa/iiai oeia iienuaathony eae iiiaeanoai eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie.
Nayce iaaeaeo ninaaeieie eiioaeoaie i?aaenoaaeythony a aeaea ia/aoiuo
i?iaiaeieeia aeeeiie 1 aeene?ao eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

Iinea ?aniiciaaaiey eiioo?ia ciiu iaoaeeecaoeee “iie?uaathony”
ia/aoiuie i?iaiaeieeaie, iienaiea eioi?uo caiineony a iannea ia/aoiuo
i?iaiaeieeia.

Iinea oaeaeaiey ecia?aaeaiee eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie, yeaiaioia
aeaeeioa/iiai oeia e a?aieoe iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee a iao?eoeao
eeiee e oi/ae inoaaony oieueei ecia?aaeaiea ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia.

Ia iai auaeaeythony i?yiieeiaeiua o/anoee ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia,
ii?aaeaeyony eo oeiu. Niioaaonoaothuea iienaiey caiinyony a iannea
ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia.

3.2.3. Iaoiaeu iaania/aiey aeinoiaa?iinoe

I?aaeoniio?aii ianeieueei iaoiaeia iaania/aiey aunieie aeinoiaa?iinoe
?aaiou nenoaiu n/eouaaiey ecia?aaeaiey. E eo /eneo ioiinyony
neaaeothuea:

– ia iniiaa ya?enoe/aneeo i?ioeaaeo?,

– ia iniiaa aaia?aoeee eiio?ieueiiai ecia?aaeaiey.

E?aoei ?anniio?ei nouanoai yoeo iaoiaeia.

1. A nenoaia i?aaeoniio?aiu ya?enoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u, iniiaaiiua
ia iouneaiee i?aaeiieaaaaiuo iano iioa?e oo?eoa eeai iiyaeaiey eiaeiiai
oo?eoa.

Nenoaia ia?auaaony e yoei i?ioeaaeo?ai a neo/ayo, eiaaea ia oaeaaony
caaa?oeoue iino?iaiea oiai eee eiiai oeia o?aaiaioa ecia?aaeaiey. Iia
niiauaao iia?aoi?o i aianaiiuo ei??aeoeeyo.

2. Ii?iaeaeaaiia nenoaiie eiio?ieueiia ecia?aaeaiea i?e aacioeai/iii
aaiaea e ia?aaioea aeieaeii auaeyaeaoue eae enoiaeiia. Aaia?aoeey
eiio?ieueiiai ecia?aaeaiey inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth iao?eoe eeiee e
oi/ae. A neo/aa iaia?oaeaiey ianiioaaonoaee aiinyony eni?aaeaiey. Eo
aaiae inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aee?aeoea ei??aeoeee.

A aee?aeoeaa ei??aeoeee oeacuaathony eii?aeeiaou ocea eii?aeeiaoiie
naoee e i?aaeienuaaaony eeai oaeaeeoue eeai iiianoeoue eeieth eee oi/eo
a yoio ocae. A neo/aa, anee ei??aeoe?iaea eanaaony eeiee, oi a
aee?aeoeaa aeieaeia niaea?aeaoueny eioi?iaoeey i aa iai?aaeaiee.

/enei ioeaie auei ?aaiui 3-4. I?e yoii iia?aoi? aiineo eni?aaeaiey,
ioiinyueany e 3-4 oceai

eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. I?ia?aiiiay ia?aaioea ia YAI a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyea
aaee/eio 30 iei. A?aiy naa?ee eiio?ieueiiai aeieoiaioa – 10 iei.

3. Ii n?aaiaieth ni neiei/iuie nenoaiaie a?aiy aaiaea eioi?iaoeee a YAI
nie?aoaeinue a ianeieueei ?ac. Iaeiaei i?ia?aiiiay ia?aaioea eiaao ocei
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi iaoneiaeaii aeanoeeie o?aaiaaieyie,
iaeeaaeuaaaiuie ia eeiee ecia?aaeaiey, a oaeaea ionoonoaeai a
i?ia?aiia n?aaenoa ?aniiciaaaiey neiaieia.

EAEOeEss (4

Oaia: “Ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee, aaoiiaoe/anee n/eoaiiuo n
aeieoiaioaoeee”

4.1. Iauea naaaeaiey

Ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiiaiyoaiiue i?ioeann
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey, a oiaea eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ia?aoiae io iaeiie oi?iu iienaiey e ae?oaie.

A ea/anoaa aeene?aoiie ia?ae/iie oi?iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue
/a?ii-aaeoth iicaeeo, iieo/aaioth a iaiyoe YAI.

Aieueoay /anoue ecia?aaeaiee /a?ii-aaeuo aeieoiaioia no?ieony n
iiiiuueth iaeieo e oao aea ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa(eeiee,
neiaieia),iiyoiio eiaao niune auaeaeeoue niaoeeaeueii yoai ia?aaioee
aeey iieo/aiey iienaiey io?aceia eeiee. Iie caaeathony eii?aeeiaoaie
aai eiioeia e eiaeia neiaieia n oeacaieai eii?aeeiao eo ?aniieiaeaiey ia
iiea ecia?aaeaiey.

?acoeueoe?othuay oi?ia aeey oieaa?naeueiiai yoaia, eioi?oth iu iaciaai
aeene?aoiie aoi?e/iie oi?iie, ninoieo ec nienea io?aceia e nienea
neiaieia.

Caienue ia?aiai nienea ninoieo ec iieae, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
caaeaiey eii?aeeiao eiioeia io?aceia.

Caienue aoi?iai nienea neoaeeo aeey eii?aeeiaoiie i?eaycee neiaiea e
iieth aeieoiaioa e oeacaiey eiaea neiaiea.

Oieaa?naeueiue yoai ia?aaioee aeieaeai iaania/eoue ?aoaiea aeaoo
caaea/:

– ioaeaeaiea neiaieia,

– ?acaeaeaiea ianeiaieueiie /anoe ecia?aaeaiey ia ioaeaeueiua
yeaiaioa?iua io?acee.

Oeacaiiua caaea/e yaeythony ?acii?iaeiuie, iiyoiio ia?aae eo ?aoaieai
oeaeaniia?acii ?aceiaeeoue ecia?aaeaiea ia neiaieueioth e
ianeiaieueioth /anoe. Eaaeaeay ec /anoae iiaeaa?aaaony
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ia?aaioea.

?anniio?ei caaea/o ioaeaeaiey neiaieia.

4.2. Ioaeaeaiea neiaieia a aeene?aoiie ia?ae/iie oi?ia

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii ii?aaeaeei iiiyoea neiaiea.

Iaciaai a?oiiie aaeeieoe iiiaeanoai aaeeieoe a iaeiie no?iea iao?eoeu,
ia ?acaeaeaiiie ioeyie. Aeaa a?oiiu aaeeieoe, eaaeauea a ninaaeieo
no?ieao ecia?aaeaiey, n eii?aeeiaoaie eiioeia ii ine aanoeenn a, b e c,
d iacuaathony nayciuie, anee ni?aaaaeeeai oioy au iaeii ec
niioiioaiee:

a ( c ( b;

a ( d ( b;

c – 1 = b;

d + 1 = a.

Ia ?en.9.a i?eaaaeaiu i?eia?u nayciuo a?oii aaeeieoe, a ia ?en. 9.a –
ianayciuo. Iiae neiaieii aoaeai iiieiaoue iiiaeanoai nayciuo a?oii
aaeeieoe, aeey eioi?uo ieieiaeueiue ioaaouaathuee eo i?yiioaieueiee
eiaao ?acia?u, i?eiaaeeaaeauea eioa?aaeai ?acia?ia neiaieia ii
aunioa e oe?eia (?en.10 ). Iiaeiaiia ii?aaeaeaiea neiaiea nicaeaao
?ene ioaeaeaiey /anoe ianeiaieueiie eioi?iaoeee.

Nouiinoue caaea/e ioaeaeaiey neiaieia ec enoiaeiie iao?eoeu I,
iienuaathuae ecia?aaeaiea a aeene?aoiie ia?ae/iie oi?ia, naiaeeony e
iaoiaeaeaieth a enoiaeiie iao?eoea o?aaiaioa, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo
neiaieu. Aeaeaa eaaeaeue oaeie o?aaiaio ia?aienuaaaony a ioaeaeueiue
eaae?. Eaae? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaie/ioth iao?eoeo, ?acia?u eioi?ie
aeieaeiu auoue ia iaiueoa iaeneiaeueiuo ?acia?ia neiaieia. Caoai,
niaea?aeeiia yoeo iao?eoe aiaeece?oaony a aeiea ?aniiciaaaiey.

?en. 9. Ioiioaiea nayciinoe a?oii aaeeieoe:

a – nayciua a?oiiu; a – ianayciua a?oiiu.

?en. 10. Neiaie eae o?aaiaio nayciuo a?oii aaeeieoe

4.3. Aeai?eoi ioaeaeaiey

Auiieiyaony iaeiie?aoiue i?iniio? iao?eoeu I .

I?e yoii inouanoaeyaony :

1. Iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i oii, /oi nayciua eiioeao?aoeee ii ?acia?ai
ia i?aauoatho ?acia?u neiaieia.

2. I?iaa?ea nayciinoe iaaeaeo a?oiiaie aaeeieoe (ia iniiaa oeacaiiuo
niioiioaiee).

3. Oeenaoeey ?acoeueoaoia.

Aeey oeenaoeee ?acoeueoaoia oaeiai i?iniio?a eniieuecothony ianee,
eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeanoue i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu,
ninoiyuoth ec aaeeieoe. I?e yoii eniieuecoaony iiea ianie M. Iiea ianie
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaie/ioth iao?eoeo, niaiaaeathuoth ii ?acia?ai n
enoiaeiui iieai ecia?aaeaiey I. I?e niaiauaiee iiey ecia?aaeaiey n iieai
ianie eaaeaeay ianea iie?uaaao o?aaiaio iiey I, niaea?aeauee naycioth
eiioeao?aoeeth aaeeieoe.

Eaaeaeay ianea aeey auaeaeyaiie n aa iiiiuueth eiioeao?aoeee eiaao
ieieiaeueiua ?acia?u, o.a. ea?aao ?ieue ieieiaeueiiai ioaaouaathuaai
i?yiioaieueieea.

I?iaa?ea iao?e/aneeo ia?aie/aiee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ia nayciua
eiioeao?aoeee, iacuaaaiua neiaieaie, inouanoaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi,
eiaaea a ?anii?yaeaiee eiaaony niioaaonoaothuay ianea.

Aieaa iiaeoiaeyuae aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e ?acaeaeaiey ecia?aaeaiey ia
neiaieueioth e ianeiaieueioth /anoe yaeyaony iieeaiiaeueiay oi?ia
iienaiey ecia?aaeaiey.

4.4. Iieeaiiaeueiay oi?ia.

4.4.1. A?aie/iue eiioo?

Aaaaeai iiiyoea a?aie/iiai eiioo?a.

A?aie/iue eiioo? – oeeeee/aneay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oaeia iiai?ioa
a?aieoeu iaaeaeo /a?iie e aaeie iaeanoyie.

Ionoue a?aie/iue eiioo? iaicia/ai gi.

A a?aie/iue eiioo? aeeth/athony oieueei oceu, ioee/athueany io 180
a?aaeonia.

Oaie iiai?ioa a?aie/iiai eiioo?a iaicia/ei ai .

Oaie iiai?ioa ai oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuei iaai?ii ia?aiao?ia:

– eii?aeeiaou oeaio?a oaea – x(ai), y(ai) ;

– iai?aaeaiey L1 (ai), L2 (ai) ia?aiai e aoi?iai eo/a;

– aaee/eia oaea V (ai).

A a?aie/iii eiioo?a oaeu oii?yaei/aiu. Yoi inouanoaeyaony oaeei ia?acii,
/oi i?e iaoiaea a?aieoeu iaaeaeo /a?iui e aaeui iaeanoue /a?iiai
inoaaony ni?aaa io iai?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey.

Iieeaiiaeueiay oi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue a?aie/iuo
eiioo?ia.

Ia ?en.11i?aaenoaaeai o?aaiaio ecia?aaeaiey.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

a)

( oaea x y L1 L2 V

1 4 5 0 90 90

2 5 3 90 0 90

a)

?en. 11. a) o?aaiaio ecia?aaeaiey, a) oaaeeoea cia/aiee
ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia a?aie/iiai eiioo?a.

Aeinoieinoaa iieeaiiaeueiie oi?iu:

– ia aiineo eneaaeaiee;

– iicaieyao auaeaeyoue ?aceea ecaeau a?aieoe /a?iie e aaeie iaeanoae;

– o?aaoao iaiueoaai iauaia iaiyoe (ii n?aaiaieth n aeene?aoiie
ia?ae/iie oi?iie a 10 – 20 ?ac).

Aii?inu iino?iaiey iieeaiiaeueiie oi?iu ia aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue.

4.4.2. Ioaeaeaiea neiaieia

Caaea/a ioaeaeaiey neiaieia oi?ioee?oaony neaaeothuei ia?acii: ec
iieeaiiaeueiie oi?iu ioia?aoue oa gi, eioi?ua iienuaatho a?aieoeo
o?aaiaioa ecia?aaeaiey neiaiea.

Eco/aiea ?aaeueiuo ecia?aaeaiee iieacuaaao, /oi o?aaiaiou ecia?aaeaiey
neiaieia aieaa ianuuaiu iaiaeii?iaeiinoyie oiaea a?aieoeu /a?ii-aaeiai,
/ai o?aaiaiou ecia?aaeaiee ianeiaieueiie /anoe. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeeiaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii i?inoie e?eoa?ee aeey ni?oe?iaee a?aieoe
eiioo?ia – gi, aoiaeyueo a iieeaiiaeueioth oi?io.

E neiaieueiui gi aoaeai ioiineoue oaeie a?aie/iue eiioo?, aeey ethauo
aeaoo ninaaeieo yeaiaioia ak, ak+1 eioi?iai auiieiyaony oneiaea

R (ak, ak+1) < D ,aaea R (ak, ak+1) - ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aie oaeia ak, ak+1;D - iaeioi?ay eiinoaioa, ii?aaeaeyaiay iaeneiaeueiui eeiaeiui ?acia?ii neiaiea, aeiioneaaiui ia aeieoiaioa.I/aaeaeii, /oi i?iaa?ea ethaiai gi ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aai iiiaeanoao neiaieueiuo a?aie/iuo eiioo?ia inouanoaeyaony ca iaeei i?ioiae.Yoi ia nicaeaao o?oaeiinoae i?e iino?iaiee niioaaonoaothuaai aeai?eoia.EAEOeEss (5Oaia: “Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee aeey yneecia neiaaoiiieiaee ieao ia/aoiiai iiioaaea”Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay ia?aaioea ecia?aaeaiee auiieiyaony iinea oieaa?naeueiie ia?aaioee. Iia caaeneo io oeia aeieoiaioa.A i?ioeanna niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee auaeaeythony io?acee oaeiai oeia, eioi?ue eiaaony ia aeieoiaioa.Caaea/e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee:- ia?aaioea aaciaie eeiee,- ei??aeoe?iaea iieiaeaiey oceiaie oi/ee ii aeaiiui ia?aaioee aaciaie eeiee,- auaeaeaiea eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu,- auaeaeaiea eiioo?ia a?aieoe iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee,- iouneaiea iaeanoae aeaeeioa/iuo a?oii,- iaia?oaeaiea io?aceia o?ann ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia,- oi?ie?iaaiea oaeea aeey iienaiey ecia?aaeaiey.E?aoei ?anniio?ei ioia/aiiua caaea/e.1) Ia?aaioea aaciaie eeieeAuiieiyaony a aeaa yoaia:- iaia?oaeaiea aacie eeiee;- iino?iaiea ianneaa iienaiey ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ?enie aaciaie eeiee ia iiea aeieoiaioa.Ia ia?aii yoaia i?e iaia?oaeaiee aaciaie eeiee eniieuecoaony eioi?iaoeey i oii, /oi e aaciaie eeiee aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu- ana aa?oeeaeueiua yeaiaioa?iua io?acee, eiathuea e?aeiaa i?aaia e e?aeiaa eaaia iieiaeaiey;- ana ai?eciioaeueiua yeaiaioa?iua io?acee, eiathuea e?aeiaa i?aaia e e?aeiaa eaaia iieiaeaiey.Ia aoi?ii yoaia ii?aaeaeythony eii?aeeiaou oeaio?a na/aiey ?enie iooai on?aaeiaiey cia/aiee i?aeeiao eiioeaauo oi/ae ?enee, aeey ai?eciioaeueiie ?enee e iooai on?aaeiaiey cia/aiee aanoeenn aeey aa?oeeaeueiie ?enee.2) Ei??aeoe?iaea iieiaeaiey oceiauo oi/aeI?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii i?eaycaoue e aeeaeaeoaio oceo ?yae oi/ae, ioiineoaeueii eioi?uo onoaiiaeaii, /oi iie aeieaeiu auoue iiiauaiu a iaeiii ec oceia eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. I?eaycea oi/ee inouanoaeyaony a aeaa yoaia, ?acaeaeueii ii ine i?aeeiao e ine aanoeenn.?anniio?ei i?eayceo ii ine i?aeeiao. Eiaaony ai?eciioaeueiay eeiey eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Iia eiaao i?iaeoeee ia inue i?aeeiao.Cia/aiey yi e ye, yaeythony i?aeeiaoaie i?aaiai e eaaiai eiioeia eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.Aeieoiaio eiaao eaaue (i?aaue) ia?aein, anee aeey eaaeaeie ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee auiieiyaony oneiaeayi < ye , ( yi > ye ) .

