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Реализация сетевых компьютерных технологий в системе международного маркетинга/Интернет-Маркетинг/

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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI

IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

AI?IIAAENEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

YEIIIIE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoee

e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe

AeEIEIIIAss ?AAIOA

ia oaio: “ ?aaeecaoeey naoaauo eiiiuethoa?iuo

oaoiieiaee a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa ”

( ia i?eia?a na?aa?a “ Aeoen ” )

Niaoeeaeueiinoue 061100 “Iaiaaeaeiaio”

Aeiaaiia ioaeaeaiea

Caa. eaoaae?ie yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoee

e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe

e.y.i. , aeioeaio
I.E. Aaooeia

?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeeieiiiie ?aaiou

e.y.i. , aeioeaio
A.A. Aaeia?iaeneee

Aeeieiiioth ?aaioo auiieiee

nooaeaio 6 a?oiiu
A.A. Oai?a

Ai?iiaae – 1998

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA………………………………………………………
……………………………………………. 4

AEAAA 1 Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aeiaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaa…………………… 5

1.1 Ooieoeee, caaea/e e aeaeu aeiaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaa…………………………………………… 5

1.1.1 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aeiaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaa……………………………………………… 8

1.1.2 Ooieoeee aeiaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaa……………………………………………………..
………. 12

1.1.3 Aeaeu aeiaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaa……………………………………………………..
……………. 15

1.2 Iniiaiua oeaee ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe…………………………………………………
23

1.2.1 Aiaoiyy N?aaea
ia?eaoeiaa……………………………………………………..
………………… 26

Naaiaiou
?uiea………………………………………………………….
……………………………… 28

AEAAA 2 Eioa?iao e aai ?ieue a
ia?eaoeiaa…………………………………………… 31

2.1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea naoe
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
….. 31

2.1.1 Enoi?ey ?acaeoey naoe
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
………. 32

2.1.2 Ninoaa
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
………………………………. 35

2.1.3 Aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………..
36

2.1.4 Aeeyiea no?oeoo?u Eioa?iao ia
iieueciaaoaey……………………………………………. 38

2.1.5 Oaoiieiaey Word Wide
Web……………………………………………………………
………….. 40

2.2 Eioa?iao eae i?aaeiao e n?aaenoai
ia?eaoeiaa………………………………………………… 44

2.2.1 Eioa?iao e
aecian…………………………………………………………
…………………………… 44

2.2.2 Iiaay ia?aaeeaia ia?eaoeiaa a yiioo yeaeo?iiiie
eiiia?oeee……………………. 45

2.2.3 Iiaua iiaeoiaeu e ?aeeaia, nauoo, ?an/aoai n
eeeaioaie…………………………….. 46

2.2.4 Iniiaiua eeeaiou a
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
………….. 49

2.2.5 Eiieo?aioeey a
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
………………….. 50

2.2.6 Ia?aoiay naycue e iiaeaea?aeea
eeeaioia……………………………………………………….
. 51

2.2.7 Naeaeee /a?ac
Eioaiiao……………………………………………………….
…………………….. 51

2.2.8 Iniaaiiinoe aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa a
Eioa?iao……………………………………… 52

2.2.9 Niune i?iaeai, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony
ia?eaoieia……………………………….. 54

?aeeaia a
Eioa?iao……………………………………………………….
……………………………. 59

?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiie
i?ia?aiiu………………………………………………………
…….. 59

Web-promotion: /oi ?aeeaie?oao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a
Eioa?iao…………………… 63

AEAAA 3 Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ia i?eia?a

na?aa?a “ Aeoen
”……………………………………………………………..
…………………………………. 70

N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ?aeeaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe na?aa?a Eioa?iao ii

ioiioaieth e o?aaeeoeiiiui ia/aoiui n?aaenoaai ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee………… 70

Ioeaiea Ie?iaiai ?uiea Eioa?iao ii aeaiiui Ie?iauo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo

neoaea (?uii/iue eiee/anoaaiiue e nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneee aiaeec)

ia ia/aei
1998…………………………………………………………..
…………………………………….. 79

CAEETH*AIEA…………………………………………………….
……………………………………. 101

NIENIE NIAOeEAEUeIUO
OA?IEIIA…………………………………………… 104

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA…………………………….

Aeaaa 1

Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa

1.1 Ooieoeee, caaea/e e aeaeu aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa

A iniiaa oa?ieia “ia?eaoeia” eaaeeo neiai “market”, /oi icia/aao ?uiie.
Iiyoiio ia?eaoeia — yoi eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey (oeeinioey aeciana),
oicyenoaiaaiey a oneiaeyo ?uiea, i?iaicaeaoathuay i?eaioaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaa ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae eiie?aoiuo
iio?aaeoaeae. Ia?eaoeia — nenoaia oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaiecaoeee, iai?aaeaiiay ia iieo/aiea i?eaieaiie
aaee/eiu i?eauee iin?aaenoaii o/aoa e aeoeaiiai aeeyiey ia ?uii/iua
oneiaey.

IA?EAOEIA – eiiieaeniay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa
i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae eiie?aoiuo
iio?aaeoaeae e iieo/aiea i?eauee ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiea e
i?iaiice?iaaiey ?uiea,eco/aiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey
yenii?oa?a, ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee e oaeoeee iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea n
iiiiuueth ia?eaoeiaiauo i?ia?aii. A yoeo i?ia?aiiao caeiaeaiu
ia?ii?eyoey ii oeo/oaieth oiaa?a e aai anni?oeiaioa, eco/aieth
iieoiaoaeae, eiieo?aioia e eiieo?aioeee, ii iaania/aieth oeaiiaie
iieeoeee, oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina, oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina, noeioee?iaaieth
nauoa e ?aeeaia,iioeiecaoeee eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee
nauoa, i?aaiecaoeee oaoie/aneiai na?aena e ?anoe?aiey anni?oeiaioa
i?aaenoaaeyaiuo na?aeniuo oneoa. Ia?eaoeia eae ii?iaeaeaiea ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee yaeyaony a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea oeeinioeae
i?iecaiaenoaa,iieiinoueth (io iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio aei nauoa e na?aena ) iiae/eiaiiie
oneiaeyi e o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, iaoiaeyueiny a iinoiyiiii aeeiaie/aneii
?acaeoee iiae aicaeaenoaeai oe?ieiai niaeo?a
yeiiiie/aneeo,iieeoe/aneeo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia. I?aaei?eyoey-i?iecaiaeeoaee e yenii?oa?u ?anniao?eaatho
ia?eaoeia eae n?aaenoai aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae, oeene?iaaiiuo ia
aeaiiue ia?eiae ii eaaeaeiio eiie?aoiiio ?uieo e aai naaiaioai,n
iaeaunoae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth. Iaeiaei yoi noaiiaeony
?aaeueiui oiaaea, eiaaea i?iecaiaeeoaeue ?aniieaaaao aiciiaeiinoueth
nenoaiaoe/anee ei??aeoe?iaaoue naie iao/ii-oaoie/aneea,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e nauoiaua ieaiu a niioaaonoaee n eciaiaieyie ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u, iaiaa?e?iaaoue nianoaaiiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie e
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie ?ano?naie, /oiau iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeaeinoue
a ?aoaiee no?aoaae/aneeo e oaeoe/aneeo caaea/,enoiaey ec ?acoeueoaoia
ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee. I?e yoeo oneiaeyo ia?eaoeia noaiiaeony
ooiaeaiaioii aeey aeieain?i/iiai e iia?aoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ninoaaeaiey
yenii?oiuo i?ia?aii i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaiecaoeee iao/ii-oaoie/aneie,
oaoiieiae/aneie, eiaanoeoeeiiiie e i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie ?aaiou
eieeaeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey, a oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii – aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Ia?eaoeia — yoi nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey anni?oeiaioa e iauaia auioneaaiuo
i?iaeoeoia, ii?aaeaeaiey oeai, ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoia iaaeaeo
aua?aiiuie ?uieaie e noeioee?iaaiey eo nauoa n oeaeueth oaeiaeaoai?aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. Iau/ii a ia?eaoeiaa iiae i?iaeoeoii
iiieiatho ana, /oi iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue ia ?uiea aeey i?eia?aoaiey,
eniieueciaaiey eee iio?aaeaiey n oeaeueth oaeiaeaoai?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae (oece/aneea i?aaeiaou, oneoae, eaae?u, i?aaiecaoeee, aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeae).

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa:

1. Ouaoaeueiue o/ao iio?aaiinoae, ninoiyiey e aeeiaieee ni?ina,
?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u i?e i?eiyoee oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee.

2. Nicaeaiea oneiaee aeiy iaeneiaeueiiai i?eniiniaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, e no?oeoo?a ni?ina enoiaey ia ec nethieiooiie
auaiaeu, a ec aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeau.

3. Aicaeaenoaea ia ?uiie, ia iieoiaoaey n iiiiuueth anao aeinooiiuo
n?aaenoa, i?aaeaea anaai ?aeeaiu.

N oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaaiiie cia/eiinoe iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue /aou?a
aeueoa?iaoeaiua oeaee ia?eaoeiaa: iaeneiecaoeey iio?aaeaiey,
iaeneiecaoeey noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaeoaeae, iaeneiecaoeey auai?a
iio?aaeoaeae, iaeneiecaoeey ea/anoaa aeecie.

N/eoaaony, /oi iaeneiecaoeey iio?aaeaiey iaeneiece?oao i?iecaiaenoai,
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aeaaininoiyiea iauanoaa. I?e
yoii nooue iaeneiecaoeee oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaeoaeae icia/aao ia i?inoi
oaaee/aiea iio?aaeaiey, a aeinoeaeaiea ?inoa noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae.

Neaaeoy iaeneiecaoeee auai?a iio?aaeoaeae, iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue
oaeia ?aciiia?acea oiaa?ia, /oiau iio?aaeoaee iiaee eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
iaeoe oiaa?u, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea eo aeonai.

Iaeneiecaoeey ea/anoaa aeecie — iaeia ec aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iauanoaaiiuo
oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa, niaeanii eioi?ie ia?eaoeia aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue ia
oieueei eiee/anoai, ea/anoai, ?aciiia?acea e aeinooiiinoue oiaa?ia ii
i?eaieaiui oeaiai, ii oaeaea ea/anoai eoeueoo?iie e oece/aneie n?aaeu
iaeoaiey ethaeae.

Iiae ia?eaoeiaii iiieiaaony oaeie aeae ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e
eioi?ii i?iecaiaeeoaeai eniieuecoaony nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e
i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie iaoiae ?aoaiey oicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeai, a ?uiie, aai
o?aaiaaiey e oa?aeoa? ?aaeoeee yaeythony e?eoa?eai yooaeoeaiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia iaania/eoue:

iaaeaaeioth, aeinoiaa?ioth e naiaa?aiaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea,
no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea eiie?aoiiai ni?ina, aeonao e i?aaeii/oaieyo
iieoiaoaeae, oi anoue eioi?iaoeeth i aiaoieo oneiaeyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oe?iu;

nicaeaiea oaeiai oiaa?a, iaai?a oiaa?ia (anni?oeiaioa), eioi?ue aieaa
iieii oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, /ai oiaa?u eiieo?aioia;

iaiaoiaeeiia aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaey, ia ni?in, ia ?uiie,
iaania/eaathuaa iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue eiio?ieue noa?u ?aaeecaoeee.

1.1.1 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa

A iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ?aaioathueo ia iniiaa
i?eioeeiia ia?eaoeiaa, eaaeeo aeaaec: i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei oi, /oi
o?aaotho ?uiie, iieoiaoaeue. Enoiaeiui iiiaioii, eaaeauei a iniiaa
ia?eaoeiaa, aunooiaao eaeay /aeiaa/aneeo ioaeae, iio?aaiinoae, cai?inia.
Ionthaea nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa i?aaeaeueii ei?ioei ninoieo a neaaeothuai:
neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei oi, /oi aaconeiaii iaeaeao nauo, a ia
iuoaoueny iaaycaoue iieoiaoaeth “ianiaeaniaaiioth” i?aaeaa?eoaeueii n
?uieii i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ec nouiinoe ia?eaoeiaa auoaeatho iniiaiua i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua aeeth/atho:

Iaoeaeaiiinoue ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iiai i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yooaeoeaiay ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?a
ia ?uiea a iaia/aiiuo eiee/anoaao icia/aao, ii nooe, iaeaaeaiea aai
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae a niioaaonoaee n aeieaia?aiaiiie oeaeueth,
iaia/aiiie i?aaei?eyoeai.

Eiioeaio?aoeeth enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e nauoiauo
oneeee ia ?aoathueo iai?aaeaieyo ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iai?aaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ia ia nethieiooiue, a ia aeieaia?aiaiiue
?acoeueoao ia?eaoeiaiaie ?aaiou. Yoi o?aaoao iniaiai aieiaiey e
i?iaiiciui enneaaeiaaieyi, ?ac?aaioee ia iniiaa eo ?acoeueoaoia oiaa?ia
?uii/iie iiaeciu, iaania/eaathueo aunieii?eaueueioth oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

I?eiaiaiea a aaeeinoaa e acaeiinayce no?aoaaee e oaeoeee aeoeaiiai
i?eniiniaeaiey e o?aaiaaieyi iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae n
iaeiia?aiaiiui oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia ieo.

Iaoiaeu ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe (ni. ?en. 1.1) caeeth/athony a oii,
/oi i?iaiaeyony:

aiaeec aiaoiae (ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeth) n?aaeu, a eioi?oth
aoiaeeo ia oieueei ?uiie, ii e iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua e
eiua oneiaey. Aiaeec iicaieyao auyaeoue oaeoi?u, niaeaenoaothuea
eiiia?/aneiio oniaoo eee i?aiyonoaothuea aio. A eoiaa aiaeeca
oi?ie?oaony aaie aeaiiuo aeey ioeaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e aa
aiciiaeiinoae;

aiaeec iio?aaeoaeae, eae ?aaeueiuo, oae e iioaioeeaeueiuo. Aeaiiue
aiaeec caeeth/aaony a enneaaeiaaiee aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
nioeeaeueiuo, aaia?aoe/aneeo e eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ethaeae, i?eieiathueo
?aoaiea i iieoiea, a oaeaea eo iio?aaiinoae a oe?ieii niunea yoiai
iiiyoey e i?ioeannia i?eia?aoaiey eie eae iaoaai, oae e eiieo?e?othueo
oiaa?ia;

eco/aiea nouanoaothueo e ieaie?iaaiea aoaeoueo oiaa?ia, oi anoue
?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee nicaeaiey iiauo oiaa?ia e/eee iiaea?iecaoeee
noa?uo, aeeth/ay eo anni?oeiaio e ia?aiao?e/aneea ?yaeu, oiaeiaeo e o.
ae. Onoa?aaoea, ia aeathuea ?an/aoiie i?eauee oiaa?u nieiathony n
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?uiea.

ieaie?iaaiea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e nauoa, aeeth/ay nicaeaiea, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, niioaaonoaothueo nianoaaiiuo nauoiauo naoae ni
neeaaeaie e iaaaceiaie e/eee aaaioneeo naoae;

iaania/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa (OINNOEN) iooai
eiiaeiaoeee ?aeeaiu, ee/iie i?iaeaaee, iaeiiia?/aneeo i?anoeaeiuo
ia?ii?eyoee (“iaaeee ?eeaeoic”) e ?aciiai ?iaea iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iieoiaoaeae, aaaioia e eiie?aoiuo i?iaeaaoeia;

iaania/aiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee, caeeth/athuaeny a ieaie?iaaiee nenoai e
o?iaiae oeai ia iinoaaeyaiua oiaa?u, ii?aaeaeaiee “oaoiieiaee”
eniieueciaaiey oeai, e?aaeeoia, neeaeie e

o. i.

oaeiaeaoai?aiea oaoie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i ?aaeiia, a eioi?ii
nauaaaony i?iaeoeoeey, /oi icia/aao iaycaiiinoue iaania/eoue aeieaeioth
aaciianiinoue eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a e caueou ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu,
niioaaonoaea ii?aeueii-yoe/aneei i?aaeeai, aeieaeiue o?iaaiue
iio?aaeoaeueneie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a;

oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth (ia?eaoeiaii) eae nenoaiie,
oi anoue ieaie?iaaiea, auiieiaiea e eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaie i?ia?aiiu e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey,
ioeaiea ?eneia e i?eaueae, yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiauo ?aoaiee.

1.1.2 Ooieoeee aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu e “iaoiaeai” e “ooieoeeyi” ia?eaoeiaa.
I?e yoii “iaoiaeu” e “ooieoeee” ia?eaoeiaa eiiaaea ioiaeaeanoaeythony.

Iaoiaeu ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe caeeth/athony a oii, /oi
i?iaiaeyony:

– aiaeec aiaoiae (ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeth) n?aaeu, a eioi?oth
aoiaeyo ia oieueei ?uiie, ii e iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua e
eiua oneiaey. Aiaeec iicaieyao auyaeoue oaeoi?u, niaeaenoaothuea
eiiia?/aneiio oniaoo eee i?aiyonoaothuea aio. A eoiaa aiaeeca
oi?ie?oaony aaie aeaiiuo aeey ioeaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e aa
aiciiaeiinoae;

– aiaeec iio?aaeoaeae, eae ?aaeueiuo, oae e iioaioeeaeueiuo.

Aeaiiue aiaeec caeeth/aaony a enneaaeiaaiee aeaiia?aoe/aneeo,
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, aaia?aoe/aneeo e eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ethaeae, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiea i iieoiea, a oaeaea eo iio?aaiinoae a
oe?ieii niunea yoiai iiiyoey e i?ioeannia i?eia?aoaiey eie eae
iaoaai, oae e eiieo?e?othueo oiaa?ia;

– eco/aiea nouanoaothueo e ieaie?iaaiea aoaeoueo oiaa?ia, oi anoue
?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee nicaeaiey iiauo oiaa?ia e/eee iiaea?ie caoeey
noa?uo, aeeth/ay eo anni?oeiaio e ia?aiao?e/aneea ?yaeu, oiaeiaeo e
o.ae. Onoa?aaoea, ia aeathuea ?an/aoiie i?eauee oiaa?u nieiathony n
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?uiea (yenii?oa);

– ieaie?iaaiea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e nauoa, aeeth/ay nicaeaiea, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, niioaaonoaothueo nianoaaiiuo nauoiauo naoae ni
neeaaeaie e iaaaceiaie e/eee aaaioneeo naoae;

– iaania/aiea oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiey nauoa
(OINNOEN) iooai eiiaeiaoeee ?aeeaiu, ee/iie i?iaeaaee, iaeiiia?/an eeo
i?anoeaeiuo ia?ii?eyoee (“iaaeee ?eeyeoic”) e ?aciiai ?iaea
iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iieoiaoaeae, aaaioia e
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeaaoeia;

– iaania/aiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee, caeeth/athuaeny a ieaie?iaaiee
nenoai e o?iaiae oeai ia iinoaaeyaiua oiaa?u, ii?aaeaeaiee “oaoii eiaee”
eniieueciaaiey oeai, e?aaeeoia, neeaeie e o.i.;

– oaeiaeaoai?aiea oaoie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i no?aiu, eiii?
oe?othuae oiaa?u i?aaei?eyoey, /oi icia/aao iaycaiiinoue iaania/eoue
aeieaeioth aaciianiinoue eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a e caueou ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, niioaaonoaea ii?aeueii-yoe/aneei i?aaeeai, aeieaeiue o?iaaiue
iio?aaeoaeueneie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a;

– oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth (ia?eaoeiaii) eae
nenoaiie, oi anoue ieaie?iaaiea, auiieiaiea e eiio?ieue ia?eaoei aiaie
i?ia?aiiu e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey, ioeaiea ?eneia e i?eaueae, yooaeoeaiinoe ia? eaoeiaiauo
?aoaiee.

E ooieoeeyi ia?eaoeiaa ioiinyony neaaeothuea niiniau aeayoaeueiinoe:

– eco/aiea ?uiea (aiaeec neooaoeee, aieinoe, aeeiaieee,
no?oeoo?u, eiieo?aioia; ioeaiea nianoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea e
o.i.);

– i?iaiic ?uiea (ii?aaeaeaiea e?aoei- e aeieai- n?i/iuo oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey, iiaaaeaiey iniiaiuo yeaiaioia e ia?aiao?ia ?uiea, ioeaiea
oaeoi?ia aicaeaenoaey ia iaai a ia?niaeoeaa);

– ioeaiea nianoaaiiuo /yenii?oiuo/ aiciiaeiinoae (iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, nauoiauo, ?ano?niuo, eaae?iauo e ae?.);

– oi?ioee?iaaiea oeaeae /yenii?oa/ ia aeeceoth e aieaa aeaeaeoth
ia?niaeoeao;

– ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee /yenii?oa/ (ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaeia aeinoeaeaiey
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, au?aaioea oiaa?iie, iao/ii-oaoie/aneie,
oeaiiaie, nauoiaie, ?aeeaiiie e eiuo no?aoaaee, eo acaeiioaycea);

– ?ac?aaioea oaeoeee (auai? n?aaenoa aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao e iai?aaeaieyo yenii?oiie aeayoaeueiinoe);

– oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa – OINNOEN (ii?aaeaeaiea
no?aoaaee, oaeoeee, iaoiaeia, n?aaenoa e o.ae.);

– aiaeec e eiio?ieue (ioeaiea iieo/aaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, ii?aaeaeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oiie ?aaiou, ioeaiea i?eaeeaeaiey e iinoaaeaiiui
oeaeyi, au?aaioea i?aaeeiaeaiee ii ei??aeoeaai yenii?oiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ai anao aa aniaeoao, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey).

Ia?eaoieiae auaeaeytho, ia?yaeo n “iaueie ooieoeeyie oi?aaeaiey”
(oeaeaiieaaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, eii?aeeie?iaaiea, o/ao,
eiio?ieue) ia?eaoeiaa, oaeaea e “niaoeeoe/iua aeey ia?eaoeaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe ooieoeee” :

– eiiieaneiia enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea (aeeth/ay aiaeec e i?iaiic

eiiutheoo?u);

– aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiauo aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey;

– ninoaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee e i?ia?aiiu;

– inouanoaeaiea oiaa?iie iieeoeee;

– inouanoaeaiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee;

– inouanoaeaiea eiiioieeaoeeiiiie iieeoeee (OINNOEN);

– oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea;

– eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e ioeaiea aa yooaeoeaiinoe.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiaea ca?oaaaeiua ia?eaoieiae n/eoatho, /oi
ia?eaoeia eae i?eeeaaeiay iaoea – yoi e anoue “?yae oaoie/aneeo
iaoiaeia”, eioi?ua i?ecaaiu oaeiaeaoai?eoue ioaeaeu, iio?aaiinoe e
cai?inu iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia. Oae ii?aaeaeaiea ia?eaoeiaa, aeaiiia
A.Aeaeaiii: “Ia?eaoeia – yoi ?yae oaoie/aneeo iaoiaeia, eioi?ua
iai?aaeaiu ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea a iaeeo/oeo ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo aeey
iio?aaeoaeae e a iaeeo/oeo oeiainiauo oneiaeyo aeey
aeeno?eauethoi?ia anoanoaaiiuo eee eneonnoaaiii aucaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae”
Ae?oaea ecaanoiua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi anee ?anniao?eaaoue
ia?eaoeia “n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaei?eyoey”, oi ia?eaoeia i?aaenoaaeyao
ia /oi eiia, eae eiioeaioeeth eee niaieoiiinoue iaoiaeia aeey
i?aiaeieaiey e?eceniuo iano.

1.1.3 Aeaeu aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa

A caaeneiinoe io iauaia ioaa/aiiiai ?uiea iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue i ianniaii
ia?eaoeiaa, i i?iaeoeoii-aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiii ia?eaoeiaa e i oeaeaaii
ia?eaoeiaa.

Ianniaue ia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianniauie
i?iecaiaenoaii e ia?eaoeiaii iaeiiai i?iaeoeoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai n?aco
aeey anao iieoiaoaeae. Iai?eia?, iaeii a?aiy eiiiaiey “Eiea-eiea”
i?iecaiaeeea iaeei aeae iaieoea, ?aaeecoy aai ia anao ?uieao. Oaeie
iiaeoiae iicaieyao i?iaeaaaoue i?iaeoeou ii iaeiaiueoei oeaiai.

Iiae i?iaeoeoii-aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui ia?eaoeiaii iiieiaaony aeae
ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?iecaiaenoaii e ia?eaoeiaii
ianeieueeeo i?iaeoeoia n ?acee/iuie naienoaaie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
anao iieoiaoaeae, iaeiaei ?ann/eoaiiuo ia ?aciua eo aeonu. Iai?eia?,
eiiiaiey “Eiea-eiea” a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecaiaeeo ianeieueei oeiia
aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia a ?aciie oiaeiaea. Yoe iaieoee i?aaeiacia/aiu
nei?aa aeey ianniauo iio?aaeoaeae, eiathueo ?aciua aeonu, a ia aeey
?aciuo ?uii/iuo naaiaioia.

Oeaeaaie ia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi
inouanoaeythony i?iecaiaenoai e ia?eaoeia i?iaeoeoia, ?ac?aaioaiiuo
niaoeeaeueii aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?uii/iuo naaiaioia. Iai?eia?, eiiiaiey
“Eiea-eiea” i?iecaiaeeo iaieoee niaoeeaeueii aeey naaiaioa aeeaoe/aneiai
ieoaiey.

A aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a caaeneiinoe io eo niaoeeoeee e nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia?eaoeia iiaeao
ea?aoue ?acee/ioth ?ieue :

1) iiaeao auoue iaeiie ec ooieoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

2) iiaeao auoue aieaa aaaeiie ooieoeeae, anee i?aaiecaoeey eniuouaaao
o?oaeiinoe nauoa;

3) iiaeao auoue iaeaieaa aaaeiie, oeaio?aeueiie ooieoeeae, anee iiae
oaeii c?aiey ia?eaoeiaa ?anniao?eaathony ana ae?oaea ooieoeee
i?aaiecaoeee;

4) anee ana ooieoeee auiieiythony neii?aeeie?iaaiii, enoiaey ec caaea/
iaeaieaa iieiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae, a iineaaeiea
auiieiytho a i?aaiecaoeee eiio?iee?othuoth ooieoeeth;

5) anee ia?eaoeia ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei ooieoeeyi ea?aao
eioaa?e?othuoth ?ieue, a iio?aaeoaeue auiieiyao a eiiiaiee
eiio?iee?othuoth ooieoeeth;

Anee ecia/aeueii ia?eaoeia aue naycai n i?iaeaaeae oece/aneeo
i?iaeoeoia (iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey), oi naaiaeiy ii eniieuecoaony i?eiaieoaeueii ei anaio, /oi
iiaeao auoue i?iaeaii ia ?uiea. A /anoiinoe, aiai?yo i ia?eaoeiaa oneoa,
ia?eaoeiaa i?aaiecaoeee, ia?eaoeiaa ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae, ia?eaoeiaa
iano e ia?eaoeiaa eaeae.

Iiae ia?eaoeiaii i?aaiecaoeee iiieiaaony aeayoaeueiinoue,
i?aaei?eieiaaiay n oeaeueth nicaeaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey aeaaii?eyoiiai
eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeie iiaeoiae i?aeoeeotho ana i?aaiecaoeee, a ia
oieueei oa, eioi?ua nouanoaotho ca n/ao naiae i?eauee. Ia?eaoeiaii
i?aaiecaoeee o?aaeeoeeiiii caieiathony iiae?acaeaeaiey ii nayce n
iauanoaaiiinoueth. I?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey — yoi, ii nooe,
oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii, nianoeaoaany n o?iaiy i?iaeoeoia ia o?iaaiue
anae i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?eaoeia ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe (ia?niiaeueiue ia?eaoeia)
—aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaei?eieiaaiay aeey nicaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeaiey eee
eciaiaiey iiaaaeaiey iauanoaaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e eiie?aoiui eeoeai.
Iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee, a?oenou, a?a/e, nii?oniaiu, aaeaieaou, aecianiaiu
e o.ae. eniieuecotho ia?niiaeueiue ia?eaoeia a oeaeyo iiauoaiey naiae
iiioey?iinoe e ?anoe?aiey aeciana. I?ioeann ia?niiaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa
aiaeiae/ai i?ioeanno ia?eaoeiaa oece/aneeo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa. Ii oaeaea
ia/eiaaony n eco/aiey ?uiea, ii?aaeaeaiey ?uii/iuo naaiaioia e
iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae. Aeaeaa ii?aaeaeyaony, a eaeie ia?a ea/anoaa
ee/iinoe niioaaonoaotho cai?inai e a eaeie ia?a iaaei o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue
yoo ee/iinoue, /oiau iia a aieueoae noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?yea yoei
cai?inai. Iaeiiaoe, ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?ia?aiia i?iaeaeaeaiey ee/iinoe e
aai “aeinoaaee” iio?aaeoaeyi.

Iiae ia?eaoeiaii ianoa iiieiaaony aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaei?eieiaaiay n
oeaeueth nicaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeaiey eee eciaiaiey iiaaaeaiey eeeaioia
i?eiaieoaeueii e ioaeaeueiui ianoai. I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao auaeaeeoue:
ia?eaoeia cii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (ianoiiieiaeaiea caaiaeia,
iaaaceiia, eiioi? e o.i. ); ia?eaoeia iano ioaeuoa (i?eaea/aiea
ioaeuoathueo e oo?enoia a eiie?aoiua ai?iaea, ?aeiiu, no?aiu); ia?eaoeia
aeeeuey e ia?eaoeia eiaanoeoeee a caiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue (
iaono?ienoai e i?iaeaaea caiaeueiuo o/anoeia eae iauaeoia iiiauaiey
eaieoaea).

Ia?eaoeia eaeae iau/ii oieeoaony i?eiaieoaeueii e oaeei nioeeaeueiui
eaeayi, eae nieaeaiea o?iaiy iio?aaeaiey oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee, nie?oiiai,
i?ae?auaiea iio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia, caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e o.i. (a
oe?ieii niunea ethaie ia?eaoeia — yoi ia?eaoeia oao eee eiuo eaeae).

Oei ia?eaoeiaa oaeaea ii?aaeaeyaony ninoiyieai ni?ina. N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu ni?ina: io?eoeaoaeueiue, ionoonoaea
ni?ina, ne?uoue, iaaeathuee, ia?aaoey?iue, iieiioeaiiue, /?acia?iue,
ia?aoeeiiaeueiue ni?in.

Io?eoeaoaeueiue ni?in oa?aeoa?ecoao ninoiyiea ?uiea, eiaaea
cia/eoaeueiay aai /anoue ioaa?aaao i?iaeoeo e iiaeao aeaaea caieaoeoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaio ca ioeac io aai eniieueciaaiey, iai?eia? iaaaoeaiue
ni?in ia i?eaeaee, ia iaai ia ?aaioo auaoeo caeeth/aiiuo. I?e
io?eoeaoaeueiii ni?ina eniieuecoaony eiiaa?neiiiue ia?eaoeia.

