.

Развитие архитектуры материнских плат для PC

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1058
Скачать документ

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

IINEIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE EIAEAIA?II-OECE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

(oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao)

eaoaae?a ? 12

?aoa?ao

“?acaeoea a?oeoaeoo?u iaoa?eineeo ieao aeey PC”

Nooaeaio Auno?ia Aeieo?ee

A?oiia E9-04

Iineaa 1996

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 3

Iaoa?eineay ieaoa 4

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u 4

Oeiu 6

ISA 9

EISA 9

VESA 10

PCI 10

Iaiyoue 11

Caeeth/aiea 18

Eeoa?aoo?a 19

I?eeiaeaiea 20

Aaaaeaiea

A eiioea XX aaea iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aeeciue aac
ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Eiiiuethoa? i?i/ii aioae a iaoo aeeciue
noaa aeaaiui iiiiuieeii /aeiaaea. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?a
nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai eiiiuethoa?ia ?acee/iuo oe?i, ?acee/iuo a?oii
neiaeiinoe, iacia/aiey e iieieaiee. A aeaiiii ?aoa?aoa iu ?anniio?ei
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u (Personal Computer eee i?inoi PC), a oi/iaa
enoi?eth e aeaeueiaeoea oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoa?eineeo ieao aeey PC.

Iniiaiie /anoueth ethaie eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu yaeyaony iaoa?eineay
ieaoa n aeaaiui i?ioeanni?ii e iiaeaea?aeeaathueie aai iee?inoaiaie.
Ooieoeeiiaeueii iaoa?eineoth ieaoo iiaeii iienaoue ?acee/iui ia?acii.
Eiiaaea oaeay ieaoa niaea?aeeo anth noaio eiiiuethoa?a (iaeiiieaoiua). A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaeiiieaoiui, a oeiii?eaioe?iaaiuo eiiiuethoa?ao
nenoaiiay ieaoa ?aaeecoao noaio ieieiaeueiie eiioeao?aoeee, inoaeueiua
ooieoeee ?aaeecothony n iiiiuueth iiiai/eneaiiuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieao.
Ana eiiiiiaiou niaaeeiythony oeiie. A nenoaiiie ieaoa iao
aeaeaiaaeaioa?a, iaeioi?uo aeaeia iaiyoe e n?aaenoa nayce n
aeiiieieoaeueiuie ono?ienoaaie. Yoe ono?ienoaa (ieaou ?anoe?aiey)
aeiaaaeythony e nenoaiiie ieaoa iooai i?eniaaeeiaiey aei/a?ieo e oeia
?anoe?aiey, eioi?ay yaeyaony /anoueth nenoaiiie ieaou.

Ia?aay iaoa?eineay ieaoa auea ?ac?aaioaia oe?iie IBM, e iieacaiiay a
aaaonoa 1981 aiaea (PC-1). A 1983 aiaeo iiyaeeny eiiiuethoa? n
oaaee/aiiie nenoaiiie ieaoie (PC-2). Iaeneioi, /oi iiaea
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue PC-1 aac eniieueciaaiey ieao ?anoe?aiey- 64E iaiyoe.
PC-2 eiaea oaea 256E, ii iaeaieaa aaaeiia ?acee/ea caeeth/aeinue a
i?ia?aiie?iaaiee aeaoo ieao. Nenoaiiay ieaoa PC-1 ia iiaea aac
ei??aeoe?iaee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaeaieaa iiuiua ono?ienoaa ?anoe?aiey,
oaeeo, eae aeanoeee aeene e oeo/oaiiua aeaeaiaaeaioa?u.

Iaoa?eineay ieaoa

Iaoa?eineay ieaoa — yoi eiiieaen ?acee/iuo ono?ienoa iiaeaea?aeeaathuee
?aaioo nenoaiu a oeaeii. Iaycaoaeueiuie ao?eaooaie iao. ieaou yaeythony
aaciaue i?ioeanni?, iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue, nenoaiiue BIOS, eiio?iea?
eeaaeaoo?u, ?acuaiu ?anoe?aiey.