Ia ?en.12 i?eaaaeaia eeethno?aoeey eaaiai ia?aeina ecia?aaeaiey.

?en.12. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?annoiyiey io oi/ee ia yneeca neiy oiiieiaee aei
ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiia?a ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, e eioi?ie
aeieaeia auoue i?eaycaia oi/ea a n eii?aeeiaoaie oa e ya inouanoaeyaony
ii i?aaeeo aeecinoe yoie oi/ee e eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

I?e iaaieueoii ia?aeina ecia?aaeaiey a ea/anoaa ?annoiyiey io oi/ee a
aei eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee iiaeii acyoue aeeeio aa?oeeaeueiiai
io?acea ab, aaea b – oi/ea ia?ana/aiey aa?oeeaeueiiai io?acea n eeieae
eii?aeeiaoiie naoee. Oi/ea a i?eaycuaaaony e oie eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie
naoee, ?ancoiyiea aei eioi?ie ieieiaeueii.

Nooue i?eaycee ninoieo a caiaia ya ia cia/aiea i?aeeiaou,
niioaaonoaothuae yoie eeiee eii?aeeiaoiie naoee.

Iiaeiaiui ia?acii inouanoaeyaony i?eaycea i?iecaieueiie oi/ee ii ine
aanoeenn.

3) Auaeaeaiea eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie

Auaeaeaiea ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu iniiaaii ia iaia?oaeaiee ei?ioeeo
io?aceia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa e?anoa. E?ano niioaaonoaoao ecia?aaeaieth
ieiuaaeee. Iaia?oaeaiea e?anoa eieoeee?oao i?ioeann eco/aiey iaeanoe aai
?aniieiaeaiey. I?e yoii iouneeaathony ecia?aaeaiey oi/ae, eioi?ua ianoo
eioi?iaoeeth i oeia eiioaeoiie ieiuaaeee.

4) Auaeaeaiea i?iecaieueiuo eiioeao?aoeee oeia eiioo?ia

Iaoiaeaeaiea i?iecaieueiuo eiioeao?aoeee oeia eiioo?ia yaeyaony iniiaie
aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ ei??aeoe?iaee iieiaeaiey oceiaie oi/ee e auaeaeaiey
eiioaeoiuo ieiuaaeie. I?e iienea inouanoaeyaony iaoiae eiioo?a.
Iaia?oaeaiea eiioo?a inouanoaeyaony oiaaea, eiaaea aica?auathony e
enoiaeiiio io?aceo.

Aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee iaia?oaeaiiiai eiioo?a iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, yaeyaony
ii aioo?aiiei eee aiaoiei.

Anee i?e i?iniio?a aioo?aiiaai eiioo?a ano?a/aaony oo?eo, oa?aeoa?iue
aeey a?aieoeu iaeanoe iaoaeeecaoeee, oi yoi yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey
aai eaeaioeoeeaoeee.

Eco/aiea aioo?aiieo eiioo?ia oaeaea neoaeeo iniiaie aeey iouneaiey
a?aieoe aeaeeioa/iuo a?oii.

I?e oaeaeaiee yeaiaioa?iuo io?aceia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa eiioaeoiuo
ieiuaaeie e?oaeie oi?iu, a?aieoe iaeanoae iaoaeeecaoeee e a?aieoe
aeaeeioa/iuo a?oii ia ecia?aaeaiee inoathony oieueei ia/aoiua
i?iaiaeieee.

Ia?aaioea yoie /anoe eioi?iaoeee naiaeeony e iaia?oaeaieth oeacaoaeae
oeia i?iaiaeieeia a ?ac?uaao o?ann ia/aoiuo i?iaiaeieeia e oaycee eo
iaeanoe aeaenoaey n io?aceaie.

5) Aaia?aoeey caaa?oathuaai oaeea

I?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey caienae, eioi?ua ianoo
eioi?iaoeeth i iaeaeaiiuo iaueaeoao, n iineaaeothuei eo aeeth/aieai a
oaee.

EAEOeEss (6

Oaia: “Iniiaiua i?iaeoiua i?ioeaaeo?u a NAI?”

AAAAeAIEA

Aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony auaiae ioiineoaeueii yenia?oiiai
nii?iaeaeaiey iiaenenoaiu iiaeaee?iaaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

?anniio?ei iiiaeanoai iia?aoeee, eioi?ua niaa?oaao eieeaeoea
i?iaeoaioia iaae yoie iiaenenoaiie.

Ia iniiaa yoiai aiaeeca i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acoiiui onoaiiaeoue, ianeieueei
iiaeaeaaony oi?iaeecaoeee eiaeaia?iay aeayoaeueiinoue a n?aaea nenoaiu
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e nouanoaoao ee aiciiaeiinoue
iie?aoueny ia eaeea-oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iieiaeaiey oeia oi?ioea
ecia?aoaiey. Iiiooii oeaeaniia?acii iaiaueoue i?aeoe/aneee iiuo a
?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoyo e ia ?aciuo ea?a?oe/aneeo o?iaiyo
i?iaeoe?iaaiey e noi?ioee?iaaoue o?aaiaaiey e yenia?oiiio
nii?iaiaeaeaieth i?ioeaaeo?.

INIIAIAss *ANOUe

, anee no?oeoo?a neioace?oaiiai iauaeoa iaiai?aia eeai OC, eeai
aaeeinoaaiiuie oneiaeyie oece/aneie ?aaeecoaiinoe (aaeeinoaaiiue
oece/aneee i?eioeei, iaania/eaathuee auiieiaiea OC) .

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoaiey caaea/e neioaca iiaeao aicieeiooue n/aoiia

Iano?iaay eeanneoeeaoeeiiiay noaia i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo? i?aaenoaaeaia ia
?en.1. Ia noaia iieacaiu iniiaiua i?iaeoiua i?ioeaaeo?u, eo auai?
i?iaeeeoiaai neaaeothueie niia?aaeaieyie.

Aeey aieueoeinoaa iauaeoia iecoei o?iaiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue
eiiiiiaioiue.

Iiiyoii, /oi iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia yoii o?iaia eiaao no?oeoo?iia e
ia?aiao?e/aneia iienaiey. Eiiiiceoeey ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaio ia
noaiioaoie/aneii o?iaia eiaao oaeaea aeaieiia iienaiea. Oi aea iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Ethaay i?iaeoiay i?ioeaaeo?a iiaeao auoue
eeanneoeoee?iaaia ia no?oeoo?ioth e ia?aiao?e/aneoth.

Oaoie/aneia caaeaiea ia iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey – yoi anaaaea iaei??aeoii
iinoaaeaiiay caaea/a. Iiyoiio i?e oaoiieiaee ienoiaeyuaai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, aeaaea anee aiciiaeii auiieiaiea i?ioeaaeo?u neioaca,
i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee anaaaea iiaeao auoue aieueoa iaeiiai ii no?oeoo?a e
cia/aieyi eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia.

Ooi/iaiea OC ii?iaeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue auiieiaiey i?ioeaaeo?u aiaeeca.
Caiaoei, /oi i?e ainoiaeyuai i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?ioeaaeo?a aiaeeca oie eee
eiie aeiioaoie/aneie no?oeoo?u iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey noaiiaeony aaeaa
ee ia aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiie.

Anee nenoaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iino?iaia ii i?eioeeio
aaia?aoeee i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, oi i?ioeaaeo?a iioeiecaoeee yaeyaony
iaeiie ec iniiaiuo. Aeaaea a neo/aa ienoiaeyuaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey a NAI?,
aeiioneathuaai auiieiaiea neioaca ii OC aac aaia?aoeee aa?eaioia,
ooi/iaiea cia/aiee eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia inouanoaeyaony
i?ioeaaeo?aie iioeiecaoeee.

?en.1. Iniiaiua i?iaeoiua i?ioeaaeo?u a NAI?

A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo? i?eoiaeeony anaaaea
i?eaiaeeoue a niioaaonoaea niinia iienaiey OC, i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey
(eioi?ia /anoi yaeyaony OC aeey aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy no?oeoo?u
i?iaeoe?iaaiey) niiniao iiaeaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

I?aia?aciaaieth iiaeao auoue iiaeaa?aiooi eeai OC, eeai nianoaaiii
iiaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeaaeo?a i?aia?aciaaiey iienaiee eae no?oeoo?u oae e
ia?aiao?ia, yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ethaie NAI?.

Iiiaea i?iaeoiua ?aoaiey i?eieiathony a n?aaea NAI? a oi?iaeeciaaiiii
aeaea, ca/anooth ia iaoaycuea nenoaiu. Iiyoiio aeey i?aia?aciaaiey
iienaiey i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey (a eiiaaea e OC) eniieuecotho i?ioeaaeo?o
eaeaioeoeeaoeee i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey (OC).

Iiiaeanoai ?anniio?aiiuo i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo? ia yaeyaony caieiooui ii
iiiaieeaoo?a e aeaoaeecaoeee iienaiey. Iaeiaei iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
aeey ?anniao?eaaaiuo caeanue i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae iii aeinoaoi/ii iieii
aeaoaeece?oao i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iineaaeiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi a oeacaiiuo
i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoyo nouanoaoao a oie eee eiie ia?a aaeaeaaoiia
iiaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey a aeaea iaeioi?iai
iia?aoi?a:

La : X ( Y ; a ( A,

caeanue X e Y iienuaatho iiiaeanoai aoiaeiuo e auoiaeiuo neaiaeia .

Aeaiiia niioiioaiea onoaiaaeeaaao naycue iaaeaeo oaciauie ia?aiaiiuie
iaae iiiaeanoaii {A} eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia a.

Oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiue aiaeec yoiai iia?aoi?a e aai ioia?aaeaiey aeey
iiaeaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey iieacae, /oi
nouanoaoao n/aoiia iiiaeanoai aai i?aia?aciaaiee, a oaeaea iia?aoeee
iaae iei: aeaeiiiiceoeey e eiiiiceoeey (i?aia?aciaaiea) neioac e aiaeec.
Iia?aoeee iaae iiiaeanoaii {A} naycaiu n iieneii aaeeinoaaiiiai ai ,
eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyao La .

Aiciiaeii oaeaea eeai ii?aaeaeaiea Y i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo La {} ,{A} e X,
eeai La{} i?e caaeaiiuo Y e X .

Iineieueeo Y e X ca/anooth eiaa?eaioiu e eeanno iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey
a aeaiiie NAI?, iaecaaaeii i?aia?aciaaiea iienaiee (i?aaenoaaeaiee) Y ,
X , {A}. Oi?iaeeci i?aaenoaaeaiey La {} o?aaoao ?aoaiey caaea/e
eaeaioeoeeaoeee.

AIAEEC I?IOeAAeO?

1. I?ioeaaeo?a aiaeeca

I?ioeaaeo?a aiaeeca iiieiaaony eae i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeaiey auoiaeiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e ecaanoiuo aoiaeiuo
aicaeaenoaeyo eee ia/aeueiuo oneiaeyo ii eaeiio-eeai iienaieth iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey (iiaeaeueiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth). Iaeiiaa?eaioiue aiaeec
i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey niioaaonoaey aoiaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
o?aaiaaieyi OC. Iiiaiaa?eaioiue aiaeec iai?aaeai ia onoaiiaeaiea a
yaiii, iaaeyaeiii aeaea nayce iaaeaeo aoiaeiuie aeaiiuie,
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e eiino?oeoeaiuie ia?aiao?aie.

2. I?ioeaaeo?a neioaca

?aoaiea caaea/e neioaca iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea iienaiey iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ii OC ia iauaeo a aeaea no?oeoo?u e niaieoiiinoe cia/aiee
eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia. Ia?aiao?e/aneee neioac i?iaiaeeony eiia/iia
iiiaeanoai i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee. Anee ?aoaiea iaeii, neioace?oaiue iauaeo
aoaeai iacuaaoue “iioeiaeueiui ii OC”. Iioeiecaoeey eiino?oeoeaiuo
ia?aiao?ia i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio iienaieth iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iioeiecaoeey aeiioneia i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey niaieoiiinoe
cia/aiee eaaeaeiai eiino?oeoeaiiai ia?aiao?a ii caaeaiiiio oai?aoe/anee
iainiiaaiiiio e?eoa?eth. Iioeiecaoeey oaoie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee
iaania/eaaao iacia/aiea iioeiaeueiuo (a niunea oai?aoe/anee
iainiiaaiiiai e?eoa?ey) o?aaiaaiee e auoiaeiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

3. I?ioeaaeo?u i?aia?aciaaiey

I?ioeaaeo?u i?aia?aciaaiey inouanoaeythony iaae iiiaeanoaii
eeiaaenoe/aneeo e iaoaiaoe/aneeo ia?aiaiiuo.

Eo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ia?acoao caienue eeai OC, eeai i?iaeoiiai
?aoaiey, n oeaeueth:

a) iaania/eoue i?aaenoaaeaiea OC ia iaoaycuea eiie?aoiie NAI?,

a) i?aaenoaaeoue a oi?ia, iiiyoiie i?iaeoaioo, oi eee eiia i?iaeoiia
?aoaiea, noi?ioee?iaaiiia ia iaoaycuea nenoaiu,

a) iaania/eoue niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?

Aoi?ay a?oiia i?aia?aciaaiey auaeaeaia a ioaeaeueioth i?ioeaaeo?o
eaeaioeoeeaoeee. Anee i?aia?aciaaiea inouanoaeyaony iaae iaoi?iaeueiui
iienaieai, oi iii i?aaenoaaeii ia ycuea eiaeee i?aaeeeaoia ia?aiai
ii?yaeea.

Iai?eia?, anee aeey iiiaeanoaa eaenai, ia?acothueo ii?aaeaeaiioth
niaieoiiinoue o?aaiaaiee oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey Ln, e iiiaeanoaa
e?eoa?eaa i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee Kp aaanoe i?aaeeeao Q (Ln , Kp ),
iaicia/athuee oaeo iaeiicia/iiai niioaaonoaey L e K ethaie eaenaiu li ec
iiiaeanoaa {L} iaeiie e oieueei iaeiie oi?iaeueiie caiene e?eoa?ey Ki p
({K} , oi niioaaonoaothuay oi?ioea eiaao aeae:

(( lin ( Ln ) (( Kip ( Kp) ( Q(Ln, Kp).

Anee i?aia?aciaaiea ia auiieieii ca iaeio i?ioeaaeo?o, ii nouanoaotho
aeaa niaianoeiua i?ioeaaeo?u e ?acoeueoao i?aia?aciaaiey ia caaeneo io
ii?yaeea eo i?eiaiaiey, oi

(( lin ( Ln, ( Kip ( Kp) ( Q(Ln, Kp) Q (Ln-m , Kp).

Anee a ea/anoaa oa?ieiia, aoiaeyueo a oi?ioeo, eniieuecothony
iaoaiaoe/aneea ia?aiaiiua, oi iia?aoeey i?aia?aciaaiey caienuaaaony
iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ioeie, eioi?ay ?aaeecoaony aeai?eoie/anee.

I?ioeaaeo?a i?aia?aciaaiey, i?eiaiyaiay e oiio eee eiiio i?iaeoiiio
?aoaieth, caienaiiiio a aeaea oiiieiaee iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny eeai iauaaeeiaieai (eiiiiceoeeae), eeai aeaeiiiiceoeeae.
A naith i/a?aaeue, eiiiiceoeey i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee eiaao ianeieueei
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee e eo iiiaeanoai n/aoii.

Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue ioiineoaeueii aeaeiiiiceoeee i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey.
Caeanue ioiaoei, /oi i?ioeaaeo?a eiiiiceoeee oa?aeoa?ia aeey
ainoiaeyuaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a aeaeiiiiceoeey – aeey ienoiaeyuaai.

4. I?ioeaaeo?a eaeaioeoeeaoeee

I?ioeaaeo?a eaeaioeoeeaoeee inouanoaeyaony eeai iaae iiiaeanoaii aeaiiuo
(ec aacu aeaiiuo) eiaaea noaaeony caaea/a i?aia?aciaaiey i?iaeoiiai
?aoaiey, eeai iaae iiiaeanoaii i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, eiaaea noaaeony
caaea/a caianaiey aai a aaco aeaiiuo.

Oeacaiiua caaea/e, ?aoaaiua a niioaaonoaee n eeanneoeoee?oaiuie
i?ioeaaeo?aie, eae ioia/aeinue, naeaeaiu ioiineoaeueii iauaeoia. Iie
eiatho iienaiea a aeaea oeaii/ae oi?ioeueiuo caaeneiinoae (iiaeaeueiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, ?aaeecoaiuo aeai?eoie/anee) eeai oeaii/ae oa?iia,
eaenai, eeiaaenoe/aneeo ia?aiaiiuo). Iiyoiio iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi iiiaeanoai ia?a/eneaiiuo i?ioeaaeo? oaeoi?ecoaony ii
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiiio i?eciaeo, naycaiiiio ni niiniaii iienaiey e
?aaeecaoeee a n?aaea NAI?.