Eiiaa?neiiiue ia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony
eciaiaiea io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey iio?aaeoaeae e eaeiio-oi i?iaeoeoo
(iaaaoeaiue ni?in) ia iieiaeeoaeueiia iooai ia?aaeaeee i?iaeoeoa,
nieaeaiey oeaiu e aieaa yooaeoeaiiai aai i?iaeaeaeaiey. Eiiaa?neiiiue
ia?eaoeia i?eiaiytho, iai?eia?, oaaa/iua oe?iu, eiaaea aeoeaiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia cae?aaiio?aiaiey, i?inaauaiey, nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey, iauanoaaiiinoe i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio nieaeaieth /enea
eo?eeueueeia. Oae, a NOA oaaa/iua oe?iu, no?aiynue ainnoaiiaeoue
oo?a/aiiua iiceoeee, i?aaei?eiyee ?ac?aaioeo e auione ?yaea
niaoeeaeueiuo ia?ie neaa?ao n iiieaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai eaioea?iaaiiuo
niie, o.a. i?iaaee iaiiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee, nii?iaiaeea aa ?aeeaiie:
“I?aaeiee a?iiao i?e ieieiaeueiii niaea?aeaiee niie”.

I?e ionoonoaee ni?ina eniieuecotho noeioee?othuee ia?eaoeia.
Noeioee?othuee ia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea a oneiaeyo ionoonoaey ni?ina niiniaia oaycee i?enoueo
i?iaeoeoo auaiae n iio?aaiinoyie e eioa?anaie iioaioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaeoaeae, /oiau eciaieoue eo aac?acee/iia ioiioaiea e i?iaeoeoo.
Noeioee?othuee ia?eaoeia iai?aaeai ia i?aiaeieaiea aiciiaeiuo i?e/ei
iieiiai iaciaiey iio?aaeoaeyie aiciiaeiinoae i?iaeoeoa, ono?aiaiea
i?aiyonoaee e aai ?ani?ino?aiaieth e o.i. Iniiaiua eino?oiaiou
noeioee?othuaai ia?eaoeiaa — ?aceia nieaeaiea oeai, oneeaiea ?aeeaiu,
ae?oaeo iaoiaeia i?iaeaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoa.

Ne?uoue ni?in oa?aeoa?ecoao ninoiyiea ?uiea, eiaaea iiiaea iio?aaeoaee
ia oaeiaeaoai?aiu nouanoaothueie i?iaeoeoaie. Iai?eia?, ne?uoue ni?in ia
aaca?aaeiua neaa?aou, ia aieaa yeiiiie/iua aaoiiiaeee. A aeaiiii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeii ecia?eoue aaee/eio iioaioeeaeueiiai ni?ina e ?ac?aaioaoue
iiaue i?iaeoeo, aai oaeiaeaoai?ythuee. I?e ne?uoii, iioaioeeaeueiii
ni?ina eniieuecoaony ?acaeaathuee ia?eaoeia.

Caaea/a ?acaeaathuaai ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a ioeaiea ?acia?a
iioaioeeaeueiiai ?uiea e ?ac?aaioea yooaeoeaiuo i?iaeoeoia, niiniaiuo
i?aa?aoeoue ni?in a ?aaeueiue. Eino?oiaioaie ?acaeaathuaai ia?eaoeiaa
yaeythony ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoeoia, ioaa/athueo aicieeoei iiaui
iio?aaiinoyi, ia?aoiae ia iiaue ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue eo
oaeiaeaoai?aiey, eniieueciaaiea ?aeeaiu, nicaeaiea niaoeeoe/aneiai,
i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia eiie?aoiua iio?aaeoaeueneea a?oiiu, eieaeaea
i?iaeoeoa.

I?e iaaeathuai ni?ina i?eiaiytho ?aia?eaoeia. ?aia?eaoeia — aeae
ia?eaoeiaa, caaea/a eioi?iai ninoieo a ainnoaiiaeaiee ni?ina a neo/aa
aai iaaeaiey ia iniiaa oai?/aneiai ia?ainiuneaiey ?aiaa
eniieueciaaaoaainy ia?eaoeiaiaiai iiaeoiaea. Yoi iiene iiauo
aiciiaeiinoae iaeeaeaiey ni?ina: i?eaeaiea oiaa?o iiauo naienoa,
i?iieeiiaaiea ia iiaua ?uiee e o.ae. Oae, aua a na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia a
no?oeoo?a iio?aaeaiey nie?oiuo iaieoeia NOA i?iecioae nouanoaaiiue
naeaea: iio?aaeoaee, i?eaioe?oynue ia ieceieaei?eeiua i?iaeoeou,
cia/eoaeueii nieceee ni?in ia ieai, i?aaeii/oy aio nooia aeiia?aaeiia
aeii. Oiaaea eiiiaiey “Ieeea?” auionoeea ia ?uiie iiaoth ia?eo ieaa
“Eaeo”, eiaaooth eaei?eeiinoue aaeaia ieaea, ca n/ao /aai iaioea iiiaeo
eiieo?aioia ii iauaio i?iaeaae e aiaeiaie ianna i?eauee.

Ia?aaoey?iue ni?in oa?aeoa?ecoao naciiiua, aaeaaeiaaiua e aeaaea
/aniaua eieaaaiey ni?ina. Iai?eia?, ni?in ia oneoae ai?iaeneiai
o?ainii?oa iaiyaony a oa/aiea nooie. I?e ia?aaoey?iii, eieaaethuainy
ni?ina eniieuecoaony neio?iia?eaoeia.

Neio?iia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony iiene
niiniaia naeaaeeaaiey eieaaaiee ni?ina (ia?aaoey?iue ni?in) n iiiiuueth
aeaeeo oeai, iaoiaeia i?iaeaeaeaiey e ae?oaeo eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa.
Auaaao iaiaoiaeei i?e oi?aiaea oiaa?aie naciiiiai iio?aaeaiey eeai
iiaeaa?aeai eiui oeeeee/aneei eee iai?aaeneacoaiui niaaeai eiiuthieoo?u.
Yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai — iii/a?aaeiue, ca?aiaa nieaie?iaaiiue ia?aoiae ia
?acee/iua aaia?aoe/aneea e ae?oaea naaiaiou ?uiea (n iineaaeothuei
aica?aoii).

I?e iieiioeaiiii ni?ina, o.a. eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey oaeiaeaoai?aia
iauaiii nauoa, eniieuecoaony iiaeaea?aeeaathuee ia?eaoeia.

Iiaeaea?aeeaathuee ia?eaoeia — aeae ia?eaoeiaa, caaea/ae eioi?iai
yaeyaony iiaeaea?aeaiea a oneiaeyo iieiioeaiiiai ni?ina nouanoaothuaai
o?iaiy ni?ina n o/aoii eciaiaiey nenoaiu i?aaeii/oaiee iio?aaeoaeae e
oneeaiey eiieo?aioeee. Eeanne/aneee i?eia? iieiioeaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa —
aeayoaeueiinoue- eiiiaiee “Aeaeaia?ae iioi?c”, eioi?ay a 20-a aiaeu
noiaea iaiaiaoue eiiiaieth “Oi?ae”, i?ioeaiiinoaaea iaaeaaeiie, ii
noaiaea?oiie ia aeae, aue?aoaiiie a iaeei e oio aea /a?iue oeaao
oi?aeianeie iiaeaee “O” naith nia?aiaiioth, auiieiaiioth a oe?ieie
oeaaoiaie aaiia, iiaeaeue aaoiiiaeey.

I?e /?acia?iii ni?ina, o.a. ni?ina, aaee/eia eioi?iai i?aauoaao
aiciiaeiinoe e aeaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee ii aai oaeiaeaoai?aieth,
eniieuecoaony aeaia?eaoeia. Aai caaea/ae yaeyaony ecuneaiea niiniaia
a?aiaiiiai eee iinoiyiiiai nieaeaiey ni?ina a oeaeyo eeeaeaeaoeee ?yaea
io?eoeaoaeueiuo ?uii/iuo yaeaiee, iai?eia? niaeoeyoeee. Aeaia?eaoeia
i?eiaiyaony oaeaea aeey oiai, /oiau o iio?aaeoaeae ia nicaeaeinue
iaauaiaeiiai aeey oe?iu aia/aoeaiey i aa ieceeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoyo. Iniiaiua eino?oiaiou aeaia?eaoeiaa — cia/eoaeueiia
iiauoaiea oeai, i?ae?auaiea ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou. Eiiaaea ia?aaeatho i?aaa
ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, eeoeaicee, iio-oao e o.i. ae?oaei
oe?iai, ii n eniieueciaaieai eee oiiieiaieai ia?ee aeaiiie oe?iu.

Ia?aoeeiiaeueiue ni?in — yoi ni?in ia i?iaeoeou, a?aaeiua aeey
caei?iauey eee ia?aoeeiiaeueiua n iauanoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey ( ia?eioeee,
ii?iia?aoey, neaa?aou).

I?e ia?aoeeiiaeueiii ni?ina eniieuecoaony i?ioeaiaeaenoaothuee
ia?eaoeia, caaea/ae eioi?iai yaeyaony oaaaeeoue ethaeae ioeacaoueny io
iio?aaeaiey a?aaeiuo i?iaeoeoia — aeeiaiey, oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee,
ia?eioeeia (e??aoeeiiaeueiue ni?in) iooai ?aceiai iiauoaiey oeai,
ia?aie/aiey aeinooiiinoe i?iaeoeoia a ni/aoaiee n aeene?aaeeoe?othuae
eioi?iaoeeae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n iiauoaieai nioeeaeueiiai noaoona /aeiaaea,
?anoe?aieai aai i?aa iiyaeeanue eiioeaioeey i?inaauaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa.

I?inaauaiiue ia?eaoeia — yoi oeeinioey ia?eaoeiaa, niaeanii eioi?ie
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia ia yooaeoeaiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie
enoiaey ec neaaeothueo iyoe i?eioeeiia: i?eaioaoeey ia iio?aaeoaeae;
eniieueciaaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ia?eaoeiaa, niaeanii eioi?iio
i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia iai?a?uaii niaa?oainoaiaaoue i?iaeoeou e iaoiaeu
ia?eaoeiaa; eniieueciaaiea oeaiiinoiiai ia?eaoeiaa ( ia?eaoeiaiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia iiauoaoue oeaiiinoioth cia/eiinoue i?iaeoeoa
aeey iio?aaeoaey ); iniciaiea iauanoaaiiie iennee i?aaiecaoeee (ia?niiae
i?aaiecaoeee eniuouaaao aieueoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea io ?aaiou, eiaaea
i?aaiecaoeey a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe enoiaeeo ec nioeeaeueiie naiae ?iee,
a ia ec ocei i/a?/aiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/); neaaeiaaiea
eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa.

Eiioeaioeey nioeeaeueii-coe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi
i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia ia oieueei iaeaieaa iieii e yooaeoeaii
oaeiaeaoai?youe auyaeaiiua cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae, aeaeay yoi aieaa
yooaeoeaii, /ai aa eiieo?aiou, ii oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaoue e oeo/oaoue
aeaaininoiyiea eae ioaeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, oae e iauanoaa a oeaeii.
Eiioeaioeey nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa ii?iaeaeaia niiiaieyie
ioiineoaeueii niioaaonoaey eiioeaioeee /enoiai ia?eaoeiaa iaoaio a?aiaie
n aai i?iaeaiaie a iaeanoe .caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iaoaaoeie
?ano?nia, auno?ui ?inoii ianaeaiey. Anaaaea ee i?aaiecaoeey,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuay eaeea-ieaoaeue iio?aaiinoe, aeaenoaoao n o/aoii
aeieaia?aiaiiiai aeaaa iio?aaeoaeae e iauanoaa? Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey
o?aaoao naaeaine?iaaiiie oaycee o?ao oaeoi?ia: i?eauee i?aaiecaoeee,
o?iaiy oaeiaeaoai?aiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae e o/aoa eioa?ania iauanoaa.

1.2 Iniiaiua oeaee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe

Aicieeiiaaiea ia?eaoeiaa oanii naycaii n aicieeiiaaieai iaiaia e
aicieeiiaaieai ?uiea. Ia?eaoeia – yoi ?aaioa n ?uieii ?aaee
inouanoaeaiey iaiaiia, oeaeue eioi?uo – oaeiaeaoai?aiea /aeiaa/aneeo
ioaeae e iio?aaiinoae.

Iniiao aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaoeiaa ninoaaeytho oaeea caiyoey, eae
?ac?aaioea oiaa?a, enneaaeiaaiey, iaeaaeeaaiea eiiioieeaoeee,
i?aaiecaoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiea oeai, ?acaa?ouaaiea neoaeau
na?aena.

Ii ioiioaieth e ?uieo ia?eaoeia eiaao 2-noi?iiithth no?oeoo?o, a eiaiii:
ia?eaoeia, inouanoaeyaiue i?iaeaaoeaie, e ia?eaoeia, inouanoaeyaiue
iieoiaoaeyie.

A eeoa?aoo?a iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ia?eaoeiao, inouanoaeyaiiio
i?iaeaaoeaie. O?oieee ii?aaeaeyao ia?eaoeia « eae eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee a
iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee oi?aiai-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ii
eco/aieth anao oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa
e i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa io i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth.»

I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee ?oeiaiaenoai eiiiaiee
iieo/aao iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth i oii, eaeea ecaeaeey e ii/aio oioyo
iieoiaoue iio?aaeoaee, i oeaiao, eioi?ua iio?aaeoaee aioiau caieaoeoue,
i oii, a eaeeo ?aaeiiao ni?in ia aeaiiua ecaeaeey, o.a. aieinoue ?uiea,
iaeaieaa aunieee, aaea nauo i?iaeoeoeee eiiiaiee iiaeao i?eianoe
iaeaieueooth i?eaueue. N iiiiuueth i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony a eaeea aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, eaeoth io?aneue
iaeaieaa auaiaeii aeiaeeoue eaieoae, aaea iniiaaoue naia i?aaei?eyoea.
I?iaaaeaiiua ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey oaeaea iicaieytho iiiyoue,
eaeei ia?acii eiiiaiey aeieaeia i?aaieciaaoue nauo naiae i?iaeoeoeee,
eae iaaei i?iaiaeeoue eaiiaieth ii i?iaeaeaeaieth ia ?uiee iiauo
ecaeaeee, no?ieoue no?aoaaeth ?aeeaiu; ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea aeaeu
i?iaeoeoeee , i?iaeaiiua eaeiio iio?aaeoaeth e a eaeii ?aaeiia i?eianoo
iaeaieueooth ioaea/o ia eaaeaeue ?oaeue.

O.Oien, iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo aia?eeaineeo niaoeeaeenoia ii ia?eaoeiao,
oae noiie?iaae aii?inu, ia eioi?ua ?oeiaiaenoai eiiiaiee iuoaaony
iieo/eoue ioaaou i?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee:

Eai ?

Aaea?

Eaeei ia?acii? iieoiathony, i?iaeathony, i?eiaiythony

Ii/aio ? ecaeaeey, auioneaaiua eiiiaieae

Eiaaea?

A eaeii eiee/anoaa ?

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee,
noaayueo oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiea oaeeo aii?inia, eae:

eco/aiea iio?aaeoaey;

enneaaeiaaiea iioeaia aai iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea;

aiaeec nianoaaiii ?uiea i?aaei?eyoey;

enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeoeoa ( ecaeaeey eee aeaea oneoa );

aiaeec oi?i e eaiaeia nauoa;

aiaeec iauaia oiaa?iiai?ioa i?aaei?eyoey;

eco/aiea eiieo?aioia, ii?aaeaeaiea oi?i e o?iaiy eiieo?aioeee;

enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia
?uiea;

eco/aiea «ieoe» ?uiea.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ii eco/aieth iio?aaeoaey ii?aaeaeyao
no?oeoo?o iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee ia ?uiea aeaiiie eiiiaiee.

Enneaaeiaaiey iioeaia iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae ia ?uiea noaayo oeaeueth
i?iaiice?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii iio?aaeoaeae ia ?uiea.

Aiaeec ?uiea i?aneaaeoao oeaeue ii?aaeaeaiey iioaioeeaeueiie aieinoe
?uiea aeey auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?a
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, ?ani?aaeaeaiea ni?ina ii ?aciui ?aaeiiai.

Caaea/ae ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeoeoa
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae ?uiea a iiauo ecaeaeeyo, oeo/oaiey
eee iiaea?iecaoeee oaea nouanoaothueo.

I?iaiaeeiue aiaeec nenoai e iaoiaeia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoia n oi/ee
c?aiey ia?eaoeiaa iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue, eae iiaeii eo/oa e yooaeoeaiaa
?aaeeciauaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth aeaiiie eiiiaiee a oneiaeyo eiie?aoiiai
?uiea, eoi iiaeao noaoue oi?aiaui iin?aaeieeii.

A oeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaieaa yeiiiiiuo iooae e niiniaia ia?aueaaiey
iauaia oiaa?iiai?ioa i?iaiaeyony enneaaeiaaiey aeeiaieee i?iaeaae,
ecaea?aeae e i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey.

I?iaiaeeiay ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ii eco/aieth eiieo?aioia
noaaeo oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiea aeaaiuo eiieo?aioia eiiiaiee ia ?uiea,
auyaeaiea eo neaauo e neeueiuo noi?ii, iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i
oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee eiieo?aioia, iniaaiiinoyo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?aaeaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaiu iiiiaaao ii?aaeaeeoue ?oeiaiaenoao eiiiaiee
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua niiniau aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaey, iiauoaiey aai
eioa?ana e i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee ii iieneo iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ?uiea ?oeiaiaenoai
eiiiaiee ii?aaeaeyao, eaeay nenoaia noeioeia iicaieeo caeioa?aniaaoue
iioiaeeia a caeoiea aieaa e?oiiuo ia?oee i?iaeoeoeee.

Ana auoaoeacaiiua oeaee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe eanathony a
iniiaiii i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa, o.a.
ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia i?iaeoeo eee oneoao.
E?iia oaeiai iai?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe nouanoaoao
ia?eaoeia, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia iio?aaeoaey. N iiceoeee ia?eaoeiaa,
i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia iio?aaeoaey, ?anniao?eaaao ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe Oeeei Eioea?, i?ioanni? ia?eaoeiaa
Naaa?i-caiaaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa NOA. A niioaaonoaee n aeaaaaiui ei
ii?aaeaeaieai ia?eaoeiaa eae aeaea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
«iai?aaeaiiie ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae e iio?aaiinoae iooai iaiaia»
oeaee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ?anniao?eaathony a neaaeothuai
aniaeoa:

aeinoeaeaiea iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai aunieiai iio?aaeaiey;

aeinoeaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie iio?aaeoaeueneie oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeneiaeueii oe?ieiai auai?a;

iaeneiaeueiia iiauoaiea ea/anoaa aeecie.

Iaeiaei, eae ooaa?aeaeaao nai O.Eioea?, oaeie iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth
oeaeae ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe eiaao ?aae iaaeinoaoeia. Nouanoaoao
iaeioi?ay /anoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua niiiaaathony a oii, /oi
aic?inoay ianna iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa ianao n niaie e aieueoa n/anouey. «
E?aaei oaeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae « /ai iaiueoa – oai aieueoa». E?iia oiai,
aua ie iaeiiio yeiiiienoo ia oaeaeinue ecia?eoue iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
eiie?aoiui oiaa?ii eee eiie?aoiie ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth. *oi
aea eanaaony iaeneiaeueii oe?ieiai auai?a, oi caeanue i?e aeeaeaeoai
?anniio?aiee iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi «?aaeueiue auai?» iiaeiaiyaony
«iieiui auai?ii», eiaaea a oneiaeyo eacaeinue au «oe?ieiai» auai?a a
?aieao iaeiie oiaa?iie eaoaai?ee i?aaeeaaaaiua oiaa?u ioee/athony eeoue
iacia/eoaeueii.

1.2.1 Aiaoiyy N?aaea ia?eaoeiaa

I?ioeann niaeaniaaiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae e aiciiaeiinoae
i?aaiecaoeee i?ioaeaao a ii?aaeaeaiiie aiaoiae n?aaea, a eioi?ie
inouanoaeyaony ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aiaoiyy n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa oa?aeoa?ecoao oaeoi?u e neeu, aiaoiea ii
ioiioaieth e ia?eaoeiao, eioi?ua aeeytho ia aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
onoaiaaeeaaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oniaoiia nio?oaeie/anoai n
iio?aaeoaeyie. Yoe oaeoi?u e neeu iaiiaeaeanoiu i?yiiio oi?aaeaieth ni
noi?iiu i?aaiecaoeee. ?acee/atho iee?iaiaoithth e iae?iaiaoithth n?aaeo
ia?eaoeiaa. Iee?iaiaoiyy n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa aeeth/aao niaieoiiinoue
noauaeoia e oaeoi?ia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aicaeaenoaothueo ia aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee ianeoaeeaaoue naieo iio?aaeoaeae naia i?aaiecaoeey,
iinoaaueee, ia?eaoeiaiaua iin?aaeieee, eeeaiou, eiieo?aiou, aaiee,
n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee e ae?.
).

Eiaaea naia i?aaiecaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae oaeoi? aiaoiae n?aaeu
ia?eaoeiaa, oi eiaaony a aeaeo, /oi oniaoiinoue oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii
caaeneo e io aeayoaeueiinoe inoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee,
eioa?anu e aiciiaeiinoe eioi?uo neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea ia?yaeo
n eioa?anaie ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea.

Iiae iae?iaiaoiae n?aaeie ia?eaoeiaa iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
iauanoaaiiuo e i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee, eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho ia ana
noauaeou iee?iaiaoiae n?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa e aeeth/atho a naie ninoaa:
iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiaua, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea,
eoeueoo?iua e i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u. Iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u oa?aeoa?ecotho
noaaeeueiinoue iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee, caueoo ainoaea?noaii eioa?ania
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aai ioiioaiea e ?acee/iui oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe e ae?.
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?ecotho aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue ianaeaiey,
iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue ioaeaeueiuo neiaa ianaeaiey,
aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu, noaaeeueiinoue oeiainiaie nenoaiu,
eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e ae?. I?aaiaua oa?aeoa?ecotho
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth nenoaio, aeeth/ay ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou ii caueoa
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, noaiaea?ou a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee. Nthaea aea ioiinyony caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou,
iai?aaeaiiua ia caueoo i?aa iio?aaeoaeae, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey
ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiu, ia oiaeiaeo. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aeatho
i?aeiouanoaa oai i?aaiecaoeeyi, eioi?ua auno?i aa?oo ia aii?oaeaiea
aeinoeaeaiey IOI. Eoeueoo?iua ieacuaatho ii?ie aeaaiia aeeyiea ia
ia?eaoeia. I?aaeii/oaiea, ioaeaaaaiia iio?aaeoaeyie iaeiiio i?iaeoeoo ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, iiaeao iniiauaaoueny ia eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeeyo,
ia eioi?ua ieacuaatho neeueiia aeeyiea oaeaea enoi?e/aneea e
aaia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u. I?e?iaeiua oa?aeoa?ecotho iaee/ea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia e ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. E naia
i?aaiecaoeey, e noauaeou iee?iaiaoiae n?aaeu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue yoe
oaeoi?u a naiae oicyenoaaiii-ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae eae iie
ieacuaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oneiaey e aiciiaeiinoe aa
aaaeaiey.

Iineieueeo ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee ia iiaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii
aeeyoue ia oaeea oneiaey aiaoiae n?aaeu, eae, iai?eia?, iieeoe/aneay
ianoaaeeueiinoue e ionoonoaea i?aaiaie aacu, iii aeieaeii
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e yoei oneiaeyi a naiae ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iaeiaei eiiaaea i?aaiecaoeee i?eaea?aeeaathony aieaa aa?anneaiiai
iiaeoiaea a naiai aicaeaenoaee ia aiaoithth n?aaeo. Eiathony a aeaeo
i?aaeaea anaai iee?iaiaoiyy n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa, no?aieaiea i?aaiecaoeee
eciaieoue iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, onoaiiaeoue aieaa
oaieua acaeiiioiioaiey n iinoaaueeaie e o.i.

1.2.2 Naaiaiou ?uiea

A ie?a o?oaeii iaeoe iaeeiaeiauo iio?aaeoaeae n iaeeiaeiaie ?aaeoeeae
ia i?aaeeaaaaiue oiaa?. Iio?aaeoaee aeaaea iaeiiai eiie?aoiiai
i?iaeoeoa, iieoiay aai ?aaeei, ?oeiaiaenoaothony iaeeiaeiauie iioeaaie.
Oai ia iaiaa iaeei e oio aea i?iaeoeo iiaeao auoue i?aaeiacia/ai .aeey
?acee/iuo a?oii iio?aaeoaeae, eiathueo ?aciua aeonu. A oa?ieiao
ia?eaoeiaa iu iacuaaai yoe a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae naaiaioaie ?uiea, a
i?ioeann eo auyaeaiey — naaiaioaoeeae ?uiea.

?acoeueoao ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, noaoenoe/aneay ia?aaioea
?acoeueoaoia nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaiaeeiuo eae
eiiiaieyie-i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, oae e oi?aiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie, naieie
iio?aaeoaeyie, iicaieeee auaanoe caeii, eioi?ue iineo iacaaiea caeiia
Ia?aoi. Niune aai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oieueei 20% iio?aaeoaeae
iieoiatho 80% aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee. Eiia/ii, yoe oeeo?u ia
yaeythony aeanoeeie, oioy yoio caeii eiiaaea iacuaatho caeiiii 20 / 80,
ooa iiaeao auoue e 18, e 25%, ii nooue caeiia io yoiai ia iaiyaony. Ii
eanaaony eae iio?aaeoaeueneie i?iaeoeoeee, oae e i?iaeoeoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey.

Ionthaea neaaeoao i/aiue aaaeiue auaiae, /oi eaaeaeiio i?iecaiaeeoaeth
ioaeii iaeoe oio naiue naaiaio, oo a?oiio iio?aaeoaeae n iaeiioeiiie
?aaeoeeae ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a yoe 20%.
E eneaoue aa iaaei ia iaoiaeii “ouea”, a iooai enneaaeiaaiee ?uiea.
Aiaeec naaiaioia ?uiea iiaeao aeaoue ianno oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee
ioiineoaeueii i?ioeiai, ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai iio?aaeoaeae.

Naaiaioaoeeae ?uiea iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia eae no?aoaaey, n iiiiuueth
eioi?ie ?uiie ?acaeaeyaony ia naaiaiou (/anoe), oa?aeoa?ecothueany
iaeeiaeiaie ?aaeoeeae ia ia?ii?eyoey eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa. Oeaeue
ninoieo a iaeneiaeueiii i?iieeiiaaiee ia oaeea naaiaiou ?uiea, aianoi
oiai /oiau ?aniueyoue oneeey ii anaio ?uieo.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai niiniaia naaiaioaoeee ?uiea, i?e auai?a eioi?uo
i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao o/eouaaoue iacia/aiea oiaa?a
(i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneia, oneoae, i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e o.i.). E?aoei
ioa?aeoa?ecoai ioaeaeueiua eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua i?eciaee, eniieuecoaiua
i?e naaiaioaoeee ?uiea.

1. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiaiiua ( aic?ano iieoiaoaey, iie,
?acia? naiuee, aeioiae, ?iae caiyoee, ia?aciaaiea, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
nioeeaeueiiio eeanno, ?ana, ?aeeaey e o.ae. ).

2. Eoeueoo?iua ?acee/ey (iai?eia?, iiaea).

3. Aaia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u (ai?iaeneia e naeueneia ianaeaiea).

4. Iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaey ia ?uiea (iai?eia?, auaeaeytho iio?aaeoaeae ii
eiee/anoao i?eia?aoaaiuo oiaa?ia).

A caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa e oneiaee aai ?aaeecaoeee
eniieuecotho e ae?oaea eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua i?eciaee. Aeaaiia i?e yoii,
/oiau aua?aiiue naaiaio noeee iaeaieueooth i?eaueue. Auai? i?aaeeueiiai
i?eioeeia naaiaioaoeee a nouanoaaiiie ia?a aeeyao ia eiia/iua
?acoeueoaou eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Naaiaio ?uiea a eaeaaea aeieaeai ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei iyoe oneiaeyi

1) auoue aeinoaoi/ii aieei;

2) i?aaeinoaaeyoue aiciiaeiinoe aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa;

3 ) ia auoue iauaeoii aeoeaiie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
eiieo?e?othueo oe?i;

4) oa?aeoa?eciaaeny iio?aaiinoyie, eioi?ua aeaiiay eiiiaiey iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoue;

5) nouanoaiaaoue a oa/aiea aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

AEAAA 2

Eioa?iao e aai ?ieue a ia?eaoeiaa

2.1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea naoe Eioa?iao

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?.
Naaiaeiy Internet eiaao ieiei 15 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia a aieaa /ai 150
no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7-10%. Internet
ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi ai anai ie?a, iaeia n
ae?oaie.

Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu
ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony
aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e ?ani?aaeaeaiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Ieiei aeaoo
eao iacaae auee nicaeaiu iaiei/ee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea ooieoeee naoaaiai
iienea e aeinooia e ?ani?aaeaeaiiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai,
yeaeo?iiiui a?oeaai.

Internet, neoaeeaoay eiaaea-oi eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e
o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e
noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a.

Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa, aeaoaaay aeiaaeueiay naycue, oaeianoai
aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay
aaca aeaiiuo naoe Internet. Iie ?anniao?eaatho aeiaaeueioth naoue eae
aeiiieiaiea e naiei nianoaaiiui eieaeueiie naoyi.

I?e ieceie noieiinoe oneoa (/anoi yoi oieueei oeene?iaaiiay
aaeaiany/iay ieaoa ca eniieuecoaiua eeiee eee oaeaoii) iieueciaaoaee
iiaoo iieo/eoue aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e iaeiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui
neoaeaai NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao
naiaiaeiiai aeinooia naoe Internet iiaeii iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth i?aeoe/anee
ii anai noa?ai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia/eiay n iiauo iao/iuo
ioe?uoee aei i?iaiica iiaiaeu ia caao?a.

E?iia oiai Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaoaaie,
iaaeaaeiie e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie aeiaaeueiie nayce ii anaio ie?o. Yoi
ieacuaaaony i/aiue oaeiaiui aeey oe?i eiathueo naie oeeeaeu ii anaio
ie?o, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee e no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey. Iau/ii,
eniieueciaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u Internet aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce
iaoiaeeony cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?yiie eiiiuethoa?iie nayce /a?ac
niooieeiaue eaiae eee /a?ac oaeaoii.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oneoaa naoe Internet. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy naie aae?an ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa eiatho i?eaeeceoaeueii
20 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iinueea ienueia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa iaoiaeeony
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea iinueee iau/iiai ienueia. E?iia oiai niiauaiea,
iineaiiia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa aeieaeao aei aae?anaoa ca ianeieueei
/ania, a oi a?aiy eae iau/iia ienueii iiaeao aeiae?aoueny aei aae?anaoa
ianeieueei aeiae, a oi e iaaeaeue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Internet eniuouaaao ia?eiae iiaeuaia, ai iiiaii
aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoa aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai e NOA. Aaeaaiaeii a NOA auaeaeyaony ieiei 1-2 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia
ia nicaeaiea iiaie naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe
naoaauo eiiioieeaoeee oeiaine?othony oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee, Aa?iaiee.