A iauai neo/aa iaoa?eineea ieaou iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ii ?acia?ai ia o?e
a?oiiu. ?aiueoa ana iaoa?eineea ieaou eiaee ?acia?u 8,5/11 aetheiia. A
XT ?acia?u oaaee/eeenue ia 1 aethei a AT ?acia?u aic?inee aua aieueoa.

Nae/an /anoi ?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe i “caeaiuo” ieaoao (green mothrboard).
Aeaiiua nenoaiiua ieaou iicaieytho ?aaeeciaaoue ianeieueei yeiiiie/iuo
?aaeeiia yia?aiiio?aaeaiey. Aia?eeaineia aaaionoai caueou ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu (EPA) nin?aaeioi/eea naia aieiaiea ia oiaiueoaiee iio?aaeaiey
yia?aee eiiiuethoa?iuie nenoaiaie. Iai?oaeiaaiea, oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa aa
(EPA) o?aaiaaieyi aeieaeii a n?aaeiai ( a ?aaeeia oieinoiai oiaea)
iio?aaeyoue ia aieaa 30Ao, ia eniieueciaaoue oiene/iua iaoa?eaeu e
aeiioneaoue 100% ooeeecaoeeth. Iineieueeo nia?aiaiiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u
eniieuecotho iai?yaeaiea ieoaiey 3,3-4A, ia nenoaiiuo ieaoao iiioe?otho
i?aia?aciaaoaee iai?yaeaiea (o.e. ia ieaoo iiaeaaony 5A).

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u

A?oeoaeoo?a iaoa?eineie ieaou iai?yioth caaeneo io aiaoiae a?oeoaeoo?u
iee?ii?ioeanni?a.

A 1976 aiaeo oe?ia Intel ia/aea oneeaiii ?aaioaoue iaae
iee?ii?ioeanni?ii 8086. ?acia? aai ?aaeno?ia aue oaaee/ai a aeaa ?aca,
/oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue a 10 ?ac ii
n?aaiaieth n 8080. E?iia oiai ?acia? eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oei aue oaaee/ai
aei 16 ?ac?yaeia, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee ia iee?ii?ioeanni? e n iaai a aeaa ?aca. ?acia? aai
aae?aniie oeiu oaeaea aue nouanoaaiii oaaee/ai – aei 20 aeo. Yoi
iicaieeei 86-io i?yii eiio?iee?iaaoue 1I iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.

Aianoi 20-?ac?yaeiie aae?aniie oeiu 8088/8086 80286 eiae 24-?ac?yaeioth
oeio. Yoe aeiiieieoaeueiua 4 ?ac?yaea aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue
iaeneioi aae?anoaiie iaiyoe aei 16 I.

Intel 80386 aue nicaeai a 1985 aiaeo. N oaaee/aieai oeiu aeaiiuo aei 32
aeo, /enei aae?aniuo eeiee oaeaea auei oaaee/aii aei 32. Naii ii naaa
yoi ?anoe?aiea iicaieeei ieepiipioeannipo i?yii ia?auaoueny e 4Aa
oece/aneie iaiyoe. E?iia oiai ii iia ?aaioaoue n 16 o?eeeeiiaie aaeo
ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoe. Nouanoaoao iiaeeoeeaoeey i?ioeanni?a Intel80386 —
386SX. Aeaaiia ioee/ea aai io 80386 yoi 16-aeoiue aoiae/auoiae oeiu
aeaiiuo. Eae neaaenoaea aai aioo?aiiea ?aaeno?u caiieiythony a aeaa
oaaa.

Ana i?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa 486 eiatho 32-?ac?yaeioth a?oeoaeoo?o,
aioo?aiithth eyo-iaiyoue 8 Ea ni neaiciie caienueth (o DX4 – 16 EA).
Iiaeaee SX ia eiatho ano?iaiiiai nii?ioeanni?a. Iiaeaee DX2 ?aaeecotho
iaoaieci aioo?aiiaai oaeaiaiey /anoiou (iai?eia?, i?ioeanni? 486DX2-66
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia 33-iaaaaa?oeiaoth nenoaiioth ieaoo), /oi iicaieyao
iiaeiyoue auno?iaeaenoaea i?aeoe/anee a aeaa ?aca, oae eae
yooaeoeaiinoue eyoe?iaaiey aioo?aiiae eyo-iaiyoe ninoaaeyao ii/oe 90
i?ioeaioia. I?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa DX4 – 486DX4-75 e 486DX4-100
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey onoaiiaee ia 25-oe e 33-iaaaaa?oeiaua ieaou.