EEANNEOEEAOeEss I?IOeAAeO?

Eaaeaeay ec ia?a/eneaiiuo i?ioeaaeo? iiaeao auoue ioianaia e iaeiiio ec
o?ao oeiia i?ioeaaeo?:

– oi?iaeueiay,

– oi?iaeecoaiay,

– ya?enoe/aneay.

Aeaaeei ianeieueei ii?aaeaeaiee.

a) Oi?iaeueiay i?ioeaaeo?a – niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee, eioi?ay
ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeoeaiia (eee n/aoiia iiiaeanoai i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee) aac
o/anoey i?iaeoaioa. A yoii neo/aa i?iaeoaio oieueei oi?ioee?oao caaea/o:
iacia/aao aoiaeiua aeaiiua e oeacuaaao e?eoa?ee i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey.

a) Oi?iaeecoaiay i?ioeaaeo?a – i?ioeaaeo?a, eioi?ay iiaeao eeoue
/anoe/ii oi?iaeueii iienuaaoueny a aeaea eaeiai-eeai aeai?eoia, eiiaaea
aeaaea ?aaeecothuaai /eneaiiue iaoiae, ii enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey iaa
o?aaotho i?aia?aciaaiey, a oneiaey aa i?ioaeaiey, e?eoa?ee i?iaeoiuo
?aoaiee o?aaotho ooi/iaiey ia i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ae?oaiio, ii e i?ioeanna aa auiieiaiey.

I?iaeoaio iiaeao aeeyoue ia oneiaey i?ioaeaiey oi?iaeecoaiie e
ya?enoe/aneie i?ioeaaeo?, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue oieueei eeoue iiuoii,
eiooeoeeae, cae?aaui niuneii, i?e/ai eae naiei nianoaaiiui, oae e ii
auai?o, e iaeiieaiiui a aeaiiie NAI?.

a) Ya?enoe/aneay i?ioeaaeo?a – i?ioeaaeo?a, eioi?ay ia iiaeaeaaony
ieeaeiio oi?iaeueiiio iienaieth, ia iiaeao auoue iienaia ieeaeei
aeai?eoiii e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ia iaania/eaaao i?eiyoey
i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey.

I?eaaaeai i?eia?u i?ioeaaeo?.

a) Oi?iaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u:

– aiaeec /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iiaeaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey, i?eiaiyaiie a oai?ee
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey,

– neioac iioeiaeueiiai oeeueo?a (?aoaiea caaea/e Aeia?a-Oiioa), eiaaea
e?eoa?ee noi?ioee?iaai a OC,

– iiene aaconeiaiiai yeno?aioia oeaeaaie ooieoeee, noi?ioee?iaaiiie
aeey caaea/e iaiin?aaenoaaiii a OC.

Ia?a/eneaiiua i?ioeaaeo?u iicaieytho iia?e?iaaoue ni no?iaeie
iaoaiaoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie, yaeythony ?aaeecaoeeae eiie?aoii iinoaaeaiiie
caaea/e e eiaa?eaioiu e e?eoa?eth i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey.

a) Oi?iaeecoaiua i?ioeaaeo?u:

– iaeiiaa?eaioiue aiaeec iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iaoaiaoe/aneie
iiaeaee i?e ionoonoaee iieiie eioi?iaoeee i oa?aeoa?a aoiaeiuo
aicaeaenoaee eee i?e ia/aoei ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe aaeaeaaoiinoe,

– neioac no?oeoo?u iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ia eiathuaai aiaeiaia e
i?ioioeiia, inouanoaeyaiue ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey ni/aoaiey ?acee/iuo
oece/aneeo i?eioeeiia e eiiiiiaio ?aciie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu.
“Noiia?iue” yooaeo ia yaeyaony i?inoie noiiie ioaeaeueiuo yooaeoia,
aicieeathueo io eniieueciaaiey oiai eee eiiai oece/aneiai i?eioeeia,

– oneiaiay iioeiecaoeey cia/aiee eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia n
eniieueciaaieai iiiaiia?iie oeaeaaie ooieoeee (iiiaie?eoa?eaeueiay
iaei??aeoii iinoaaeaiiay caaea/a).

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ia?a/eneaiiuo oi?iaeecoaiuo i?ioeaaeo? yaeyaony
eo “yeno?aiieyoeeiiiue” oa?aeoa?. Ai anao oeacaiiuo niaieoiiinoyo
aeaenoaee “i?aaeneacuaaaony” iiaaaeaiea iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iniiaa
aeiioaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee i?e ia?aie/aieyo, eioi?ua iniiaaiu ia
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo oece/aneeo i?eioeeiao (caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee, ia
io?eoeaoaeueiinoue a?aiaie e o.ae.)

Oi?iaeecoaiua i?ioeaaeo?u caieiatho “i?iiaaeooi/iia” iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo
oi?iaeueiuie e ya?enoe/aneeie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie eniieuecotho
iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oa?aeoa? eo eniieueciaaiey
yaeyaony yeno?aiieyoeeiiiui.

Iai?eia?, ia?aiao?e/aneay iioeiecaoeey, inouanoaeyaony n eciaiaieai
iaoiaea iioeiecaoeee. Eciaiaiea iaoiaea i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa
aiaeeca eae oeaeaaie ooieoeee, oae e aeeyiey ia?aie/aiee ia oa?aeoa?
i?ioeanna iioeiecaoeee.

Aeaeii , /oi i?iaeoiay iia?aoeey iiaeao auoue oieueei oi?iaeueiie (ii
ii?aaeaeaieth). Iiyoiio iiaeii aiai?eoue, /oi oi?iaeueiay i?iaeoiay
i?ioeaaeo?a anaaaea ninoieo ec eiia/iiai /enea i?iaeoiuo iia?aoeee.

Ya?enoe/aneay i?ioeaaeo?a ia niaea?aeeo i?iaeoiuo iia?aoeee, a
oi?iaeecoaiay ninoieo ec ianiaianoeiuo iia?aoeee. Eo iaeuecy i?eiaiyoue
a ethaie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e a ethaii ni/aoaiee, eee eo na/aiea
iaeuecy ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeeoue (i?aaeneacaoue).

EAEOeEss (7

Oaia: “Ciaiey a au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoaiao (NAI?).

Oi?iu i?aaenoaaeaiey e niiniau eiaee?iaaiey.”

AAAAeAIEA

Iaeiei ec ia?auo iaiauaiee, naycaiiuo n eneonnoaaiiui eioaeeaeoii a
NAI?, noaea ?aaioa “Eioaeeaeooaeueiua nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey aieueoeo e naa?oaieueoeo eioaa?aeueiuo noai” A.A.Ieuaiei,
E.I. Ai?iaeaoeeee e ae?. ?aaeei e naycue, 1988.”

A iae eceaaathony eiioeaioeee nenoaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey, “eieoe?othuae
aeayoaeueiinoue eiino?oeoi?a a /anoe iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee ia
aeai?eoiao i?iaeoe?oaiuo noai, iiaeeoeeaoeee enoiaeiuo aeai?eoiia aeey
iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiuo o?aaiaaiee oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey, ia?aai?a
eiathueony eiino?oeoeaia aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiie?aoiie noaiu, ?aoaiey
caaea/ iioeiecaoeee i?e neioaca, i?iaa?ee ei??aeoiinoe o?aaiaaiee OC a
?aieao ciaiee, caeiaeaiiuo a nenoaio.

Iiiyoii, /oi noi?ie?iaaoue o?aaiaaiey e “eioaeeaeooaeueiui NAI?”
iacaaeneii io i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe aeiaieueii o?oaeii.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoe aii?inu i?eaeaeee aieiaiea ?ac?aaio/eeia
eioaa?aeueiuo noai. A yoie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe a cia/eoaeueii aieueoae
noaiaie aiciiaeii oi?iaeeciaaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey,
?acee/iuo i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai, iiea ?a/ue eaeao i
i?iaeoe?iaaiee aeai?eoiia, a?oeoaeoo?u e ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneie
no?oeoo?u eioaa?aeueiuo noai. Eae oieueei noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee a
iienaiee iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeinoeaaao o?iaiy, ia eioi?ii
o?aaoaony iia?e?iaaoue oece/aneeie aaee/eiaie, e anee ?a/ue eaeao i
iiaeaee?iaaiee oneiaee i?ioaeaiey oece/aneeo i?ioeannia, oi aaeaeaaoiia
oi?iaeeciaaiiia iienaiea iauaeoa e i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey noaiiaeony
ana aieaa cao?oaeieoaeueiui.

Iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acoiiui niiinoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoe no?iaiai e
oi?iaeeciaaiiiai iiaeoiaeia e i?iaeoe?iaaieth. Ii caeeth/aaony a
“aeanoeie “i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey NAI?, e /enoi
ya?enoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea, eniieuecoaiiai a yenia?oiuo nenoaiao, eioi?ua
ooieoeeiie?otho eeai ia iniiaa ia/aoeie eiaeee, eeai ia noioanoe/aneeo
iaoiaeao iao/aiey.

A ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiii i?eai?ino?iaiee eniieuecothony ni/aoaiey
?aciiia?aciuo oece/aneeo yooaeoia. A yoie iaeanoe eae e a iioe/aneii
i?eai?ino?iaiee e aaoiiaoeee ?ani?ino?aiaiu nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey n o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeeae i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.
Yoi naycaii, i?aaeaea anaai, ni cia/eoaeueiuie o?oaeiinoyie nicaeaiey
iaeii?iaeiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey nenoai, ni/aoathueo ?acei
ioee/athueany ii oece/aneie i?e?iaea eiiiiiaiou.

A aeaiiie eaeoeee iu ia?auaai aieiaiea ia oa i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua
oeaeaniia?acii ?aoaoue ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey “aeanoeeo” e “iyaeeo”
eiiiiiaio i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey NAI?.

Ia?auaii aieiaiea ia iiene oi/ae nii?eeiniiaaiey oi?iaeeciaaiiuo e
ya?enoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia ia iniiaa aiaeeca iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia
i?aaiecaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaeeo nenoai i?eiaieoaeueii e caaea/ai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Neaaua ianoa a oi?iaeeciaaiiii iiaeoiaea e iooe eo oneeaiey ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey yenia?oiuo ioeaiie, ii?aaeaeythueo eae oa?aeoa? oae e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eo i?eiaiaiey a ni/aoaiee n iiaeaeueiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai ?acee/iuo iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oaeaea aoaeoo
?anniio?aiu.

I?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaanoe aiaeec niiniaia iiaeaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eioi?ua aeatho aeiaieueii no?iaoth
oi?iaeecaoeeth iienaiey ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae. I?e yoii naeaeai
aeoeaio ia i?iaeaio aaeaeaaoiiai iienaiey.

IAUEA NAAAeAIEss

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ii?aaeaeaieai yenia?oiie nenoaiu yaeyaony
ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi yoi au/eneeoaeueiay nenoaia, iia?e?othuay
ciaieyie niaoeeaeenoia a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe e niiniaiay
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ia o?iaia yoeo niaoeeaeenoia.

A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee inoaaony iayniui, /oi neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae
oa?ieiii” ciaiey” e /oi icia/aao niiniaiinoue i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiie. Yoa iayniinoue aicieeaao, anee aeinoaoi/ii
no?iai ioianoenue e oa?ieio “au/eneeoaeueiay nenoaia”.

Anee iiieiaoue aa eae iniaui niiniaii i?aaieciaaiioth niaieoiiinoue
i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa, oi niiniaiinoue YAI i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey
i?aaenoaaeyaony nii?iie.

Yenia?oiay nenoaia, eae anyeay au/eneeoaeueiay nenoaia, ie a eaeie
iiiaio a?aiaie aa nicaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaioaeaeeia io
iieueciaaoaey e ?ac?aaio/eea.

Ia?aue nouanoaaiiue i?eciae, iicaieythuee ?anniao?eaaoue yenia?oioth
nenoaio eae naiinoiyoaeueiue eeann au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oi iia ia aeieaeia ii?aeueii onoa?aaaoue.

Aieueoeinoai ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo yenia?oiui nenoaiai, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi iniiao eo a?oeoaeoo?u ninoaaeyao caian ciaiee i eiie?aoiie
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. I?e yoii ciaiey iiieiathony eae niaieoiiinoue
i?aaee, ii?aaeaeythueo oa?aeoa? ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, a ?acoeueoaoa
i?eiaiaiey eioi?uo iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny iiaay niaieoiiinoue i?aaee.

A i?eaaaeaiiuo ii?aaeaeaieyo eniieuecothony iiiyoey aeaiiua e ciaiey.

a) AeAIIUA a au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoaiao – caeiaee?iaaiiua ia?acu iauaeoia
?aaeueiiai ie?a, eiathueo eiee/anoaaiioth ia?o. Iaee/ea eiee/anoaaiiie
ia?u aiai?eo i aiciiaeiinoe niiinoaaeaiey iauaeoia.

A niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoui ii?aaeaeaieai a aeaeueiaeoai oa?iei “aeaiiua”
e i?iecaiaeiua io iaai (“aaca aeaiiuo”, “oi?aaeaiea aacie aeaiiuo” e
ae?.) aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey ethauo eiinoaio (aeeth/ay
eiae/aneea, no?ieiaua), ia?aiaiiuo e ooieoeee, a oaeaea iiiaeanoa, eo
iauaaeeiythueo.

a) Iie?aynue ia ii?aaeaeaiea aeaiiuo, iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiea oa?ieia ” ciaiey “.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoue, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i ciaieyo a au/eneeoaeueiuo
nenoaiao, a ia i ciaieyo aiiaua.

Anee ecia?eiinoue iauaeoia ?aaeueiiai ie?a auoaeaao ec aiciiaeiinoe eo
niiinoaaeaiey, o.a. onoaiiaeaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie, oi n?aaee
yoeo ioiioaiee anaaaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue iiaeiiiaeanoai, eioi?ia
iauaaeeiyao caeiiiia?iinoe. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue iicaieyao a aeaeueiaeoai
iia?e?iaaoue oa?ieiii “ciaiey” a niunea ia?acia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ecia?eiuie iauaeoaie ?aaeueiiai ie?a.

Anee niioianoe oaia?ue ii?aaeaeaiey aeaiiuo e ciaiee, oi noaiiaeony
yniui, /oi aeaiiua yaeythony /anoiui neo/aai ciaiee. A naiii aeaea,
ecia?eiinoue iauaeoa, o.a. nouanoaiaaiey aeaiiuo ia iauaeoa
i?aaeiieaaaao aai niiinoaaeiinoue n eaeei-eeai ae?oaei. Ii oneiaii
i?eiyo ca yoaeii. Yoi niiinoaaeaiea iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo iauaeoaie (iai?eia?, ?aaii, aieueoa, iaeeiaeiai ii niuneo e
o.i.).

Ioiioaiea, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeao auoue caeiaee?iaaii e i?aaenoaaeaii
a au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaia. Anee ?acoeueoao yoiai niiinoaaeaiey
eiaee?oaony eiinoaioaie, ia?aiaiiuie eeai ooieoeeyie, oi ?a/ue eaeao i
i?aaenoaaeaiee aeaiiuo.

Anee aea a au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaia i?aaenoaaeytho (eiaee?otho) niinia e
?acoeueoao niiinoaaeaiey e nouiinoueth yoie eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony
ioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaiiuie, eioi?ia oaeaea iiaeao eiaee?iaaoueny
eiinoaioaie, ia?aiaiiuie e ooieoeeyie, oi oaeiai ?iaea aeaiiua a
aeaeueiaeoai neaaeoao iacuaaoue CIAIEssIE.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie oi?iaie i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee yaeythony
eiae/aneea, naiaioe/aneea e i?iaeoeoeeiiiua iiaeaee. I?iaaaeai aiaeec
yoeo oi?i a niiinoaaeaiee n iaoi?iaeueiui iienaieai ciaiee,
ninoaaeythueo iniiao eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii aoaeai
?acee/aoue oi?iaeecoaiua e ya?enoe/aneea niiniau iino?iaiey iiaeaeae.

A eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe eniieuecotho oi?iaeeciaaiiia iienaiea
iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?. N iiyaeaieai NAI? – yoi
eniieuecoaony ai iiiaeanoaa oi?iaeeciaaiiuo i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo? e
iiaeaeae iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iauaeou i?iaeoe?iaaiey a ni/aoaiee ni no?iaeie iaoiaeaie iioeiecaoeee
ia?acotho aeanoeoth no?oeoo?o, eciaiaiey eioi?ie inouanoaeythony
?ac?aaio/eeaie eee niaoeeaeueiuie eeoeaie, aaeieieno?e?othueie
eioi?iaoeeiiioth eiiiiiaioo e nii?iaiaeaeathueie nenoaio
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Iie ia yaeythony niaoeeaeenoaie a
aeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

EIAE*ANEEA IAOIAeU I?AAeNOAAEAIEss CIAIEE

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii inoaiiaeiny ia eceiaeaiee iaeioi?uo iiiyoee
oi?iaeueiie oai?ee.