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea – eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue
iinooiathueo n?aaenoa, o.e. ana aieaa caiaoiie noaiiaeony
“eiiia?oeecaoeey” naoe (iaeeaeaaony, /oi 80-90% n?aaenoa aoaeao
iinooiaoue ec /anoiiai naeoi?a).

2.1.1 Enoi?ey ?acaeoey naoe Eioa?iao

A 1961 aiaeo Defence Advanced Research Agensy (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue ia?aiia/aeueii aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe – TCP/IP. TCP/IP –
yoi iiiaeanoai eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eae
eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaoo iauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeanue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defence Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defence Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia inoaiiaeeinue; I?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standarts (MIL STD), o.a. a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkeley(BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc UNIX e TCP/IP.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Internet aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay
noaea ioiineoueny e Defence Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Internet noae eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Internet nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.
?enoiie 2.2 eeethno?e?oao ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe
Internet n 4 eiiiuethoa?ia a 1969 aiaeo aei 14 ieeeeiiia a 1997 aiaeo.

?en. 2.2 Eiee/anoai oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e Internet

Oinoii a naoe Internet iacuaathony eiiiuethoa?u, ?aaioathuea a
iiiaicaaea/iie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (Unix, VMS), iiaeaea?aeeaathuea
i?ioieieu TCP\IP e i?aaeinoaaeythuea iieueciaaoaeyi eaeea-eeai naoaaua
oneoae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a naoe Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua eeiee nayce io ieceinei?inoiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee aei
aunieinei?inoiuo oeeo?iauo niooieeiauo eaiaeia. Iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu,
eniieuecoaiua a naoe Internet, oaeaea ioee/athony ?aciiia?aceai.
Aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?ia naoe Internet ?aaioatho iiae IN Unix eee VMS.
Oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua ia?o?ooecaoi?u naoe oeia
NetBlazer eee Cisco, /uey IN iaiiieiaao IN Unix.

Oaeoe/anee Internet ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa eieaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui eiiiaieyi e i?aaei?eyoeyi, naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iuie eeieyie nayce. Internet iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa a aeaea iicaeee neiaeaiiie ec iaaieueoeo naoae ?aciie aaee/eiu,
eioi?ua aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaeia n ae?oaie, ia?anueay oaeeu,
niiauaiey e o.i.

I?eia?ii oiiieiaee naoe Internet iiaeao neoaeeoue naoue O-Aoii,
ninoiyuay ec ianeieueeeo iiaenaoae, e a oi aea a?aiy yaeythuayny
o?aaiaioii anaie?iie naoe Internet.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?a nouanoaoao aieaa 130 ieeeeiiia
eiiiuethoa?ia e aieaa 80 % ec ieo iauaaeeiaiu a ?acee/iua
eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiua naoe io iaeuo eieaeueiuo naoae a ioenao
aei aeiaaeueiuo naoae oeia Internet. Anaie?iay oaiaeaioeey e
iauaaeeiaieth eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe iaoneiaeaia ?yaeii aaaeiuo i?e/ei,
oaeeo eae onei?aiea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niiauaiee, aiciiaeiinoue
auno?iai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie, iieo/aiea e
ia?aaea/a niiauaiee ( oaenia, E – Mail ienai e i?i/aai ) ia iooiaey io
?aai/aai ianoa, aiciiaeiinoue iaiiaaiiiai iieo/aiey ethaie eioi?iaoeee
ec ethaie oi/ee caiiiai oa?a, a oae aea iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ?aciuo oe?i i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?aaioathueo iiae ?aciui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai.

Oaeea ia?iiiua iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioi?ua ianao a naaa
au/eneeoaeueiay naoue e oio iiaue iioaioeeaeueiue iiaeuai eioi?ue i?e
yoii eniuouaaao eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiiieaen, a oae aea cia/eoaeueiia
onei?aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia aeatho iai i?aai ia
i?eieiaoue yoi e ?ac?aaioea e ia i?eiaiyoue eo ia i?aeoeea.

2.1.2 Ninoaa Eioa?iao

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Internet ia i?inoi naoue, – iia anoue no?oeoo?a,
iauaaeeiythuay iau/iua naoe. Internet – yoi “Naoue naoae”. *oi
aeeth/aao Internet? Aii?in iai?inoie. Ioaao ia iaai iaiyaony ni
a?aiaiai. Aia/aea ioaao aue au aeinoaoi/ii i?ino: “ana naoe,
eniieuecothuea i?ioieie IP, eioi?ua eiiia?e?othony aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
aaeeiie naoe naieo iieueciaaoaeae”. Yoi aeeth/aei au ?acee/iua
aaaeiinoaaiiua naoe, iiiaeanoai ?aaeiiaeueiuo naoae, naoe o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee e iaeioi?ua ca?oaaaeiua naoe (ca i?aaeaeaie NOA).

*ooue iicaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue Internet iniciaee e iaeioi?ua
ia-IP-naoe. Iie caoioaee i?aaeinoaaeoue aa oneoae naiei eeeaioai e
?ac?aaioaee iaoiaeu iiaeeeth/aiey yoeo “no?aiiuo” naoae (iai?eia?,
Bitnet, DECnet e o.ae.) e Internet. Nia/aea yoe iiaeeeth/aiey, iacaaiiua
oethcaie, neoaeeee oieueei aeey ia?aaea/e yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou. Iaeiaei,
iaeioi?ua ec ieo ?ac?aaioaee niiniau ia?aaea/e e ae?oaeo oneoa.
ssaeythony ee yoe naoe /anoueth Internet? E aea, e iao. Ana caaeneo io
oiai, oioyo ee iie oiai naie.

2.1.3 Aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai Eioa?iao

Internet ii i?aaiecaoeee ai iiiaii iaiiieiaao oea?eiaue. Yoi
i?aaiecaoeey n iieiinoueth aeia?iaieueiui o/anoeai. Oi?aaeyaony iia
/ai-oi iaiiaeiaea niaaoa noa?aeoei, iaeiaei, o Internet iao iao?ea?oa,
i?aceaeaioa eee Iaiu. Ninoaaeythuea naoe iiaoo eiaoue naieo i?aceaeaioia
eee aiaeiae/iuo aiaeaeae, ii yoi nianai ae?oaia aeaei; a Internet iao
aaeeinoaaiiie aaoi?eoa?iie oeao?u. Aunoay aeanoue, aaea au Internet ie
auea, inoaaony ca ISOC (Internet Society). ISOC – iauanoai n
aeia?iaieueiui /eainoaii. Aai oeaeue – niinianoaiaaoue aeiaaeueiiio
iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae /a?ac Internet. Iii iacia/aao niaao noa?aeoei,
eioi?ue ioaa/aao ca oaoie/aneoth iieeoeeo, iiaeaea?aeeo e oi?aaeaiea
Internet.

Niaao noa?aeoei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio i?eaeaoaiiuo aeia?iaieueoeaa,
iacuaaaioth IAB (Niaao ii a?oeoaeoo?a Internet.). IAB ?aaoey?ii
niae?aaony, /oiau “aeaaineiaeoue” noaiaea?ou e ?ani?aaeaeeoue ?ano?nu,
oaeea, iai?eia?, eae aae?ana. Internet ?aaioaao, iineieueeo eiathony
noaiaea?oiua niiniau iauaiey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie e i?eeeaaeiuie
i?ia?aiiaie. Yoi iicaieyao eiiiuethoa?ai ?aciiai oeia naycuaaoueny aac
iniauo i?iaeai. IAB ioaaonoaaiai ca noai aea?ou; ii ?aoaao, eiaaea
noaiaea?o iaiaoiaeei e eaeei aio neaaeoao auoue. Eiaaea o?aaoaony
noaiaea?o, niaao ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaio, i?eieiaao noaiaea?o e ii naoe
iiiaauaao i iai ie?. IAB oaeaea neaaeeo ca ?acee/iuie iiia?aie (e
ae?oaeie aauaie), eioi?ua aeieaeiu inoaaaoueny oieeaeueiuie. Iai?eia?,
eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? a Internet eiaao naie oieeaeueiue 32-?ac?yaeiue
aeaie/iue aae?an; ieeaeie ae?oaie eiiiuethoa? ia eiaao oaeiai aea. Eae
i?enaaeaaaony yoio aae?an? IAB caaioeony i oaeiai ?iaea i?iaeaiao. Ii ia
i?enaaeaaao aae?ania naiiee/ii, ii ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeea, eae yoe
aae?ana i?enaaeaaoue.

Iieueciaaoaee Internet auneacuaatho naie aeaeiau e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
ano?a/ao IETF (Iia?aoeaiiai eiaeaia?iiai io?yaea Internet). IETF – yoi
ae?oaay aeia?iaieueiay i?aaiecaoeey; oaeaea niae?aaony ?aaoey?ii, /oiau
ianoaeeoue oaeouea yenieoaoaoeeiiiua e iac?aaathuea oaoie/aneea
i?iaeaiu. I?e ianoaeaeaiee aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie i?iaeaiu IETF nicaeaao
?aai/oth a?oiio aeey aa aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey. (Ia i?aeoeea
“aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiay” iau/ii icia/aao, /oi aeey ?aai/ae a?oiiu
iaoiaeeony aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aeia?iaieueoeaa). Iinauaoue ano?a/e
IETF e ninoiyoue a ?aai/eo a?oiiao iiaoo ana; aeaaiia, /oiau ethaee
?aaioaee, aeaei-oi aeia?iaieueiia. ?aai/ea a?oiiu eiatho ?acee/iua
ooieoeee: yoi iiaeao auoue auione aeieoiaioaoeee, au?aaioea no?aoaaee
aeaenoaee i?e aicieeiiaaiee i?iaeai, no?aoaae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey,
?ac?aaioea iiauo noaiaea?oia e i?ioieieia, aei?aaioea oaea nouanoaothueo
(iai?eia?, eciaiaiea cia/aiee ioaeaeueiuo iieae). ?aai/ay a?oiia iau/ii
auioneaao aeieeaae. A caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, yoi iiaeao
auoue i?inoi aeieoiaioaoeeae e auoue aeinooiiie aeey ethaiai
aeaeathuaai, /oi iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi aeia?iaieueii eae cae?aaay eaeay,
eee aea yoi iiaeao auoue iineaii a IAB e auoue iauyaeaiiie noaiaea?oii.

Anee iaeay naoue i?eieiaao o/aiea Internet, i?eniaaeeiyaony e iae e
n/eoaao naay aa /anoueth, oiaaea iia e yaeyaony /anoueth Internet.
Aiciiaeii ae iiiaia iieaaeaony ia?acoiiui, no?aiiui, niiieoaeueiui – iia
iiaeao iiaeaeeoueny naieie niiiaieyie n IETF. Iaeioi?ua
aeaeiau-i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo ieacaoueny aiieia ?acoiiuie e, aiciiaeii,
Internet niioaaonoaaiii eciaieony. *oi-oi iiaeao iieacaoueny i?inoi
aeaeii aeona eee o?aaeeoeee, oiaaea yoe aic?aaeaiey aoaeoo ioeeiiaiu.
Anee naoue aeaeaao /oi-eeai, /oi iiaeao iaa?aaeeoue Internet, iia iiaeao
auoue eneeth/aia ec niiauanoaa aei oao ii?, iiea iia ia eni?aaeony.

Nae/an Internet ninoieo ec aieaa /ai 12 ouny/ iauaaeeiaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie naoae.

Ca Internet ieeoi oeaio?aeeciaaii ia ieaoeo; iao oaeie i?aaiecaoeee eae
Internet Inc., eioi?ay niae?aao ieaoo ni anao naoae Internet eee
iieueciaaoaeae. Aianoi yoiai eaaeaeue ieaoeo ca naith /anoue. NSF ieaoeo
ca niaea?aeaiea NSFNET. NASA ieaoeo ca Iao/ioth Naoue NASA (NASA Science
Internet). I?aaenoaaeoaee naoae niae?athony aianoa e ?aoatho, eae ei
niaaeeiyoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii e niaea?aeaoue yoe acaeiinayce. Eieeaaeae
eee ei?ii?aoeey ieaoeo ca aa iiaeeeth/aiea e iaeioi?ie ?aaeiiaeueiie
naoe, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue ieaoeo ca naie aeinooi naoaaiio
aeaaeaeueoeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai ianooaaa.

2.1.4 Aeeyiea no?oeoo?u Eioa?iao ia iieueciaaoaey

Oi, /oi Internet ia naoue, a nia?aiea naoae, iaei eae neacuaaaony ia
eiie?aoiii iieueciaaoaea. Aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue /oi-ieaoaeue
iieaciia (caionoeoue i?ia?aiio eee aeia?aoueny aei eaeeo-eeai
aaeeinoaaiiuo a naiai ?iaea aeaiiuo), iieueciaaoaeth ia iaaei
caaioeoueny i oii, eae yoe ninoaaeythuea naoe niaea?aeaony, eae iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho e iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaaenaoaaua nayce.

?anniio?ei aeey iaaeyaeiinoe oaeaoiiioth naoue – oiaea a iaeioi?ii ?iaea
Internet. Ieienoa?noai Nayce ?innee, Pacific Bell, AT&, MCI, British
Telecom, Telefon’s de Mexico e o.ae., – ana yoi ioaeaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee,
eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho ?aciua oaeaoiiiua nenoaiu. Iie aea caaioyony i
niaianoiie ?aaioa, i nicaeaiee iauaaeeiaiiie naoe; ana, /oi aai ioaeii
naeaeaoue, aaea au ia ieaiaoa au ie iaoiaeeeenue e eoaea au au ie
caiieee, – yoi iaa?aoue iiia?. Anee caauoue i oeaia e ?aeeaia, aai
aeieaeii auoue niaa?oaiii ana ?aaii, n eai au eiaaoa aeaei: n INI, AT&
eee Ieienoa?noaii Nayce. Nieiaaoa o?oai/eo, iaaeeiaaoa eiiii/ee (e?ooeoa
aeene) e aiai?eoa.

Aan, eae iieueciaaoaey, caaioeo oieueei, eoi caieiaaony aaoeie cayaeaie,
eiaaea iiyaeythony i?iaeaiu. Anee /oi-eeai ia?anoaao ?aaioaoue, oieueei
iaeia ec niioaaonoaothueo eiiiaiee iiaeao eni?aaeoue yoi. Iie iauathony
ae?oa n ae?oaii ii i?iaeaiiui aii?inai, ii eaaeaeue ec aeaaeaeueoeaa
naoae ioaaonoaaiai ca i?iaeaiu, aicieeathuea ia aai nianoaaiiii o/anoea
nenoaiu, ca na?aen, eioi?ue yoa naoue i?aaeinoaaeyao naiei eeeaioai.

Yoi aea aa?ii e aeey Internet. Eaaeaeay naoue eiaao naie nianoaaiiue
naoaaie yenieoaoaoeeiiiue oeaio? (NOC). Eaaeaeue oaeie ?aai/ee oeaio?
naycai n ae?oaeie e ciaao, eae ?ac?aoeoue ?acee/iua aiciiaeiua i?iaeaiu.
Aao ?aaeii eiaao niaeaoaiea n iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo naoae Internet e
aa caaioa ninoieo a oii, /oiau ethaee aaoaai ?aaeiia auee aeiaieueiu
?aaioie naoe. Oae /oi, anee /oi-oi enii?oeony, NOC e anoue oa naiay
i?aaiecaoeey, n eiai ca yoi ni?inyo, eiai ca yoi aoaeoo aeoue.

A?oeoaeoo?a naoaauo i?ioieieia TCP/IP, ia aaca eioi?uo iino?iaia
Internet, i?aaeiacia/aia niaoeeaeueii aeey iauaaeeiaiiie naoe. Naoue
iiaeao ninoiyoue ec niaa?oaiii ?acii?iaeiuo iiaenaoae, niaaeeiaiiuo
ae?oa n ae?oaii oethcaie. A ea/anoaa iiaenaoae iiaoo aunooiaoue naiua
?aciua eieaeueiua naoe (Token Ring, Ethernet, iaeaoiua ?aaeeinaoe e
o.i.), ?acee/iua iaoeeiiaeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
naoe (iai?eia?, HEPnet), a oaeaea ae?oaea aeiaaeueiua naoe, oaeea,
iai?eia?, eae Bitnet eee Sprint. E yoei naoyi iiaoo iiaeeeth/aoueny
iaoeiu niaa?oaiii ?aciuo oeiia. Eaaeaeay ec iiaenaoae ?aaioaao a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie e eiaao naith
i?e?iaeo nayce, naia ?ac?aoaao naie aioo?aiiea i?iaeaiu. Iaeiaei,
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaaeaeay iiaenaoue iiaeao i?eiyoue iaeao
eioi?iaoeee e aeinoaaeoue aai ii oeacaiiiio aae?ano a yoie eiie?aoiie
iiaenaoe. Ana aea ia o?aaoaony, /oiau iiaenaoue aa?aioe?iaaea aeinoaaeo
iaeaoia e eiaea iaaeaaeiue neaiciie i?ioieie (i?ioieie ?aaiou naoe a
ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea i?e ia?aaea/a niiauaiee iaaeaeo aeaoo aiaoieo
naoae). I?e?iaea oaeiai iineaaeaiey aai noaiao yni?a iicaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaa iaoeiu, iieeth/aiiua e iaeiie iiaenaoe, iiaoo iai?yioth
iaiaieaaoueny iaeaoaie, a anee aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaeaoue
niiauaiea iaoeia a ae?oaie iiaenaoe, oi anooiatho a neeo iaaenaoaaua
niaeaoaiey, aeey /aai iiaenaoe eniieuecotho naie iaaenaoaaie ycue –
i?ioieie IP; iie ia?aaeatho niiauaiea ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaii/ea oethcia
e iiaenaoae, iiea iii ia aeinoeaiao ioaeiie iiaenaoe, aaea iii e aoaeao
aeinoaaeaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii iieo/aoaeth. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
iieueciaaoaey any yoa eooiy niaa?oaiii ia caaioeo. Eae e a i?eia?a n
oaeaoiiiie naoueth, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyaony aio aaeeiie aieueoie
naoueth, a ia iiiaeanoaii naoae, aeey iaai ana yoi iano?ia nai?eua
?acii?iaeiuo e eiiaaea ianiaianoeiuo iaaeaeo niaie naoae i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaeiie naoueth – “Naoueth naoae” – Internet.

2.1.5 Oaoiieiaey Word Wide Web

A Naoe nouanoaoao aieueoia /enei na?aenia. Ian a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeao
eioa?aniaaoue WWW eee i?inoi Web (Word-Wide Web- anaie?iay iaooeia). Yoi
naiue iiioey?iue na?aen Naoe e oaeiaiue niinia ?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeae.
Naaiaeiy nouanoaoao ii iaiueoae ia?a 30 oun. na?aa?ia WWW. Eiaiii ca
n/ao WWW Naoue ?ano?o oae no?aieoaeueii.

Iieuecoynue ianeiaeiui ycueii iienaiey, iiaeii ninoaaeyoue
aeia?iaaeeeiua aeieoiaiou aeey eo iineaaeothuae ioaeeeaoeee a Naoe (iiae
aeia?iaaeeeiui y iiae?acoiaaath aeieoiaio, eioi?ue iiaeao niaea?aeaoue
ana aeaeu eioi?iaoeee – io i?inoiai oaenoa aei ioeoeiaaeeeiuo ?ieeeia).
*oiau oaeaeaoue niaea?aeaiea aeieoiaioa oae, eae aai i?aaenoaaeyao naaa
aai aaoi? ioaeii eiaoue ia eiiiuethoa?a- eeeaioa i?ia?aiio i?iniio?a-
a?aoca?. Iaeaieaa iiioey?ai naaiaeiy Netscape Navigator,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuee iiiaea ?anoe?aiey HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language-
ycue aeia?oaenoiaie ?aciaoee aeieoiaioia – eiaiii n aai iiiiuueth
ioi?ieyaony eioi?iaoeey a WWW). Aeaeaa iiae neiaaie a?aoca? eee
i?ia?aiia i?iniio?a y aoaeo iiae?acoiaaaoue eiaiii yoo i?ia?aiio, oioy e
ia eneeth/aii, /oi e eaeay- eeai ae?oaay i?ia?aiia niiaeao ioia?aaeaoue
an? oae, eae auei caaeoiaii.

Oaia?ue iaiiiai eioi?iaoeee i oaoiieiaee «eeeaio- na?aa?». Iia ecaanoia
oaea aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, ii ?aiueoa /aua anaai
eniieueciaaeanue a e?oiiuo naoyo ianooaaa i?aaei?eyoey. Naaiaeiy, n
?acaeoeai Internet, yoa oaoiieiaey ana /aua i?eaeaeaao aci?u
?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. A ie?a iaeiieaii ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee ii ?acee/iui aii?inai. I?ia?aiia-eeeaio auiieiyao
ooieoeee eioa?oaena iieueciaaoaey e iaania/eaaao aeinooi i?aeoe/anee ei
anai eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai Internet. A yoii niunea iia auoiaeeo ca
iau/iua ?aiee ?aaiou eeeaioa oieueei n na?aa?ii ii?aaeaeaiiiai
i?ioieiea, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo a telnet, iai?eia?. Io/anoe, aeiaieueii
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia iiaiea, /oi Mosaic eee Netscape, eioi?ua
yaeythony WWW-eeeaioaie, yoi i?inoi a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen a Internet,
yaeyaony io/anoe aa?iui. Iaeiaei, eae oaea auei ioia/aii, aaciaua
eiiiiiaiou WWW-oaoiieiaee (HTML e URL) ea?atho i?e aeinooia e ae?oaei
?ano?nai Mosaic ia iineaaeithth ?ieue, e iiyoiio ioeueoei?ioieieueiua
eeeaiou aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu eiaiii e World Wide Web, a ia e ae?oaei
eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi Internet. Oaeoe/anee, eeeaio—yoi
eioa?i?aoaoi? HTML. E eae oeie/iue eioa?i?aoaoi?, eeeaio a caaeneiinoe
io eiiaiae (?aciaoee) auiieiyao ?acee/iua ooieoeee.

?en. 2.3 No?oeoo?a ”eeeaio – na?aa?”

A e?oa yoeo ooieoeee aoiaeeo ia oieueei ?aciauaiea oaenoa ia ye?aia,
ii iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n na?aa?ii ii ia?a aiaeeca iieo/aiiiai
HTML-oaenoa, /oi iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii i?ienoiaeeo i?e ioia?aaeaiee
ano?iaiiuo a oaeno a?aoe/aneeo ia?acia. I?e aiaeeca URL-niaoeeoeeaoeee
eee ii eiiaiaeai na?aa?a eeeaio caioneaao aeiiieieoaeueiua aiaoiea
i?ia?aiiu aeey ?aaiou n aeieoiaioaie a oi?iaoao, ioee/iuo io HTML,
iai?eia? GIF, JPEG, MPEG, Postscript e o. i. Aiiaua aiai?y aeey caionea
eeeaioii i?ia?aii iacaaeneii io oeia aeieoiaioa auea ?ac?aaioaia
i?ia?aiia Luncher, ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ai?acaei aieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iaoaieci niaeaniaaiey caioneaaiuo i?ia?aii
/a?ac MIME-oeiu. Ae?oaoth /anoue i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena WWW ninoaaeyao
na?aa? i?ioieiea HTTP, aacu aeaiiuo aeieoiaioia a oi?iaoa HTML,
oi?aaeyaiua na?aa?ii, e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, ?ac?aaioaiiia a
noaiaea?oa niaoeeoeeaoeee CGI. Aei naiiai iineaaeiaai a?aiaie (aei
ia?aciaaiey Netscape) ?aaeueii eniieueciaaeinue aeaa HTTP-na?aa?a:
na?aa? CERN e na?aa? NCSA. Ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy /enei aaciauo na?aa?ia
?anoe?eeinue. Iiyaeeny i/aiue iaieioie na?aa? aeey MS-Windows e
Apachie-na?aa? aeey Unix-ieaooi?i. Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea, ii aeaa
iineaaeieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue ec niia?aaeaiee aeinooiiinoe
eniieueciaaiey. Na?aa? aeey Windows – yoi shareware, ii aac ano?iaiiiai
naiieeeaeaeaoi?a, eae a Netscape. O/eouaay ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue
ia?niiaeie a iaoae no?aia, oaeia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iii?iaiaaoue, /oi oaeia WWW. Aoi?ie na?aa? – yoi ioaao ia
oa?ico eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee. Netscape oaea ia ?ani?ino?aiyao naie na?aa?
Netsite naiaiaeii e i?ioae neoo, /oi NCSA-na?aa? oaeaea aoaeao
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa. A ?acoeueoaoa aue ?ac?aaioai
Apachie, eioi?ue ii neiaai aai aaoi?ia aoaeao freeware, e ?aaeecoao
iiaua aeiiieiaiey e i?ioieieo HTTP, naycaiiua n caueoie io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia, eioi?ua i?aaeeiaeaiu a?oiiie ii
?ac?aaioea yoiai i?ioieiea e ?aaeecothony i?aeoe/anee ai anao
eiiia?/aneeo na?aa?ao.

Aaca aeaiiuo HTML-aeieoiaioia—yoi /anoue oaeeiaie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
niaea?aeeo oaenoiaua oaeeu a oi?iaoa HTML e naycaiiua n ieie a?aoeeo e
ae?oaea ?ano?nu. Iniaia aieiaiea oioaeinue au ia?aoeoue ia aeieoiaiou,
niaea?aeauea yeaiaiou ye?aiiuo oi?i. Yoe aeieoiaiou ?aaeueii
iaania/eaatho aeinooi e aiaoiaio i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth.

I?eeeaaeiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, ?aaioathuaa n na?aa?ii, iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia i?ia?aiiu-oethcu e i?i/ea. Oethcu—yoi i?ia?aiiu,
iaania/eaathuea acaeiiaeaenoaea na?aa?a n na?aa?aie ae?oaeo i?ioieieia,
iai?eia? ftp, eee n ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ia naoe na?aa?aie Oracle. I?i/ea
i?ia?aiiu—yoi i?ia?aiiu, i?eieiathuea aeaiiua io na?aa?a e auiieiythuea
eaeea-eeai aeaenoaey: iieo/aiea oaeouae aeaou, ?aaeecaoeeth a?aoe/aneeo
nnueie, aeinooi e eieaeueiui aacai aeaiiuo eee i?inoi ?an/aou.

2.2 Eioa?iao eae i?aaeiao e n?aaenoai ia?eaoeiaa

2.2.1 Eioa?iao e aecian

Nae/an eiiiuethoa?iay naoue oaeia aea iau/iia aeaei eae eiie?iaaeueiue
aiia?ao, oaen, oaeaoii e nai eiiiuethoa?. Caieiaoueny aecianii, ia
eniieuecoy naoue aoaeao auaeyaeaoue no?aiiui.

Naaiaeiy Eioa?iao ioaaouaaao ii?yaeea 130 ieeeeiiia niaaeeiaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie eiiiuethoa?ia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oieueei a oieaa?neoaoneeo
e iao/iuo e aiaiiuo oeaio?ao, eae ieaie?iaaeinue ecia/aeueii, ii oaeaea
aeeth/aao a naay na?aa?u oaeeo ecaanoiuo oe?i eae General Electric,
McDonnel Douglas, Huges, Lokheed e iiiaeo ae?oaeo .

Aecianiaiu eaeoo a Eioa?iao auno?aa /ai eaeay-eeai ae?oaay a?oiia
iieueciaaoaeae. Ana iie iaoiaeyo, /oi Eioa?iao iiaeao ?aaeueii
iineoaeeoue ei a i?iaaaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, iiaeaea?aeea
iinoaaueeia e eeeaioia, iaiaia eiiia?/aneie eioi?iaoeeae e nicaeaiee
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. N iiiiuueth Eioa?iao oe?iu oaeaea iiaoo
?ac?aaaouaaoue iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, i?eieiaoue caeacu, iieo/aoue
iaiaoiaeeioth ei??aniiiaeaioeeth e ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou, aanoe
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue iiene a niioaaonoaothueo
o/?aaeaeaieyo, iai?eia?, iai?eia?, oaeeo eae DIALOG Information Services
Inc., Data Star, Dun & Bradstreet, Lexis-Nexis e aeaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
nauaaoue naith

i?iaeoeoeeth.

Eaeiau aea eiie?aoiua aiciiaeiua iooe eniieueciaaiey Eioa?iao a noa?a
ia?eaoeiaa?

Aieueoea eiiiaiee, oaeea eae General Electric Co. eee Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co. oe?iei eniieuecotho Eioa?iao aeey aeiaaeueiie nayce i?e
inouanoaeaiee oe?ieiianooaaiuo i?iaeoia, o?aaothueo iauaaeeiaiey oneeee
ianeieueeeo iiae?acaeaeaiee e oeeeaeia, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyaiua
naoueth oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeinooia.

2.2.2 Iiaay ia?aaeeaia ia?eaoeiaa a yiioo yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee

A ioee/ea io ianneaiie, ienoiaeyuae ia iio?aaeoaey iiaeaee ia?eaoeiaa,
Eioa?iao iicaieyao inouanoaeoue acaeiiaeaenoaea iinoaaueeia e
iio?aaeoaeae, i?e eioi?ii iineaaeiea naie noaiiayony iinoaaueeaie (a
/anoiinoe, iinoaaueeaie eioi?iaoeee i naieo iio?aaiinoyo). Oaeie
iiaeoiae iieo/ee iacaaiea “grassroots” (“ei?ie o?aau”).

A naiae ?aaioa i?ioanni?a Hoffman e Novak ?anniao?eaatho, eae iaiyaony
e ?acaeaaaony eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa a oneiaeyo yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee.

Iineieueeo Eioa?iao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaa?oaiii iiaoth
eiiioieeaoeeiiioth n?aaeo a ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa
eioi?iaoeee, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iaeioi?ua i?eaiu e n?aaenoaa ia?eaoeiaa
ia iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu a eo nouanoaothuae oi?ia.

Eaeei aea ia?acii Eioa?iao o?ainoi?ie?oao ooieoeeth ia?eaoeiaa? I?e
?anniio?aiee iiaeaee, eniieuecothuae aeey ?aeeaiu o?aaeeoeeiiiua
n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ieacuaaaony, /oi eniieueciaaiea Eioa?iao
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iioaioeeaeueiui eeeaioai ia aunooiaoue a ?iee
ianneaiie aoaeeoi?ee, a naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea, neaaeoao ee
ei ciaeiieoueny n eiie?aoiie ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeeae.