I?ioeanni? ?ac?yaeiinoue oeiu aeaiiuo ?aai/ay /anoioa,

IAoe

i4004 4 0.75

i8008 8 0.8

i8080 8 2

i8086 16 5; 8; 10

i8088 16 5; 8

i80286 16 8; 10; 12; 16

i80386 DX 32 20; 25; 33; 40

i80386 SX 16 20; 25; 33

i80486 DX 32 25; 33; 50; 66

i80486 SX 32 16; 20; 25; 33

Pentium 32 60; 66; 75; 90; 100; 120; 133; 166; 200

Pentium Pro 32 166; 180; 200

Oeiu

Oeia – yoi eaiae ia?anueee aeaiiuo, eniieuecoaiue niaianoii ?acee/iuie
aeieaie nenoaiu. Eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony ii oeia a aeaea a?oii aeoia. A
ninoaa oeiu aeey eaaeaeiai aeoa neiaa iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aia
ioaeaeueiay eeiey (ia?aeeaeueiay oeia), eee ana aeou neiaa iiaoo
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ai a?aiaie eniieueciaaoue iaeio eeieth
(iineaaeiaaoaeueiay oeia). Ia ?en 7. ia?eniaaii oeie/iia iiaeeeth/aiea
ono?ienoa e oeia aeaiiuo.

Oeia n o?aiy ninoiyieyie

O?e ninoiyiea ia oeia – yoi ninoiyiey aunieiai o?iaiy, ieceiai o?iaiy e
3-aa ninoiyiea. 3-aa ninoiyiea iicaieyao ono?ienoao eee i?ioeanni?o
ioeeth/eoueny io oeiu e ia aeeyoue ia o?iaie, onoaiaaeeaaaiua ia oeia
ae?oaeie ono?ienoaaie eee i?ioeanni?aie. Oaeei ia?acii, oieueei iaeii
ono?ienoai yaeyaony aaaeouei ia oeia. Oi?aaeythuay eiaeea aeoeaece?oao a
eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue iiiaio oieueei iaeii ono?ienoai, eioi?ia
noaiiaeoueny aaaeouei. Eiaaea ono?ienoai aeoeaece?iaaii, iii iiiauaao
naie aeaiiua ia oeio, ana aea inoaeueiua iioaioeeaeueiua aaaeouea
ia?aaiaeyony a ianneaiia ninoiyiea.

E oeia iiaeao auoue iiaeeeth/aii iiiai i?eaiiuo ono?ienoa. Ni/aoaiea
oi?aaeythueo e aae?aniuo neaiaeia, ii?aaeaeyao aeey eiai eiaiii
i?aaeiacia/athony aeaiiua ia oeia. Oi?aaeythuay eiaeea aicaoaeaeaao
niaoeeaeueiua no?iae?othuea neaiaeu, /oiau oeacaoue iieo/aoaeth eiaaea
aio neaaeoao i?eieiaoue aeaiiua. Iieo/aoaee e ioi?aaeoaee iiaoo auoue
iaeiiiai?aaeaiiuie e aeaoiai?aaeaiiuie. Ia ?en. 8 iieacaiu
aeaoiai?aaeaiiua ioi?aaeoaee/iieo/aoaee, iiaeeeth/aiiua e oeia.

Oeiiay i?aaiecaoeey iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, iineieueeo a yoii
neo/aa ana ono?ienoaa eniieuecotho aaeeiue i?ioieie nii?yaeaiey iiaeoeae
oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia e ono?ienoa aaiaea/auaiaea n iiiiuueth o?ao
oei.

Oeiu oei

Nii?yaeaiea n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii
o?ao oei: oeiu aeaiiuo, oeiu aae?ania e oeiu oi?aaeaiey.