Oi?iaeueiay oai?ey caaeaia, anee ii?aaeaeaiu /aou?a iiiaeanoaa B, F, A,
R : S = {B, F, A, R}, aaea

B – n/aoiia iiiaeanoai aaciauo neiaieia (aeoaaeo) oai?ee S ;

F – iiaeiiiaeanoai au?aaeaiee oai?ee S (oi?ioeu oai?ee );

A – auaeaeaiiia iiiaeanoai oi?ioe, ia?acothuaa aeneiiu oai?ee S
(iiiaeanoai ai?ei?ii enoeiiuo oi?ioe);

R – eiia/iia iiiaeanoai ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oi?ioeaie ( i?aaeea auaiaea).

Oi?iaeueiay oai?ey S iacuaaaony ?AC?AOEIIE, anee iaeaeaony aaeeiay
i?ioeaaeo?a, eioi?ay iicaieyao ociaoue aeey ethaie aeaiiie oi?ioeu,
nouanoaoao ee aa auaiae a S.

Oi?iaeueiay oai?ey S iacuaaaony IAI?IOEAI?A*EAIE, anee ia nouanoaoao
oaeie oi?ioeu ai ( A, /oiau ai e (ai auee auaiaeeiu a S.

Oai?ey en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie iiiaeanoaaie:

AEOAAEO:

ciaee ioieooaoeee (,) . ;

i?iiiceoeeiiaeueiua naycee (, ( ,( , (

ciaee eaaioi?ia ( , (

neiaieu ia?aiaiiuo ok , k=1,2,…,n

neiaieu ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aoea fkn

neiaieu i?aaeeeaoiuo aoea Pk

AU?AAEAIEss: iiiaeanoaa au?aaeaiee no?iyony iaae iiiaeanoaii neiaieia
aeoaaeoa n iiiiuueth oa?iia e yeaiaioa?iuo oi?ioe.

OA?IU: neiaieu ia?aiaiiie eee eiinoaiou, iai?eia? X1,X2, …,Xn eee fk
(X1,X2, …,Xn)

YEAIAIOA?IUA OI?IOEU: niaieoiiinoue i?aaeeeaoiuo aoea, oa?iia e ciaeia
ioieooaoeee, iai?eia?,

Pk (X1,…,Xn)

I?AAEEUeII IINO?IAIIUA OI?IOEU: niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioa?iuo oi?ioe e
i?iiiceoeeiiaeueiuo naycie, iai?eia?:

Pk (X1 ,…,Xn) = P1 (X1,…,Xn).

N iiiiuueth au?aaeaiey ((X)D (A) iaicia/aaony iaeanoue aeaenoaey
eaaioi?a anaiauiinoe. Yoi icia/aao: aeey ethaiai X ec D nouanoaoao
i?aaeeueii iino?iaiiay oi?ioea A.

N iiiiuueth au?aaeaiey ((X)D (A) onoaiaaeeaaaony nouanoaiaaiea oaeiai X
ec D, aeey eioi?iai ni?aaaaeeeaa i?aaeeueii iino?iaiiay oi?ioea.

Iaeanoe cia/aiee i?aaeeueii iino?iaiiuo oi?ioe eiaee?othony oaaeeoeaie
enoeiiinoe. Iie onoaiaaeeaatho cia/aiey 0 eeai 1 (“eiaeue” eeai
“enoeia”) oi?ioeai:

(A , A ( B, A ( B

IA*AOEIA IOIIOAIEA ii?aaeaeyaony iia?aoi?ii R e iia?aoeeae “(“: R ( A =
B, aaea A – aoiaeiia ia/aoeia iiiaeanoai, B – auoiaeiia ia/aoeia
iiiaeanoai.

Ia aoaeai ?ane?uaaoue aeaiioth caienue ia o?iaia nenoaiu aeaaa?ae/aneeo
o?aaiaiee.

Anee enoeiiinoue iaicia/aia aeey anao iaai?ia eioa?i?aoaoeee, aa
iacuaatho iauacia/eiie, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iia iaauiieieia.

Aiai?yo, /oi oi?ioea A eiae/anee neaaeoao ec oi?ioe B1,B2,…,Bi oiaaea
e oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eioa?i?aoaoeey oi?ioeu B1,B2,…,Bi niaiaaeaao
n eioa?i?aoaoeeae A. (B1,B2,…,Bi ( A)

A yoii neo/aa B1,…,Bi – iinueee, a A – caeeth/aiea eiae/aneiai
neaaeiaaiey.

A naeaoie oi?ia yoi ioiioaiea iaicia/aaony eae B1,B2,…,Bi => A

Ia i?aeoeea eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea oai?aia aeaaeoeoeee, niaeanii
eioi?ie A yaeyaony eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai B1,…,Bi oiaaea e oieueei
oiaaea eiaaea oi?ioea B1,B2,…,Bi iauacia/eia.

Ecaanoii eniieueciaaiea en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa
oai?ai. Iaoiaeu aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?ai iniiauaathony ia oii, /oi anee
oi?ioea en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia iauacia/eia, oi aiciiaeia i?iaa?ea aa
iauacia/eiinoe ia iniiaa en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia.

Yeaiaiou en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia eniieuecothony aeey eiaee?iaaiey
aeneiiaoeee oiai eee eiiai iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Yoi iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue aai a oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eeiaeaieyo aeey caiene
niaoeeoeeaoeee i?ia?aii e eae neaaenoaea aeey aiaeeoe/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaiey oi?ioe, iiaeaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey iauaeoia
i?iaeoe?iaaiey e iienaiey i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?, a oaeaea aeey i?iaa?ee
ia ei??aeoiinoue e iieiioo i?ia?aiiiuo ?aaeecaoeee nenoai aiaeeoe/aneeo
au/eneaiee.

IA*AOEEA IIIAEANOAA E IA*AOEAss EIAEEA

Iiiaea i?iaeoeoeeiiiua iiaeaee i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee iie?athony ia
aiia?ao ia/aoeeo iiiaeanoa e ia/aoeie eiaeee E.Caaea n eeiaaenoe/aneeie,
a ia /eneiauie cia/aieyie enoeiiinoe.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iniiaiua iiiyoey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia/aoeinoue aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea yeaiaio w(W
iaeaaeaao iaeioi?ui naienoaii A, eiathuei noauaeoeaioth ie?aneo (ii
iiaieth ?acee/iuo yenia?oia).

Ooieoeey i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe (A( ) ?anniao?eaaaony eae ooieoeey
aauanoaaiiiai a?aoiaioa. Iia ii?aaeaeaia ia eioa?aaea [0,1].

Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi (A: u -> [0,1] noaaeo a niioaaonoaea eaaeaeiio u
/enei (A(u) ec eioa?aaea [0,1], oa?aeoa?enoe/aneoth noaiaiue
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe u iiaeiiiaeanoao A. Ia/aoeia iiiaeanoai A aoaeao
iaicia/aoueny eae iauaaeeiaiea

A = ((A(ui) / ui, eeai A = {(1 / u1 + …+ (n / u n}

A neo/aa, eiaaea iiiaeanoai iai?a?uaii A = ((A(u) / u.

Ii?aaeaeei iiiyoea iiiaeanoaa o?iaiy (.

IIIAEANOAI O?IAIss ( yoi /aoeia iiiaeanoai A( yeaiaioia oieaa?naeueiiai
iiiaeanoaa U, noaiaiue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eioi?uo iiiaeanoao A aieueoa eee
?aaia (:

A( = {u / (A(u) > (}, aaea ( – a iauai neo/aa iiaeao auoue ia/aoeie
eiinoaioie.

IAUAAeEIAIEA iiiaeanoa ii (

((A = (( (A(

Iia?aoeey AeIIIEIAIEA

(A = (u(1- (A(u))/u

Iia?aoeey IAUAAeEIAIEA

A ( B = (u((A(u) ( (B(u)) /u

Iia?aoeey IA?ANA*AIEA

A ( B = (u((A(u) ( (B(u)) /u

Aiia?ao, iino?iaiiue ia iiaeaeyo ia/aoeeo iia?aiaeia, oe?iei
eniieuecoaony a i?ioeaaeo?iuo niiniaao i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee. N aai
iiiiuueth inouanoaeyaony, a iniiaiii, ya?enoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea.
Eiie?aoiua oi?iu, a eioi?uo iii ?aaeecoaony, caaenyo e io
au/eneeoaeueiie n?aaeu, NOAAe, io eiioeaiooaeueiie iiaeaee aacu ciaiee e
io iauae eiioeaioeee i?iaeoa oie eee eiie nenoaiu.

NAIAIOE*ANEEA NAOE

Naiaioe/aneea naoe no?iyony n iiiiuueth i?eaioe?iaaiiuo a?aoia. Aa?oeiu
naoe niioaaonoaotho iauaeoai, a aeoae naiaioe/aneei ioiioaieyi.

N?aaee iauaeoia auaeaeytho iiiyoey, naienoaa e niauoey.

Naiaioe/aneea ioiioaiey iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia eeiaaenoe/aneea,
eiae/aneea, oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiua e eaaioeoeoee?iaaiiua.
I?eiaieoaeueii e caaea/ai i?aaiecaoeee au/eneeoaeueiie n?aaeu NAI?
eeiaaenoe/aneea ioiioaiey ioiinyony e n?aaenoaai aeinooia. E eiae/aneei
ioiioaieyi ioiinyony ioiioaiey oeia: aeecuthieoeey, eiiuthieoeey e
io?eoeaiea.

Oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae i?iyaeaiea
eaoaai?ee /anoe e oeaeiai, cao?aaeaatho ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o oie
eee eiie NAI? a oeaeii. I?eia? oaeie naoe i?eaaaeai ia ?en.1.

Naiaioe/aneea naoe oneiaii eeanneoeoee?otho ia eioaineiiaeueiua e
yenoaineiiaeueiua.

EIOAINEIIAEUeIAss naoue onoaiaaeeaaao oa ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iauaeoaie,
eioi?ua ioee/athony iauaeoeaiinoueth e iiaoi?yaiinoueth.

YENOAINEIIAEUeIAss naoue eiaee?oao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiie?aoiuie
oaeoaie, iauaeoaie e niauoeyie, o.a. iaaeaeo aeaiiuie.

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea naiaioe/aneea naoe iieo/eee a
eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeaeyo aac aeaiiuo e iiyoiio eiatho ?ani?ino?aiaiea
a NAI?.

I?e eniieueciaaiee a NAI? naiaioe/aneea naoe i?eiaiythony a
naiaioe/aneii aiaeeca i?e i?aaiecaoeee aeeaeiaa ia i?aaeiaoiii ycuea.
Yoio aiaeec i?iaiaeeony iinea ii?oieiae/aneiai e neioaene/aneiai
?acai?a. Aeaeaa eniieuecoaony eeai i?yiia i?aia?aciaaiea neioaene/aneeo
ioiioaiee a naiaioe/aneea n i?eiaiaieai ano?iaiiuo i?aaee (oeeueo?ia),
eeai i?aia?aciaaiea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa niioaaonoaee, oeacaiiuo a
iiaeaeyo oi?aaeaiey.

?en.1. I?eia? naoe, eniieuecoaiie aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
iiaeaeyie e iae?iiiaeaeyie iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey a NAI?.

Iaeiaei, anee i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue NAI? iniiaaia ia iienaiee
anoanoaaiiuo iauaeoia, oi ?acia?iinoue naiaioe/aneie naoe noaiiaeony
iaiaic?eiie. A yoii neo/aa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa eniieueciaaiea
i?aaenoaaeaiey a aeaea o?aeiia.

O?AEIU

I?eaaaeai ii?aaeaeaiea o?aeia.

O?AEI – iieiaiiaaiiay naiaioe/aneay naoue, yaeythuayny yeaiaioii
iiiaeanoaa, iino?iaiiiai ia iia?aoeee nayce n iiiiuueth iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo oceia.

Iiaeiaiia ii?aaeaeaiea ia i?ioeai?a/eo n o?aeoiaeie o?aeia eae
no?oeoo?u aeaiiuo, oi?iaeeciaaii ioia?aaeathuae iauaeoii-noauaeoeaiua
ioiioaiey aeaeea?aoeaiui eeai i?ioeaaeo?iui ia?acii e niaea?aeauae
iinoiyiioth /anoue eee ia?aiaiioth. I iineaaeiae aiai?yo eae i
niaieoiiinoe neioia ( ia?aiaiiay /anoue o?aeia ).

Oaeay no?oeoo?a ia?acoaony iiiaeanoaii o?iae aeaea:

{ F, (S1, GS1, PS1), …, ( Si, GSi, PSi), …, (Sl, GSl, PSl) },

aaea F – eiy o?aeia , Si – eiy neioa, GSi – cia/aiea neioa, PSi –
i?ioeaaeo?a, naycaiiay ni neioii.

I?e ?aaioa n o?aeiaie aeiionoei ethaie o?iaaiue aeiaeaiee, iineieueeo
cia/aieai neioa iaeioi?iai o?aeia iiaeao auoue ethaia eiy o?aeia.

Naoue o?aeiia ?aaeecoao iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iniiaa o?aeia
“i?aia?aciaaiea” e io?aaeaao naienoai iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey a oeaeii e
aai ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaio (oceia, caaiueaa, iae?iiiaeaeae – niaieoiiinoe
caaiueaa). Ii?yaeie eieoeeaeecaoeee i?ioeaaeo? aeey i?aia?aciaaiey
aeaiiuo ii?aaeaeyaony neioaie ia?aiao?ia iiaeaeae.

Ia ?en. 2 i?eaaaeaia naoue o?aeiia, ?aaeecothuay iiaeaeue iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

?en. 2. Naoue o?aeiia, ?aaeecothuay iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey a
niioaaonoaee n ea?a?oeae, ioia?aaeaiiie ia ?en.1.

Aeey eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe oa?aeoa?iu niaoeeoe/iua oi?iu
i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiey. Yoi naycaii ni neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

1) c iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iienaiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?eiyoey i?iaeoiuo
?aoaiee a oi?ia, oaeiaiie aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey a YAI.

2) c ioiaeaeanoaeaieai OC ia iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey n oie eee eiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth aeaenoaee i?iaeoaioa.

3) n ioeaieie ei??aeoiinoe OC e aaeaeaaoiinoe iiaeaeae iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Ia?aia o?aaiaaiea aicieeaao, anee NAI? no?ieony oeaeeeii ia iniiaa aacu
ciaiee e ia iicaieyao iia?e?iaaoue no?iaei iaoaiaoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie
iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Oaeie iooue i?aaeiieaaaao eniieueciaaiea
yenia?oiuo nenoai aeey iaeaieeaaiey ciaiee eiaeaia?ia aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee e iineaaeothuaai eo “oe?aaee?iaaiey” a au/eneeoaeueiuo
nenoaiao.

Aoi?ia o?aaiaaiea oaeaea oa?aeoa?ii aeey eniieueciaaiey naienoa
yenia?oiuo nenoai a iieiii iauaia, a oaeaea aeey NAI?, iacuaaaiuo
“eioaeeaeooaeueiuie”.

O?aouea o?aaiaaiea aicieeaao i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iino?ieoue NAI?,
aaeaioe?othueany e iieueciaaoaeth e ?acaeaaaiua i?iaeoaioaie.

Iaeaieaa eioa?aniui i?eeiaeaieai aeey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo NAI? yaeyaony
iino?iaiea iao/aaiuo iiieoi?ia, iacuaaaiuo eioaeeaeooaeueiuie
ieaie?iaueeaie. Iiaeiaiua iiieoi?u ?aaeeciaaiu n eniieueciaaieai
aiia?aoa naoae Iao?e (eioi?ua iu caeanue ia ?anniao?eaaai).

IAOIAeU EIAeE?IAAIEss

?anniio?aiiua niiniau i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee iiaoo eiaoue naioth
?acee/ioth i?ia?aiiioth ?aaeecaoeeth a au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoaiao. Ai
iiiaii yoe niiniau caaenyo io oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeaiiuie,
eioi?ua iiaeaee?othony ciaieyie.

A eiaeaia?iie i?aeoeea enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue aeaa niiniaa
aeieoiaioe?iaaiey i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee – oaenoiaue e a?aoe/aneee.

Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao a?aoe/aneee niinia aeieoiaioe?iaaiey.

Oaoiieiae/aneea e iieueciaaoaeueneea aniaeou ia?aaioee a?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a nenoaiao i?iaeoe?iaaiey e eiino?oe?iaaiey eco/aiu
aeinoaoi/ii aeoaiei.

Aeaooo?iaiaaue oa?aeoa? eiaee?iaaiey oaeeo ecia?aaeaiee, eae /a?oaaee,
a?aoeee iicaieyao naiaeeoue eo iienaiea e eaene/aneei i?eieoeaai (eeiey,
e?oa, oi/ea e o.i.). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee n iiiiuueth
oaeeo “eiaeia” oae eee eia/a naiaeeony e niiniaai, oaea ?anniio?aiiui
?aiaa.

Iniaia ianoi caieiaao a?aoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, eiaee?oaiay iieooiiiauie
iiiaio?iaiaauie ecia?aaeaieyie ?aaeueiuo e eneonnoaaiiuo iauaeoia.
Iaeaieaa iiuiui a?naiaeii i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa ia?aaioee,
o?aiaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey oaeeo ecia?aaeaiee ?aniieaaaao oeeo?iaay
aieia?aoey.