Ianoaeaeay iiiyoea Hyper-Marketing Concept, Hoffman e Novak i?eoiaeyo e
auaiaeo, /oi i?e ?aaioa a Eioa?iao oe?ia, ?ane?uaay e oaeiaeaoai?yy
iio?aaiinoe eeeaioa, aeieaeia no?aieoueny oaeaea aianoe naie aeeaae a
?ac?aaioeo iiauo eaeae e iaoiaeia aeey yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaay ?ieue ia?eaoeiaa iiieii oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae eeeaioa iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeth/aao a naay
“aeueo?oenoe/aneoth”, eiiia?aoeaioth oeaeue iaeaa/aiey ?acaeoey ?uiea.
Yoi iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao iieiaeaieyi aeieeaaea Iaoeeiiaeueiie
Aeaaeaiee Iaoe (Eiia?ann NOA, 1994): “A iiauo oneiaeyo aeaeiaie n?aaeu,
nio?oaeie/anoai iiaeao i?eianoe ai?acaei aieueoa iieuecu /ai
eiieo?aioeey, e eioi?iaoeeiiiay ioe?uoinoue aieaa ieiaeioai?ia /ai

eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiio?ieue”.

A iiauo oneiaeyo iaiaaeaea?ai ii ia?eaoeiao neaaeoao nin?aaeioi/eoueny
ia ?ac?aaioea iiauo eaeae e i?eioeeiia, iineieueeo “iaoaie/aneee”
ia?aiin a n?aaeo Eioa?iao noa?uo oi?i, nei?aa anaai, aoaeao
iaeiyooaeoeaiui. Iaaeinoaoi/ii, iai?eia?, aoaeao i?inoi iiianoeoue a
niioaaonoaothuee ?acaeae oaeaeiioa?aioeee Usenet ei??aeoiia e
iaiaayc/eaia iauyaeaiea. Iiaay n?aaea, i?aaeeaaay iiaua aiciiaeiinoe, a
naith i/a?aaeue, o?aaoao ?ac?aaioee iiauo iiaeoiaeia e ?aeeaia, nauoo,
?an/aoai n eeeaioaie e ae?oaei aniaeoai eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

2.2.3 Iiaua iiaeoiaeu e ?aeeaia, nauoo, ?an/aoai n eeeaioaie

I?aaeaea anaai – nicaeaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u aeey yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee.
A aeieeaaea Office of Technology Assessment (Eiia?ann NOA, 1997)
ioia/aaony, /oi “iineieueeo iauai naeaeie, inouanoaeyaiuo a yeaeo?iiiie
eioa?aeoeaiie n?aaea aoaeao ?anoe, aieueoay /anoue ?aaiou ii
ianeoaeeaaieth ?uiea eyaeao ia aeiaaeueiua oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua naoe”.
Ii ia?a oiai eae Eioa?iao ia?aueaaao naie eioa?aeoeaiua e iaaeaaoeeiiiua
aiciiaeiinoe e n?aaenoaa ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea,
iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue, naie noaiiayony iauaeoii ?uii/iiai ni?ina
e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

A 1993 a ia/aoe ianoaeaeaeny aii?in, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiay eae ?uiie
N?aaea Eioa?iao ?aniieaaaao aiciiaeiinoueth ia oieueei i?aaeinoaaeoue
eeeaioo naioth iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i oiaa?ao e oneoaao, ii e a naith
i/a?aaeue iieo/eoue io eeeaioia iaiaoiaeeiua aeey inouanoaeaiey oeaeae
ia?eaoeiaa aeaiiua a ai?acaei aieueoai iauaia ii n?aaiaieth n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

E?iia yoiai, eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa iio?aaeoaeue, ea?ay aieaa
aeoeaioth ?ieue a i?ioeanna ia?eaoeiaa, a neeo naiae eo/oae
inaaaeiieaiiinoe auno?aa e aa?iaa i?eieiaao ?aoaiea e naiae
iaeneiaeueiie auaiaea. I/aaeaeii, /oi yoi ia iiaeao ia i?eaanoe e
nieaeaieth oeai ia eioi?iaoeeth e iiauoaieth aa ea/anoaa, o.a. ?aiie
eioi?iaoeee noaiiaeony aieaa yooaeoeaiui.

Aanueia aaaeiie i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee oaeiaiuo e
iaaeaaeiuo nenoai acaeii?an/aoa eeeaioia e iinoaaueeia n eniieueciaaieai
Eioa?iao. I?aaenoaaeyaony, iai?eia?, iaoeaeaniia?aciui i?inoay ia?aaea/a
iiia?a e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee e ae?oaie eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee a
ioe?uooth, o.e. yoa eioi?iaoeey iiaeao ioneaaeeaaoueny.
E?eioia?aoe?iaaiea eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee nieiaao yoo i?iaeaio,
ii i?e yoii ana aea inoathony oaeea i?iaeaiu eae noieiinoue iaeeeo
ieaoaaeae e i?aauoaiey e?aaeeoa. A ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau ?yaeii
?ac?aaio/eeia i?aaeeaaaaony aa?eaio o.i. oeeo?iaiai iaee/iiai ?an/aoa
(Medvinsky and Neuman 1993; Rose 1994), eiaaea oe?ia – aaie ioe?uaaao
n/aoa ia eioi?ua eeeaiou iiaoo ia?aaiaeeoue e nieiaoue n ieo
ae?ooaeueiua “iiiaou” n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiuo aeey
Eioa?iao i?ia?aii-“digi-cash” eee “e-cash”, eniieuecothueo nenoaio
ia?ieae e e?eioia?aoe?iaaiea.

Neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi ia?yaeo n auoaneacaiiui, aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaao iaee/ea yooaeoeaiuo e oaeiaiuo “eioaeeaeooaeueiuo” n?aaenoa
iaaeaaoeee a oii iienoeia aane?aeiai “ii?a” eioi?iaoeee e eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaeeiaeaiee, eioi?ia oaea nae/an i?aaenoaaeyao niaie Eioa?iao. Aanueia
oaea/iuie i?eia?aie a yoii iai?aaeaiee yaeythony The Global Network
Navigator e eioa?aeoeaiue Special Connections List ioaeeeoaiue Neiooii
ssiiaui (Scott Yanoff), a oaeaea ?yae io?aneaauo eaoaeiaia, iai?eia?, ii
aaeaeinie/aneie oaiaoeea (Aerospace Engineering: A Guide to Internet
Resources) eee eiaanoeoeeyi (All the Investment Links. Direct links to
all the resources in the PFC Investment Index). I?e yoii ia?eaoieiaai
neaaeoao i?enoaeueii eco/aoue iiaeoiaeu e i?eaiu, eniieuecoaiua
“eneooaiiuie” a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iienea eeeaioaie i?e ?aaioa n
oaeeie eaoaeiaaie.

Iiaua aiciiaeiinoe iio?aaeoaeae a /anoe eiio?iey iaae eioi?iaoeeiiiui
iaiaiii, iai?eia?, auee eniieueciaaiu oe?iie Digital Equipment, eiaaea
iia i?eaeaneea anao aeaeathueo i?eiyoue o/anoea a aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo
eniuoaieyo naiae iiaie nenoaiu Alpha AXP a eioa?aeoeaiii ?aaeeia /a?ac
Eioa?iao. Ae?oaei i?eia?ii iiaeao iineoaeeoue niaianoiia oi?aaeaiea ec
?aciuo iano iiaeaeueth ia?nioiaea, ?ac?aaioaiiiai a ?innee, i?e/ai e
eniuoaieyi auee aeiiouaiu naiua ?aciua eaoaai?ee aeaeathueo, ia/eiay io
nio?oaeieeia NASA e eii/ay oeieueiuie o/eoaeyie e nooaeaioaie.

Eioa?iao oaeaea a iaeioi?ie noaiaie ono?aiyao ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aieueoei
e iaeui aecianii, ianoiuie e anaie?iuie ei?ii?aoeeyie,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiui e i?iiuoeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e iicaieyao
i?iieeiooue ia ?uiie i?aeoe/anee anai aeaeathuei.

2.2.4 Iniiaiua eeeaiou a Eioa?iao

Yoi, eiia/ii, i?aaeaea anaai, e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
aeeth/ay ?ac?aaio/eeia aunieeo oaoiieiaee, oe?iu – i?iecaiaeeoaee
eiiiuethoa?ia e i?aoaoieee, iaooyiua eiiiaiee, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea
eiiiaiee, i?aaei?eyoey cae?aaiio?aiaiey, oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey e
aaiee. ?ino iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiie iaeioi?uie ec yoeo eiiiaiee eioi?iaoeee
i?aauoaao 100% a eaa?oae. Ii aeaiiui National Science Foundation (NSF,
NOA) oaeea oe?iu eae Xerox, Bell, LSI Logic eiatho io /aou?ao aei oanoe
n eeoiei ouny/ eiiiuethoa?ia n iinoiyiiui auoiaeii a Eioa?iao.

Neacaiiia auoa aiana ia icia/aao, /oi oieueei eiaeono?eaeueiua aeaaiou
iiaoo eniieueciaaoue Eioa?iao. Iiiaeanoai iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e /anoiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iieuecothony oneoaaie Eioa?iao /a?ac iaaei?iaeo
iin?aaeieeia.

A ?innee oaeiauie iin?aaeieeaie, i?aaeaea anaai, yaeythony oceu Aeaiin
Iethn e oaea oiiieiaaoeeny ocae ?AEEII, a a NOA eiaaony oeaeue ?yae
iin?aaeieeia,

iai?eia?, Delphi eee America Online.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1993 aiaea ieiei noa aaaeoueo aeo?iaeia ia/aee
iiiauaoue a Eioa?iao naie iaeaaeaiey e iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua noaouee e
iaci?u, a oaeie aeo?iae eae Bites and Bytes Online aaeaaeiaaii ioaeeeoao
naith iieioth yeaeo?iiioth aa?neth a Eioa?iao.

Naii neiai Eioa?iao ca iineaaeiea o?e aiaea noaei neiaieii. Aieaa 54
Oi?aiauo Ia?ie, niaea?aeaueo neiai Eioa?iao ca?aaeno?e?iaaii a Neoaeaa
Iaoaioia e Oi?aiauo Ia?ie NOA. E i?eia?o, yoi Oi?aiaua Ia?ee nenoai
yeaeo?iiiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo aeey oeiainiauo neoaea, oeaio?ia iao/aiey
e eiinoeueoaoeee e eiiiuethoa?iuo eiiioieeaoeee.

E?oiiaeoea oeiainiaua einoeooou, oaeea eae J.P.Morgan & Co., Lehman
Brothers, Pane Webber, a oaeaea Federal Reserve Board (NOA) eniieuecotho
Eioa?iao. Ii aeaiiui oiiieiaaoaainy oaea NSF yoe eiiiaiee a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iieo/atho ec Eioa?iao iauaiu eioi?iaoeee, a aeanyoee ?ac
i?aauoathuea iinueaaiua a Eioa?iao eie naieie. Yoi aeaao iniiaaiea
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi iie eniieuecotho Eioa?iao aeey i?iaaaeaiey naieo
nianoaaiiuo oeiainiauo enneaaeiaaiee.

2.2.5 Eiieo?aioeey a Eioa?iao

Aiciiaeiinoue ?aniieaaaoue naiie iineaaeiae eioi?iaoeeae i ?uiea e
naieo

aiciiaeiinoyo ia iai eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeia aeey aecianiaia.

Eioa?iao iicaieyao inouanoaeoue yoi n iiiiuueth o.i. discussion lists –
aeeneonneiiiuo a?oii, ian/eouaathueo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii ioeaieai
yenia?oia

ii?yaeea 3000. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo iinayuaiu aii?inai ia?eaoeiaa,
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, public relations, eniieueciaaieth aunieeo
oaoiieiaee e iaoa?eaeia e aii?inai eiio?iey ea/anoaa (total quality
managment). Oae, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaeanoai oe?i eniieuecotho Eioa?iao
a oeaeyo oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e ianeoaeeaaiey, iaoiaey a
?yaea neo/aaa iiaua eaeae e aeaaea eiie?aoiua iooe eo ?aaeecaoeee.

No?aoaaey iienea eiieo?aioiie eioi?iaoeee a Eioa?iao aeeth/aao a naay
neaaeothuea iniiaiua oaae:

1. Auai? oaeaeaiiiai naaa?a, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo e?aoeea aiiioaoeee ii

eioa?anothuae oaiaoeea e iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue iiene ii eeth/aaui

neiaai. I?eia?u: NewsFlash a naoe NewsNet, Dow Jones
News/Retrieval.

2. Eco/aiea aiaeeoe/aneeo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iaci?ia ii eiieo?aioai.

3. Eco/aiea i?ann-?aeecia, ioaeeeoaiuo eiieo?aioaie.

4. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec eiieo?aioia e nianoaaiiie eiiiaiee ii
neaaeothuei

iieacaoaeyi: eo?nu aeoeee, aeioiae, iai?io e o.i.

5. ?aaoey?iia iaaethaeaiea ca eiieo?aioaie e eo i?iaeoeoeeae.

6. Eco/aiea oaiaeaioeee a io?anee. Iiene aiciiaeiuo “aaeuo iyoai” e
ieo.

7. O?aiaiea e a?oeae?iaaiea iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee ia aei/anoa?a aeey

aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey.

2.2.6 Ia?aoiay naycue e iiaeaea?aeea eeeaioia

Iiieii anaai i?i/aai Eioa?iao iiaeao iiii/ue eeeaioai e iieoiaoaeyi
iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeiua eiinoeueoaoeee e iiaeaea?aeeo io
oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae e na?aeniuo neoaea a ethaia a?aiy aeiy e ii/e.

Iiiaea oe?iu nicaeatho o.i. Bulletin Board Services (BBS) aeey
iieueciaaoaeae, eoaea iiiauatho ioaaou ia iaeaieaa /anoi caaeaaaaiua
aii?inu (FAQs, frecquently asked questions), oai naiui eniieuecoy BBS
eae eino?oiaio ia?eaoeiaa. Iai?eia?, Microsoft Corp. i?aaeinoaaeyao
naiei eeeaioai Aaco Ciaiee, niaea?aeauoth aiaeec eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ia
eniieueciaaiey (case-study examples) i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu, i?aeoe/aneea
niaaou, eioi?iaoeeth i iiaiaaaaeaieyo e ae?oaea noaouee i i?iaeoeoeee
oe?iu Microsoft, ?aciauaiioth ia na?aa?a ftp.microsoft.com. Yoa
eioi?iaoeey oaeaea aeinooiia ii eieaoi?o http://www.microsoft.com, eee
ia gopher-na?aa?a gopher.microsoft.com.

2.2.7 Naeaeee /a?ac Eioaiiao

Iaeioi?ua eiiiaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho naiei eeeaioai aiciiaeiinoue ia
oieueei ?acianoeoue caeac iaiin?aaenoaaiii /a?ac Eioa?iao, ii e
iieo/eoue /a?ac Eioa?iao aioiaue i?iaeoeo (anee yoi eioi?iaoeeiiiue eee
i?ia?aiiiue i?iaeoeo). Aeey yoiai eeeaioo aeinoaoi/ii niiaueoue oieueei
caeiaee?iaaiiue iiia? e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee. Naoue i?aaeinoaaeyao
aiciiaeiinoue e?eioia?aoe?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee oaeiai ?iaea , e?iia oiai,
nouanoaoao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?yae i?iaeoia nicaeaiey a Eioa?iao
naiinoiyoaeueiie nenoaiu yeaeo?iiiuo acaeii?an/aoia.

Ianiio?y ia iaeeea aiciiaeiinoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo Eioa?iao a noa?a
aeciana, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aeey aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae yoa
i?aeoeea

ia?aie/aia neaaeothuei aeaeaie:

* Nicaeaiea ia?eaoeia-na?aa?a a i?aaeaeao oe?iu e ?aciauaiea ia iai

eioi?iaoeee aeey eeeaioia e iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?oia?ia, a o./.
aiiinia,

i?aen-eenoia, iienaiee oiaa?a e o.ae.

* Nicaeaiea aac aeaiiuo iauaai aeinooia.

* Nicaeaiea Multimedia-i?iaeoeoia e ?aciauaiea eo ia oaee-na?aa?ao

* Eniieueciaaiea aeeno?eaooeaiuo nieneia (Listserv) a oeaeyo
ia?eaoeiaa

* Nicaeaiea eiioa?aioe-a?oii a nenoaia Usenet

* Aiiine?iaaiea i?iaeoeoa a nenoaia Usenet e ii/oiauo nieneao

2.2.8 Iniaaiiinoe aeiaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa a Eioa?iao

A ethaii eiiia?/aneii i?aaei?eyoee, aoaeue oi o?aaeeoeeiiiue iaaacei
eee yeaeo?iiiue, iniiaiui neaaaaiui oniaoa yaeyaony ieai ia?eaoeiaa,
?ac?aaioaiiue e aiaae?aiiue aeaaeaeueoeai eiiiaiee. Iio?aaothony
aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey eae a Naoe, oae e ca aa
i?aaeaeaie.

Caaua i iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoyo iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iao, neoaeaueo ii?ie
i?e/eiie aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee, eo eoeueoo?a e i?eau/iie iaia?a
iauaiey, iiaeii aeiionoeoue aoi?oth ioeaeo, ?aeeaie?oy naie iaaacei n
iiiiuueth ?annueee ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa anai, eoi oieueei ano?aoeony
on-line, aan/eneaiiuo niiauaiee i aai ioe?uoee. Yoi i?eaaaeao e
oe?ieiianooaaiiio e iaiaaeeaiiiio «iaeacaieth» ni noi?iiu oao
iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ua oa?iaoue ia iiaoo eiiia?oeeth a Naoe. Anoue,
iaeiaei, e ei??aeoiua niiniau ?aeeaiu naiaai aeciana ia Eioa?iao.

Eioa?iao iacuaatho ecaeaoaeueneei oaiiiaiii 90-o, /oi eaeoo nii?u i
aeeyiee yoie naoe ia eiiia?oeeth a neaaeothuai noieaoee. Aieaa iieiaeiu
eiiiaiee, aoiaeyueo a nienie 500 e?oiiaeoeo oe?i NOA «Fortune 500»,
eniieuecotho Eioa?iao, e anoue noaoenoeea, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i
oaiiiaiaeueiii ?inoa Naoe. Iaeuecy ia ciaoue eae i iiioey?iinoe nenoaiu
World Wide Web, ian/eouaathuae naaiaeiy aieaa 37 000 aae?ania, oae e ia
oneeeyo, i?aaei?eieiaaiuo aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiie ia?aaea/e aaaeiie
eioi?iaoeee (iai?eia?, ii e?aaeeoiui ea?oai), /oi i?inoi iaiaoiaeeii
aeey ?acaeoey eiiia?oeee a Naoe. Iai?eia?, Netscape Communications —
aaaeouee i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey ?aaiou a Eioa?iao
— oaea i?aaeeaaaao i?iaeoeou, ?aaioathuea ii oaoiieiaee eeeaio-na?aa? e
nicaeaiiua aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e; e?iia oiai, iiiaeanoai eiiiaiee
?ac?aaaouaaao aaciianiua nenoaiu yeaeo?iiiuo ieaoaaeae.

Iaaei oiaoue i?aaenoaaeoue ia ?uiea oiaa?u e oneoae; iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea
?aoeoue ana naycaiiua n yoei caaea/e: naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea,
ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae a oeaeaauo naaiaioao e niiniaa
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a, naycue n iio?aaeoaeyie (ae?oaeie neiaaie,
?aeeaia).

Iiiyoea ia?eaoeiaa a Eioa?iao inoaaony iaeiaiaa eco/aiiui e
i?aaenoaaeyao aeaaioth i?iaeaio oe?iu, ?aoeaoae caieiaoueny eiiia?oeeae
a yoie iaeanoe. E oioy a?yae ee eoi-ieaoaeue a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai
niiaeao aeaoue /aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea aeaiiiai oa?ieia (oae eae n?aaea
iieueciaaoaeae e oaoiieiaey aua ia ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeenue), oaea
nae/an iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue ianeieueei no?aoaaee aaaeaiey aeciana a
Naoe.

Naoue Eioa?iao nicaeaaaeanue ia n eiiia?/aneie oeaeueth, a aeey iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo o/aiuie. Ii eaeay aaaeaiey aeciana ia /oaeaea ae —
iia auea caeiaeaia a naiie no?oeoo?a Naoe, oioy i?eau/iua aeey ian
e?aneaua iacaaiey, oaeea eae «oi?aiaua oeaio?u», «noaiaeiaay ?aeeaia»,
«no?aoaae/aneia iieiaeaiea», i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia cia/ao a ie?a
yeaeo?iiiii. Iaoaaoea iiauo oa?ieiia e iaicia/aiee naaiaeiy oaea ia
yaeyaony a?aiaiiui iaoaeianoaii a ii?aaeaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo iiaeoiaeia,
a noaaeo ia?aae iaie aii?in «*oi oaeia ia?eaoeia?», ioaa/aoue ia eioi?ue
ioaeii niaa?oaiii ii-iiaiio.

Neaaeothuee ia?aa?ao ?anneacuaaao i i?iaeaiao, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony
ia?eaoieia, — i?iaeaiao, aeaeathueo iaaiciiaeiui iau/iue iiaeoiae, — e
i?aaeeaaaao aeueoa?iaoeaiua iaoiaeu aaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee
ia iiaii ?uiea. Oioy aieueoeinoai i?eia?ia, i?eaaaeaiiuo ieaea, oyaioaao
e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea, iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iiaoo n oniaoii i?eiaiyoueny
aeey oi?aiaee oiaa?aie i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie.

2.2.9 Niune i?iaeai, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony ia?eaoieia

Iiae ia?eaoeiaii iau/ii iiae?acoiaaaaony eco/aiea ?uiea (?acia?ia,
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee, iio?aaiinoae) aeey ?aciauaiey i?iaeoeoa,
ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu, aa?iyoiuo iieoiaoaeae e au?aaioee niiniaia iauaiey n
iineaaeieie. Iiyoiio /aeiaae, caieiathueeny ia?eaoeiaii a Eioa?iao,
iau/ii noaeeeaaaony ni neaaeothueie i?iaeaiaie: iaecaanoiuie ?acia?aie
?uiea, ianneaiinoueth iieoiaoaeae e iaciaieai iio?aaeoaeae.

1) Iaecaanoiua ?acia?u ?uiea

I iieueciaaoaeyo Eioa?iao iu ciaai i/aiue iaei. Iu aeaaea ia iiaeai
aieaa eee iaiaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue eo /enei. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
ioeaiea ?acia?a Eioa?iao, i?eiaaeeaaeauay Internet Society,
ii?aaeaeyaony eae /enei iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe oceiauo eiiiuethoa?ia. A
ethea 1996 aiaea eo auei 13 ieeeeiiia (ia naiii aeaea yoi eeoue /anoue
Naoe), i?e yoii ca ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1996 aiaea yoi /enei oaaee/eeinue
ia 35 %. Au/eneeoue eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae a caaeneiinoe io na?aa?ia
oae, /oiau ?acoeueoao niioaaonoaiaae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii. Ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieueciaaoaeae
Naoe ii?yaeea 50 ieeeeiiia.

Io, a eae ianoiyo aeaea a ?innee? I?eaaaeai auaea?aeeo ec yeaeo?iiiiai
aeo?iaea Computer Week-Moscow (CW-Moscow, 34-35, 1996,
http://www.ritmpress.ru/ it/talk/Ol.htm):

«A iaoae no?aia, aeaaea ii naiui niaeui ioeaieai, eiee/anoai
iieueciaaoaeae yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou ia i?aauoaao 500 oun., a “Anaie?iie
iaooeiu” — 50 oun. /aeiaae. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi e a
?innee oaea anoue ?aaeiiu, a /enea eioi?uo Iineaa, Iaoa?ao?a,
Iiaineae?ne, ss?ineaaeue, Iiaai?iae, aaea a Eioa?iao ?aaioatho ia
oieueei eiiiuethoa?iua niaoeeaeenou. A /anoiinoe, a ss?ineaaneie iaeanoe
e Anaie?iie naoe iiaeeeth/aii nauoa 30 naeueneeo oeie. N iiiiuueth
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/iiai oiiaea Ni?ina ii anae no?aia oaaee/eaaaony
eiee/anoai oieaa?neoaoia, a eioi?uo ac?aueaaaony iiaia iieieaiea
iieueciaaoaeae Eio??iao— aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia e,
aoaeai iaaeayoueny, ninoiyoaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoia e oneoa.
Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth Eioa?iao eae iiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u
ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi caeanue iiea ia aeaenoaoao
iniiaiie i?eioeei ?uii/iie yeiiiieee: ni?in ?iaeaeaao i?aaeeiaeaiea.
Iiuo iiiaeo no?ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ia iio?aaeoaeue ii?aaeaeyao
iauai oeeo?iauo oneoa. Iai?ioea, iinoaaueee e i?iecaiaeeoaee i?eoiaeyo e
auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ani?uaiooue ia iiaeiiaeeo iooiaeyuaai yeni?anna
“Eioa?iao”. E iauyniyaony yoi ia oieueei aii?inaie i?anoeaea, ii e
iianaieai, /oi eo/oea ianoa ia yoii ia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea ?anoaaoatho
ae?oaea.

E?iia oiai, i?iecaiaeeoaee oiaa?ia e i?yiua iinoaaueee oneoa iaaeathony
n iiiiuueth iiaiai eaiaea aeeno?eaooeee ecaaaeoueny io niiia
iin?aaeieeia, eioi?ua caiieiieee aei?iao e ?icie/iiio oi?aiaoeo e
iio?aaeoaeth. A aeieeaaea “Io iin?aaeieea e II i?iiaaeooi/iiai neiy”
enneaaeiaaoaeueneie eiiiaiee Meta Group i?iaiice?oaony, /oi aeaaiaea?y
ae?ooaeueiiio eaiaeo iiiaea ec ieo, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeeno?eauethoi?u, no?aoiaua aaaiou e aoi?e/iua ?ani?ino?aieoaee
oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa, iioa?ytho enoi/iee aeioiaea».

Anee i ?acia?ao Eioa?iao (e, a /anoiinoe, WWW) iiaeii neacaoue oieueei,
/oi iie «i/aiue aaeeee» e «i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe», oi eae ioeaieoue
aeaiia?aoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iieueciaaoaeae naoe? Eiuie neiaaie, eae
ociaoue iio?aaiinoe iaecaanoiiai ?uiea? *oi, a eiioea eiioeia,
i?iaeaaaoue? Ioaao, eae au oaea, iaaa?iia, aeiaaaeaeenue, oio aea:
iaecaanoii. Iaeii ec enneaaeiaaiee iieacaei, /oi 95 % iieueciaaoaeae
ninoaaeytho ioae/eiu a aic?anoa io 22 aei 30 eao, oi anoue nooaeaiou e
iaaeaaiea auioneieee aocia. Iiyaeaiea iiauo yeaeo?iiiuo oneoa, eiia/ii
aea, neeueii eciaieo yoe oeeo?u (e, nei?aa anaai, a eo/ooth noi?iio).

2) Ianneaiinoue iio?aaeoaeae

Aeinoaoi/ii ee ciaoue, /oi iio?aaeoaeae «iiiai» e «eo /enei ?anoao»?
Eae i?aaeei (eiaaony a aeaeo ?aciiaeaeiinoe aeciana), oi/iua oeeo?u —
«neieueei» e «eae auno?i» — ia ioaeiu. A eiioea eiioeia, ?anoiaeu ia
iiaeeeth/aiea e Eioa?iao ii n?aaiaieth n cao?aoaie ia ioe?uoea
ianoiyuaai iaaaceia e iieaoo o?oaea ?aaioieeia ioiineoaeueii iaaaeeee.

Ianoiyuea i?iaeaiu aicieeatho, eiaaea au iuoaaoanue niiaueoue
(iaecaanoii eiio!) i naiai nouanoaiaaiee e i?iaeoeoeee. Naaiaeiyoiea
aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo — yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa e aeinee iauyaeaiee
(oaeaeiioa?aioeee) — aaniethoii iai?eaieaiu aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey oaeie
eioi?iaoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii /aoei iiieiaoue, /oi oiaa?u e oneoae iaeuecy
?aeeaie?iaaoue a Naoe oae aea, eae ii oaeaaeaeaieth, oi anoue i?yii e
ianoie/eai. I?aaeeiaeaiey naiae i?iaeoeoeee a iiaeiaiie oi?ia e yaiia
i?iaeaeaeaiea naiiai naay ia iiiu?ythony. Ia?ooaiea iaienaiuo i?aaee
iaiaaeeaiii i?eaiaeeo e ?aaeoeee ni noi?iiu iieueciaaoaeae — ia?ooeoaey
«naeeaatho», eiuie neiaaie, aio iinueatho ouny/e inoaeaeathueo niiauaiee
ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa. Ia?iiiue iauai eioi?iaoeee niiniaai auaanoe ec
no?iy naoue iieueciaaoaey, eioi?ay ieaaeaony ia a ninoiyiee ni?aaeoueny
n ia?aaioeie oaeiai eiee/anoaa niiauaiee. Yoi ioiaueao o ia?ooeoaey
anyeia aeaeaiea eiaoue aeaei n Eioa?iao. Iieueciaaoaee iiaoo oaeaea
iauyaeoue aieeio oiaa?ai e oneoaai eiiiaiee e aiiaua ia?anoaoue
naycuaaoueny n iae ii Naoe. E oae nianai ?aaeei, ii ana aea neo/aaony e
oaeia, /oi ia?ooeoaeth ee/ii aeinoaaeytho ianno aaniieienoaa oaeaoiiiuie
caiieaie /ana a aeaa ii/e aeiiie, auciaaie ii iaeaeaea?o, caiieaie ia
?aaioo.

Anee iau/iue ia?eaoeiaiaue iiaeoiae a yoie n?aaea ia ?aaioaao, oi eae
aea i?aaenoaaeoue naie oiaa? eee oneoao oe?ieie ioaeeea? Iaeioi?ua,
iai?eia? yeaeo?iiiue iaaacei «Hotwired» aeo?iaea «Wired», i?iaiaaee
i?iaeaaaoue ianoi iiae ?aeeaio a yeaeo?iiiuo ioaeeeaoeeyo. Ecia?aaeaiea
eiiiaiee e aeia?oaenoiaay naycue aeiaaaeyeenue ia no?aieoeo a iaaeaaeaea
ia oi, /oi /eoaoaeue ia oieueei caiiiieo iacaaiea oe?iu, ii e ia?aeaeao
e aa no?aieoea e naeaeaao iieoieo. Aieaa oiai, a Eioa?iao nouanoaoao
aieaa noa ianoiyueo oi?aiauo oeaio?ia, i?aaeinoaaeythueo aae?ana
anaaiciiaeiuo yeaeo?iiiuo iaaaceiia ii eaoaai?eyi. A ?yaea neo/aaa iie
aeatho iieoiaoaeyi, oaa?aei ciathuei, /oi ei ioaeii, aiciiaeiinoue eaaei
e auno?i iaeoe aeaeaaiua oiaa?u e oneoae.