Eniieueciaaiea yoeo n?aaenoa iicaieyao ia oieueei ?aoaoue caaea/e
i?aia?e?iaaiey ecia?aaeaiee e ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia, ii e no?ieoue
iao/aaiua au/eneeoaeueiua nenoaiu.

EAEOeEss (8

Oaia: “Yenia?oiay nenoaia aeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey”

AAAAeAIEA

Yenia?oiay nenoaia aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey yaeyaony, a naith i/a?aaeue, au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiie.

Iia aeieaeia oaeiaeaoai?youe neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

I?eieiaaiua n iiiiuueth nenoaiu ?aoaiey aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue
o?iaith yenia?oa-i?ioanneiiaea.

Ciiniau i?eiyoey ?aoaiee (iaoa?annoaeaeaiey) a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie
aeieaeiu aini?iecaiaeeony a oi?ia, iiiyoiie eae yenia?oo, oae e
iieueciaaoaeth.

Nenoaia aeieaeia aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iieueciaaoaeth ca n/ao aiciiaeiinoe
iaiyoue eae oi?ioee?iaee cai?inia e caaea/, oae e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
eo aicieeiiaaiey.

Cenoaia aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue aiciiaeiinoueth eniieueciaaoue, i?eia?aoaoue
e o?aieoue iauea e /anoiua noaiu ?annoaeaeaiey, iino?iaiiua ia ia
iieiinoueth aeinoiaa?iuo aeaiiuo e neiaieueiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo.

A i?ioeanna aeeciaiiiai oeeeea nenoaia aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue naienoaii
?aaecee aeaiiuo e noai ?annoaeaeaiee.

CAAeA*E, ?AOAAIUA YENIA?OIIE NENOAIIE

Ia?a/eneei caaea/e, eioi?ua niiniaia ?aoaoue yenia?oiay nenoaia:

Caaea/e ia iiaoo eiaoue /eneiaie eioa?i?aoaoeee.

Oeaee, aeinoeaaaiua i?e eo ?aoaiee, ia iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeaea
oeaeaaie ooieoeee.

Eiiaeiaoi?iua iaoiaeu ia?aai?a iaaiciiaeiu.

NO?OEOO?IAss NOAIA IAIAUAIIIE YENIA?OIIE NENOAIU

Ia?a/eneei iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou oaeie nenoaiu. E eo /eneo ioiinyony
neaaeothuea:

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni?

Iiaenenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea.

Aaca ciaiee.

Iiaenenoaia ?aaecee ciaiee.

?aai/ay iaiyoue.

Ia ?en.1 iieacaia no?oeoo?iay noaia iaiauaiiie yenia?oiie nenoaiu.

?en.1. No?oeoo?a iaiauaiiie yenia?oiie nenoaiu.

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni? inouanoaeyao naycue inoaeueiuo eiiiiiaio n
iieueciaaoaeai eee yenia?oii ia aeai?eoie/aneii ycuea.

Iiaenenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea iaania/eaaao iino?iaiea oie eee noaiu
?annoaeaeaiey.

Aaca ciaiee i?aaeiacia/aia aeey o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee ciaiee,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo eiae/aneeie, i?iaeoeoeeiiiuie eeai naiaioe/aneeie
iiaeaeyie.

Iiaenenoaia ?aaecee ciaiee iicaieyao iieueciaaoaeth eeai yenia?oo
aiaoeaaoueny a i?ioeann iiaeaioiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ca n/ao
iauyniaiey (ioia?aaeaiey) i?iiaaeooi/iuo aeaenoaee a nenoaia.

?aai/ay iaiyoue iaania/eaaao o?aiaiea i?iiaaeooi/iuo aeaiiuo e eo iaiai
iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie nenoaiu.

A iaeioi?uo ?aaioao ii eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo iiaeii ano?aoeoue
ianeieueei ae?oaia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaiauaiiie yenia?oiie nenoaiu, i?e/ai,
i?eioeeieaeueiui ioee/eai iiaeao yaeoueny iaee/ea a no?oeoo?a
iiaenenoaiu i?eia?aoaiey e eioa?i?aoaoeee ciaiee. Iaeiaei a oaeeo
nenoaiao, eae EURISKO, ?ieue oaeie iiaenenoaiu auiieiyao iiaenenoaia
eiae/aneiai auaiaea niaianoii n iiaenenoaiie ?aaecee ciaiee, a a nenoaia
MYSIN aa iaaiciiaeii auaeaeeoue eae ioaeaeueiia i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai. A
nenoaiao, iino?iaiiuo ii oaoiieiaee “prototyping” – EIOA?YENIA?O (GURU),
YENIA?OECA, o.a. ia iniiaa iaiei/ae, oaeaea o?oaeii auaeaeeoue oaeie
i?ia?aiiiue iiaeoeue, eioi?ue iaania/eaae au i?eia?aoaiea ciaiee.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa no?oeoo?iua eiiiiiaiou yenia?oiie nenoaiu.

EIIIIIAIOU YENIA?IIE NENOAIU

EEIAAENOE*ANEEE I?IOeANNI?

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni? iaania/eaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea iieueciaaoaey
eeai yenia?oa n i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiie /anoueth yenia?oiie nenoaiu iooai
i?aia?aciaaiey (o?aineyoeee, eiiaa?oe?iaaiey, eioa?i?aoaoeee)
i?aaeeiaeaiee ia i?iaeaiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiii (/aua ia anoanoaaiiii) ycuea
a i?aaeeiaeaiey ia aioo?aiiai ycuea (iaoaycuea) e iaiai?io.

Ia ?en.1 ia iieacaii, /oi a yoeo i?aia?aciaaieyo o/anoaoao aaca ciaiee,
iineieueeo ai iiiaeo yenia?oiuo nenoaiao eeiaaenoe/aneea i?ioeanni?u
?aaeecothony ioaeaeueiui iiaeoeai, eiathuei i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiue aeae.

Aeinoaoi/ii iauaa iacaaiea yoie no?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeu iicaieyao
?anniao?eaaoue iiae yoei iacaaieai naiua ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiiua e
i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiua ?aaeecaoeee. Iie iacaaeneiu io niiniaa
eiaee?iaaiey niiauaiey: ?a/aaie aaiae, aaiae n aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaie
eeaaeaoo?u, n naini?iiai ono?ienoaa e o.ae.

A ethaii neo/aa n/eoaaony, /oi aoiaeiuie aeaiiuie eeiaaenoe/aneiai
i?ioeanni?a yaeythony oeaii/ee neiaieia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ai aioo?aiiai
eiaea nenoaiu, a auoiaeiuie – eeai oeaii/ee, neioace?iaaiiua ia ycuea
aeaeiaie i?icu aeey /aeiaaea, eeai oeaii/ee ia iaoaycuea nenoaiu.

I?aia?aciaaiea eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea aiciiaeii a
i?ioeaaeo?iie, aeaeea?aoeaiie eee niaoaiiie oi?ia. Aeey aeaeea?aoeaiie
oi?iu oa?aeoa?ii nouanoaiaaiea iaeioi?iai neiaa?y e ii?oieiae/aneee
aiaeec naiaeeony e niiinoaaeaieth niioaaonoaothueo eaenai.

I?ioeaaeo?iue niinia ii?oieiae/aneiai aiaeeca iniiauaaaony ia
ii?aaeaeaiee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii
inouanoaeoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey cia/aiee ii?oieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia. I?e
yoii iiae ii?oieiaeae iiieiaaony nenoaia i?aaee ii?iaeaeaiey neia.

Aaca ciaiee, iaae eioi?ie no?ieony eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni?,
niaea?aeeo neiaa?ue, iiiaeanoai oeeueo?othueo i?ioeaaeo? e
naiaioe/aneoth naoue. N iiiiuueth neiaa?y inouanoaeyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea
ciaiee i neiaao (eaenaiao).

Oeeueo?othuea i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaeecotho i?aaeea aiaeeca e neioaca eaenai,
a naiaioe/aneea naoe eiaee?otho niuneiaua no?oeoo?u i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe.

No?oeoo?a iniiaiie /anoe eeiaaenoe/aneiai i?ioeanni?a e acaeiiaeaenoaea
aai yeaiaioia oneiaii i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en.2.

?en.2. No?oeoo?a eeiaaenoe/aneiai i?ioeanni?a

A i?ioeanna aiaeeca niiauaiey iieueciaaoaey auaeaeythony ei?ie neia,
eaeaioeoeoee?oaony niaieoiiinoue ei?iae ii neiaa?th, o?aiyuaiony a
?aai/ae iaiyoe, i?iaiaeeony ii?oieiae/aneee ?acai? e iinea
naiaioe/aneiai ?acai?a ii?iaeaeaaony niiauaiea ia iaoaycuea nenoaiu.

I?e neioaca niiauaiey /aua anaai eniieuecoaony iiiaeanoai oi?iaeueiuo
oaaeiiia, eioi?ua auae?athony a niioaaonoaee n naiaioeeie niiauaiey e
caiieiythony a niioaaonoaee n aai ii?oieiaeae e neioaenenii.

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni? nenoai EIOA?YENIA?O, YENIA?OECA iicaieyao
inouanoaeyoue naycue ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea e ?ann/eoai ia ?aniiciaaaiea
aei 500 neia e eiiaiae. I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey eioa?oaena ?aaeecoaony n
iiiiuueth iaith. Iii i?aaeeaaaaony iieueciaaoaeth anyeee ?ac, eiaaea
aaaaeaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea niaea?aeeo neiaa, ia
niaea?aea?aeaueany a neiaa?a i?ioeanni?a.

Iaith i?aaeeaaaao iieueciaaoaeth aa?eaiou oeia:

“a?aiaiiia eciaiaiea”,

“iinoiyiiia eciaiaiea”,

“aieaa aeeeiiay o?aca”,

“eaii?e?iaaoue neiai” ,

“niyoue cai?in”.

A ia?aii ?aaeeia ninoaaeyaony a?aiaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea, eioi?ia o?aieony
aei neaaeothuaai cai?ina. I?e yoii ia?aniiciaiiia neiai aaoiiaoe/anee
i?eaiaeeony a naiaioe/aneia niioaaonoaea n neiiieiii ec neiaa?y a
oa/aiea oaeouaai cai?ina.

yenia?oiie nenoaia iicaieyao ni a?aiaiai nieiaoue ?aca?aie/aiey a
ooieoeeyo yenia?oa e iieueciaaoaey.

Aiciiaeiinoe iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yenia?oiuo
nenoai a iaeanoe ?aaecee ciaiee iiea ia?aie/aiu. A iniiaiii,
iieueciaaoaeth iauyniytho i?e/eiu cai?inia e ?ane?uaatho Ai aoi?ii
?aaeeia i?iaiaeeony iinoiyiiia aeiii?aaeaeaiea neiaa?y niioaaonoaothuei
neiiieiii.

A o?aoueai ?aaeeia neiiieiu aaiaeyony oaea ia aeey ioaeaeueiuo neia, a
aeey neiaini/aoaiee.

*aoaa?oue ?aaeei iicaieyao iieueciaaoaeth iiieceoue ecauoi/iinoue a
niiauaiee, anee eaeia-oi neiai a o?aca, eiaee?othuae cai?in,
ia?aniiciaii i?ioeanni?ii, a iyoue iicaieyao i?ae?aoeoue aanieiaeiua
iiiuoee ?acuynieoue i?eioeeieaeueii iaiiiciaiioth o?aco cai?ina.

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni? EIOA?YENII?O ?anoe?ai ia iaeanoue
a?aoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo a aeaea oaaeeoe e a?aoeeia.

IIAeNENOAIA EIAE*ANEIAI AUAIAeA

Iiaenenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey aaia?aoeee
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aoaieth i?eeeaaeiie caaea/e ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee,
iaoiaeyuaeny a aaca ciaiee, no?ieony ia iniiaa oai?ee iaoeiu Iinoa.

Ia no?oeoo?iie noaia, iieacaiiie ia ?en.3, ii?aaeaeaiu nayce iaaeaeo
eiiiiiaioaie yoie iiaenenoaiu a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiaie
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeiu Iinoa. Niaeanii iaeiaiiaaieth, iiaenenoaia
ii?iaeaeaao i?aaeei ia iniiaa eiieeeaoeee aeaea:

Ri : Ii ( Ri’, aaea Ri – i?aaeei i?iaeoeoeee, ecaeaeaaiia ec aacu
ciaiee, Ii – oneiaea i?eiaiaiey i?aaeea Ri,

R’ – ii?iaeaeaaiia i?aaeei, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue iiiauaii eeai ia
iiiauaii a aaco ciaiee.

?en.3. No?oeoo?a e i?eioeei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioa?i?aoaoi?a

A i?ioeanna ?aoaiey oie eee eiie caaea/e a iiaenenoaia i?iecaiaeeony
eioa?i?aoaoeey (icia/eaaiea) oiai eee eiiai i?aaeea e auiieiaiea
aeaenoaee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo yoei i?aaeeii. Auai? (eaeaioeoeeaoeey) oiai eee
eiiai i?aaeea iniiaai ia niiinoaaeaiee oneiaee Ii e a iauai neo/aa
i?eaiaeeo e ianeieueeei i?aaeeai iaeiia?aiaiii. I?e yoii aiciiaeii
ii?iaeaeaiea ii?iaeaeaaony eiioeeeoiiai iaai?a.

?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoiiai iaai?a inouanoaeyaony niaoeeaeueiie
i?ioeaaeo?ie, iacuaaaiie naeaeoi?ii. A naeaeoi?a caeiaeaia ii?aaeaeaiiay
no?aoaaey.

Aeey iia?aoeaiiai o?aiaiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo aeaiiuo ii oneiaeyi Ii, ai
iiiaeo nenoaiao i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ?AAI*Ass IAIssOUe.

Iai?eia?, a nenoaia EIOA?YENIA?O, a oi/iaa, a aa eino?oiaioaeueiie
n?aaea, eiae/aneee auaiae inouanoaeyaony eeai n iiiiuueth i?ioeaaeo?,
?ac?aaioaiiuo ia o?iaia ycuea no?oeoo?iiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, eeai n
eniieueciaaieai ya?enoee, ?aaeeciaaiiuo a n?aaea.

?acee/atho i?yioth e ia?aoioth a?aoiaioaoeeth.

A ia?aii neo/aa eaaeaeia i?aaeei, caianaiiia n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa,
ia?aaaouaaaony a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe io iinueee e caeeth/aieth. Anee
i?aaeeiaeaiea, ?aaeecothuaa iinueeo, enoeiii, oi i?aaeei eieoeee?oaony e
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae e caeeth/aieth. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aiciaiiaeyaony
i?iaa?ea enoeiiinoe aei iiiaioa, eiaaea ana i?aaeea ia aoaeoo en/a?iaiu.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa a iaoeia eiae/aneiai auaiaea ?aniiciaaony oi i?aaeei, a
caeeth/aiee eioi?iai niaea?aeeony iaeaieaa aeeceia e i?iaeaia ?aoaiea.

Anee iinueea i?aaeea ia ii?aaeaeaia, i?iecaiaeeony ia?aai? iaecaanoiuo
ia?aiaiiuo a iinueea i?aaeea i?eiaieoaeueii e iiaui oneiaeyi. Iia?aoeee
iiaoi?ythony oeeeee/anee aei iaoiaeaeaiey ?aoaiey eeai aei ii?aaeaeaiey
ia?ac?aoeiinoe caaea/e.

Iinueee e i?aaeeai oi?ie?othony n iiiiuueth ia/aoeeo iiiaeanoa, i?e/ai
aeiioneaaony eniieueciaaiea ia/aoeeo /enae e eeiaaenoe/aneeo ia?aiaiiuo.
A eino?oiaioaeueiie n?aaea EIOA?YENIA?O aaiaeyony a ?anniio?aiea
“oaeoi?u oaa?aiiinoe”. Aeey ieo ii?aaeaeaia oeaea a aeeaiaciia io 0 aei
100 . Aeiioneaaony oi?ioee?iaea iinueie /aoeeie ia?aiaiiuie, iieyie aacu
aeaiiuo, noaoenoe/aneeie ia?aiaiiuie, ia?aiaiiuie n eiaeaenaie.

Aeinooi e iaoeia eiae/aneiai auaiaea inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie
iooyie: iooai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaeea e iooai cai?ina ia eiinoeueoaoeeth.

Ia?aue iooue ?aaeecoaony i?aaeeiaeaieai, eiathuei oi?io:

i?aaeei: “eiy i?aaeea”

ANEE : < i?aaeeiaeaiea>

OIAAeA: < caeeth/aiea >

I?aaeeiaeaiea ?aaeecoaony au?aaeaieai, eioi?ia naycuaaao iia?aiaeu e
iia?aoeee eiae/aneeo ioiioaiee. Caeeth/aiea no?ieony ec ethaiai /enea
iia?aiaeia, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo ia?aiaiiua e eiaeu iia?aoeee.

I?aaeei eieoeee?oaony oieueei iinea oiai, eae aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu
cia/aiey anao ia?aiaiiuo, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iia?aiaeia e iia?aoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, no?oeoo?a iaai?a i?aaee ia?acoaony i?aaeeiaeaieyie:
iienaiey oeiia eniieuecoaiuo ia?aiaiiuo, i?aaee, eiinoeueoaoeee,
iauyniaiee i?aaee (eioi?ua, aiiaua aiai?y, ia iaycaoaeueiu), caaa?oaiey
iaai?a e caaa?oaiey oaenoa iaai?a i?aaee.

N iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai ?aaeaeoi?a iaai?a i?aaee inouanoaeyaony
iino?iaiea, eciaiaiea ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u e eiiieeyoeey iaai?a i?aaee.
Iinea eiiieeyoeee ia?acoaony eniieieiay yenia?oiay nenoaia,
ii?iaeaeaiiay a iaiei/ea nenoaiu. I?ia?aiie?iaaiea iaoeiu eiae/aneiai
auaiaea, oaeei ia?acii, oi?iaeueii iaei /ai ioee/aaony io iau/iiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. Ioee/ea aicieeaao i?e iia?e?iaaiee n ia/aoeeie
ia?aiaiiuie e ia/aoeeie oneiaeyie.

Iniiaiua oeiu ia?aiaiiuo, ii?aaeaeaiiua a n?aaea: neiaieueiua, /eneiaua,
eiae/aneea e iaecaanoiua. Iniiaiua aeaeu: y/aeee, iiey, ?aai/ea
ia?aiaiiua, oeene?iaaiiua ia?aiaiiua n?aaeu.

Ioaeaeueiue aeae ninoaaeytho ia/aoeea ia?aiaiiua, ii?aaeaeyaiua a
?anniao?eaaaiie n?aaea eae e ia?aiaiiua iaai?a. Iineaaeiea eiatho
ia/aoeea iiaeiiiaeanoaa cia/aiee ethaiai ni/aoaiey ia?a/eneaiiuo oeiia.
Eaaeaeia cia/aiea ia/aoeie eiinoaiou ii?aaeaeyaony niioaaonoaothuei
cia/aieai ooieoeee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaiui a n?aaea eae “oaeoi?
oaa?aiiinoe”.

Iai?eia?, ia?aiaiiay iaai?a

Y = {1/0.5; 2/0.5; 3/0.5}

a eino?oiaioaeueiie n?aaea caienuaaaony oaeei ia?acii:

Y = {1 cf50, 2cf50, 3cf50}.

C eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia oaa?aiiinoe inouanoaeyaony e oi?ie?iaaiea
iaai?a i?aaee. O/ao yoeo oaeoi?ia auiieiyaony iooai aaaaeaiey oaeoi?ia
oaa?aiiinoe: iinueee, caeeth/aiey e ia?aiaiiie caeeth/aiey.

Iniiaiua iia?aoi?u, i?eiyoua a eino?oiaioaeueiie n?aaea iia?aoi?u
ioiioaiee:

= – i?iaa?ea ia ?aaainoai ,

<> – i?iaa?ea ia ia?aaainoai,

>= – i?iaa?ea ia i?aauoaiea eee ?aaainoai,

< - i?iaa?ea ia i?aauoaiea,<= - i?iaa?ea ia iano?iaia ?aaainoai,> – i?iaa?ea ia i?aauoaiea,

IN – i?iaa?ea ia niioaaonoaea iaeiiai yeaiaioa ae?oaiio.

Iia?aoeee a iaoeia eiae/aneiai auaiaea iiaoo iienuaaoueny a au?aaeaieyo,
eniieuecothueo aeaenoaey iaae ooieoeeyie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Yoi iiaoo
auoue:

iia?aoeey “E” e a?oiie?oaiua aie?oa iaa

min (a, b), ab, (ab+ min(a,b)/2), ab(2-max(a,b))

eeai iia?aoeey “EEE” e a?oiie?oaiua aie?oa iaa

max(a,b), (a+b-ab), (max(a,b (a+b-ab))/2).

Oaeei ia?acii, a eino?oiaioaeueiie n?aaea iiaeii ?aaeeciauaaoue
a?eoiaoeeo ia/aoeeo /enae e aeaaa?o ia/aoeeo auneacuaaiee.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii inouanoaeyaony ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaoeiu eiae/aneiai
auaiaea e a nenoaia YENIA?OECA.

IIAeNENOAIA ?AAECEE CIAIEE

Iiaenenoaia ?aaecee ciaiee yaeyaony /anoueth ethaie yenia?oiie nenoaiu,
oae eae iia iaania/eaaao aaeaioaoeeth iieueciaaoaey e au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaia. Iineieueeo anyeay NAI? oae eee eia/a naycaia n au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaiie, oi naienoai yenia?iie nenoaiu ii ioia?aaeaieth i?iiaaeooi/iuo
e ieii/aoaeueiuo ?aoaiee iicaieyao yenia?oo iaiyoue ninoaa
i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo i?aaee, a iieueciaaoaeth ninoaa e niaea?aeaiea cai?inia.
Yoi naienoai iiiiaaao ?ac?aoeoue iiiaea i?iaeaiu, noiyuea ia?aae
?ac?aaio/eeaie NAI? e i?iaeoaioaie.

Aeaaiaea?y oaeie iiaenenoaia a ?acaeouo yenia?oiuo nenoaiao (iai?eia?, a
EURISKO) iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue aeeyoue ia aaco ciaiee e ia no?aoaaeth
oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeeiiiie nenoaiu, ?aaeecoaiie a iaoeia eiae/aneiai
auaiaea.

A eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iaeoiua ?aoaiey auae?athony ia iniiaa
aeoaeiiuo i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae. Iie aeaeaei ia anaaaea eiatho
oi?iaeueiia eee eaeia-eeai oi?iaeeciaaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea. Iiyoiio
iiieiaiea i?iaeoaioii oiaea ?annoaeaeaiee a i?ioeanna eiinoeueoaoeee a
niaea?aeeiia aacu ciaiee.

Ianeieueei neia ioiineoaeueii ninoaaa e iacia/aiey aacu ciaiee.

AACA CIAIEE

A yenia?oiuo nenoaiao ciaiey iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoueny a aeaeea?aoeaiie,
i?ioeaaeo?iie, oi?aaeythuae oi?iao e a aeaea iaoaciaiee.

Aeaeea?aoeaiua ciaiey i?aaenoaaeythony eae oaeou, oi?ie?oaiua
iieueciaaoaeyie, i?ioeaaeo?iua – eae i?aaeea, i?aaenoaaeyaiua
yenia?oaie. Oi?aaeythuea ciaiey – iaai? no?aoaaee, ii?aaeaeythueo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iiaenenoaiu eiae/aneiai auaiaea. Iaoaciaiey
i?aaenoaaeythony iieueciaaoaeth e yenia?oo a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yenia?oiie nenoaiu. N eo iiiiuueth ?ane?uaaaony aa ninoiyiea, no?oeoo?a
e noaia ?annoaeaeaiey. Iaoaciaiey – iniiaiie enoi/iee ?acaeoey
yenia?oiie nenoaiu.

IA?NIAEOEAU ?ACAEOEss NAI?

Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca no?oeoo?u yenia?iie nenoaiu, iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oaeay au/eneeoaeueiay n?aaea eiaao i?yiia i?eiaiaiea
aeey eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe eae n?aaenoai aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoiuo
?aaio, anee i?iaeoe?iaaiea aaaeaony io i?ioioeia, ii ainoiaeyuae
oaoiieiaee eee ia aunoeo ea?a?oe/aneeo o?iaiyo oie eee eiie nenoaiu
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iaeiaei, anee iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeii oi?iaeueii iienaoue,
aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eniieueciaaoue i?eaiu,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey eiaeaia?iie aeayoaeueiinoe, a n ae?oaie – i?eaea/ue
ciaiey iaoaiaoeeia aeey eniieueciaaiey oi?iaeueiuo iaoiaeia i?eiyoey
?aoaiey.

E?iia oiai, aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea NAI?, ii iiaieth iiiaeo ?ac?aaio/eeia,
aeieaeii eaeoe ii iooe nicaeaiey au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, eioi?ua
“eiyeueiu” e iieueciaaoaeth, eaaei oe?aaee?othony e iaeaaeatho naienoaii
?acaeoey.

A aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy i?e iino?iaiee NAI? iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue ?aoaiea
neaaeothueo caaea/:

iao/aiea iieueciaaoaey, eioi?ia naiaeeony e iao/aieth aoiaeiui ycueai,
i?aaenoaaeaieth ni?aai/iie eioi?iaoeee, aaeaioe?iaaiiie e oa?aeoa?o
cai?ina, aeeaaiinoeea ioeaie e nii?iaiaeaeaieth iieueciaaoaey a
i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey;

iao/aiea NAI?, i?aaeiieaaathuaa iano?ieeo nenoaiu ia eiie?aoioth
i?aaeiaoioth iaeanoue eee eeann i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?;

i?aaiecaoeey aeeaeiaa a i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey n oeaeueth iienaiey
iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oaoiieiae/aneiai caaeaiey e caaeaiee ia
auiieiaiea i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?;

ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoiie e ni?aai/iie aeieoiaioaoeee, ioi?ieythuae
i?iaeoiua ?aoaiey;

eiio?ieue ca ooieoeeiie?iaaieai nenoaiu e ioia?aaeaiea noaoenoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo i eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee.

Ia?a/eneaiiua caaea/e ai iiiaii niaiaaeatho n o?aaiaaieyie, eioi?ua
i?aaeuyaeythony e iaiauaiiie yenia?iie nenoaia.

Aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue aeaa caaea/e:

iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey NAI? a /anoe niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iaoiaeia iiaeaee?iaaiey iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ?anoe?aiey /enea
i?iaeoiuo i?ioeaaeo?, iniiaaiiuo ia oi?iaeeciaaiiuo iaoiaeao;

iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe iaeiieaiey e iaiaia iiuoii i?iaeoaioia a
aaeeiie au/eneeoaeueiie n?aaea.

Yoe caaea/e ia iiaoo ?aoaoueny a n?aaea yenia?oiie nenoaiu, no?oeoo?o
eioi?ie iu ?anniio?aee. ssnii, /oi aa i?eaioaoeey ia ia?aaioeo ia
oi?iaeecoaiuo, ya?enoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, ii?aaeaeythuay no?oeoo?o e
i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ia iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue aa aeey
ia?aaioee iiaeaeae iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iino?iaiiuo ia no?iaie eee
aeaaea i?eaeeaeaiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iniiaa.

AUAIAeU

Iniiaiia naienoai au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, iacuaaaiuo yenia?oiuie –
iaiyoue naith no?oeoo?o e niaea?aeaiea a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey –
ioaa/aao iniiaiiio o?aaiaaieth, i?aaeuyaeyaiiio e NAI? – aiciiaeiinoe
aaeaioe?iaaoueny e oa?aeoa?o i?iaeoiuo ?aaio. I?eioeei iao/aaiinoe
yenia?iuo nenoai ca n/ao eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u e niaea?aeaiey aeieaeai
ni/aoaoueny n i?eioeeiii iaeciaiiie niaieoiiinoe oi?iaeeciaaiiuo
i?ioeaaeo?, ia eioi?ii no?iyony NAI? n aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiie no?oeoo?ie.

?aaeecaoeey NAI?, iino?iaiiuo ia eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey n iiiiuueth
i?iaeoaioia, aiciiaeia ia iniiaa o/aoa eo iiaiee e iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai
a i?ioeanna i?iaeoiuo ?aaio n i?eiaiaieai oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia,
eniieuecoaiuo i?e ?ac?aaioea yenia?oiuo nenoai. Niiniau o/aoa yenia?oiuo
ioeaiie i?iaeoaioia, iaoiaeu ni/aoaiey oi?iaeecoaiuo e ya?enoe/aneeo
aeai?eoiia naycaiu n i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoueth NAI? a /anoe iiaeaee?iaaiey
iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee aeeaeiaa e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie aeaoaeecaoeee iienaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey
iaiyaony ni/aoaiea ya?enoe/aneeo e oi?iaeeciaaiiuo niiniaia
i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee. *ai auoa ea?a?oe/aneee o?iaaiue NAI?, oai a
aieueoae ia?a iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioaeueiuo
n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiua nenoaiu eeanna yenia?oiuo. Ia

o?iaiyo, aeiioneathueo no?iaoth oi?iaeecaoeeth a iiaeaeueiii
i?aaenoaaeaiee iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey, no?oeoo?a i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey iiaeao auiieiyoueny ia iniiaa /aoeeo aeai?eoiia. Anee iauaeo
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia anaaaea eiaao aaeaeaaoiia iiaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea
ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ea?a?oe/aneei o?iaia, no?oeoo?a niioaaonoaothuae NAI?
aeieaeia ni/aoaoue /aoeea e ia/aoeea aeai?eoiu.

Iai?aaeaiey a ?ac?aaioea NAI?:

eniieueciaaiea yenia?oiuo nenoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee
i?iaeoiuo ?aaio, ia iiaeaeathueony oi?iaeeciaaiiiio iienaieth (eae
i?aaeei, ia aunoeo ea?a?oe/aneeo o?iaiyo);

eniieueciaaiea ioaeaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo eiiiiiaio yenia?oiie nenoaiu
aeey eioaeeaeooaeecaoeee NAI? n oeaeueth iaania/aiey aieueoae
eiyeueiinoe e iieueciaaoaeth;

?ac?aaioea NAI? n yenia?oiuie eiiiiiaioaie ia iniiaa ni/aoaiey
oi?iaeeciaaiiuo e ya?enoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ciaiee n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey eo ?acaeoey iieueciaaoaeyie e yenia?oaie aac o/anoey
?ac?aaio/eeia NAI?.

EAEOeEss (10

Oaia: ”I?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee”

1. Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey

IAUAEO eiaeaia?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey – iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo
eneonnoaaiiie i?e?iaeu, eioi?ue aeieaeai auoue nicaeai aeey ?ac?aoaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeaiu, aicieeathuae eee auaeaeaiiie a iaeiii ec
o?aaiaioia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A iaoeiino?iaiee a ea/anoaa iauaeoa eiaeaia?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey
aunooiatho oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia.

Niaieoiiinoue NAIENOA iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeaeeony ia aiaoiea Y e
aioo?aiiea O naienoaa.

AIAOIEA naienoaa iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey ?acaeaeythony ia aeaa
iiaeiiiaeanoaa:

– nouanoaaiiua (ooieoeeiiaeueiua eee naienoaa iacia/aiey) Yi, eioi?ua
iiaeeaaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ?aaeecaoeee i?e eniieueciaaiee iauaeoa ii
i?yiiio iacia/aieth,

– ooeeeoa?iua (iaooieoeeiiaeueiua) – Yo, i?enouea ethaiio ?aaeueiiio
iauaeoo (iauai, ianna, noieiinoue e ae?.).

Ni?aaaaeeeai niioiioaiea: Y = Yi U Yo.

AIOO?AIIEA naienoaa i?iaeoe?iaaiey oa?aeoa?ecotho oece/aneee, oeie/aneee
e ae?. i?ioeannu, a oaeaea oaoie/aneoth oi?io aai ?aaeecaoeee eae
i?eioeei aeaenoaey aeaiiiai iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

IIAeAEUe IAUAEOA M(I) – i?eaeeaeaiiia iienaiea eaeiai-eeai eeanna
yaeaiee, au?aaeaiiia n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneie neiaieeee.

Iiaeaee iauaeoia i?iaeoe?iaaiey eeanneoeoee?otho ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia:

– niiniao iino?iaiey,

– noaiaie iieiiou ioia?aaeaiey ?anniao?eaaaiuo noi?ii iauaeoa,

– noaiaie iauiinoe a ioiioaiee e iauaeoo,

– i?eaiaeiinoe aeey oeaeae i?iaiice?iaaiey,

– iacia/aieth.

E?aoei ?anniio?ei eaaeaeoth ec a?oii iiaeaeae.

A. Ii niiniao iino?iaiey ?acee/atho iiaeaee naieioe/aneea (ciaeiaua) e
iaoa?eaeueiua (i?aaeiaoiua ).

Naieioe/aneea iiaeaee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ioia?aaeaiey n iiiiuueth
ciaeia iauaeoia ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu, naienoa yoeo iauaeoia, a oaeaea
?acee/iuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iauaeoaie naienoaaie e cia/aieyie naienoa.

Iaoa?eaeueiua (i?aaeiaoiua) iiaeaee aeeth/atho iaoo?iua
(yenia?eiaioaeueiua, eaai?aoi?iua, iiuoiua ia?acoeu iauaeoia);
aaiiao?e/anee iiaeiaiua (i?ino?ainoaaiiua iaeaou); oece/anee iiaeiaiua
(iiaeaee, iaeaaeathuea iaoaie/aneei, eeiaiaoe/aneei, aeeiaie/aneei e
ae?oaeie aeaeaie oece/aneiai iiaeiaey n iauaeoii);
i?aaeiaoii-iaoaiaoe/aneea (nicaeaiiuie n iiiiuueth YAI).