?acoeueoaou oaeeo ioaeeeaoeee e ?aaiou oi?aiauo oeaio?ia, eiia/ii aea,
ia iiaoo auoue iaiauaiu, a iaaiciiaeiinoue niaa?oaoue e?oiiua naeaeee ii
niia?aaeaieyi aaciianiinoe ia iicaieyao naeaeaoue eaeea-eeai auaiaeu.

Iai?eia?, i?e nicaeaiee e?oiiaeoae aia?eeaineie eiiia?/aneie naoe
PRODIGY o/eouaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue iiaeiaiuo iia?aoeee. Iaeiaei, i?ieaey
e /a?ac ?aeeaio, e /a?ac «oi?aiaua oeaio?u», PRODIGY eciaieea no?oeoo?o
iieo/aiey aeioiaeia, eiaaea auynieeinue, /oi iieueciaaoaeyi ioaeii,
nei?aa, n?aaenoai iauaiey, iaaeaee aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oaoue iieoiee a
?aaeeia online. A a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo — oaeeo eae oi?aiaey oeaaoaie eee
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai — aeaea oee eae iaeuecy eo/oa. Oae /oi oniao
i?aaei?eyoey a Eioa?iao caaeneo ia noieueei io oiaiey oi?aiaoea
i?aaeeueii iiaeaoue naay, neieueei io oiai, ieaaeoony ee iieaciuie aai
oiaa?u eee oneoae aeey iieueciaaoaeae.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iauyniaiee, ii/aio iaeioi?ua yeaeo?iiiua iaaaceiu
oa?iyo iaoaea/o (caeanue ia o/eouaaaony yaiua iaaeinoaoee: ieioie
iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen, iaoaaoee a?aoeee, iaoaeiaiiai iaoaiecia
ioi?ieaiey caeacia, iaaiciiaeiinoe iieaou iaee/iuie e oae aeaeaa).
Iaeiaei, eae i?aaeei, iiaaaeaiea iieoiaoaeae iaoneaaeeaaaony
neaaeothueie iiiaioaie:

• i?eau/ee: «Iau/ii y aeaeath iieoiee (oeaa, iaeaaeaeo e oae aeaeaa)
nianai ia oae»;

• ianiioaaonoaea oeaee: «ss nthaea ia ca yoei i?eoae»;

• iaecaanoiinoue: «ss ia ciath, /oi oai auei, — y eneae oieueei oi, /oi
oioae iaeoe»;

• ianiaa?oainoai nenoai iienea: «Iia aue ioaeai aeaeaiiaaieoioii, ii y
ia niae?aeny i?iniao?eaaoue aeanyoue ?aciuo iaaaceiia».

Ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee — aacaoaie,
oaeaaeaeaieai e ?aaeei, — eioi?ua, ii nooe, i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
ia?aaea/e eiiia?/aneeo niiauaiee, Eioa?iao aeiaieueii ianneaai a niunea
i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaena. Au i?inoi aeaeaaoa auaaneo e
aeaeaoa iinaoeoaeae.

3) Iaciaiea iio?aaeoaeae

Anee ?acia?aeenue n iaciaieai ?aaeueiuo iauaiia ?uiea nauoa e
iio?aaeoaeueneie ianneaiinoueth, oi /oi neacaoue i ia?eaoeiaa,
iniiaaiiii ia aeinoeaioouo ?acoeueoaoao e ia?aoiie nayce n iieoiaoaeyie?
Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ia aeinoaoi/ii ee ii?aaeaeeoue iaeei ?ac ia?eaoeiaiaua
ia?ii?eyoey e i?iaiaeeoue eo, iniiauaaynue ia nianoaaiiii iiuoa, ionoue
e iaaieueoii? Iiaeii ee ia eciaiyoue, ia aaeaioe?iaaoue iieeoeeo
ia?eaoeiaa, ?aeeaio, iniiaaiioth eeoue ia iocuaao iinaoeoaeae?
Neaaeothuay eioi?iaoeey iiiiaeao ioaaoeoue ia yoe aii?inu:

• aic?ano e iie iieueciaaoaeae;

• eae iieueciaaoaee ociatho i aaoai iaaaceia;

• /oi iie euoo, iaoiaeyo ee iie ioaeiue oiaa?;

• ii/aio iie niaa?oatho (eee ia niaa?oatho) iieoiee.

2.3 ?aeeaia a Eioa?iao

2.3.1 ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiie i?ia?aiu

I?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?eaoeiaa ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia
ethaeae, aoaeue iie iieoiaoaee, i?iaeaaoeu eee ?yaeiaua a?aaeaeaia.
Ia?eaoeia no?aieony e aeinoeaeaieth iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai iio?aaeaiey
oiaa?ia e oneoa, /a?ac oaeiaeaoai?aiea iieoiaoaeae, i?aaeinoaaeyy ei
iaeneiaeueii oe?ieee auai? e iiauoaiea ea/anoaa aeecie. Yeiiiie/aneee
aea niune ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a onei?aiee ioaea/e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey eee i?aaiecaoeee, iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
ia ?uiea, iiaeeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eiaiii a eiiiaoaioeeth ia?eaoeiaa aoiaeeo naiaa?aiaiiia nicaeaiea iiauo
oiaa?ia e i?iaeaeaeaiea eo ia oao ?uieao, aaea iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo
iaeneiaeueiue eiiia?/aneee yooaeo. Eiaiii iiyoiio ia?eaoeia, eae
niaieoiiinoue neiaeeaoeony iaoiaeia eco/aiey ?uieia, ei anaio i?i/aio
aua iai?aaeyao naie oneeey ia nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo eaiaeia nauoa e
i?iaaaeaiea eiiieaeniuo ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee.

Iaeiie ec caaea/ ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony iaania/aiey oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e
noeioee?iaaiey nauo, iooai eiiaeiaoeee ?aeeaiu, ee/iie i?iaeaaee,
“Public Relations”, a oaeaea ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia. Caeanue iu
inoaiiaeiny ia iiiyoee ?aeeaia e ?anniio?ei aai iiiiae?iaiaa.

Neiai ?aeeaia i?ienoiaeeo io o?aioeocneiai neiaa “reclame”. Naia
?aeeaia, anee aiai?eoue i?inoui ycueii, neoaeeo aeey oiai, /oiau
iiiaanoeoue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie (eiiaaea anaie eiathueieny) i iiauo
oiaa?ao eee oneoaao e eo iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoaao, e iai?aaeaia ia
iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey, iiea/eaaaony niiini?ii e neoaeeo aeey
i?iaeaeaeaiey aai i?iaeoeoeee e eaeae. ?aeeaia yaeyaony /anoueth
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, ia?yaeo n iaaeeneoe e
noeioee?iaaieai nauoa. ?aeeaia iaiaycaoaeueii iaaycuaaao oiaa?
iieoiaoaeth. Eiiaaea iia i?inoi canoaaeyao aniiiieoue iineaaeiaai
eiie?aoioth ia?eo eee iacaaiea oiaa?a (oneoae) eiaaea ii aeaeaao naie
auai?. A ia/aea iio?aaeoaeue ?aoaao ec /aai auae?aoue, a oaea caoai
eaeie ia?ea ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea, ia iniiaa naiaai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
iae, noa?aioeia eee neiaeeaoaainy ia?aca eiie?aoiie ia?ee oiaa?a
(oneoae).

Yoio iaai? i?aaenoaaeaiee, a oi/iaa ?aaeoeey ia iaai, iaoneaaeeaaaony o
/aeiaaea iaee/eai iaeiiai ec o?ao oeiia iioeaaoeee – ?aoeeiiaeueiie,
yiioeeiiaeueiie e i?aanoaaiiie eee eo eiiaeiaoeeae. Aicaeaenoaea ia
?aaeoeeth iio?aaeoaey iaania/eaaaony n iiiiuueth ?aeeaiu.

No?oeoo?a ?aeeaiu niaea?aeeo neaaeothuea iyoue iniiaiuo iiiaioia:

Ai-ia?auo, yoi niiniaiinoue i?eaea/ue aieiaiea. I/aiue aaaeii
ianeieueei i?eaeaeaaony aieiaiea /eoaoaeae caaieiaeii, oaeac?eoaeae
aeaeai?yaeii. Aicaeaenoaoao ee ?aeeaia eiaiii ia oa eaoaai?ee
iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, ia eioi?ua iia ?ann/eoaia.

Ai-aoi?uo, neea aicaeaenoaey ia yiioeee iio?aaeoaeae ?aeeaiu. Eaeea
/oanoaa ?iaeaeathony o ieo i?e aeeyiee ia ?aeeaiu, ianeieueei oaea/ai
?aeeaiiue a?aoiaio e i?aaeeueii ee ii iiaeai.

A-o?aoueeo, eaeiaa neea aicaeaenoaey. Iiaaaeeo ee, aeiionoei, c?eoaeue
iinea i?iniio?a ?aeeaiu iieoiaoue yoio oiaa? eee inoaiaony neaeaoue a
e?anea, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ?aeeaia iii?aaeeny aio e anoue
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?eia?aoaiee aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

A /aoaa?ouo – yoi eioi?iaoeaiinoue. ssnii eceiaeai ?aeeaiiue a?aoiaio?
Ianeieueei aiei iieacaia iieaciinoue ?aeeaie?oaiiai iauaeoa.

E iineaaeiaa. Caoi/ao ee /aeiaae i?i/eoaoue niiauaiea eee iiniio?aoue
?aeeaiiue ?ieee aei eiioea. Ianeieueei yooaeoeaii i?eeiauaaaony aieiaiea
ethaeae.

I?ioeann ?ac?aaioee ?aeeaiu aeeth/aao, eae i?aaeei, a naay aeaa yoaia.
A ia/aea i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i no?oeoo?a ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey,
?ac?aaaouaaaony oeaio?aeueiue oacen (?aeeaiiue a?aoiaio) eioi?ie?othuee
i aaaeiaeoeo naienoaao e ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo oiaa?a, e oi?ia aai
eceiaeaiey. Caoai i?enooiatho e ?ac?aaioea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?aeeaiiiai
iaoa?eaea: ?ac?aaaouaaaony oaeno e noeeue, iiaeae?athony iiaeoiaeyuea
neiaa, oeaaoiaia ioi?ieaiea e aeecaeia?neia ?aoaiea. Neaaeoao oaeaea
o/eouaaoue /oi, eae i?aaeei, ?aeeaia auaaao aieaa yooaeoeaiie, eiaaea ia
oiaa? aic?anoaao ni?in, iaaeaee i?e aai iaaeaiee.

Auoaiienaiiua ooieoeee, a iniiaiii, auiieiytho ?aeeaiiua aaaionoaa. Iie
?aaioatho n oe?iie i?e ?ac?aaioea aa ieaia ?aeeaiu, aeeth/ay auai? oaiu,
n?aaenoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey, a?aiaie i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee,
iiaeaioiaeo naiiai ?aeeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e ae?oaea aniaeou.

IINOAIIAEA CAAeA*

Oeaeue eiiioieeaoeee,
oeaee nauoa

?AOAIEA I ?AC?AAIOEA
ATHAeAEAOA

Iaoiae en/eneaiey io iaee/iuo n?aaenoa Iaoiae eiieo?aioiiai ia?eoaoa

Iaoiae en/eneaiey “a i?ioeaioao Iaoiae en/eneaiey “enoiaey

e noiia i?iaeaae ec oeaeae e caaea/”

?AOAIEA I ?AEEAIIII ?AOAIEss I N?AAeNOAAO

IA?AUAIEE ?ANI?INO?AIAIEss EIOI?IAOeEE

Oi?ie?iaaiea eaeae ia?auaiey Ioaao, /anoiinoue, aicaeaenoaea

Eniieiaiea ia?auaiey Iniiaiua aeaeu n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey

Ioeaiea e auai? aa?eaioia ia?auaiey eioi?iaoeee

Eiie?aoiua iineoaee ?aeeaiu

IOeAIEA ?AEEAIIIE I?IA?AIIU

Eiiioieeaoeaiay
yooaeoeaiinoue

oi?aiaay
yooaeoeaiinoue

?en. 2.4 Iniiaiua ?aoaiey a noa?a ?aeeaiu

Aeey aieaa iieiiai e i?aaeeueiiai aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeeii aa
i?aaeeueii iiaeaoue aoaeeoi?ee, eioi?ay aeieaeia i?aaeeueii aini?eiyoue
e io?aaae?iaaoue ia iaa. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue iyoue
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia.

1) A iaiyoe aeieueoa oaea?aeeaaaony oa eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay auea
aini?eiyoa niciaoaeueii.

2) Iau/ii, eo/oa caiiieiaaony ia/aei e eiiaoe niiauaiey, /ai aai
na?aaeeia.

3) Iaoa?eae ?aciiia?aciue e iaiau/iue aini?eieiaaony e caiiieiaaony

eo/oa.

4) Eioi?iaoeey eo/oa caiiieiaaony, anee iia ia i?ioeai?a/eo neiaeeaoeiny
iiiyoeyi, iiaieyi, acaeyaeai.

5) Iaiaoiaeeii /oanoaiaaoue iai?aaeaiey oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiie aeecie.

2.3.2 Web-promotion: /oi ?aeeaie?oao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a Internet

Iii?iaoai auynieoue, ia eaeea aii?inu aeieaeai ioaaoeoue aecianiai,
niae?athueeny ?acianoeoue naith ?aeeaio a Internet? (Eae anaaaea eo/oa
aeaoue aa?eaiou ioaaoia – aoaeai enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi eeeaio ia ciaao
ie/aai ia Internet.)

1) Ca/ai iiiaaeiaeeanue oe?ia ?aeeaia a naoe Internet

* /oiau nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiue eieaeae naiae oe?iu eee naiae
i?iaeoeoeee;

* /oiau naeaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth i naiae oe?ia eee naiae i?iaeoeoeee
aeinooiiie

aeey nioai ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae naoe Internet, a oii /enea

aaia?aoe/anee oaeaeaiiuo;

* /oiau nie?aoeoue naie ecaea?aeee ia ?aeeaio (?aeeaia a Naoe – iaeei
ec

naiuo aeaoaauo niiniaia i?iaeaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee);

* /oiau iaania/eoue iiaeaea?aeeo naiei ?aeeaiiui aaaioai (ei ia
i?eaeaony

aiceoue n niaie eeiu aoiaaeiie ?aeeaiu, a aeinoaoi/ii ciaoue aae?an
(URL)

oe?iu a Naoe);

* /oiau ?aaeeciaaoue ana aiciiaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee i
oiaa?a:

a?aoeea, caoe, aieiaoeey, aeaeaiecia?aaeaiea e iiiaia ae?oaia;

* /oiau aai iiaee iaienaoue ienueii ia aao yeaeo?iiiue aae?an i?yii n
aaoae ia?niiaeueiie no?aieoeu ethaee, i?eoaaeoea ia iaa ii Naoe,
aaia?aoe/anee oaeaeaiiua io oe?iu;

* /oiau iia?aoeaii aiineoue eciaiaiey a naie i?aen-eeno, a
eioi?iaoeeth i naaa eee oiaa?ao, aiiine?iaaoue iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth,
iia?aoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia ?uii/ioth neooaoeeth;

* /oiau i?iaeaaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth /a?ac naoue Internet, ia
ioe?uaay iiauo oi?aiauo oi/ae.

2) Iioaioeeaeueiua iio?aaeoaee i?iaeoeoeee eeeaioa

Ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue nioeeaeueiue ii?o?ao iioaioeeaeueiiai
iio?aaeoaey i?iaeoeoeee eeeaioa (ia?niaeoeaiue naaiaio a oai?ee
ia?eaoeiaa). Ioaaoueoeoue ia aii?in: “*oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /aeiaae
(oe?ia), eioi?iio iu oioei i?iaeaoue naie oiaa? (oneoao)?” Iai?eia?,
“iiei iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeai i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony caiaaeiia
i?aaei?eyoea, ioiinyuaany e iaeiio eee n?aaeiaio aeciano, oi?aothuaa
aioeeaa?eaoii”, eee “iieiaeua ethaee, aeaeathuea i?iaanoe naie ioione a
iiaeiineiaiii iaineiiaoa “Aaneeae””. Yoo eioi?iaoeeth (ia iniaaiiinoyo
/aeiaaea eee oe?iu) iacuaatho oa?aeoa?enoeeie iioaioeeaeueiiai
iio?aaeoaey.

3) Caaea/e ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee a naoe Internet

Ioeai/ii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi eae oieueei oiaa? (oneoaa) aoaeao
i?aaenoaaeai a Naoe, aai n?aco eoiyo. Iaeiaei i?aaeaea /ai iio?aaeoaeue
i?eaeao e iunee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiee, ii aeieaeai i?ieoe /a?ac ?yae
noaaeee (“nic?aoue”).

I?e iiaeaioiaea ethaie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue
ia?eaoeiaiaoth noaaeeth, ia eioi?ie iaoiaeeony iio?aaeoaeue ii
ioiioaieth e oiaa?o (iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth ii?ina). Yoi ii?aaeaeeo, /oi
neaaeoao i?aaei?eieiaoue ia ?uiea, /oiau ia?aaanoe iio?aaeoaey ia
neaaeothuoth noaaeeth (oaae. 2.1).

Oaaeeoea 2.1

Noaaeee, i?ioiaeyuea iioaioeeaeueiui iieoiaoaeai

Iacaaiea noaaeee

Oa?aeoa?enoeea noaaeee ?aeeaiiua oneeey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ia?aoiaea ia
yoo noaaeeth

Ciaiea Iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue inaaaeiieai i oe?ia e aa oiaa?a, ii
ia iaeaaeaao ieeaeeie ae?oaeie ciaieyie eee i?aaeii/eoaao oiaa?
eiieo?aioa. ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee i

oe?ia e aa oiaa?a, cae?aieaiea a i?aaenoaaeaiee iioaioeeaeueiiai
iio?aaeoaey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eieaeaea oe?iu eee oiaa?a, naycuaay aai n
oe?iaiiui (oiaa?iui) ciaeii eee iaeiaiiaaieai oiaa?a.

I?aaeii/oaiea Iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue i?aaeii/eoaao oiaa?
eiie?aoiie oe?iu ae?oaeo oe?i. Iino?iaiea nenoaiu oaaaeeoaeueiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa

i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe

oiaa?ai eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a ii ioiioaieth e oiaa?ai eiieo?aioia.

Oaaaeaeaiea Iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue i?aaeii/eoaao oiaa? eiie?aoiie
oe?iu e oaaaeaeai, /oi oiaa? aio aeaenoaeoaeueii ioaeai. Aeieacaoaeueiay
/anoue no?ieony

ia oaaaeaeaiee ii i?eioeeio:

“Iao oiaa? ia i?inoi eo/oa

ae?oaeo – ii ioaeai aai!”

Iieoiea Iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue aioia iieoiaoue oiaa?, ii
iaiaoiaeeiu niioaaonoaothuea iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey. Ana!
Iioaioeeaeueiue

iio?aaeoaeue aioia eoieoue. Ii

iiea aai ia iiaeoieeioo

/ai-ieaoaeue, ii ana ?aaii ia

eoieo. “30% neeaeee a oa/aiea

oieueei yoiai ianyoea!”

Iaeuecy iuoaoueny canoaaeoue iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey n?aco
iieoiaoue – yoi ia?aaeueii! Ii?aaeaeeoa noaaeeth, ia eioi?ie ii
iaoiaeeony, – yoi aeaeatho eeai n iiiiuueth ii?ina, eeai iin?aaenoaii
yenia?oiiai caeeth/aiey (iai?eia?, aaoa nianoaaiiay ioeaiea, anee au
?aaioaaoa a ee/iii eiioaeoa n iio?aaeoaeai). I?ieaeeoa /a?ac ana noaaeee
– oiaaea iio?aaeoaee io aan ieeoaea ia aeaioony e au aeiaueaoanue
onoie/eauo i?iaeaae. “A?aiioiia” ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai ieeiaaea ia aa?eo
eeeaioo ia neiai, a anaaaea naiinoiyoaeueii eiio?iee?oao noaaeeth
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ioiioaiey – aaaeue iaauaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue iauai
i?iaeaae i?e aeiaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa a ?aeeaio iiaeii oieueei
ia noaaeee “iieoiea”.

4) I /ai aiai?eoue a ?aeeaia: i oe?ia eee aa oiaa?a

*oi iaaei ?aeeaie?iaaoue ia noaaeeyo “ciaiea, i?aaeii/oaiea,
oaaaeaeaiea” – oiaa? eee oe?io? Neaaeoao iiieiaoue, /oi, aeeaaeuaay
aeaiueae a ?aeeaio, ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue ia anaaaea no?aieony “i?iaeaoue”.
Eiiaaea oeaeueth yaeyaony “?acaeoea” eieaeaea oe?iu eee oiaa?a? Iiiieoa,
/oi noieiinoue oe?iu Sony, iai?eia?, cia/eoaeueii auoa noiia?iie
noieiinoe aa iiiauaiee, ioenia e iai?oaeiaaiey. Anee au caoioeoa eoieoue
yoo oe?io (eee oi?aiaoth ia?eo), aai i?eaeaony caieaoeoue aieueooth
/anoue noieiinoe ca oe?iaiiue ciae e iacaaiea – au iieoiaaoa eieaeae.
Iiiyoii oaia?ue, /oi ?aeeaia – yoi ia oieueei niinia i?iaeaoue
“naaiaeiy”, ii aua e niinia iaeiieoue eaieoae a aeaea oi?aiaie ia?ee!
Ii?aaeaeeoanue: ai /oi aeeaaeuaaoue aeaiueae?

Nouanoaotho o?e iaoiaea ?acaeoey oe?iaiiiai eee oiaa?iiai eieaeaea
(oaae. 2.2).

Oaaeeoea 2.2

Iaoiaeu ?acaeoey oe?iaiiiai eee oiaa?iiai eieaeaea

Total Brand ?acaeaaaony oieueei eieaeae oe?iu, iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi o
iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey ioaeii noi?ie?iaaoue iuneue: “ana, /oi
i?iaeaao oe?ia n oaeei iacaaieai, eiaao aunieia ea/anoai e i?eaieaioth
oeaio”. Aeaiueae aeeaaeuaathony a ?aeeaio oe?iu, a ?acaeoea oe?iaiiiai
ciaea oe?iu. Iiaeoiaeeo aeey noia?ia?eaoia, iioiauo oe?i, a iniiaiii,
i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee.

Unique Brand ?acaeaaaony eieaeae “oieeaeueiiai” oiaa?a (eee
oiaa?iie a?oiiu), oi?ie?oaony oieeaeueiay oiaa?iay ia?ea,
iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi iio?aaeoaeth ia aaaeii, eoi i?iecaiaeeo oaeie
“caia/aoaeueiue oiaa?”. Aeaiueae aeeaaeuaathony a ?acaeaaaiue oiaa?.
*aua iiaeoiaeeo aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeeaaeuaathueo aeaiueae
a iaoeo e ?ac?aaioee.

Total-unique Brand Iauaaeeiaiu aeaa i?aaeuaeouea no?aoaaee – ?acaeaaaony
eieaeae e oiaa?a e oe?iu. I?e yoii nei?inoue ?inoa oe?iu e oiaa?iuo
ia?ie acaeiinaycaia (acaeiicaiaaeeaiia i?e ia?aie/aiiinoe oeiainia), oi
anoue nouanoaoao acaeiiaeeyiea.

Eoae, iu ii?aaeaeeee “noaaeeth iio?aaeoaey” ii ioiioaieth e oiaa?o,
“oa?aeoa?enoeee iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey” e oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
?acaeaaoue (oiaa? eee oe?io). A ?acoeueoaoa iu ciaai, /oi neacaoue
iioaioeeaeueiiio iio?aaeoaeth e i /ai. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aeaiueae ia
aua?anuaathony ia aaoa? a aeaea ?aeeaiu, eioi?ay ia oaaee/eaaao iai?io
oe?iu, e i?e yoii iaeaieeaaaony eieaeaeaaue eaieoae.

5) Eaeoth aoaeeoi?eth iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue

Ii?aaeaeei /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii
i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue i oe?ia eee oiaa?a (aieinoue naaiaioa a i?aeoeea
ia?eaoeiaa). Ionoue yoi aoaeao yenia?oiia caeeth/aiea, anee oi/ioth
oeeo?o iieo/eoue iaeuecy. Yoa oeeo?a io?aaeaao iioaioeeaeueioth
aoaeeoi?eth. Ia iniiaa yoie oeeo?u iiaeii ?aoeoue, a eaeii ianoa ia
na?aa?a neaaeoao ?acianoeoue nnueeo ia ?aeeaiiue aeie, /oiau
iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeioth iioaioeeaeueioth aoaeeoi?eth. Iinauaaiinoue
oie eee eiie ?aeeaiiie no?aieoeu caaeneo io oiai, eaeea no?aieoeu
na?aa?a nnueathony ia ?aeeaio – iiioey?iua eee ia i/aiue.
Nnueeaauaeyaeeo a aeaea ea?oeiee eee oaenoa, “iaaeaa” ia eioi?ue
iio?aaeoaeue ia?aoiaeeo e ?aeeaiiie no?aieoea. Iiioey?iua no?aieoeu
aeatho aieueoaa eiee/anoai iinauaiee, ii e niioaaonoaaiii aei?iaea
noiyo.

Noieiinoue ?aeeaiiuo oneoa o ?acee/iuo i?iaaeaea?ia ?acee/aaony,
ii iaeioi?ui i?eaioe?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue oaae. 3 (oeaiu i?eaaaeaiu ii
i?aeno Web-na?aa?a eiiiaiee “Aeoen”).

Iioaioeeaeueiay Noieiinoue nnueee

aoaeeoi?ey, ia ianyoe,

/ae. a ianyoe a aeieea?ao

50000 500

10000 200

3000 50

Enoiaey ec oiai, neieueei iinaoeoaeae iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue, auaa?eoa
nnueeo n niioaaonoaothuae no?aieoeu. Oioy a i?eioeeia-oi eeeaioo e
ciaoue ia ioaeii, aaea nnueee aai ?aciauathony, – aai aeieaeii
eioa?aniaaoue oieueei aa?aioe?iaaiiia eiee/anoai ia?auaiee.

6) Eae ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu a Internet

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu a naoe Internet, aaconeiaii, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny oieueei iaeiei – auiieiaieai caaea/, iai?yioth naycaiiuo
n ninoiyieai iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey. Iie auee noi?ioee?iaaiu,
eiaaea ii?aaeaeyeinue, ia eaeoth noaaeeth iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaiaeeoue
iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey. E oaeo ia?aaiaea aai ia yoo noaaeeth
io?aaeaao auiieiaiea iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e. Eae aai auyaeoue? Aeaoiy
niiniaaie:

1) Aiaeecii noaoenoeee na?aa?a e eiee/anoaa ia?auaiee e ?aeeaiiui
no?aieoeai.

2) Ii?inii (eee yenia?oiie ioeaieie) iioaioeeaeueiie aoaeeoi?ee
aeey auyniaiey, “ciaao ee” iia oaea i ?aeeaie?oaiie oe?ia eee oiaa?a oi,
/oi auei iaiaoiaeeii aeiianoe aei iaa.

Io/ao i eiee/anoaa ia?auaiee e na?aa?o – yoi noaiaea?oiay
i?ioeaaeo?a, eioi?ay eaaei i?iecaiaeeony ii eaaeaeiio eeeaioo.

Aaaeii io?aceoue ia oieueei iauaa eiee/anoai ia?auaiee, ii oaeaea
ia?eaoeiaiaoth eioi?iaoeeth i no?oeoo?a eeoe, iinaoeaoeo ?aeeaiioth
no?aieoeo.

Oaeei ia?acii, eeoue iieo/ea ioaaou ia ana auoai?eaaaeaiiua aii?inu,
iiaeii iaauaoue eeeaioo ianoiyuee Web-promotion aai oiaa?ai eee oe?ia.

AEAAA 3

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee

ia i?eia?a na?aa?a “ Aeoen ”

3.1 N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ?aeeaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe na?aa?a Eioa?iao ii
ioiioaieth e o?aaeeoeiiiui ia/aoiui n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee

Oaaeeoea 3.1

Eiiieaeniay iao?eoea n?aaieoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae ii n?aaenoaai ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee

Aaeaiaaeaeueiay

aoaeeoi?ey ca

ianyoe Aaeaiaaeaeueiay

aoaeeoi?ey ca

iaaeaeth Aoaeeoi?ey

1 iiia?a Noieiinoue 1 ea. ni. Noieiinoue iaueyaeaiey 25 ea. ni.
Oaeaeueiay noieiinoue ?aaeueiiai eiioaeoa

Na?aa? “Aeoen”

4362

0,94 0,0002

Aeaeiaie Iaoa?ao?a 60,7

15175 3,0 75,0 0,0049

SPb times 2,9

725 3,7 92,5 0,1276

Iaaeaeaeeiinoue NIa 28,9

7225 2,8 70,0 0,0097

Eiiia?naio-Daily

69,4 17350 5,0 125,0 0,0072

Aeaei 11,6

2900 3,0 75,0 0,0259

Yeiiiieea e

AEeciue(NIa) 26

6500 3,4 85,0 0,0131

Oaeaaeaeaiea e ?aaeei 291,1

72775 4,1 102,5 0,0014

AeO 1355,4

338850 5,8 121,5 0,0006

Oaeaaee 138,7

34675 6,1 152,5 0,0044

Eaeaeaeineii 1234

308500 5,2 130,0 0,0004

Iao?ianeee Eo?uea? 1635,8

408950 3,5 87,5 0,0002

Aanoe 75,1 18775 3,2 80,0 0,0043

Iaaneia A?aiy

112,7 28175 3,4 85,0 0,0030

Niaia

106,9 26725 2,7 67,5 0,0025

Aa/a?iee NIa

196,5 49125 3,5 87,5 0,0018

*an Iee

98,3 24575 2,5 62,5 0,0025

NIa Aaaeiiinoe

812,1 203025 3,8 95,0 0,0005

Oain aeey anao 537,5

134375 6,5 162,5 0,0012

Ec ?oe a ?oee 75,1

18775 2,8 70,0 0,0037

Anoie

395,9 98975 5,0 125,0 0,0013

?aeeaia-Oain 150,3

37575 5,5 137,5 0,0037

Oeaio?+ 1577,9

394475 9,5 237,5 0,0006

Yeno?a Aaeo 1447,9

361975 11,0 275,0 0,0008

Ii aeaiiui “Ye?i-RG” (“NIE: Aoaeeoi?ee e ?aeoeiae” auione 4 (16)
Aeaeaa?ue 1997) /enei /eoaoaeae ecaeaiee – “aoaeeoi?ey ca ia?eiae
(iaaeaey, ianyoe, /aou?a ianyoea) – iauaa eiee/anoai ethaeae oioy au ?ac
ia?aoeaoeony e aeaiiiio ecaeaieth”) aoaeeoi?ey i?eaaaeaia ca iaaeaeth
aeey aaeaaeiaaiuo ecaeaiee (“auoiaeyueo 3-5 ?ac a iaaeaeth”), ca ianyoe-
aeey aaeaiaaeaeueiuo (ecaeaiey, auoiaeyuea 2-8 ?ac a ianyoe”).