A. Ii noaiaie iieiiou ioia?aaeaiey (i?aaenoaaeaiey) iauaeoa iiaeaee
iiaoo auoue iieiuie – M(O); iaiieiuie (?acee/iie noaiaie iaiieiiou ii
niaea?aeaieth eee iauaio) – M'(O), M”(O),…, Mn (O).

B. Ii noaiaie iauiinoe a ioiioaiee e i?eaeiaeo auaeaeytho iiaeaee
iienaiey Mo(O) (ioia?aaeatho oa?aeoa?iua noi?iiu iauaeoia);
iiaeaee-eioa?i?aoaoi?u Mi(O) (i?aaenoaaeytho ioaeaeueiua iauaeou,
aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iaeioi?iai eeanna e o/eouaatho iniaaiiinoe eo /anoiie
?aaeecaoeee); iiaeaee – aiaeiae Ma(O) (?acee/iua ii oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey, ii ?aaiua iaaeaeo niaie noaiaie iauiinoe a ioiioaiee
i?eaeiaea).

A. Ii oa?aeoa?o aini?iecaiaeeiuo noi?ii iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey
auaeaeytho noanoaioeeiiaeueiua iiaeaee SbM(O) (oa?aeoa?ecotho
i?ino?ainoai aiciiaeiuo ninoiyiee iauaeoa, i?eia?u: ni?aai/ieee,
iienaiey oeiiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee);
ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaeaee FnM(O) (a ioee/ea io iiaeaeae SbM(O)
oa?aeoa?ecotho iauaeo oieueei a aniaeoa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aai ioiioaiee ni
n?aaeie eee ae?oaeie iauaeoaie. Ioia?aaeatho iiaaaeaiea iauaeoa, aai
i?eniiniaeaiiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiui aicaeaenoaeyi); no?oeoo?iua iiaeaee
StrM(O) (oa?aeoa?ecotho aioo?aiithth i?aaiecaoeeth iauaeoia); niaoaiiua
iiaeaee.

Ae. Ii i?eaiaeiinoe aeey oeaeae i?iaiice?iaaiey iiaeaee ioiinyony e
i?eaiaeiui e iai?eaiaeiui.

A. Ii iacia/aieth iiaeaee iiaoo auoue oeaeaauie e i?iaeoeoeaiuie.

Oeaeaaua iiaeaee Moe(O) i?ecaaiu a yaiie oi?ia ioia?aaeaoue oeaeue
nicaeaiey, iacia/aiea iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

I?iaeoeoeaiua iiaeaee Mi?(O), iiae ieie iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ia iauaeo.

2. Iiaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee

Ii niiniao iino?iaiey ?acee/atho iiaeaee naieioe/aneea (ciaeiaua) e
iaoa?eaeueiua (i?aaeiaoiua).

Naieioe/aneea iiaeaee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ioia?aaeaiey n iiiiuueth
ciaeia iauaeoia ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu, naienoa yoeo iauaeoia, a oaeaea
?acee/iuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iauaeoaie, naienoaaie e cia/aieyie naienoa.
Iie aeaeyony ia ycueiaua (eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneea – neiaieueiua
no?oeoo?u, aoiaeyuea a iaeioi?oth nenoaio, eiaeei-iaoaiaoe/aneea –
oii?yaei/aiiua ciaeiaua oeaii/ee); iaycueiaua (iaaeyaeii-ia?aciua,
iai?eia?, noaiu, yneecu, /a?oaaee).

Iaoa?eaeueiua iiaeaee aeeth/atho:

– iaoo?iua (yenia?eiaioaeueiua, eaai?aoi?iua, iiuoiua ia?acoeu
iauaeoia);

– aaiiao?e/anee iiaeiaiua (i?ino?ainoaaiiua iaeaou );

– oece/anee iiaeiaiua (iiaeaee, iaeaaeathuea iaoaie/aneei,
eeiaiaoe/aneei, aeeiaie/aneei e ae?oaeie aeaeaie oece/aneiai iiaeiaey n
iauaeoii;

– i?aaeiaoii-iaoaiaoe/aneea, nicaeaiiua ia aaca YAI e aini?iecaiaeyueie
iauaeou a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianooaaa a?aiaie e ?aaeecothueie iiaeiaea
iauaeoia.

?anniio?ei eiaeei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee.

Eiaeei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ethauo iauaeoia M(O) iau/ii ii?aaeaeythony
eae iiiaeanoaa (I1,M2,…,Mk) n caaeaiiuie iaai?aie ioiioaiee
(r1,r2,…,rm). I?e yoii ni?aaaaeeeai neaaeothuaa au?aaeaiea:

M (O) = <(M1,M2,...,Mk), (r1,r2,...rm)> .

(Iiae neaiaoo?ie iiieiaaony iaai? eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia (eiai) ioiioaiee,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iiaeaee, n oeacaieai eo a?iinoe.

Iiaeaeueth Mk(I) a neaiaoo?a Om iacuaatho ia?o , aaea M = {Mik} –
aaciaia iiiaeanoai iiaeaee, ( – eiuaeoeaiia ioia?aaeaiea,
eioi?ia niiinoaaeyao eaaeaeia iacaaiea (oieeaeueiia eiy, eaeaioeoeeaoi?)
n ioiioaieai Rn ec neaiaoo?u Om.

A iiaeaeyo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee M(TO) aoaeai eaaeeoeoee?iaaoue
iiiaeanoaa (M1,M2,…,Mk) eae aaciaua, anee cia/aiey eo yeaiaioia iiaoo
auoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii eioa?i?aoe?iaaiu eae cia/aiey aiaoieo eee
aioo?aiieo naienoa oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, cia/aiey naienoa n?aaeu
iia?aoeee eee naienoa i?aaeiaoia iineaaeiae.

Eii?aeeiaoaie yeaiaioia ioiioaiee (r1,r2,…,rm), aoiaeyueo a M(TO),
iiaoo auoue eae yeaiaiou aaciauo iiiaeanoa, oae e yeaiaiou iacaaeneii
ii?aaeaeyaiuo, aeiaeaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Aeey iienaiey noai naycae eii?aeeiao a ioiioaieyo a M(TO), iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu ia?aaeaoi/iua ooieoeee, aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua, ?aciinoiua,
?aa?anneiiiua o?aaiaiey, oaaee/iua eee neiaaniua iienaiey.

Ia ?en.1. iieacai oi?iuaiiue ia?ac ?aaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee.

A n?aaea oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, oa?aeoa?ecoaiie aaeoi?ii Z,
o/eouaaoue ie?anoiinoiua oneiaey Z0 e aiaoiea oneiaey Zy. Oiaaea
ni?aaaaeeeai au?aaeaiea aeaea Z = Z0 ( Zy.

A ie?anoiinoiuo oneiaeyo n?aaeu oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee auaeaeei:

– i?aaeiaou (iaoa?eaeu, iieooaa?eeaou, caaioiaee), ninoiyiea eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninoaaii e cia/aieyie ?yaea naienoa (a iauai neo/aa eae
aiaoieo, oae e aioo?aiieo) o.a. aaeoi?ii Z(0;

?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, ninoiyiea eioi?uo
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaeoi?ii Z((0.

o?oaeiaieinoe, iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, yia?aiaieinoe, oiiaeiaieinoe
iia?aoeee); Y((o – iieacaoaee noaiaie yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe.

A ea/anoaa aioo?aiieo naienoa oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee X aoaeai
?anniao?eaaoue:

?en.1.1. Iaaeyaeiay iiaeaeue oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee e aa n?aaeu.

Aiaoiea oneiaey n?aaeu, iienuaaaiua aaeoi?ii Zy, ioia?aaeatho oneiaey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey (iai?oaeiaaiey,
inianoee), ?aaeecothuaai aeaiioth oaoiieiae/aneoth iia?aoeeth, oneiaey,
a eioi?uo i?aauaatho i?aaeiaou e ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee
(oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue, caiueaiiinoue ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aai/eo), a oaeaea oei i?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?ii
eniieuecoaony aeaiiay oaoiieiae/aneay iia?aoeey (ianniaia, na?eeiia,
aaeeie/iia, iiuoiia).

A ea/anoaa aiaoieo naienoa oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo
aaeoi?ii Y, aunooiatho:

a) naienoaa iacia/aiey eee ooieoeeiiaeueiua Yi, a /enea eioi?uo Y(i –
aeaaiia naienoai – niiniaiinoue i?aia?aciauaaoue i?aaeiaou
oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee a aa ?acoeueoao, o.a. Y(i : Z(0 -> Z((0 ; Y((0
– ia?aiao?u i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee (ioeaieaaaony
iieacaoaeyie n?aaeiaai cia/aiey e aeenia?nee i?ioeaioa auoiaea, oeeeea
iia?aoeee, ?eoia auionea, oaeoa auionea, /enea iaeiia?aiaiii
ecaioaaeeaaaiuo aaeeieoe e ae?.).

a) ooeeeoa?iua naienoaa Yo, a /enea eioi?uo Y(o ia?aiao?u
?ano?niaieinoe oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee neioace?iaai.

Ecaanoii, /oi Str-FnM(O) ioia?aaeaao aioo?aiiea naienoaa O iauaeoa ia
aiaoiea Y (ninoaa yeaiaioia iauaeoa, ninoaa e noaio aai aioo?aiieo
naycae, a oaeaea naienoaa yoeo yeaiaioia e naycae ia aiaoiea naienoaa
iauaeoa.

Iiaeaeue Str-FnMo(O) oa?aeoa?ecoao i?ino?ainoai aiciiaeiuo ninoiyiee
iauaeoia ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna a a?aieoeao naiae i?eiaieiinoe aeey anao
aeiioneaaiuo aeaiiie iiaeaeueth cia/aiee X e Y.

?aoaiea caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey a aeaiiii neo/aa caeeth/aaony a
oi?ie?iaaiee Str-FnMi(O) i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa. Yoi naiaeeony e auai?o
cia/aiee ?yaea ia?aiao?ia, eioi?ua yaeythony iaeeo/oeie a niunea
auiieiaiey oneiaee caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia?aaeaeaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa
aeiionoeiuo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia X e Y a

Str-FnMo(O).

?aoaiea caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee i?aaenoaaeaiee
(ioeaieaaaony iieacaoaeyie – ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea anoanoaaiiue
i?ioeann (oece/aneee, oeie/aneee, oeceei-oeie/aneee) Xi e oaoie/aneoth
oi?io eee niinia inouanoaeaiey yoiai i?ioeanna Oo, aunooiathuea a
ea/anoaa i?eioeeia iino?iaiey/aeaenoaey aeaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie
iia?aoeee,

– ?aaeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey X0,
?aaeecothuea aeaiioth iia?aoeeth.

I?e yoii ni?aaaaeeeai X = Xi ( Xo ( Xi.

A iauai neo/aa aioo?aiiea naienoaa oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee iiaoo
iienuaaoueny a oa?ieiao, eeoue einaaiii oa?aeoa?ecothueo anoanoaaiiue
i?ioeann.

OOIEOeEIIAEUeIUA iiaeaee OO iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu iienaieyie aaciauo
iiiaeanoa, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aaaeiaeoea naienoaa i?aaeiaoia, ?acoeueoaoia
e naiie oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee, a oaeaea iienaieai ioiioaiey
ioia?aaeaiey i?aaeiaoa OI ia aa ?acoeueoao a oi?ia ia?aaeaoi/iie
ooieoeee:

FnM (OI) ( Y ( Z , y ( Yi, z ( Zi.

NO?OEOO?IUA iiaeaee OI i?aaenoaaeythony iienaieyie aaciauo iiiaeanoa,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo oieueei auaeaeyaiua aioo?aiiea naienoaa iia?aoeee X =
Xi ( Xo ( Xi.

Aeey ioia?aaeaiey acaeiinayce aioo?aiieo naienoa OI iau/ii
eniieuecothony oa?ieiu e oneiaiua iaicia/aiey oie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, e
eioi?ie ioiineony anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann, aunooiathuee a ea/anoaa
i?eioeeia aeaenoaey eee iino?iaiey oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee.

OOIEOeEIIAEUeII-NO?OEOO?IUA iiaeaee OI i?aaenoaaeythony iienaieyie
aaciauo iiiaeanoa. Iie oa?aeoa?ecotho aaaeiaeoea naienoaa ?acoeueoaoa,
i?aaeiaoia, naienoaa iacia/aiey e auaeaeyaiua aioo?aiiea naienoaa naiie
OI. Oaeaea eniieuecothony oaaee/iua eee neiaaniua iienaiey ioiioaiey
niioaaonoaey ‘?acoeueoao – i?aaeiaou OI’ ia?a ‘anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann –
oaoie/aneay oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna ‘:

Fn – StrM (OI) : Y o Z -> X, y ( Yi, z ( Zi, x ( Xi .

Co?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaeaee OI i?aaenoaaeythony n iiiiuueth
iienaiee aaciauo iiiaeanoa, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ana auaeaeyaiua aiaoiea e
aioo?aiiea naienoaa OI, naienoaa aa ?acoeueoaoa, i?aaeiaoia, n?aaeu
?aaeecaoeee, a oaeaea iienaieyie ioia?aaeaiee aioo?aiieo naienoa OI,
naienoa i?aaeiaoia e aiaoieo oneiaee n?aaeu ia aiaoiea naienoaa OI aa
?acoeueoaoa.

Iau/ii ioiioaiey, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iiaeaee Str – FnM(OI),
i?aaenoaaeaiu aaeoi? – ooieoeeyie, ioia?aaeathueie caaeneiinoue
naienoa:

– ?acoeueoaoa OI Z”i io aioo?aiieo naienoa OI X, naienoa i?aaeiaoia
iia?aoeee Z’i e aiaoieo oneiaee n?aaeu OI Zo ;

– naiie OI Y = Yi ( Yo io aioo?aiieo naienoa iia?aoeee X = Xi U Xo U Xi
e naienoa n?aaeu Z = Zi ( Zo ;

oiaaea ni?aaaaeeeai au?aaeaiea:

Z”i = f(X, Z’i, Zo) ;

Str – FnM(OI) = { Y = f(X, Z) ; z ( Z, y ( Y, x ( X.

I?iaeoeoeaiay iiaeaeue OI – iia?aoeeiiiay ea?oa ii AINO ANOAe.

3. Caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee a iaiauaiiie
iinoaiiaea

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii ii?aaeaeei oeaeue i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Aa iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a neaaeothuai aeaea:

< Da, D*o?, Done > , aaea (1.1)

Da – i?aaeiao caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey,

D*o? – aeaeaaiia ninoiyiea yoiai i?aaeiaoa,

Done – oneiaey, ia?aie/aiey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue auiieiaiu a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea i?aaeiaoa caaea/e ec aai enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey a
o?aaoaiia.

Ii ioiioaieth e caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey eiiiiiaiou eioa?i?aoe?othony
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Da – cayaea ia iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Yoo cayaeo a caaea/a
i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao oeaeaaay iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey –
M(O)oe;

D*o? – i?iaeoeoeeiiiay iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey;

M(O)i? – eiiieaeo oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee aeey ecaioiaeaiey eee
eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, eioi?ay ioaa/aao
o?aaiaaieyi ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia (ANEAe, ANOAe eee ae?.);

Done – oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee caaea/e eee ia?aie/aiey ia a?aiaiiua,
o?oaeiaua, iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu Q, auaeaeyaiua aeey ?aoaiey aeaiiie
caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iiae CAAeA*AE I?IAEOE?IAAIEss ethauo iauaeoia, a oii /enea
oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, iiieiaaony caaea/a iino?iaiey iiaeaee
iauaeoa M(O)i?, aeey eioi?iai ii?aaeaeaia oeaeaaay iiaeaeue M(I)oe e
onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey eee ?ano?nu ?aoaiey caaea/e.

A iaiauaiiie iinoaiiaea caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea:

CI = < M(O)oe, M(O)i?, Q > = << Fn M'(O), Z', Y', X', G>, M(I)i?, Q > ,
(1.2)

aaea eiiiiiaiou Z’, Y’, X’, G yaeythony a iauai neo/aa aaeoi?aie.

O?aaiaaiey e ooieoeeiiaeueiui naienoaai iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiu a oi?ia iiaeaee Fn M (O) Yi ( Z.

O?aaiaaiey e oneiaeyi ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey Z’
caaeathony aeiionoeiuie iaeanoyie iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo ninoiyiee n?aaeu
(aiaoieo Zy eee ie?anoiinoiuo oneiaee), a oaeaea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Yi”.

O?aaiaaiey e naienoaai iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiieii Fn M (O)
ia?aie/eaatho:

aeiionoeioth iaeanoue iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo cia/aiee aiaoieo naienoa
iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey Y’ aeey anao z ( Z;

aeiionoeioth iaeanoue iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo cia/aiee aioo?aiieo naienoa
iauaeoa O’ eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho i?eioeeiu aai aeaenoaey.