Aeey n?aaieoaeueiie ioeaiee aue aua?ai na?aa? Aeoen, ii eioi?iio
eiaaony iaeaieueoee iauai noaoenoeee o enneaaeiaaoaeae. Niaeanii
noaoenoeea ii na?aa?o “Aeoen” iiaeii iaaa?iyea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
eiee/anoai iinaoeoaeae na?aa?a ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 3500 /aeiaae a
aeaiue. Ia naiii aeaea yoi /enei ianeieueei aieueoa, ii iineieueeo
onoaiiaeoue oi/ioth oeeo?o eee iaoaieci ia?an/aoa \eiyooeoeeaiou
ia?an/aoa\ iaaiciiaeii, oi eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaa
“oinoia”, n eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeei ia?auaiea e na?aa?o.

Noieiinoue 1 ea. ni. ?aeeaiiie ieiuaaee i?eaaaeaia ii aeaiiui “Ye?i-RG”
(“NIE: Aoaeeoi?ee e ?aeoeiae” auione 4 (16) Aeaeaa?ue 1997).

Oaeaeueiay noieiinoue ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa i?eaaaeaia aeey yoeo ,
?aaeueiuo aoaeeoi?iuo eiioaeoia, a ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiii
eniieuecoaiiai iieacaoaey – ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaiey noieiinoe ?aeeaiu ia
iioaioeeaeueioth aoaeeoi?eth – oe?aae aeey ia/aoiuo ecaeaiee. Aeey
aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeia aoaeeoi?ey 1 iiia?a – iaeneioi ia eioi?ue iu iiaeai
?ann/eouaaoue, ioaeeeoy iaeii iaueyaeaiea. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue yoi
eiee/anoai, ?acaeaeei aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiiua a yoii ni?aai/ieea (aeey
aeaeaa?y) ia 4- i?e yoi ecaeaiey auoiaeyuea oioy au 5 ?ac a aeaiue aeey
aaeaaeiaaiuo eee /aua iaeiiai ?aca a iaaeaeth aeey aaeaiaaeaeueiuo
ecaeaiee – iieo/atho i?aeiouanoai. Eae ia?acaoe aeey n?aaiaiey acyoi
iaueyaeaiea ?acia?ii 25 ea.ni. a ea/anoaa ?aeeaiiiai iaueaeoa –
iiaouaai niaea?aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia aeecaeia?neia ?aoaiea, yeaiaiou
oe?iaiiiai noeey, e aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee. Oaeaea aeaiiue
iiaeoeue a ioee/ee io no?iee a oaiaoe/aneie oaaeeoea iiaeao auoue
?aniieiaeai ia ethaie no?aieoea ecaeaiey, /oi oiaea aaaeii aeey
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu. AEaeathuea iiaoo i?iecaanoe naiinoiyoaeueiue
?ann/ao aeey iaueyaeaiey ?acia?ii 36 ea.ni., oaaee/ea noiio ca iany/iia
ianeoaeeaaiea naeoa, iai?eia?, aeiaaaea 70 ?oa./ian. ca
aeiiieieoaeueioth nnueeo.

“Aeoen”- ii eiathueiny iaiieiui aeaiiui noieiinoue iaeiiai eiioaeoa ia
na?aa?a ninoaaeyao 0,00025 . I?e yoii iia neeueii eieaaeaony aeey
ioaeaeueiuo aai ?acaeaeia, ae?ooaeueiuo na?aa?ia a caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey ?acaeaeia e ae?ooaeueiuo na?aa?ia, io aeaaiinoe eo
nicaeaiey, eioaineaiinoe ia?ii?eyoee ii eo iiioey?ecaoeee a NIE e
Eioa?iao. Oae eieaaaiey ?aniieaaathony a i?aaeaeao io 0,63
(iaeiecaanoiue, iaaeaaiee e ocei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue naeo Aoiaieoa?iiai
Oieaa?neoaoa ei. Aeae. Ni?ina) aei 0,00098 – aeaaii iiioey?iue e
i?eoyaaoaeueiue naeo Russian Romance. Aeey iaania/aiey niiinoaaeiinoe
n?aaiaiey eae ne?iiiue, ii aeinoaoi/iue iaueai ?aeeaiiiai iaoa?eaea a
Eioa?iao aue acyo 1 Ia (iaueai aeinoaoi/iue aeey ?aciauaiey ia iaiaa 3o
no?aieoe oaenoa e a?aoe/aneea iaoa?eaeia) e nnueea n oaiaoe/aneiai
?acaeaea na?aa?a (no?aieoeu aoi?iai o?iaiy) n aaeaiany/iie ieaoie 100 e
70 ?oa. niioaaonoaaiii. Ni 100% aa?iyoiinoueth iiaeii aiai?eoue i oii,
/oi /eoaoaee aeaeaee iaeiaeeo ecaeaiey e iiaee caiaoeoue oai Aaoo
?aeeaio, aeinoiaa?iinoue oiai, /oi /eoaoaeue oaeaeeo, iai?eia?, 3 eee 5
no?aieoeo ecaeaiey n Aaoei iaueyaeaieai caiaoii nieaeaaony. Aeey
aaeaeaaoiinoe n?aaiaiey aeey na?aa?a “iaeiaeeie” yaeyaony aai aeaaiay –
Home no?aieoea. Nnueea n oaiaoe/aneiai ?acaeaea na?aa?a aaeaeaaoia
auaeaeaiiiio o?aaiaioo iaueyaeaiey ia 2 no?aieoea ecaeaiey,
i?eaeaeathuaai aieiaiea /eoaoaey e ianneao ?aeeaiiiai iaoa?eaea aioo?e
iiia?a. Aeey iieo/aiey noieiinoe ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa noieiinoue
iaueaeaiey auea ?acaeaeaia ia aoaeeoi?eth iaeiiai iiia?a – ?acoeueoao
noieiinoue iaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa a aeieea?ao. Aeey na?aa?a ?an/ao
i?iecaaaeai oae: noieiinoue ieieiaeueiiai iaai?a – (1 Mb + nnueea ) 170
?oa/ian., ia?an/eoaiiay e noieiinoe a aeaiue e au?aaeaiay a aeieea?ao,
ioianaia e /eneo eiioaeoia-/eneo iinaoeoaeae na?aa?a a aeaiue
(n?aaeianoaoenoe/aneia eiee/anoai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo, ioaeaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia ia?aoeaoeony e Home no?aieoea ca iaaeaeth (n?aaeiaa /enei
ca oaa?aeue n iaiaoiaeeiuie iii?aaeaie ninoaaeei 30535 /aeiaae)
?acaeaeaiiiio ia eiee/anoai aeiae a iaaeaea .

Ioeaiea ia?aiao?a oaeaeueiie noieiinoe “?aaeueiiai aoaeeoi?iiai
eiioaeoa”

?en. 3.5 A?aoee noieiinoe aoaeeoi?iiai eiioaeoa

Oaaeeoea 3.2

Noieiinoue ?aaeueiiai aoaeeoi?iiai eiioaeoa

SPb times 0,1276

Aeaei 0,0259

Yeiiiieea e AEeciue(NIa) 0,0131

Iaaeaeaeeiinoue NIa 0,0097

Eiiia?naio-Daily 0,0072

Aeaeiaie Iaoa?ao?a 0,0049

Oaeaaee 0,0044

Aanoe 0,0043

Ec ?oe a ?oee 0,0037

Iaaneia A?aiy 0,0030

*an Iee 0,0025

Niaia 0,0025

Aa/a?iee NIa 0,0018

Oaeaaeaeaiea e ?aaeei 0,0014

Anoie 0,0013

Oain aeey anao 0,0012

Yeno?a Aaeo 0,0008

AeO 0,0006

Oeaio?+ 0,0006

NIa Aaaeiiinoe 0,0005

Eaeaeaeineii 0,0004

Iao?ianeee Eo?uea? 0,0002

Na?aa? “Aeoen” 0,0002

Ioeaiea ia?aiao?a ioaaoa aoaeeoi?ee

?en. 3.6 A?aoee ioaaoa aoaeeoi?ee

Oaaeeoea 3.3

Ioaao aoaeeoi?ee

Iao?ianeee Eo?uea? 408950

Oeaio?+ 394475

Yeno?a Aaeo 361975

AeO 338850

Eaeaeaeineii 308500

NIa Aaaeiiinoe 203025

Oain aeey anao 134375

Anoie 98975

Oaeaaeaeaiea e ?aaeei 72775

Aa/a?iee NIa 49125

?aeeaia-Oain 37575

Oaeaaee 34675

Iaaneia A?aiy 28175

Niaia 26725

*an Iee 24575

Aanoe 18775

Ec ?oe a ?oee 18775

Eiiia?naio-Daily 17350

Aeaeiaie Iaoa?ao?a 15175

Iaaeaeaeeiinoue NIa 7225

Yeiiiieea e AEeciue(NIa) 6500

Na?aa? “Aeoen” 4362

Aeaei 2900

SPb times 725

Aiaeec ia?aiao?ia ioeaiee

Eoae, aeaaaeoa iiaiai?ei i aiciiaeiuo auaiaeao, eioi?ua iiaeii naeaeaoue
ec auoai?eaaaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Iu iiiuoainy ioaaoeoue ia aeaa aii?ina:

1. ssaeyaony ee na?aa? Eioa?iao n?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu?

2. A eaeeo neo/ayo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue na?aa? Eioa?iao, eae ?aeeaiiue
iineoaeue?

1. Na?aa? Eioa?iao eae n?aaenoai ?aeeaiu.

Oi?iaeueii n?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu (i?aaeeueiue oa?iei “?aeeaiiui iineoaeai”)
yaeyaony ethaia iaoa?eaeueiia eee ia iaoa?eaeueiia n?aaenoai aeinoaaee
eioi?iaoeee io iaeiiai eeoea e ae?oaiio. Ii iiae yoi ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeii
iiaeaanoe ana /oi oaiaeii. Iiyoiio iinoaaei aii?in aieaa oi/ii:
?aoeeiiaeueii ee eniieueciaaoue Eioa?iao eae n?aaenoai ?aeeaiu ia?yaeo n
ae?oaeie o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ?aeeaiiuie n?aaenoaaie (oaeaaeaeaiea, ?aaeei,
aacaou e o.i.)? *oi iiiiaeao ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in – n?aaiaiea
na?aa?a Eioa?iao ii ?yaeo o?aaeeiiiuo ?aeeaiiuo iieacaoaeae n ae?oaeie
?aeeaiiuie iineoaeyie (a ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee yoi oaeaeinue naeaeaoue
oieueei ii ioiioaieth e ia/aoiie i?anna). Eiaiii yoi e auei naeaeaii a
ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee.

A ea/anoaa aeaoo n?aaieoaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia auee aua?aiu:

“ioaao aoaeeoi?ee”

“noieiinoue aoaeeoi?iiai eiioaeoa”

Niiinoaaeaiea yoeo ia?aiao?ia aeey na?aa?a Eioa?iao e ia/aoiuo n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iieacaei eo ii?yaeeiaoth niaianoeiinoue (ia cia/eo
ee yoi, /oi iiea na?aa?a Eioa?iao ioiinyony ii naiae ?aeeaiiie nouiinoe
eae iineoaee nei?aa e i?anna /ai e ?aaeei e OA), eae ii aeeaiaciio
ioeaii/iuo ia?aiao?ia, oae e aaniethoiie aaee/eia. Eiia/ii, eae iu
iiaeai caiaoeoue a oaaeeoeao ?aeoeiaia eee ia aeeaa?aiiao, na?aa?a
Eioa?iao iienuaathony e?eoe/aneeie oi/eaie ia?iao?ia: aoaeeoi?ey
n?aaieoaeueii iaaaeeea (a ei?ioeii i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie), a noieiinoue
eiioaeoa oaeaea naiay iaeaiueeay. Ii/aio? Ana i/aiue i?inoi: ieceee
ioaao ii?aaeaeai ioiineoaeueiie ia?acaeoinoueth ?inneeneiai Eioa?iao, a
ieceay noieiinoue eiioaeoa ii?aaeaeaia n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeie
cao?aoaie ia ?aeeaio naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia na?aa?a. Oaiaeaioeey ia?aiai
ia?aiao?a i/aaeaeia – oaaee/aiea aoaeeoi?ee aieaa /ai ia 100%
aaeaaiaeii, niioaaonoaaiii, ia?aiao? “ioaao aoaeeoi?ee” aoaeao ?anoe
(eiee/anoai iinaoeoaeae na?aa?a Aeoen au?inei aieaa /ai ia 100% ca
iineaaeiea iieaiaea).

*oi ea/aaony aoi?iai ia?aiao?a “noieiinoue aoaeeoi?iiai eiioaeoa”,
nouiinoue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a ioiioaiee noieiinoe ?aeeaiiiai iiaeoey
e aoaeeoi?ee ioaaoa (niio?e aieaa iiae?iaiia iauyniaiea e eiiiaioa?ee e
?an/aoai), oi ooo ii?aaeaeythuei iineoaeeo anoanoaaiii oaeouay
eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea, eioi?ay e ii?aaeaeeo aiciiaeiua oaiaeaioeee a
noieiinoe ?aeeaiiuo aeieia.

Niaeaneaoenue n oai, /oi na?aa? Eioa?iao yaeyaony iieiioeaiiui
?aeeaiiuo iineoaeai ?anniio?ei aaee/eiu ia?iao?ia, iienuaathueo aai,
eiaiii iie ii?aaeaeytho aai noa?o eniieueciaaiey eae ?aeeaiiiai
n?aaenoaa.

2. A eaeeo neo/ayo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue na?aa? Eioa?iao, eae ?aeeaiiue
iineoaeue?

Eoae, “ioaao aoaeeoi?ee” a ei?ioeii i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie aeinoaoi/ii
iaaaeee, cia/eo eniieueciaaiea yoiai iineoaey aeey ?aaeecaoeee
e?aoeia?aiaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?ia?aii (oaeeo eae aiiine?iaaiea naciiiuo
neeaeie, iauyaeaiey i e?aoeia?aiaiiuo eiieo?nao, aunoaaie e o.i.) ia
iiaeoiaeeo. Aieaa oiai nouanoaothuay naaiaioiay (ninoaa iinaoeoaeae
na?aa?a Eioa?iao, ii aiaeiaee n ia/aoiuie NIE – aoaeeoi?ey /eoaoaeae)
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue iineoaey ia iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue aai eae
o?aaeeoeeiiiia ia/aoiia eee ?aaeei NIE ni anaie i?enoueie yoei iineoaeyi
oaiaeaioeeyie e oneiaeyie eniieueciaaiey. Ii na?ueaciia ioee/ea na?aa?ia
Eioa?iao, caeeth/athuaany a aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey ?aaeueiuo
eioa?aeoeaiuo nenoai e iaia?aie/aiiinoue ii a?aiaie eee ?aeeaiiie
ieiuaaee a i?aaenoaaeaiee oe?iu eee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyao, na?aa?
Eioa?iao eae eaeaaeueiue niinia nicaeaiey eieaeaeaaiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa oe?iu. E i?e yoii ieceay “noieiinoue aoaeeoi?iiai
eiioaeoa” ia?yaeo n naaiaioiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth, eioi?ay a
eieaeaeaaii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ia oae aaaeia, ii?aaeaeyao na?aa?
Eioa?iao, eae oieaa?naeueiue iineoaeue eieaeaeaaie ?aeeaiu.

3.2 Ioeaiea Ie?iaiai ?uiea Eioa?iao ii aeaiiui Ie?iauo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo neoaea (?uii/iue eiee/anoaaiiue e
nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneee aiaeec) ia ia/aei 1998

Ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiai oeaio?ii Computer
Intelligence (CI) (“eiiiuethoa?iua iiainoe”), a NOA aieaa 31 ieeeeiia
IE ?aaoey?ii auoiaeyo a Eioa?iao. Yoa oeeo?a aiai?eo ia oaaee/aiee
ia 108% ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeiaiaeiei eiee/anoaii IE a 15
ieeeeiiia. Eiee/anoai IE, auoiaeyueo a

Eioa?iao, aui?uaioei ec /enea IE, eniieueciaaaoeo a ia/aea 1997
aiaea iieaei-na?aen: /enei eniieueciaaaoeo iieaei oaaee/eeinue ia
25%, aeinoeaioa i?eaeeceoaeueii 23 ieeeeiiia. Aeaiiua ?acoeueoaou
acyou ec iioaeeeiaaiiiai oeaio?ii CI a 1997 aiaeo
“Iio?aaeoaeueneiai oaoiieiae/aneiai eiaeaena” (CTI) –
ananoi?iiiaai iaci?a aeaaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey oaoiieiaee n?aaee
aia?eeaineeo IE-iieueciaaoaeae aeiia, ia ?aai/ai ianoa e a
/anoiie i?aeoeea. Aeaaeaeueoeu aeiiaoieo eiiiuethoa?ia
i?iaeieaeatho ninoaaeyoue eueaeioth aeieth iieueciaaoaeae naoe
Eioa?iao, iaeiaei eiee/anoai iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe Eioa?iao IE ia
?aai/eo ianoao aanueia caiaoii oaaee/eaaaony, iiaei?uaioa n 3,6
ieeeeiiia aaeeieoe a ia/aea 1996 aiaea aei ii/oe 11 ieeeeiiia a ia/aea
1997, /oi ninoaaeyao oaaee/aiea aieaa /ai ia 200%.

Naiui aieueoei eciaiaieai, iaia?oaeaiiui CI ia ianoiyuee iiiaio,
auei oaaee/aiea /enea IE, iai?yioth niaaeeiaiiuo n Eioa?iaoii n
iiiiuueth Eioa?iao-na?aen i?iaaeaea?a (ISP) . “Iieaei-na?aen ana aua
?anoao, ii i/aaeaeii, /oi neiiaoee nianoeeenue a noi?iio Eioa?iaoa e
i?yiiai iiaeniaaeeiaiey e Eioa?iaoo, – neacae Aeaea O?aiaeae, noa?oee
aiaeeoee CI ii i?iecaiaenoao. – A oi a?aiy eae eiee/anoai IE,
?aaoey?ii iieuecothueony iieaei-na?aenii, oaaee/eeinue ia 25% – aei
23 ieeeeiiia, eiee/anoai IE, ?aaoey?ii eniieuecothueo Eioa?iao,
oaeaieeinue, ninoaaea 31 ieeeeii”. “Aiae iacaae iieueciaaoaeae
Eioa?iaoa, ia?auaaoeony e iaio /a?ac iieaei, auei a aeaa ?aca aieueoa,
/ai naycaiiuo n iei iai?yioth n iiiiuueth ISP. Oaia?ue aea
iniiaiia /enei iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa iiiaaeatho a iaai ia /a?ac
iieaei, a /a?ac ISP. E ia iioiio, /oi /enei iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa a
iieaei-na?aena ia oaaee/eeinue: yoi oaaee/aiea ninoaaeei aieaa 40%,
aeinoeaioa oeeo?u 16 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae. Yoi iauyniyaony oai,
/oi eniieueciaaiea ISP au?inei i?yii-oaee ea?aeeiaeueii – aieaa /ai
a 3 ?aca, – aei 17,6 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae”. A enneaaeiaaiee
CI, i?iaaaeaiiii ia iniiaa iiae?iaiie ienueiaiiie aieaou ec 12
no?aieoe, eioi?ay auea ?acineaia ii ii/oa 17.500 iieueciaaoaeyi IE a
NOA, iaeaieaa oiiieiaaiie a nayce n ISP Eioa?iao-neoaeaie auea
AO&O Worldnet, ca iae neaaeiaaea Netcom. Iie auee aaeeinoaaiiuie ISP,
eioi?ua ca?aaeno?e?iaaee a niaieoiiinoe aieaa ieeeeiia iieueciaaoaeae,
/oi auei iaiueoa, /ai naiay iaeaiueeay neoaeaa iieaei. Iaeiaei,
ioia/aao CI, eiieo?aioeey ca iaoeeiiaeueiua ISP enoiaeeo ia io
i?iaaeaea?ia iieaei-na?aena eee ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo ISP. Nei?aa,
iia enoiaeeo io iiiai/eneaiiuo ianoiuo i?iaaeaea?ia oneoa Eioa?iaoa,
eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeytho ieiei aeaoo o?aoae anao
iiaeeeth/aiee.

Enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia CI, iieacaei, /oi naiie
?ani?ino?aiaiiie noa?ie aeayoaeueiinoe Eioa?iaoa ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony
yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa e ia?auaiea e Web-a?aoca?o, n 26 ieeeeiiaie
iieueciaaoaeae ii eaaeaeiio ec aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Aieaa 80%
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa aeiia, ia ?aai/ai ianoa e a /anoiie i?aeoeea
iieuecothony yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie e ieiei 80% oaeaea i?iniao?eaatho
Web. Neaaeothuae iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
yaeyaony ia?aea/ea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, /oi aeaeatho
ieiei 60% iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa aeiia e a /anoiie i?aeoeea,
ii oieueei ieiei 45% iieueciaaoaeae ia ?aai/ai ianoa.

Enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia CI, onoaiiaeei, /oi ia/eiaao iaae?aoue
neeu yeaeo?iiiay oi?aiaey : 30% aeiiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae
Eioa?iaoa (yoi i?eaeeceoaeueii 4,6 ieeeeiia iio?aaeoaeae) cayaeee,
/oi caieiaeenue yoei ?ac eee aeaa. Ieiei 18% aeiiaoieo
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa niiaueee, /oi iieueciaaeenue Eioa?iaoii aeey
iieo/aiey oeiainiauo oneoa oeia home banking e oi?aiaey aeoeeyie – yoi
ieiei 2,7 ieeeeiiia iio?aaeoaeae. Ieiei 2,2 ieeeeiiia iio?aaeoaeae
(14% io aeiiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa) ioaaoeee, /oi
iieueciaaeenue Eioa?iaoii aeey i?eia?aoaiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo oneoa,
oaeeo eae iooaoanoaey eee oeaaou. Ii/oe aeaa ieeeeiia iieueciaaoaeae
(12% io aeiiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa) niiaueee, /oi
eniieueciaaee Eioa?iao aeey iieoiee auoiaie yeaeo?iieee (oaeie eae
IE, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeey IE e aoaeei/aeaeai iai?oaeiaaiea).

Enneaaeiaaiea CI iieacaei, /oi n?aaee eniieuecoaiuo a NOA
a?aoca?ia ii-i?aaeiaio aeiieie?oao Netscape Navigator, 71% io anao
a?aoca?ia, aoi?ui ii iiioey?iinoe noieo Internet Explorer eiiiaiee
Iaee?inioo. Internet Explorer ioiineoaeueii neeueiaa aue
i?aaenoaaeai a aeiiaoae e /anoii i?aeoeeothuae a?oiiao, oiaaea eae
Navigator eiae na?ueaciia i?aeiouanoai a naeoi?a ?aai/eo iano. A
n?aaiaiee n yoei, a Aa?iia aeiey Netscape ia ?uiea aeiiaoieo a?aoca?ia
a oio aea ia?eiae a?aiaie auea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.

Niaeanii iiaiio enneaaeiaaieth International Data Corporation (IDC),
aia?eeaineee ?uiie i?iaaeaea?ia oneoa Eioa?iaoa (ISP) ?anoao,
i?eniinaaeeaaynue ei anai o?aaiaaieyi aeinooia a Eioa?iao eae aeey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eeoe, oae e aeey eiiiaiee – io aeinooia /a?ac iaai? e
niaoeeaeueiue auoiae (dedicated access) aei iaeiie eee iiiaeanoaaiiuo
eieaeecaoeee (locations) i?e iaee/ee/ ionoonoaee ?aaeeia caueou (on a
secured and unsecured basis).

Niaeanii aeieeaaeo “?uiie i?iaaeaea?ia oneoa Eioa?iaoa,
1996-2000: Aiciiaeiinoue aeaieiie oaeaeiiioieeaoeee”, yoio ?uiie
ioaaouaaao oe?ieee niaeo? aiciiaeiinoae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a o?e naeoi?a:
iioiaay i?iaeaaea na?aena IP, WWW oneoae e niioonoaothuea
aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae. A eiioea 1996 aiaea iauee ?uiie na?aena
ISP i?aaunee noiio 3,3 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia. Naiue aieueoie
i?ioeaio aeioiaeia (58,5 %) oae io oneoa ii ei?ii?aoeaiiio aeinooio,
aeinoeaioa 1,94 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia. Aoi?ie ii aaee/eia naeoi? –
?uiie oneoa ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio aeinooio – aeinoea a eiioea 1996
aiaea ioiaoee 949,7 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia. Iioiaay i?iaeaaea
na?aena i?aaenoaaeaia a 1996 aiaeo a 9% ?uiea, a niioonoaothuea
aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae i?eaeeaeathony e 4% yoiai ?uiea.

Aeaiiue aiaeec i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi “iioiaue” ?uiie IP iaeeaeaao iiuiue
oeiainiaue ?ino n aai o?iaiy 1996 aiaea a 300 ieeeeiiia
aeieea?ia, iaeiaei, iauaa /enei eeeaioia ISP aoaeao ia?aaeeaaoue
. ?uiie aieaa anaai annioeee?oaony n
aace?othueieny ia iniauaiee (facilities based) i?iaaeaea?aie, oaeeie
eae MCI, Sprint e WorldCom. Oai ia iaiaa, ae?oaea, oaeea eae
PSInet, oaeaea noa?athony ainiieueciaaoueny yoie aiciiaeiinoueth.

IDC n/eoaao, /oi yoio ?uiie aoaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue nioie
ianoiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo ISP, eioi?ua i?e yooaeoeaiii
?anoiaeiaaiee n?aaenoa niiaoo iaania/eoue na?aen, niaoeeaeueii
i?eniiniaeaiiue aeey niaoeeoe/aneiai ianoiiai ?uiea eee ai?iaeea.
Iineieueeo ?uiie ISP i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe?youeny, aeey ISP o?oaeiaa
aoaeao eiaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue nianoaaiiua naoaaua ?ano?nu ia?aae
eeoeii ISP, neaeyueo ia iniauaiee. I?aaeneacuaaaony, /oi
caaeneiinoue io a?aiaeiaaiiiai iioaioeeaea IP oaaee/eaaoueny, a oi
aea a?aiy ?aaeueiia /enei aeaenoaothueo ISP aoaeao oiaiueoaoueny.
Eae ?acoeueoao iaeeaeaaony, /oi o?aoee eiinieeaee?oaony ia iaiueoai
/enea eiee/anoaa naoae ISP, iiaeieiay aaa?o iauee aeioiae ia iaeiiai
iio?aaeoaey iioiauo IP.

Niaeanii iineaaeiaio eaa?oaeueiiio iaci?o iiaeien/eeia iieaei a
“Aeieeaaea ii yeaeo?iiiie eioi?iaoeee” Electronic Information
Report , iioaeeeiaaiiii Cowles/Simba Information,
caiaaeeeaoeeny ?ino a America Online e CompuServe au?aceeny a
?aci/a?iauaathueo 6,6% oaaee/aiey iiaeienee ia iieaei a NOA ca ia?aue
eaa?oae 1997 aiaea. Aieaa 51 neoaeau niiaueee i niaieoiiii eiee/anoaa a
27,6 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia ca 3-o iany/iue ia?eiae, caeai/eaathueeny 31
ia?oa, oiaaea eae a eiioea 1996 aiaea yoa oeeo?a ninoaaeyea 25,9
ieeeeiiia “America Online eiaao ianoieueei aieueoaa /enei aaiiaioia
ii n?aaiaieth n ethaie ae?oaie neoaeaie iieaei, /oi eiaaea iia
iaoiaeeony a cao?oaeieoaeueiii iieiaeaiee, oi a oaeii aea iieiaeaiee
iaoiaeeony e any inoaeueiay /anoue yoie io?anee, – aiai?eo Ea?ai
Ao?ea, ?aaeaeoeeiiiue aee?aeoi? “Aeieeaaea ii yeaeo?iiiie
eioi?iaoeee”. – E?aeia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau neoaeaa ?acaeaaea
aiciiaeiinoe naoe aei o?iaiy, iaania/eaathuaai aa aeieain?i/iue ?ino>.

America Online oaaee/eea eiee/anoai naieo aaiiaioia aei 8,0 ieeeeiiia
a ia?aii eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea, o.a. ia 6,7% ii n?aaiaieth n 7,5
ieeeeiiia a 1996 aiaeo. Microsoft Network ecaeaeea auaiaeo ec
o?oaeiinoae n aunieii?ioeeueiie naoueth America Online, aeiaeeaoenue
a iiiaiieeeeiiioth ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth, eioi?ay n?aaioaea eae
noa?oiaue onei?eoaeue a ioiioaiee aacu iiaeien/eeia, aeinoeaoae
2,2 ieeeeiiia – oaaee/aiea ia 29,4% ii n?aaiaieth n 1,7 ieeeeiiii
a 1996 aiaeo.

A oeaeii, naaiaio iio?aaeoaeae iieaei au?in ia 7,5% – aei 17,3
ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia – ii n?aaiaieth n 16,1 ieeeeiiaie a 1996 aiaeo.
Aeaaiaea?y yeniainee a noi?iio Web, naaiaio aecian/niaoeeaeenou
au?in ia 7,0% – aei 3,1 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia ii n?aaiaieth n 2,9
ieeeeiiaie a eiioea 1996 aiaea. Eeaea?ii a yoie a?oiia auea
LEXIS-NEXIS n 816.102 iiaeien/eeia – oaaee/aiea ia 3,5% ii
n?aaiaieth n 788.300 aaiiaioaie a 1996 aiaeo.

Oeiainiai-eioi?iaoeeiiiue naeoi?, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo oneoae,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua oaeeie eiiiaieyie, eae Dow Jones e Reuters, oaaee/eeny
a oeaeii ia 2,3% e aeinoea a NOA 2,0 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia.

Ii aeaiiui aeieeaaea Forrester Research, eiee/anoai Web naeoa a yoii
a yoii aiaeo ii/oe oaeaieony, a a neaaeothuai aiaeo oo?ieony. E?iia
oiai, ?acia? niaea?aeaiey Web, ecia?yaiue a iaaaaaeoao o?aiaiey,
oaaee/eony, ii i?iaiicai, ao?ia a oa/aiea 1998 aiaea.
Oaaee/eaathuayny eaaeinoue a eniieueciaaiee eino?oiaioa?ey aeey
nicaeaiey niaea?aeaiey aeoia n aieaa i?iaeaeioouie no?aoaaeyie
eniieueciaaiey eiiiaieyie Eioa?iaoa aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaoue iiaenoaaeaaoue
ie/ai ia naea?aeeaaaiua oaiiu ?inoa niaea?aeaiey Web naeoa. .