A?aieoeu aeiionoeiie iaeanoe iiiaeanoaa cia/aiee naienoa iauaeoa X’
/anoi ii?aaeaeythony ?ano?naie, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey ecaioiaeaiey eee
eniieueciaaiey iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Oneiaey ?aoaiey caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey caaeathony aeiionoeiie
iaeanoueth cia/aiee ?ano?nia Q, auaeaeaiiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey a
i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey iauaeoa. A ea/anoaa oaeeo ?ano?nia iau/ii
?anniao?eaathony i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aoaiey, iauay o?oaeiaieinoue,
iieiay noieiinoue ?aoaiey caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey. I?e yoii noieiinoue
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao au?aaeaoueny ia oieueei a aeaea aeaiaaeiuo
?anoiaeia, ii e a eiee/anoaa aeaoeoeeoiuo iaoa?eaeia, a?aiaie
eniieueciaaiey oieeaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?.

Oneiaey i?aaeii/oaiey a aeiionoeiie iaeanoe iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo
?aoaiee caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey ii?aaeaeythony:

E?eoa?eai yooaeoeaiinoe, ooieoeeae oeaiiinoe eee ea/anoaa iauaeoia G,
eioi?ua iaiauaiii oa?aeoa?ecotho aeaiiue iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oaeaea
ia?aiao?ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (Y”, X”, Z”).

Ioeaii/iie ooieoeeae M, eioi?ay niioiineo aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea naienoaa
iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e z ( Z n cao?aoaie (?ano?naie), iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey. A iauai neo/aa

M : (Y(O(Z) ( Q, e ioeaii/iay ooieoeey M oa?aeoa?ecoao cao?aou,
ii?aaeaeyaiua a aeaea ?acee/iuo ?ano?nia (a?aiaiiuo, o?oaeiauo,
iaoa?eaeueiuo e o.i.), ia nicaeaiea iauaeoa n aeaiiui iaai?ii naienoa.
I?aaeii/oaiea iiaeao auoue ioaeaii i?iaeoiiio ?aoaieth n oaeei iaai?ii
aiaoieo y (Ye aioo?aiieo x ( X naienoa, ?aaeecoaiuo i?e z ( Z, /oi M
((o,(o,(z ) ( M ( y, x, z ) aeey anao aeiionoeiuo y ( Y, x ( X,
z ( Z.

Oaeei ia?acii, ana iiiaiia?acea caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey ethauo iauaeoia
i?iaeoe?iaaiey naiaeeony e aeaoi:

iaeneiece?iaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue G i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa (aeiionoeiua
cao?aou ia i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey Q caaeathony a aeaea ia?aie/aiee);

ieieiece?iaaoue cao?aou Q (a?aiaiiua, o?oaeiaua, iaoa?eaeueiua),
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey (o?aaiaaiey e
aiaoiei Y, aioo?aiiei O naienoaai e oneiaeyi ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Z iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey caaeathony a aeaea ia?aie/aiee).

4. Iiaeaeue i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee

Iau/ii i?e ?aoaiee /aeiaaeii oie eee eiie caaea/e ia?auatho aieiaiea ia
oiaiea iaeoe oaeoth ynioth oi/eo c?aiey, i?e eioi?ie aa ?aoaiea yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii i?inoui.

Iaeei ec iooae iino?iaiey oaeie “yniie oi/ee c?aiey” ia ?anniao?eaaaioth
caaea/o iniiaai ia eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea auai?a i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey
?aoaiey caaea/e. Yoio iiaeoiae i?aaeiieaaaao nouanoaiaaiea
oii?yaei/aiiiai e ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaiai ioiioaiey i?aaeii/oaiey
iaaeaeo oai, /oi iiieiaaony iiae oeiaie i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey ?aoaiey
caaea/, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eeannaie (iaai?aie) iaoiaeia ?aoaiey caaea/,
n ae?oaie.

Ana iiiaeanoai i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ eiaeaia?iiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao auoue ioianaii e o?ai iniiaiui oeiai:

auai?o ec ia?a/eneaiee,

ii?aaeaeaieth a i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee,

naaaeaieth caaea/e e iiaecaaea/ai.

?anniio?ei eaaeaeue ec oeiia i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Eniieueciaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iniiaa auai?a ec ia?a/eneaiee aiciiaeii
i?e iaee/ee iiiaeanoaa aioiauo, ?aiaa ni?iaeoe?iaaiiuo iauaeoia (nenoai,
ono?ienoa, nai?i/iuo aaeeieoe, oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee), iienaiey
eioi?uo a oi?ia SbMi(O) eee FnMi(O) aeinooiiu i?iaeoe?iaueeai.

?aoaiea caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee i?aaenoaaeaiee ii oeio
auai?a ec ia?a/eneaiee ?aaeecoaony ii neaaeothuae noaia:

iiene eee iino?iaiea ia?a/eneaiee a aeaea oii?yaei/aiiuo iiiaeanoa
{SbMi(O)}, {FnMi(O)} aioiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, niioaaonoaothueo oai
iauaeoai, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho i?aaeiao caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey;

auaeaeaiea ia iiiaeanoaao iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiuo ?aoaiee {SbMi(O)}
eee {FnMi(O)} iiaeiiiaeanoaa aeiionoeiuo e oeaeaniia?aciuo ?aoaiee;

auai? iaeiiai ec ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoeo, aioiauo iauaeoia a ea/anoaa
iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiiai ?aoaiey aeaiiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Nouanoaothuea iauaeou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aoaiey ae?oaeo, ?aiaa
iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey n eiuie oneiaeyie ?aaeecaoeee,
ia?aie/aieyie e ae?. Yoi iicaieyao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iniiaa auai?a ec ia?a/eneaiee eiaao i?ei?eoao a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea o?aaiaaiey e naienoaai iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey
caaeathony a aeaea ia?aie/aiee. I?e yoii oeaeaaay i?eaioaoeey caaea/e
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iai?aaeaia ia ieieiecaoeeth a?aiaiiuo, o?oaeiauo,
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, ?aaeecoaiuo a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey iiaiai
ecaeaeey e (eee) inaiaiey aai a i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaenoaaeaiea ia iniiaa auai?a ec ia?a/eneaiee oe?iei eniieuecoaony i?e
?aoaiee caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey iauaeoia ieceeo o?iaiae : iaoa?eae,
aeaoaeue, i?inoay nai?i/iay aaeeieoea, i?inoay oaoiieiae/aneay iia?aoeey
e oeaii/ea oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee.

Eniieueciaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa
ninoiyiee i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea eee aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey iieiie
Str-FnMo(O) iauaeoia oiai eeanna, e eioi?iio iiaeao auoue ioianai
eiie?aoiue iauaeo aeaiiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oaeaea nouanoaiaaiea
aioiauo ?aiaa ni?iaeoe?iaaiiuo eiiiiiaioia e (eee) yeaiaioia, ec eioi?uo
aeaiiue iauaeo i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao auoue ii oeio ii?aaeaeaiey a
i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee ?aaeecoaony ii neaaeothuae noaia:

caeinoaiaaiea eee iino?iaiea iiiaeanoaa iiaeaeae {Str-FnMo(O)}, eioi?ua
iioaioeeaeueii i?eaiaeiu aeey oi?ie?iaaiey /anoiuo Str-FnMi(O),
ioia?aaeathueo ioaeaeueiua no?oeoo?u eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa;

auai? eee neioac iieiie, ioia?aaeathuae ana auaeaeyaiua no?oeoo?u,
Str-FnMo(O), iaeeo/oae a niunea eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa, oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee
e ia?aie/aiee aeaiiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey;

iino?iaiea iiaeaee Str-FnMi(O) i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa.

Eniieueciaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee ia iniiaa naaaeaiey caaea/e e iiaecaaea/ai
i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeaiea caaea/e ia niaieoiiinoue iiaecaaea/. Eo ?aoaiea
i?eaiaeeo e auiieiaieth enoiaeiie caaea/e. I?ioeann yoio i?eiaiytho
?aeo?neaii aeey ii?iaeaeaiey iiaecaaea/, aei oao ii? iiea eo ?aoaiea ia
noaiao o?eaeaeueiui.

?aoaiea caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey a yoii neo/aa ?aaeecoaony ii neaaeothuae
noaia:

caeinoaiaaiea eee iino?iaiea iiiaeanoaa iiaeaeae {Str-FnMo(O)},
iioaioeeaeueii i?eaiaeiuo aeey oi?ie?iaaiey Str-FnMi(O) eiie?aoiiai
iauaeoa, ninoaaeythuaai i?aaeiao aeaiiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey
(oi?ie?iaaiea iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia aeaeiiiiceoeee iauaeoa
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iiaeiauaeou);

auai? iiaeaee Str-FnMo(O), iaeeo/oae a niunea aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey
niioaaonoaothuae Str-FnMi(O) iauaeoa aeaiiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey n
o/aoii iniaaiiinoae oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee caaea/e e ia?aie/aiee;

iino?iaiea Str- FnMi(O) i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa – ia?aiao?ecaoeey,
eioa?i?aoaoeey Srt-FnMo(O), iaeeo/oay a niunea oneiaee aeaiiie caaea/e
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

I?aaenoaaeaiey ia iniiaa naaaeaiey caaea/e e iiaecaaea/ai eniieuecothony
oiaaea, eiaaea ec-ca aunieeo o?iaiae neiaeiinoe i?iaeoe?oaiuo iauaeoia
eee ec-ca ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa caaea/a
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia iiaeao auoue ?aoaia ia iniiaa ae?oaeo oeiia
i?aaenoaaeaiee. Iie eniieuecothony e a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaeaaay
i?eaioaoeey caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?aaeiieaaaao iaeneiecaoeeth noaiaie
eniieueciaaiey aioiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iauai neo/aa ia ?aciuo noaaeeyo ?aoaiey
eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
?acee/iua oeiu i?aaenoaaeaiee:

ia aunoai o?iaia ?aoaiea ii oeio naaaeaiey caaea/e e iiaecaaea/ai;

ia o?iaia ninoaaiuo aaeeieoe – ii oeio ii?aaeaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa
ninoiyiee;

ia o?iaia yeaiaioia – ii oeio auai?a ec ia?a/eneaiee e o.i.

I?e aa?eaioiii i?iaeoe?iaaiee aiciiaeai “eiieo?n” oeiia
i?aaenoaaeaiee, eiaaea iaeia e oa aea caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeaiiiai
o?iaiy ?aoaaony ia?aeeaeueii, ia iniiaa ?acee/iuo oeiia i?aaenoaaeaiee,
a ieii/aoaeueiue auaiae aa?eaioa i?iecaiaeeony ia o?iaia niiinoaaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia iieo/aiiuo ?aoaiee.

Iiae I?IOeANNII ?AOAIEss caaea/e i?iaeoe?iaaiey aoaeai iiieiaoue
niaieoiiinoue iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaiythueony ninoiyiee caaea/e, a cia/eo,
e iiaeaeae iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey iicaieyao ioia?aceoue
i?aaeiaoioth noi?iio no?oeoo?u i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey (i?e ?aaeecaoeee
ii iaeiiio aa?eaioo ?aoaiey e ?anniio?aiee a eeiaeiie i?iaeoeee aac
o/aoa aiciiaeiuo eoa?aoeee).

A yoii neo/aa i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeai a
neaaeothuai aeaea:

M(TO)oe ( {Fn – StrM(O)} ( {StrMok (O)} ( {Str Mik(O)} (

( {Str – FnM (O)} ( Str – FnMi(O)G ( SbM’i(O) ( SbMi(O) ( M(O)i?.

Oaoie/aneia caaeaiea

Aeieoiaioaoeey ia aioiaia ecaeaeea

Yenieoaoaoeey

Ecaioiaeaiea na?eeiie i?iaeoeoeee

?aai/ee i?iaeo

?aai/aa i?iaeoe?iaaiea

Oaoie/aneee i?iaeo

Ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiiai ia?acoea

Oaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea

Yneeciue i?iaeo

Yneeciia i?iaeoe?iaaiea

Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai

aea

iao

aea

aea

iao

aea

Oi?ie?iaaiea eee ei??aeoe?iaea OC

Auiieiaiu o?aaiaaiey OC

Eciaiyoue ia?aiao?u yeaiaioia

Eciaiyoue no?oeoo?o

Neioac aa?eaioa no?oeoo?u

Eciaiaiea ia?aiao?ia X

AIAEEC

iao

Auai? enoiaeiuo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia

IBM-370

DMS-2

DMS-2

DMS-2

DMS-2

. . .

. . .

ON

AAI

IIE

IE

AN

IE

I

O

IE

Ae

AI

AAe

EYAI

IIE

O

I

IE

Ae

AI

AAe

EYAI

IIAe

ICO

IIE

?I

?I

E

A

I

A

E

I?ioeanni? ieie-YAI

Iaoeiiieniua e ia?oieaioi/iua ono?ienoaa auaiaea

E

A

I

A

E

Ae?oaea YAI

Ae?oaea NAI?

Ae?oaea A?I

Neiaieueiay ia/aoue

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay eeaaeaoo?a

A?aoiiino?ieoaeue

Eiaee?iauee

A?aoe/aneee aeenieae

Neiaieueiue aeenieae

Iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao

I?ioeanni? iee?i-YAI

Iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiie eaioa

Iia?aoeaiia caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai

A?I1

A?I3

A?I2

a)

YAI

?I

?I

?I

a)

YAI OeAE

AON

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

a)

YAI OeAE

AON

EON

AIAe

A?I

AON

AIAe

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

EON

A?I

a)

a)

a)

. . . .

. . . .

Oei Iiia? ocea

Iiia? ocea

0 2 3 31

a b

a b

c d

c d

a b

a b

c d

c d

a b

a b

c d

c d

a)

a b

a b

c d

c d

a)

Ieieiaeueiue ioaaouaathuee i?yiioaieueiee

c

a

b

b’

d

yi

ye

ya

y

xe xa xi x

Oaeoe?iaaiea

?ania?aeeaeeaaiea

Niaoaiiay

Eiiaaa?iay

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay

Eaneaaeiay

Ia?aeeaeueiay

Oaoie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee

Aeiioneia

Ia?aiao?ia

Ia?aiao?e/aneia

No?oeoo?iia

Eiiiiceoeey

Aeaeiiiiceoeey

Ia?aiao?e/an-eee

No?oeoo?iue

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey

I?aia?aciaa-iea

Ia?aiao?e/an-eay

No?oeoo?iay

Iiiaiaa?eaio-iue

Iaeiiaa?eaio-iue

Iioeiecaoeey

Neioac

Aiaeec

Aeai?eoiia

Ia?aiao?ia

No?oeoo?u

I?iaeoiua i?ioeaaeo?u

Iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey

Iiaeaeue iiaenenoaiu iaeiie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu

Iiaeaeue iiaenenoaiu iaeiie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu

Iiaeaeue eiiiiiaiou

Iiaeaeue eiiiiiaiou

Iiaeaeue iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey

Caaii 1

Caaii 2

.

.

.

Caaii N

Iae?iiiaeaeue 1

Iae?iiiaeaeue 2

.

.

.

Ocae 1

Ocae 2

.

.

.

Iacia/aiea

Iiaeaeue caaia

Eiy

Oei

Ia?aiao? 1

Ia?aiao? 2

Iae?iiiaeaeue

Eiy

Oei

Ia?aiao? 1

Ia?aiao? 2

Iiaeaeue ocea

Eiy

Oei

*enei aoiaeia

Eiy iiaeaee

Oei

Ia?aiao?

Ia?aiao?

I?ioioei iiaeaee caaia

Eiy

Oei

Eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeanni?

Iiaenenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea

Naeaeoi?

Eioa?i?aoaoi?

Aaca ciaiee

Iiaenenoaia ?aaecee ciaiee

?aai/ay iaiyoue

Aoiaeiia

niiauaiea

Aiaeec niiauaiee

Ii?oieiae/aneee Neioaene/aneee Naiaioe/aneee

Aioo?aiiaa i?aaenoaaeaiea

Neiaa?ue

Aooeenu Ii?oiei-aey Neioae-nen Naiai-oeea

Iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe

No?oeoo?a aeaiiuo No?oeoo?a i?aaee

I?ia?aiia aeeaeiaa

Auoiaeyuaa niiauaiea

Iaai? oaaeiiia

Oaaeii aoiaeiuo niiauaiee

Ii?oieiae/aneee Naiaioeei-neioaene/aneee

Neioac niiauaiee

?aai/ay iaiyoue

Auai?

Niiinoaaeaiea

?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoia

Eciaiaiea ?aai/ae iaiyoe

Aaca ciaiee

Aeoeaiue iaai? aeaiiuo e i?aaee

Eiioeeeoiue iaai? icia/aiiuo i?aaee (iiaeoeae)

Aua?aiiue icia/aiiue iiaeoeue

Oaoiieiae/aneay iia?aoeey

Ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann, aua?aiiue a ea/anoaa
i?eioeeia iino?iaiey eee aeaenoaey OI, Oi

Ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea oaoie/aneoth oi?io ?aaeecaoeee anoanoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna a OI, Oo

Ia?aiao?u n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey, Oi

Aioo?aiiea naienoaa OI

I?aaeiao OI

I?iaeoeo OI

Zy – oneiaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OI

Z(i – naienoaa i?aaeiaoia OI

Z((i – naienoaa i?aaeiaoia OI

Aiaoiea naienoaa OI Y = Yi ( Yo

N?aaea oaoiieiae/aneie iia?aoeee Z = Zy ( Z(i ( Z((i

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