Iineieueeo naeou inoaaeytho iicaaee iau/ioth ?aaioo n
a?ioth?aie, ana aieaa aaaeiay ?ieue ia/eiaao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue aieaa
neiaeiui e ooii/aiiui aiciiaeiinoyi. Iiaua eioi?iaoeeiiiua
iaiaaeaea?u nicaeatho eioa?aeoeaioth

neia?aaoe/aneoth ieenoo?o ene?yuaainy caoea, ia?aca e ?aeeaiu,
/oi o?aaoao niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aaoi?ia e eino?oiaioa?ey. I?e
yoii niaea?aeaiea noaiiaeony aua aieaa o?oaeiui a ia?auaiee e
oi?aaeaiee. Iiaeiaiay ?acii?iaeiay nianue niaea?aeaiey, aaoi?ia e
eino?oiaioa?ey /anoi i?eaiaeeo iaiaaeaea?ia naeoa a io/ayiea. Ec
auaiaeia aeieeaaea “E?ecen oi?aaeaiey niaea?aeaieai” neaaeoao, /oi
eiiiaiee, ia?yaeo n iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie nicaeaiey no?aieoe,
oaeaea nicaeatho aieaa aeeiaie/iia niaea?aeaiea. E eiioeo 1998 aiaea
54% ec 50 ?aniiiaeaioia, ii?ioaiiuo aeey aeieeaaea, aoaeoo
i?iecaiaeeoue aeeiaie/ii ia?acothuaany niaea?aeaiea. Yoio nea/ie a
38% noaiiaeony ecaanoiui ioaeeea aianoa n iaauaieyie eaaei
aeinooiiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Aeey oiai, /oiau
naeaeaoue naeo aaeeinoaaiiui a naiai ?iaea e aieaa oaaaeeoaeueiui,
iaiaaeaea?u naeoa ia eaoo ia/eiatho nicaeaaaoue niaea?aeaiea,
ne?iaiiia iiae eiie?aoiia eeoei. Oi, /oi niaea?aeaiea o?aieony a
iaeiie oeaio?aeueiie eieaeecaoeee, e oiio aea, inaiaiaeaeaao io
caaio, naycaiiuo n iaiiaeaieai, eciaiaieai e aianaieai iii?aaie a
?aca?inaiiia ii ?aciui ianoai niaea?aeaiea.

Ia?aia ecaeaiea auoiaeyuaai ?ac a eaa?oae aeieeaaea Durlacher
Quarterly Internet Report. Aace?othuayny a eiiaeiineii Neoe ae?aeaaay
a?iea?neay e eiaanoeoeeiiiay oe?ia i?iaaea iaci? 200 a?eoaineeo
eiiiaiee aeey eco/aiey ia?niaeoea ei?ii?aoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
Eioa?iaoa e eio?aiaoa. N?aaee iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo neaaeothuea:

* I?iaeieaeathueeny oneeaiiue ?ino a?eoaineiai
ei?ii?aoeaiii ?uiea Eioa?iaoa. Durlacher i?aaeneacuaaao, /oi yoio ?ino
aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny ia o?iaia aieaa 10% a ianyoe a oa/aiea ii
iaiueoae ia?a aeaoo eao.

* Nieaeaiea ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeai Eioa?iaoa aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny – ia 15% a aeeaeaeoea 12 ianyoeaa e ia 10% a
iineaaeothuai aiaeo – a oi a?aiy eae ea/anoai na?aena aoaeao
oeo/oaoueny.

* Nauoa 85% e?oiiuo a?eoaineeo ei?ii?aoeee eiatho oo eee eioth oi?io
iiaeeeth/aiey e Eioa?iaoo. Yoi eiee/anoai oaaee/eony aei 92% a
oa/aiea 6 ianyoeaa. Oieueei 25% eiatho a?aiaeiaaiioth eeieth eee
iinoiyiiua iiaeeeth/aiey.

* 32% e?oiiuo a?eoaineeo eiiiaiee, eiathueo Web naeou, niae?athony
?aaeeciaaoue a Eioa?iaoa naycaiiua ni naeaeeaie oneoae a
iineaaeothuea 12 ianyoeaa.

Philips Tarifica : Niaeanii “Yooaeo naoe: Aicaeaenoaea Eioa?aiaoa
ia ie?iaua oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua ?uiee” yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e
iioa?yi aeioiaeia ca iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oaeaoiiiua ia?aaiai?u e
2001 aiaeo iaaeaeo 90 e 135 ieeeeiiaie. Ec i?eaeeceoaeueii 10
ieeeeiiia a?eoaineeo iieueciaaoaeae iieaeiii cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue aoaeao eniieueciaaoue Eioa?iao aeey aieiniaie e
ae?oaeo oi?i eiiioieeaoeee aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiie nayce ii oaeaoiio.
Ii aeaiiui aeieeaaea, naaiaeiy naiue aeaoaaue oa?eo ia
oaeaoiiioth naycue iaaeaeo Aaeeeia?eoaieae e NOA ninoaaeyao ieiei
10 iainia. Aeieeaae i?aaeneacuaaao, /oi e 2001 aiaeo eniieueciaaiea
oaeaoiia Eioa?iaoa iiaeao nieceoue yoio oa?eo aei ana eeoue 2
iainia ca ieiooo. Telcos ianoo oauoee iinoieueeo, iineieueeo
iieueciaaoaeue ieaoeo ca a?aiy, i?iaaaeaiiia a Eioa?iaoa, ii
ianoiiio oa?eoo. Ca oaeoth iaaieueooth ieaoo iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao
caeacuaaoue ?acaiai? eee iinueaoue niiauaiey ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa a
ethaoth oi/eo ie?a.

Aeieeaae oaeaea iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, /oi ia ia/aeueiii yoaia a
aeeaeaeoea o?e aiaea i?eaueue io ianoiuo ?acaiai?ia
eiiiaine?oao iioa?e a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo. Ii iinea 2000 aiaea Eioa?iao
niiaeao ianoieueei au?anoe, /oi nicaeano aeueoa?iaoeaiue
ni?in n?aaee iieueciaaoaeae, /oiau nicaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiue ni?in
o iieueciaaoaeae, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa iaaaoeaii neaaeaony ia aeioiaeao
telcos. Ieiei 21% ac?ineuo aia?eeaioeaa iieuecothony Eioa?iaoii,
World Wide Web eee e oai, e ae?oaei. Yoi 40 ieeeeiiia –
iieiaeia anao iieueciaaoaeae eiiiuethoa?ia e aaeaia aieueoaa
/enei iiaeeeth/aiiuo Web ii n?aaiaieth n ninoiyieai aiae iacaae.

Ae?oaea iniiaiua iiiaiou aeieeaaea Tarific aeeth/atho:

– AO iioa?yao 55 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia ($39 ieeeeiiia ec-ca
eioa?iaoiiai oaeaoiia e $16 ieeeeiiia ec-ca yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou) ec
aeioiaeiuo iinooieaiee io iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo caiieia a 2001 aiaeo ia
?uiea i?iaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae (residential customers).

– AO iioa?yao 50 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia ec aeioiaeiuo
iinooieaiee io iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo caiieia a 2001 aiaeo ia ?uiea aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe iio?aaeoaeae (business customers).

– Aeey n?aaiaiey, Deutsche Telekom iiianao oauoee aieueoa,
/ai AO, /aio aeiie ?yae i?e/ei. Iai?eia?: O Telekom aieueoa aai
/anoue ?uiea; aieaa aunieea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oa?eou a Aa?iaiee;
aieaa cia/eoaeueiay ?acieoea a oeaia iaaeaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e
ianoiui oaeaoiiiui oa?eoaie e ae?. – ana yoi noeioee?oao e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce /a?ac Eioa?iao.

Ii aeaiiui aiaeeca Forrester Research ., WebTV e aio iiaeiaiua
n?aaenoaa ia aeinoeaioo ioiaoee a 1 ieeeeiiia aia?eeaineeo naiae
aei eiioea 2000 aiaea. . Ye?aiiua oaeaoiiu (screen phones) Eioa?iaoa
aieueoa ioaa/atho i?aaeeiaeaieyi ii i?eaieaiui cao?aoai, iineieueeo
iie iaania/eaatho auno?ue aeinooi e aee?aeoi?eyi, iiaiaea, e oaeaea
eioaa?e?iaaiiiio aieino, Eioa?iaoo, e oaeaea yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, –
ooieoeee, eioi?ua aeatho iniiaaiea i?aaeneacuaaoue e 1999 aiaeo aaiae
a yenieoaoaoeeth aieaa ieeeeiia ye?aiiuo oaeaoiiia. Eeoue aeaa naeoa
cayaeee i cia/eoaeueiii o?aoeea io WebTV; eae ?acoeueoao yoiai 76%
ii?ioaiiuo i?iaaeaea?ia niaea?aeaiey ia naeaeaee ieeaeeo eciaiaiee
a niaea?aeaiee aeey naieo ono?ienoa. .

Oe?ieay aeinooiiinoue oaeaaeaeaiey, i?eiinyuaai
niioaaonoaothuee eioa?aeoeaiue iiuo, e eioa?iaoianeee ye?aiiue
oaeaoii n oaeeie ooieoeeyie, eae iaiaaeeaiiua aaeua no?aieoeu (instant
white pages), iiaiaea e auai? caeaca (take-out ordering),
canoaayo, iaeiiaoe, 14,7 ieeeeiiia aia?eeaineeo naiae
iiaeeeth/eoue a 2002 aiaeo naie oaeai?eaiieee e Eioa?iaoo,
i?e yoii 9,2 ieeeeiiia i?eia?aooo iiaeeeth/aiiua e Eioa?aiaoo
ye?aiiua oaeaoiiu. , – caeeth/aao Bernoff.

“Iiyayony iiaua i?iaaeaea?u eioa?aeoeaiiai na?aena,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuea eeeaioia oaeai?eaiieeaie e oaeaoiiaie, oneeaiiuie
naoueth, e eiieo?e?othuea n o?aaeeoeeiiiui aaoi?eoaoaie
iieaei, oaeei eae America Online”.

Niaeanii aeieeaaea International Data Corporation (IDC), iaeaieaa
aaaeiie no?aoaae/aneie oeaeueth aa?iiaeneeo iaiaaeaea?ia
onoaiiaee naoae (setwork managers) a Aa?iia ii-i?aaeiaio
inoaaony eiio?iee?iaaiea noieiinoe ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae oe?ieiai
ioaaoa (wide area networks – WANs). Ii aeaiiui aa?iiaeneie Wide Area
Networking oaeay icaai/aiiinoue i?ienoiaeeea ianiio?y ia
oaaee/eaathueeny ni?in ia aeinooiiua WAN aeeaiaciiu
(bandwidth), iiaenoaaeaaaiue iiauie aeaeiauie i?ioeannaie,
iniaaiii iniiaaiiuie ia oaoiieiaee Eioa?iaoa. Iaeiaei, iinea iiiaeo
eao iieaou aunieeo ?anoeaiie eiio?iee?othueo neooaoeeth ?OI, naoaaua
iaiaaeaea?u ana aua i?iyaeyee inoi?iaeiinoue, aeiaa?yy e?eoe/aneea
aeey eo nouanoaiaaiey naaaeaiey i?iaaeaea?ai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
oneoa. A oi a?aiy eae yeiiiiey ?anoiaeia ieacaeanue aaaeiui
yeaiaioii i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i iiaeienea ia aeueoa?iaoeaiue na?aen,
naiui aaaeiui ieacaeinue ea/anoai oneoa.

Enneaaeiaaiea IDC oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi Eioa?iao ana aieaa e aieaa
eniieuecoaony aeey aeiiieiaiey aieueoeo ei?ii?aoeaiuo WAN, e /oi
aioo?e e?oiiaeoeo aa?iiaeneeo eiiiaiee oi?ioi i?i?aaioaiu ieaiu
aiieiuaiey iaiaa, auynieeinue, /oi iaiaaeaea?u naoae
i?iyaeytho aaniieienoai ii iiaiaeo aeeyiey iiaeiaiiai ?acaeoey ia
iieacaoaee ?aaiou e aaciianiinoue naoe e i/aiue aieiaoaeueii iano?iaiu
ia ?anniio?aiea oi?aaeyaiiai aeaeiauie e?oaaie aeinooia, a oaeaea
oneoa ii aaciianiinoe ni noi?iiu na?aeniuo i?iaaeaea?ia.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe e aieinoe WAN canoaaeyao
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eiiiaiee oeoe n o?aaeeoeeiiii a?aiaeoaiuo
naoaauo eeiee n ieceei aeeaiaciiii (low-bandwidth line networks),
oioy aei neo ii? nouanoaoao iaoaa?aiiinoue ioiineoaeueii iai?aaeaiey
iea?aoeee i?e iaiueoae icaai/aiiinoe oaoiieiae/aneeie aii?inaie.

A enneaaeiaaiee Optimal Networks naeaeai auaiae, /oi
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aeeaiaciia ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe iiaeiuaia oiaa?aie,
eniieuecothueie oaoiieiaee “i?ioaeeeaaiey”, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
Pointcast. Noaouey iiae iacaaieai “Hits and Miss-es: A Year
Watching the Web,” , i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia Oanoie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee ii World Wide Web (Sixth International World Wide Web
Conference ).. Oeaeueth eco/aiey auei ii?aaeaeeoue oaiaeaioeee a
eniieueciaaiee Eioa?aiaoa. “Auei oaeeaeoaeueii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi
ii/oe iaeia iyoay o?aoeea ia?aciaaeanue ec eniieueciaaiey
oaoiieiaee i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia”.

Optimal Networks i?eiaieee naia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea Optimal
Internet Monitor, /oiau ecia?eoue iauai aaeaaeiaaiiai iieueciaaiey
Eioa?iaoii i?eia?ii 4.000 iieueciaaoaeyie, auoiaeyueie ia ieiei
95.000 ?acee/iuo URL.

Ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiey, aeinooi noaiaea?oiui a?aoca?ii e
aeiiaoiae no?aieoea iaeciaiii iinauaaiuo oii-naeoia Eioa?iaoa
ninoaaeye 12% o?aoeea naoe, ia?acoaiiai 70% iieueciaaoaeae, oiaaea
eae ia?auaiey oaoiieiaee i?iaeaeaeaiey ninoaaeyee aieaa 17% o?aoeea,
ia?acoaiiai eeoue 12% io anao iieueciaaoaeae. Iaaieueoia
eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae, i?eniaaeeiaiiuo e oaoiieiaeyi
i?iaeaeaeaiey, ia?acotho yoi aieueoia eiee/anoai o?aoeea ii
i?e/eia iai?a?uaiiai e aaoiiaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a oaoiieiaee
i?iaeaeaeaiey.

Ii aeaiiui iiaiai oi?aaeai/aneiai aeieeaaea Jupiter
Communications., i?ieaeao aua iyoue eao, i?aaeaea /ai aeinooi e
Eioa?iaoo aeaenoaeoaeueii ia?aianoeony a eaaeaeoth aeeeoth
eiiiaoo. Eioa?iao-oaoieea iiieii IE , oaeay eae niaiauaiiua n
naoueth oaeai?eaiieee, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eo eniieueciaaiea iieaei ca
i?aaeaeu aeiiaoieo oicyenoa n IE, /oi iaania/eo e 2002 aiaeo
iieaei-aeinooi aeey 15,3 ieeeeiiia aia?eeaineeo naiae, i /ai niiauee
Aeieeaae ii Eioa?iao-oaoieea (Internet Appliance Report).
A enneaaeiaaiee noieiinoueth 1.295 aeieea?ia naeaeaii
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ia niaia ouny/aeaoee oaoieea Eioa?iaoa iiaeao ia
eniieieoue naith ienneth ii i?eaianaieth Eioa?iaoa a iannu noieue
nei?i, eae iie iiaee ia yoi iaaeayoueny a nayce n i?iaeieaeathueiny
i?iieeiiaaieai IE (oioy oaea ia oae auno?i, eae ?aiueoa) a aeiia
aia?eeaioeaa. E 2002 aiaeo ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u inoaioony
ia?aaeiaui ieaoeaea?iii aeey aeinooia a Eioa?iao o 47 ieeeeiiia
aia?. naiae: ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiey, yoa oeeo?a noaiao
?acoeueoaoii auno?iai ?inoa io o?iaiy 5,2 ieeeeiiia naiae a 2000
aiaeo. Ye?aiiua oaeaoiiu, i?eniiniaeaiiua e Web, ioaaoyo eeoue
aeieth ?uiea aiia?aoo?u Eioa?iaoa a NOA – 2,6 ieeeeiiia naiae e 2002
aiaeo.

A enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeneacuaaaony, /oi iiiaea aeaeu ia-IE
oaoieee, eoieaiiua iio?aaeoaeyie, aieaeoo a aeiia, aaea oaea anoue
iiaeeeth/aiiue e Eioa?iaoo eiiiuethoa?, oaeei ia?acii aoaeao
aeyiie?iaai yooaeo nicaeaiey ianniaiai ?uiea ia-IE oaoieee.
“I?eia?aoaiea Iaee?iniooii Naoae WebTV naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi a e?oiiaeoae ie?iaie eiiiaiee, i?iecaiaeyuae i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea, iiieiatho aaaeiinoue ianooieaiey ia aeeeoth eiiiaoo ii
anai o?iioai”, – neacae ?inn ?oaei, aee?aeoi? a?oiiu a iiae?acaeaeaiee
“Iio?aaeoaeueneea oaoiieiaee Eioa?iaoa” ei?ii?aoeee Jupiter.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieaa 58 ieeeeiiia ac?ineuo ethaeae
iieuecothony Eeoa?iaoii a NOA e Eaiaaea. Aieaa iieiaeiu ec ieo – 30
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae – , ii aeaiiui a Aeaiia?aoe/aneii iaci?a,
naeaeaiiii CommerceNet/Nielsen Media Research inaiueth1997 aiaea, –
ainiieueciaaeenue iieaeiii a oa/aiea i?ioaaeoeo nooie. *enei
iieueciaaoaeae WorldWide Web a Naaa?iie Aia?eea ecia?yaony ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a 48 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Aua nouanoaaiiaa aeey
yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee, /oi eiee/anoai ethaeae, ?aaeueii
niaa?oeaoeo iieoiee a Worldwide Web, aeinoeaei ii/oe 10 ieeeeiiia. Yoe
aeaiiua noiyo a /enea iniiaiuo a /aoaa?oii iaci?a na?ee, eioi?ay
i?ineaaeeaaao eniieueciaaiea Eioa?iaoa aeeoaeyie Naaa?iie Aia?eee
noa?oa 16 eao n 1995 aiaea. “Iu oaeiaeaoai?aiu iaaethaeaaiui ?inoii
iieoiie a Web a ?aeiia 50%,- neacae Noyne A?annea?,
aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii ia?eaoeiao a CommerceNet. – Iu iaeeaeaai, /oi
iineieueeo aua aieueoa ethaeae iieuecothony Web aeey i?acaeie/iuo
iieoiie, e?eaay ?inoa aoaeao eaeoe e?ooi aaa?o”. “Iineaaeiee ?ino
oiieiaa a Eioa?iaoa yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iaa?aaeie ca
oaoie/aneea e ia?eaoeiaiaua eieoeeaoeau ieioaoaai aiaea ii nicaeaieth
aeiaa?ey iio?aaeoaey, – neacae Aeaea?ii Nainii, aee?aeoi? ii oaoiieiaee
e no?aoaaee aeciana a Nielsen Media Research. – Oai ia iaiaa, o ian
aua iiiai ?aaiou. Ec 48 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae Web 54% ia i/aiue-oi
niae?aeenue a aoaeouai aeaeaoue iieoiee /a?ac iieaei”. Ae?oaei
naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii auei ionoonoaea ciaiee. Eeoue iaiiiaea ec
ii?ioaiiuo eiaaea-eeai neuoaee i ia?ao aaciianiinoe,
i?aaeeaaaaiuo SSL (14%), e aua iaiueoa (8%) neuoaee i TRUSTe,
neoaeaa iieaeia, eioi?ay eeoeeaice?oao auaea/o “ioiaoie aeiaa?ey”
naeoai, eioi?ua i?eaea?aeeaathony ecaanoiuo niaeaniaaiiuo noaiaea?oia.

A iaci?a Commerce Net/Nielsen Media Research ca inaiue 1997 aiaea aue
aia?aua ecia?ai iauai iieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie n?aaee
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa e ia-Eioa?iaoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea ian/eouaaaony 59 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie a aic?anoa 16 eao e noa?oa, /oi ninoaaeyao 26%
anaai ianaeaiey, e eaaeaeua /aoaa?i ec iyoe yaeythony
iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa. “Yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo a?yae ee iiaeii
iacaaoue naiui iiuiui eino?oiaioii a yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaea, – neacae
Bressler. – Aieueoeinoai naeaeie ana aua niaa?oathony i?e ee/iii
iauaiee, a yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa yaeyaony iieaei eaiaeii aeey yoiai oeia
eiiioieeaoeee. Anee au AO aeieaeai aue “iicaiieoue”aeiiie
naaiaeiy, ii nei?aa anaai naeaeae au yoi /a?ac yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo”.
Aaeaia aa?iyoiaa, /oi iieueciaaoaee Eioa?iaoa ca i?ioaaeoea nooee
ainiieueciaaeenue yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie eae ia-Eio?aiao iieueciaaoaee.
E?iia oiai, nieneaie yeaeo?iiiuo ii/oiauo ioi?aaeaiee iieuecoaony
iaeei ec iyoe iieueciaaoaeae yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, e iaiueoa
iieiaeiu ec iieueciaaoaeae yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie niiaueee i iieo/aiee
oioy au iaeiie iaaino?aaiaaiiie yeaeo?iiiie ?aeeaiu.

Aneaaenoaea ?acaeoey neoaea aeooaeueiuo iiainoae a
aeaeiaii/i?ioanneiiaeueiii naaiaioa e ae?oaeo cia/eoaeueiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee America Online (AIL) a
iio?aaeoaeueneii naaiaioa, iiaeienea a NOA ia Web/online aeinoeaea
a NOA ia o?aoee eaa?oae e 30 naioya?y 1997 aiaea ioiaoee a 25,3
ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia, /oi ia 5,6% aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n 23,9
ieeeeiiaie ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea, – ioia/aii a Io/aoa ii yeaeo?iiiie
eioi?iaoeee – eaa?oaeueiii iaci?a aeey aaiiaioia iieaei.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue io?aneaaie atheeaoaiue Cowles/Simba ian/eoae a
iaoaeeeiaaiiii iaci?a aieaa 90 aia?eeaineeo neoaea iieaei,
eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue 53 eioi?iaoeeiiiuie i?iaaeaea?aie a
iio?aaeoaeueneie, aeaeiaie/ i?ioanneiiaeueiie e
eioi?iaoeeiiii-oeiainiaie io?aneyo. “I?e oii, /oi aieaa aei?iainoiyuea
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea neoaeau nio?aiyoueny eae na?ueaciue aecian,
aeaeiaua/ i?ioanneiiaeueiua neoaeau iieaei aoaeoo ?anoe aie?oa neoaea
aeooaeueiuo iiainoae”, neacae Aaiaea ea E?oc, aaaeouee ?aaeaeoi?
Io/aoa ii yeaeo?iiiie eioi?iaoeee. 29 aeaeiauo/
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo neoaea, i?ineaaeaiiuo a io/aoa, aeeth/ay neoaeau
LEXIS-NEXIS, Hoover e Desktop Data NewsEDGE, iauyaeee i
niaieoiiii 7% oaaee/aiee aei 3,9 ieeeeiiia iiea/aiiuo iiaeienie.
Aaaeouea neoaeau aeooaeueiuo aeeth/eee Wave Phore’s Newscast, eioi?ay
i?eaaaeea ca eaa?oae i?eaeeceoaeueii 55 ouny/ aaiiaioia, aeiaaaey eo
/enei aei 158 ouny/.

Cea/ie /enea aaiiaioia Aia?eea Iieaei ia 9,3% aei 9,4 ieeeeiiia
i?eaae e ?inoo a iio?aaeoaeueneii naaiaioa. Ii aeaiiui ioeaiie EIR,
CompuServe iauyaee i 0,6% niaaea, oiaaea eae Microsoft Network canouea
ia 2,3 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia. 13 iio?aaeoaeueneeo neoaea Web/iieaei,
aeeth/aiiuo a iaci?, iauyaeee a niaieoiiinoe i 5,5 % oaaee/aiee /enea
aaiiaioia – aei 20,2 ieeeeiiia a o?aoueai eaa?oaea. “Ianiio?y ia
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n aeinooiii, Aia?eea Iieaei i?iaeieaeaao
?aaioaoue eae aoaeoi oi/ao oaaaeaoue n iiey”, – neacae aea ea E?oc.

Eioa?iao i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe eae eiiia?/aneee eaiae. Aieaa
iieiaeiu iieueciaaoaeae eioa?anothony a iieaei iaaaceiaie, a 16%
iieueciaaoaeae i?eia?aee /a?ac iieaei oiaa?u eee oneoae, i?e
yoii n?aaee iaeaieaa /anoi i?eia?aoaaiuo iiceoeee noiyo eieae,
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e aeaoaee eiiiuethoa?iie eiioeao?aoeee.
“Ouny/e iieueciaaoaeae, i?ieioa?auethe?iaaiiuo iaie a oiaea
ianoiyuaai enneaaeiaaiey, aiai?yo i oii, /oi eiiioieeaoeeiiiay n?aaea
ana aieaa noaiiaeony iniiaiie no?oae a eo aeecie, – neacae Oii
Oi?iioo, oi?aaeythuee aee?aeoi? “Neoaea Eioa?iaoa” a IntelliQuest. –
Iie aoiaeyo a iieaei ec ana aieueoaai /enea iano, i?iaiaeyo a
iieaei aieueoa a?aiaie, auiieiytho aieaa oe?ieee aeeaiacii caaea/ e
iaoiaeyo aai ana aieaa e aieaa iieaciui eaiaeii a ioiioaiee oiieiaa e
iieoiie”.

*enei iieueciaaoaeae n aeinooiii a Eioa?iao i?aauneei a naioya?a
50 ieeeeiiia: ia yoii niiauaii a enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiiii ia
aeiyo “Ei?ii?aoeeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeaiiuo” (IDC) a ?aieao
Eioa?iao’98, – eiioa?aioeee IDC, enneaaeothuae aeiaaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe ?uiea naycaiiuo n Eioa?iaoii oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Oeeo?u, nia?aiiua i?eiaaeeaaeauae IDC “Iiaeaee eiiia?/aneiai ?uiea
Eioa?iaoa”, oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi ia eiiaoe naioya?y 1997aiaea a ie?a
ian/eouaaeinue 53,2 ieeeeiia iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa, ec eioi?uo 44,2
ieeeeiia oaeaea eniieueciaaee World Wide Web. Eioa?iaoa eae
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou a aeaeiauo io?aneyo, a eioi?uo ?aaioieeai ia
iaycaoaeueii i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeinooi e Web. A IDC iaeeaeatho, /oi e
eiioeo 1997 aiaea /enei iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa aueaeao ia 60
ieeeeiiia, a /enei iieueciaaoaeae Web – ia 50 ieeeeiiia Yoe
iieacaoaee aiai?yo i nea/ea ia 26 ieeeeiiia a /enea iieueciaaoaeae
Eioa?iaoa e ia 22,4 ieeeeiia a /enea iieueciaaoaeae Web a 1997
aiaeo. Ii/oe 30% io iauaie?iaiai eiee/anoaa onoaiiaeaiiuo
ia?niiaeueiuo e naoaauo eiiiuethoa?ia e eiioeo aiaea aoaeao
iiaeniaaeeiaii e Eioa?iaoo. “Iniaaiii ian ii?acee ?ino
iieueciaaiey Eioa?iaoii ca i?aaeaeaie NOA, – neacae
ia?aue aeoea-i?aceaeaio IDC Aeaeii Aaioe. – Ianiio?y ia oio oaeo, /oi
a iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea a Eioa?iaoa iaienaii ia aiaeeeneii ycuea,
aieaa 23 ieeeeiiia ec iacaaiiuo 53 ieeeeiiia iuiaoieo
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa ia aeeaoo a NOA. Oioy iniiaiia
enneaaeiaaiea yoiai ia ?anniao?eaaei iiae?iaii iia?aoeee ii ?aciui
no?aiai, iai oaea niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi ia oaeeaeaiea aieueoia /enei
iieueciaaoaeae ia aia?eeaioeaa aoiaeyo a Web n oeaeueth eae oiieiaa,
oae e i?yiuo aeaeiauo naeaeie. Iieueciaaoaee a ?aaeiiao, oaeeo
eae Acey, Oeoiieaaineee ?aaeii e Eaoeineay Aia?eea i?aiaeieaaatho
?yae cia/eoaeueiuo eio?ano?oeoo?iuo ath?ie?aoe/aneea aa?uea?ia n oai,
/oiau u aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue aeinooiiui iieaei”.

Ia eiioa?aioeee Eioa?iao ’98 aue oaeaea i?aaenoaaeai ?yae ae?oaeo
eeth/aauo iieacaoaeae ?uiea. Iai?eia?, a IDC iaeeaeatho, /oi
niaieoiiay noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaaiuo /a?ac World
Wide Web, i?aauneo a yoii aiaeo 10 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia, i?e/ai
i?yiua aeaeiaua naeaeee ninoaayo i?eia?ii 2/3 yoie noiiu. “E eiioeo
aiaea,- neacae Aaioe, – iu i?eaeeceiny e iaeiiio ieeeeiio
eiiia?/aneeo naeaeie a aeaiue”. IDC oaeaea ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
nai World Wide Web a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaaee/eaaaony – n 72 ieeeeiiia
no?aieoe (URL) a aeaeaa?a 1996 aiaea aei /ooue aieaa 200 ieeeeiiia
a naioya?a.

– Eioaa?aoeey oaoiieiaee i?iaeaeaeaiey e iieeooieoeeiiaeueiinoe
(multicasting) IP;

– Iea?aoeey a IPv6;

– Nicaeaiea ae?ooaeueiuo /anoiuo naoae;

– Aaeaioaoeey WinSock 2.0;

– Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue eiio?ieue ?aciauaiey aae?ana IP;

– Eiee/anoai onoaiiaeaiiuo a ie?a IE TCP/IP oaaee/eony ni 102
ieeeeiiia aei 353 ieeeeiiia aaeeieoe e 2001 aiaeo, /oi ninoaaeo
aiaeiaie eiyooeoeeaio niaieoiiiai ?inoa a 28%;

– E 2001aiaeo 38.150 aa?oieo a oeaii/ea na?aa?ia aoaeoo eiaoue
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea TCP/IP – ia 118% io 1996 aiaea;

– ON?/IP a iaoa?eineie ieaoa (mainframe) oaaee/eeinue n 34% a
1994 aiaeo aei 74% a 1997 aiaeo.

Enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia Eioi?iaoeeiiiie a?oiiie
IntelliQuest, i?aaeneacuaaao “ac?uaiie” ?ino /enea ?icie/iuo
iieueciaaoaeae yeaeo?iiiuie oeiainiauie oneoaaie. Oaeie auaiae naeaeai
ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia, iauyaeaiiuo naaiaeiy ii iaoa?eaeai
naiiai iineaaeiaai iaci?a eniieueciaaiey Eioa?iaoa e
iieaei-na?aena n?aaee ianaeaiey NOA e auyaeythueo a iieaeia ia aoi?ie
eaa?oae 1997 aiaea 51 ieeeeiiia ac?ineiai ianaeaiey io 16 eao e
noa?oa. Yoa oeeo?a oeacuaaao ia 46% ?inoa ii n?aaiaieth n 35
ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae, i eioi?uo niiauaeinue aiaeii ?aiaa. Iniiaiay
aeiey yoiai ?inoa i?eoeanue ia aoi?oth iieiaeio 1996 aiaea, eiaaea a
oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa iieaei-ianaeaiea oaaee/eeinue ia 34%. Oioy
a 1997 aiaeo ?ino iieaei- ianaeaiey caiaaeeeeny, ?uiie aua
aeaeaei ia ianuuai. Aua 8,5 ieeeeiiia ac?ineuo iaia?aiu ia/aoue
iieueciaaoueny aeinooiii a Eioa?iao eee a neoaeau iieaeia e eiioeo
yoiai aiaea. Anee yoe ethaee inouanoayo naie iaia?aiey,
/enei aia?eeaioeaa, iiaeniaaeeiaiiuo e naoe, aeinoeaiao e
eiioeo aiaea 60 ieeeeiiia. Naiui iaiaeeaeaiiui iiaui ?acoeueoaoii
noaei io/aoeeaia iiyaeaiea iieaei oiieiaa. Niaeanii aeaiiiio
iaci?o, 17% iieueciaaoaeae (8,6 ieeeeiiia ac?ineuo) iacaaee
naay iieaei-iieoiaoaeyie, i?e yoii eo n?aaeiaiany/iue ?anoiae aue a
?aeiia 50 aeieea?ia, a eiiia?/aneee ?uiie iieaeia ooieoeeiie?oao
ia aiaeiaii o?iaia 5,1 ieeeea?aeia. Yoe oeeo?u aieaa /ai a 3 ?aca
i?aainoiaeyo ?acoeueoaou ii oai aea ia?aiao?ai aiaeiaie aeaaiinoe,
eiaaea 2,6 ieeeeiia /aeiaae o?aoeee ia i?eia?aoaiey ca aiae 1,6
ieeeea?ae aeieea?ia. Aeaiiua ?acoeueoaou i?aaenoaaeaiu ai
ananoi?iiiai enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaaaeaiiii ?aaioathuae a
IntelliQuest”Neoaeaie ioneaaeeaaiey anaie?iiai
Eioa?iaoa/iieaeia” (WWITS). Enneaaeiaaiea aini?iecaiaeeo aeoaeiiua
i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a n?aaea iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa e
iieaeia n oi/ee c?aiey aeaiia?aoe/aneie neooaoeee, oeie/iuo
aa?eaioia iieueciaaiey, o/aoa oi?aiauo ia?ie, noaiaie
oaeiaeaoai?aiey e oaiaeaioeee ?inoa.

Iniiaiua auaiaeu enneaaeiaaiey ii aoi?iio eaa?oaeo 1997 aiaea
aeeth/atho:

– Aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae (66%) auoiaeyo a naoue ec aeiia, ii
/eneiiieueciaaoaeae, auoiaeyueo a naoue n ?aai/aai ianoa, aaeeei
ei?iaeieaeaao auno?i oaaee/eaaoueny. Ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea yoiai
aiaea23,3 ieeeeiia /aeiaae iaoiaeeeenue a iieaei ia ?aaioa, /oi ia
57%aieueoa, /ai ca oio aea ia?eiae 1996 aiaea.

– Auaeaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay i?iii?oeey /?acau/aeii
aeoeaiuoiieueciaaoaeae (20%), eioi?ua i?iaiaeyo a iieaeia ii 10 e
aieaa/ania a iaaeaeth, ii ii/oe 40% anao iieueciaaoaeae neacaee, /oi
noaeei?iaiaeeoue a iieaeia aieueoa a?aiaie, /ai aeaeaee yoi ianyoe
iacaae.Aaea iie iaoiaeyo a?aiy? Aieueoeinoai neacaee, /oi iaiueoa
niio?yooaeaaeci?.

– *enei iieueciaaoaeae iieaeia i?iaeieaeaao oaaee/eaaoueny
aiai?aaeaiee iniiaiuo neiaa iauanoaa. AEaiueiu ian/eouaatho nae/an47%
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa e iieaei-na?aena, oiaaea eae aiae iacaaeiie
ninoaaeyee 36%. Yoa oaiaeaioeey ii?aaeaeaiii aoaeao
?acaeaaoueny,iineieueeo aeaiueiu ninoaaeytho 58% oao, eoi iiea ia
iieuecoaonynaoueth, ii niae?aaony yoi naeaeaoue a aoaeouai.

– Oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue iieueciaaoaeae eiiioieeaoeeiiiie n?aaeie
(medium)inoaaaeanue aanueia ieceie. Oi, ianeieueei a oeaeii
iieueciaaoaee aueeaeiaieueiu naiei iiuoii, aieueoa anaai
ii?aaeaeyeinue noaiaiueth eooaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe naiei
i?iaaeaea?ii Eioa?iaoa eee iieaei- na?aena.Aaea au iie aieaa anaai
iaeeaeaee oniaa?oainoaiaaiee? A nei?inoeaeinooia, a ca iae – a
iaaeaaeiinoe nayce.

– Oiaaea eae ?aaeueiua iieoiee a iieaeia aeaeathony ana
auaiaiueoeinoaii iieueciaaoaeae, aieaa iieiaeiu
iieueciaaoaeae iieaeia(54%, eee 27,6 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae)
eniieuecotho eiiioieeaoeeiiioth n?aaeo aeey oiieiaa: eco/atho
oeaiu e oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?ia, iaoiaeyo, aaea eoieoue oiaa?u, e
ioae?atho oiaa?u. Oiieia iieaei ia ianoiyuee iiiaio inoaaony
i?a?iaaoeaie ioae/ei (62% oao, eoi “oiaeeo ii iaaaceiai” e 70%
oao, eoi aeaenoaeoaeueii /oi-oi iieoiaao). “Iaaa?iyoii oaeaeaoaeueii
iaaethaeaoue, eae ie? iieaeia ?anoao a noi?iio iniiaiuo neiaa
iaoaai iauanoaa,- neacae Oii Oi?iioo, oi?aaeythuee aee?aeoi?
“Neoaeau Eioa?iaoa” a IntelliQuest. – N eaaeaeie aieiie nia?aiiie
iaie eioi?iaoeee a iaoai enneaaeiaaiee iu iaia?oaeeaaai iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiiiaiee, nicaeathueo eiiioieeaoeeiiioth n?aaeo,
aoaeue oi iieaei-iieoiaoaeue, aeaeiaie iieueciaaoaeue,
caeioa?aniaaiiue, ii eieaaethueeny iioaioeeaeueiue eeeaio,
io/ayaoeeny iieueciaaoaeue-iiae/ie. Ana yoe iieueciaaoaee e oa,
eoi niae?aaony eie noaoue, iaania/eaatho oeaeaaie oiaa?,
ia?eaoeia eee oe?iaiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey io?anee”.

Niaeanii eaa?oaeueiiio iaci?o iiaeien/eeia iieaei a “Aeieeaaea ii
yeaeo?iiiie eioi?iaoeee”, iiaeienea ia Web/iieaei NOA ia aoi?ie
eaa?oae 1997 aiaea au?inea ia 12,9%, i?e yoii aicaeaaeea yoio
?ino America Online n 1,1 ieeeeiia iiaeien/eeia. 53 neoaeau
iieaeia niiaueee i niaieoiiii /enea aaiiaioia a 24,7 ieeeeiia ii
ninoiyieth ia 30 ethiy 1997, n?aaieoaeueii n 21,9 ieeeeiiii ia
eiiaoe 1996 aiaea. “?ino a iio?aaeoaeueneie eaoaai?ee, naiii e?oiiii
eco/aaiii naeoi?a, i?iaeieaeaao aea?aeaoueny ia oaeaeao
iaiiaeaiiiai nieeaeiiai aeaea Aia?eea Iieaei, – neacae Oiie
AEa?in, oi?aaeythuee ?aaeaeoi? a a?oiia New Media & Marketing Group a
Cowles/Simba Information, ecaeathuae “Aeieeaae ii yeaeo?iiiie
eioi?iaoeee”. – Iaoeia ia?eaoeiaa AOL niiaa ia ia?aaea/a iinea
?aoaiey aieueoeinoaa aa oe?iei ianoaeaeaaoeony i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
aeinooiii”. I?aaenoiyuay i?iaeaaea aeieaeia iiii/ue CompuServe,
eioi?ue au?in eeoue ia 1,6% aei 5,4 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia n 5,3
ieeeeiiia, oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeo ninoiyiea ia 31 aeaeaa?y 1996 aiaea.
Aaiiaioiay aaca Microsoft Network iiaeiyeanue ia 35,3% aei 2,3
ieeeeiiia io 1,7 ieeeeiia a eiioea i?ioeiai aiaea. A oeaeii, ii
aeaiiui “Aeieeaaea ii yeaeo?iiiie eioi?iaoeee”, iio?aaeoaeueneay
eaoaai?ey au?inea ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea ia11,9%, oaaee/eaoenue n 17,9
ieeeeiiia aei 20,0 ieeeeiiia. Iniaaiii neeueiue ?ino ca?aaeno?e?iaai a
aecian/i?ioanneiiaeueiii naeoi?a, aaea ioia/ai nea/ie ia 21,8%, n
2,9 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia a eiioea 1996 aiaea aei 3,6 ieeeeiiia
aaiiaioia. Iniiaiui iioi?ii aunooieea Multex System Inc.,
ecaanoiay ecaeaieai oaeeo i?iaeoeoia, eae MultexNET e Multex
Publisher: aa ?ino ninoaaee 2.557,3% – ni anaai eeoue 11.000 aaiiaioia
ia 31 aeaeaa?y 1996 aiaea aei 292.300 aaiiaioia. E?iia oiai,
oeiainiaue naeoi? au?in a oeaeii ia 5,3%, aeinoeaioa 1,1
ieeeeiia aaiiaioia.

Auaiaeu, naeaeaiiua Inteco ii Aa?iia, iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
?acoeueoaou aiaeiae/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaaaeaiiuo a NOA e aiai?yueo
i oii, /oi cao?aou ia aioo?aiiea naoe a noa?a aeciana aeaeaei
i?aacieaeoo cao?aou ia Eioa?iao. A oa/aiea 1997 aiaea
Eioa?aiaoeio?aiaon iaiiiai i?aaunyo cao?aou ia Eioa?iao. A oa/aiea
1997 aiaea eiiiaiee eno?aoyo a eaaeaeoth noi?iio ii 1,4 ieeeea?aea
aeieea?ia. Oai ia iaiaa, a Aa?iia e 2001 aiaeo aiaeiaua ei?ii?aoeaiua
?anoiaeu ia aioo?aiiea naoe aeinoeaioo ii/oe 19 ieeeea?aea
aeieea?ia(a aeiiieiaiea e eo caieaie?iaaiiui ?anoiaeai ia
onoaiiaeaiiua naoe noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee e legacy database
na?aa?u) , oiaaea eae ?anoiaeu ia Eioa?iao inoaioony iicaaee n
iauaiii ia o?iaia 6 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia.

CAEETH*AIEA

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?a nouanoaoao aieaa 130 ieeeeiiia
eiiiuethoa?ia e aieaa 80 % ec ieo iauaaeeiaiu a ?acee/iua
eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiua naoe io iaeuo eieaeueiuo naoae a ioenao
aei aeiaaeueiuo naoae oeia Internet. Anaie?iay oaiaeaioeey e
iauaaeeiaieth eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe iaoneiaeaia ?yaeii aaaeiuo i?e/ei,
oaeeo eae onei?aiea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niiauaiee, aiciiaeiinoue
auno?iai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie, iieo/aiea e
ia?aaea/a niiauaiee ( oaenia, E – Mail ienai e i?i/aai ) ia iooiaey io
?aai/aai ianoa, aiciiaeiinoue iaiiaaiiiai iieo/aiey ethaie eioi?iaoeee
ec ethaie oi/ee caiiiai oa?a, a oae aea iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ?aciuo oe?i i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?aaioathueo iiae ?aciui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai.

Oaeea ia?iiiua iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioi?ua ianao a naaa
au/eneeoaeueiay naoue e oio iiaue iioaioeeaeueiue iiaeuai eioi?ue i?e
yoii eniuouaaao eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiiieaen, a oae aea cia/eoaeueiia
onei?aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia aeatho iai i?aai ia
i?eieiaoue yoi e ?ac?aaioea e ia i?eiaiyoue eo ia i?aeoeea.

I?aaeaea /ai eiaieoua i?iecaiaeeoaee iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia noaioo
aeeaaeuaaoue aieueoa aeieea?ia a Web-?aeeaio, ioaeii i?iyaeoue iaeneioi
ecia?aoaoaeueiinoe, /oiau canoaaeoue ethaeae caeioa?aniaaoueny
iieoieaie a Internet.

Ai?i/ai, o eiiiaiee, caiyouo eioa?aeoeaiie eiiia?oeeae e
ecaeaoaeueneei aeaeii, anoue iniiaaiey aeey iioeiecia – e?eaay ?anoiaeia
ia oaeiai ?iaea ?aeeaio yaii e onoie/eai eaeao aaa?o.

N aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiie nei?inoueth caeeaaeuaay ooiaeaiaio
eioa?aeoeaiiai ?uiea, ?aeeaiiaeaoaee e Web-ecaeaoaee niaa?oainoaotho
nae/an no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa e oi?iu ?aeeaiu. I?inoua ?aeeaiiua caaieiaee
aeey yoeo oeaeae aieueoa ia aiaeyony.

A i?ioeii aiaeo ?anoiaeu, aeeth/ay ?aciauaiea eioi?iaoeee a Web e o
iacaaeneiuo ecaeaoaeae, oaeeo eae America Online e PointCast, ii aeaiiui
aiaeeoe/aneie e eiinaeoeiaiaie eiiiaiee Jupiter Communication, ninoaaeee
5 ie?ae. aeiee., oaaee/eaoenue a 7 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii.

Neeaaeuaaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue eioa?aeoeaiue
?uiie ninoieo ec aunieioaoiieiae/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?iaeathueo naie
oiaa?u naaa iiaeiaiui.

A ioee/ea io ianneaiie, ienoiaeyuae ia iio?aaeoaey iiaeaee ia?eaoeiaa,
Eioa?iao iicaieyao inouanoaeoue acaeiiaeaenoaea iinoaaueeia e
iio?aaeoaeae, i?e eioi?ii iineaaeiea naie noaiiayony iinoaaueeaie (a
/anoiinoe, iinoaaueeaie eioi?iaoeee i naieo iio?aaiinoyo).

Eioa?iao-?aeeaia – iiaay oaoiieiaey oeaeaaie ?aeeaiu. Iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo aeaeaeoueo nee no?aieoaeueiiai ?acaeoey naoe Eioa?iao a ie?a
noaei i?eciaiea ?aeeaiiaeaoaeyie iiaiai n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee,
eaeei aaconeiaii iiaeao n/eoaoueny Eioa?iao, eae eneeth/eoaeueii
oaeiaiie oaoiieiaee aeey i?iaaaeaiey oeaeaaie ?aeeaiu e eiio?iey ca
yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee. Ii-ianoiyuaio ?aaiethoeeiiiuie
noaee ?ac?aaioee a iaeanoe ?aeeaiiie oaoiieiaee, i?aaeeiaeaiiua ia ?uiea
a 90-o aiaeao oaeeie eiiiaieyie, eae Yahoo!, Amazon.com, Alta Vista e
aeanyoeaie ae?oaeo eioa?iao-iaaeea-eiiiaiee NOA. Oeaio?aeueiui
iieiaeaieai yoeo ?ac?aaioie ai anao neo/ayo noaei nicaeaiea aeey
?aeeaiiaeaoaeae oieeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?aciauaoue ?aeeaio,
i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia ouaoaeueii ioia?aiioth e oi/ii ioeaieaaaioth
?aeeaiioth aoaeeoi?eth. Oae, Eioa?iao naaiaeiy iicaieyao ecaeaoaeyi
oaioanoe/aneeo eiea ?aeeaie?iaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth oieueei oai
iieueciaaoaeyi naoe Eioa?iao, eioi?ua aeaenoaeoaeueii eioa?anothony
oaioanoeeie, a /aoneay a?iea?neay oe?ia iiaeao ?acianoeoue ?aeeaio a
naoe Eioa?iao oae, /oi ia iaa “iaoueaoueny” aoaeoo oieueei
iieueciaaoaee, euouea aiciiaeiinoe eiaanoe?iaaoue a /aoneea oeaiiua
aoiaae. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi nia?aiaiiay eioa?iao-oaoiieiaey
iicaieyao aaoiiaoe/anee iaeaieeaaoue aacu aeaiiuo aae?ania
eioa?iao-iieueciaaoaeae, eioa?anothueony oie eee eiie oaiie, a oaeaea
?aciauaoue ?aeeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth ii eioa?iao-na?aa?ai a caaeneiinoe io
eo oaiaoeee, ?aeeaiiaeaoaee iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue i?eaioe?iaaoue naith
?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth ia /?acau/aeii oceea e ei??aeoii ii?aaeaeaiiua
a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae.

Anoanoaaiii, aeinooi e oeaeaaui ?aeeaiiui ?aoaieyi iicaieyao
?aeeaiiaeaoaeyi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie nie?auaoue ecaea?aeee ia
aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae ?aeeaiiie eaiiaieae oeaeae. Oae,
o?aaeeoeeiiii eniieuecoaiia a ?aeeaiiie i?aeoeea niioiioaiea oeaiu ia
?aeeaio e iaeiie ouny/a aeinoeaaaiuo ?aeeaiie iieueciaaoaeae (CPM Ratio)
ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 28 aeey aia?eeaineeo aeo?iaeia, 14 – aeey
?inneeneeo aiaeiaiauo aeo?iaeia, iaaeaao aei 6-9 aeey e?oiiuo
aia?eeaineeo na?aa?ia e aei 4-8 – aeey ?inneeneeo eioa?iao-na?aa?ia.

Iniiaiui auaiaeii ec i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony oi, /oi n ao?iui
?acaeoeai aeiaaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey,
oaeea eae oiiieia e ?aeeaia auoiaeyo ia i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue o?iaaiue.
Aieueoia eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iao aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
?aeeaie?iaaoue e i?iaeaaaoue ?acee/iua oiaa?u ?acee/iiio e?oao
iio?aaeoaeae. Aeieacaia aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee /a?ac
Eioa?iao ia i?eia?a Naieo-Ieoa?ao?aneiai na?aa?a ” Aeoen ” eae ii ioaaoo
aoaeeoi?ee, oae e ii noieiinoe ?aciauaiey e ecaioaaeaiey ?aeeaiu.

Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana aieueoa e?oiiaeoeo oe?i – i?iecaiaeeoaeae
oe?iei eniieuecotho aeiaaeueioth naoue Eioa?iao aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey
naiae i?iaeoeoeee.

Nienie niaoeeaeueiuo oa?ieiia

Aiaeeeneea oa?ieiu

Alta Vista – iaeei ec iiuiaeoeo iieneiauo na?aa?ia Internet.

Archie – a?oea. Nenoaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey oaeeia a
ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – i?ioieie ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana,
i?aia?acoao aae?an eiiiuethoa?a a naoe Internet a aai oece/aneee aae?an.

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) – ath?i i?iaeoia ia?aaeiauo
enneaaeiaaiee ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.

ARPANET – yenia?aiaioaeueiay naoue, ?aaioaaoay a naieaeanyoua aiaeu, ia
eioi?ie i?iaa?yeenue oai?aoe/aneay aaca e i?ia?aiiia iaania/aiea,
iieiaeaiua a iniiao Internet. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia nouanoaoao.

Bps (bit per second) – aeo a naeoiaeo. Aaeeieoea ecia?aiey i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe eeiee nayce. I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue eeiee nayce
ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie ii eeiee ca
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

Cisco – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Cisco-Systems.

DNS (Domain Name System) – aeiiaiiay nenoaia eiai. ?ani?aaeaeaiiay
nenoaia aac aeaiiuo aeey ia?aaiaea eiai eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe Internet a
eo IP-aae?ana.

Ethernet – oei eieaeueiie naoe. Oi?ioa ?aciiia?aceai oeiia i?iaiaeia
aeey niaaeeiaiee, iaania/eaathueo i?iioneiua niiniaiinoe io 2 aei 10
ieeeeiiia bps(2-10 Mbps). Aeiaieueii /anoi eiiiuethoa?u, eniieuecothuea
i?ioieieu TCP/IP, /a?ac Ethernet iiaeniaaeeiythony e Internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia, i?ioieie,
ii?aaeaeythuee i?aaeea ia?anueee oaeeia n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
ae?oaie.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Qustions) – /anoi caaeaaaaiua aii?inu. ?acaeae
ioaee/iuo a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey aeey
“ia/eiathueo” iieueciaaoaeae naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Gopher – eioa?aeoeaiay iaiei/ea aeey iienea, i?eniaaeeiaiey e
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e aiciiaeiinoae Internet. Eioa?oaen n
iieueciaaoaeai inouanoaeai /a?ac nenoaio iaith.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)- ycue aeey iaienaiey aeia?oaenoiauo
aeieoiaioia. Iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue – iaee/ea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae
iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie iaoiaeyueieny a ?acee/iuo a?oeaao naoe; aeaaiaea?y
yoei naycyi iiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ai a?aiy i?iniio?a iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei aeieoiaioai.

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue.

internet – oaoiieiaey naoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie
?aciuo oeiia.

IP (Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, naiue
aaaeiue ec i?ioieieia naoe Internet, iaania/eaaao ia?o?ooecaoeeth
iaeaoia a naoe.

I?-aae?an – oieeaeueiue 32-aeoiue aae?an eaaeaeiai eiiiuethoa?a a naoe
Internet.

Iptunnel – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui iao
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe Internet.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Eiiaiaea ioi?aaee oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue.

NetBlazer – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Telebit.

NetWare – naoaaay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, ?ac?aaioaiiay oe?iie Novell;
iicaieyao no?ieoue EAN iniiaaiioth ia i?eioeeia acaeiiaeaenoaey
eeeaio-na?aa?. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo na?aa?ii e eeeaioii a EAN NetWare
i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa nianoaaiiuo i?ioieieia (IPX), oai ia iaiaa
i?ioieieu TCP/IP oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaathony.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia.
I?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey oaeeiaie nenoaiu oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai IAEIAe.

NNTP (Net News Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e naoaauo iiainoae.
Iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.

Ping – ooeeeoa i?iaa?ea nayce n oaeaeaiiie YAI.

POP (Post Office Protocol) – i?ioieie “ii/oiaue iooen”. Eniieuecoaony
aeey iaiaia ii/oie iaaeaeo oinoii e aaiiaioaie. Iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea –
iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie ii cai?ino io aaiiaioa.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy iicaieythuee
eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua eeiee.
Ioiineoaeueii iiaue i?ioieie, yaeyaony aiaeiaii SLIP.

RAM (Random Acsess Memory) – iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue.

RFC (Requests For Comments) – cai?inu eiiiaioa?eaa. ?acaeae ioaee/iuo
a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey i anao noaiaea?oiuo
i?ioieieao naoe Internet.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy
iicaieythuee eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua
eeiee.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – i?inoie i?ioieie ia?aaea/e ii/ou.
Iniiaiiay iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea SMTP – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie
i?ienoiaeeo ia ii cai?ino iaeiiai ec oinoia, a /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
(eaaeaeua 20 – 30 ieioo). Ii/oa iaaeaeo oinoaie a Internet ia?aaeaaony
ia iniiaa i?ioieiea SMTP.

Talk – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia
iaeiia?aiaiii ia/aoaaony aaiaeeiue oaeno e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai
iieueciaaoaey.

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie.

TCP\IP – iiae TCP\IP iau/ii iiieiaaony ana iiiaeanoai i?ioieieia
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo a naoe Internet.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – i?ioieie eio?iey ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a naoe. TCP – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, iaeei ec
iniiaiuo i?ioieieia naoe Internet. Ioaa/aao ca onoaiiaeaiea e
iiaeaea?aeaiea ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea (o.a. eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey), a
oaeaea ca aacioeai/ioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ii eaiaeo.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, a ioee/ea
io i?ioieiea TCP ia iaania/eaaao aacioeai/iie ia?aaea/e iaeaoa.

Unix – iiiaicaaea/iay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, iniiaiay iia?aoeeiiiay
n?aaea a naoe Internet. Eiaao ?acee/iua ?aaeecaoeee: Unix-BSD,
Unix-Ware, Unix-Interactive.

UUCP – i?ioieie eiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee n iaeiiai Unix-oinoa ia ae?oaie.
UUCP – ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa i?ioieieia TCP/IP, ii oai ia iaiaa ana-aua
oe?iei eniieuecoaony a naoe Internet. Ia iniiaa i?ioieiea UUCP –
iino?iaiu iiiaea nenoaiu iaiaia ii/oie, aei neo ii? eniieuecoaiua a
naoe.

VERONICA (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Archives)
– nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee a ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet ii
eeth/aaui neiaai.

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) – iiuiay nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee
a aacao aeaiiuo naoe Internet ii eeth/aaui neiaai.

WWW (World Wide Web) – anaie?iay iaooeia. Nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo aac
aeaiiuo, iaeaaeathueo aeia?oaenoiauie naycyie iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet.

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

?onneea oa?ieiu

Ae?aeaa? – caa?oaeaaiay a iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue i?ia?aiia, oi?aaeythuay
iaiaiii aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie e aiaoieie
ono?ienoaaie.

Aeia?oaeno – aeieoiaio, eiathuee nayce n ae?oaeie aeieoiaioaie /a?ac
nenoaio auaeaeaiiuo neia (nnueie). Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

EAN – eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue.

Ia?o?ooecaoi? (router) – eiiiuethoa? naoe, caieiathueeny ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe, oi anoue auai?ii e?ao/aeoaai ia?o?ooa neaaeiaaiey
iaeaoia ii naoe.

Iiaeai – ono?ienoai i?iaa?acothuaa oeeo?iaua neaiaeu a aiaeiaiaoth oi?io
e ia?aoii. Eniieuecoaony aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ii aiaeiaiaui eeieyi nayce.

IAEIAe – iaeiieoaee ia aeanoeii iaaieoiii aeenea.

I?ioieie – niaieoiiinoue i?aaee e niaeaoaiee, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo oi?iao e
i?ioeaaeo?o iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie iacaaeneiuie ono?ienoaaie
eee i?ioeannaie. Noaiaea?oiua i?ioieieu iicaieytho naycuaaony iaaeaeo
niaie eiiiuethoa?ai ?aciuo oeiia, ?aaioathuei a ?aciuo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoaiao.

?ano?n – eiae/aneay eee oece/aneay /anoue nenoaiu, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
auaeaeaia iieueciaaoaeth eee i?ioeanno.

Na?aa? – i?ia?aiia aeey naoaaiai eiiiuethoa?a, iicaieythuay
i?aaeinoaaeoue oneoae iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o.
Ianeoaeeaaaiua eiiiuethoa?u niiauathony n na?aa?-i?ia?aiiie i?e iiiiue
iieueciaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu (eeeaio-i?ia?aiiu). Kiiiuethoa? a naoe,
i?aaeinoaaeythuee naie oneoae ae?oaei, oi anoue auiieiythuee
ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee ii cai?inai ae?oaeo.

Ocae – eiiiuethoa? a naoe, auiieiythuee iniiaiua naoaaua ooieoeee
(ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee e o.i.).

Oino – naoaaay ?aai/ay iaoeia; aeaaiay YAI. Naoaaie eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue
iiieii naoaauo ooieoeee (ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee)
auiieiyao iieueciaaoaeueneea caaeaiey (i?ia?aiiu, ?an/aou, au/eneaiey).

Oethc – noaioeey nayce n aiaoiae eee ae?oaie naoueth. Iiaeao
iaania/eaaoue naycue ianiaianoeiuo naoae, a oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea
ianiaianoeiuo i?eeiaeaiee a ?aieao iaeiie naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet.

Caaueyeia I.N., Aeaieaeia A.A. Oi?ioea oniaoa: ia?eaoeia

/noi aii?inia – noi ioaaoia i oii, eae yooaeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue

ia aiaoiai ?uiea/. – I.: II. 1995. N. 12-14

Caaueyeia I.N., Aeaieaeia A.A. Oi?ioea oniaoa: ia?eaoeia

/noi aii?inia – noi ioaaoia i oii, eaeyooaeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue

ia aiaoiai ?uiea/. – I.: II. 1995. N. 16-17.

Iicae?aaa ?.A., Oeuae/ei E.E. Ia?eaoeia: Eae iiaaaeaeaoue

ia ?uiea. – I.: OeN, 1991. N. 8-11.

Aeaaeaiey ?uiea: Ia?eaoeia: Ia?. n o?./ A?iai Aeaeai e

ae?. – I.: Yeiiiieea, 1993. N. 8.

PAGE

PAGE 101

IA?EAOEIAIAUA ?AOAIEss:

oiaa?, ianoi oi?aiaee, nenoaia oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiey
nauoa (OINNOEN), oeaiiaay iieeoeea e

o. ae.

Nenoaia eioi?iaoeee oi?aaeaiey

IEAIE?IAAIEA

AIAEEC:

a) ?uii/iie neooaoeee,

a) iieoiaoaeae,

a) eiieo?aioia,

a) oiaa?a

OeAEE I?AAeI?EssOEss:

a) aica?auaiea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,

a) iieaoa o?oaea ia?niiaea,

a) nioeeaeueiua iaycaiiinoe ia?aae ia-

uanoaii

AIAEEC E EIIO?IEUe (?uiea iieoiaoaeae, eiieo?aioia, oiaa?a)

Iiaua oiaa?u

e eo eniuoaiea

I?iaiice?iaaiea

?uieia

Auai? ?uiea

(?uieia)

Oi?aaeaiea

i?iecaiaenoaii

oiaa?a

OeAEE IA?EAOEIAA:

a) oaeiaeaoai?aiea o?aaiaaiee (iio?aaiinoae)

iio?aaeoaeae,

a) aeinoeaeaiea i?aainoiaenoaa iaae

eiieo?aioaie,

a) caaiaaaiea aeiee ?uiea,

a) iaania/aiea ?inoa i?iaeaae

oeiainiaay,

oaoiieiae/aneay,

i?aaiecaoeeiiii-

no?oeoo?iay,

eaae?iaay

e o. ae.

yeiiiieea,

i?aaiaia

?aaoee?iaaiea,

iieeoeea,

nioeeaeueiay noa?a, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey e o. ae.

AIAOIssss N?AAeA:

AIOO?AIIssss N?AAeA:

?en. 1.1 Noaia ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey

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