Oeia aeaiiuo neoaeeo aeey ia?anueee aeaiiuo iaaeaeo OeI e iaiyoueth eee
OeI e ono?ienoaaie aaiaea/auaiaea. Yoe aeaiiua iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue
niaie eae eiiaiaeu OeI, oae e eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth OeI iinueaao a
ii?ou aaiaea/auaiaea eee i?eieiaao ioooaea. A II 8088 oeia aeaiiuo eiaao
oe?eio 8 ?ac?yaeia. A II 8086, 80186, 80286 oe?eia oeiu aeaiiuo 16
?ac?yaeia; a II 80386 – 32 ?ac?yaea.

Oeia aae?ania eniieuecoaony OeI aeey auai?a o?aaoaiie y/aeee iaiyoe eee
ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea iooai onoaiiaee ia oeia eiie?aoiiai aae?ana,
niioaaonoaothuaai iaeiie ec y/aae iaiyoe eee iaeiiai ec yeaiaioia
aaiaea/auaiaea, aoiaeyueo a nenoaio. Ii oeia oi?aaeaiey ia?aaeathony
oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua iaiyoe e ono?ienoaai
aaiaea/auaiaea.

Iaaeno?aeueiay i?aaiecaoeey i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea oi?aaeythuaai iiaeoey.
Iniiaiia iacia/aiea yoiai iiaeoey – i?aaiecaoeey ia?aaea/e neiaa iaaeaeo
aeaoiy ae?oaeie iiaeoeyie.

Iia?aoeee ia iaaeno?aee

Iia?aoeey ia nenoaiiie iaaeno?aee ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi oi?aaeythuee
iiaeoeue onoaiaaeeaaao ia oeia eiaeiaia neiai iiaeoey – ioi?aaeoaey e
aeoeaece?oao eeieth no?iaa ioi?aaeoaey. Yoi iicaieyao iiaeoeth, eiaeiaia
neiai eioi?iai onoaiiaeaii ia oeia, iiiyoue, /oi ii yaeyaony
ioi?aaeoaeai. Caoai oi?aaeythuee iiaeoeue onoaiaaeeaaao ia eiaeiaia
neiai iiaeoey – iieo/aoaey e aeoeaece?oao eeieth no?iaa iieo/aoaey. Yoi
iicaieyao iiaeoeth, eiaeiaia neiai eioi?iai onoaiiaeaii ia oeia,
iiiyoue, /oi ii yaeyaony iieo/aoaeai.

Iinea yoiai oi?aaeythuee iiaeoeue aicaoaeaeaao eeieth no?iaa aeaiiuo, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?a ioi?aaeoaey ia?anueaaony a
?aaeno? iieo/aoaey. Yoio oaa iiaeao auoue iiaoi?ai ethaia /enei ?ac,
anee o?aaoaony ia?aaeaoue iiiai neia.

Aeaiiua ia?anueathony io ioi?aaeoaey iieo/aoaeth a ioaao ia eiioeuen,
aicaoaeaeaaiue oi?aaeythuei iiaeoeai ia niioaaonoaothuae eeiee no?iaa.
I?e yoii i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi e iiiaioo iiyaeaiey eiioeuena no?iaa a
iiaeoea – ioi?aaeoaea aeaiiua iiaeaioiaeaiu e ia?aaea/a, a iiaeoeue –
iieo/aoaeue aioia i?eiyoue aeaiiua. Oaeay ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iineo
iacaaiea neio?iiiie (neio?iiece?iaaiiie).

I?ioeannu ia iaaeno?aeyo iiaoo iineoue aneio?iiiue oa?aeoa?. Ia?aaea/o
aeaiiuo io ioi?aaeoaey iieo/aoaeth iiaeii eii?aeeie?iaaoue n iiiiuueth
eeiee ninoiyiey, neaiaeu ia eioi?uo io?aaeatho oneiaey ?aaiou iaieo
iiaeoeae. Eae oieueei iiaeoeue iacia/aaony ioi?aaeoaeai, ii i?eieiaao
eiio?ieue iaae eeieae aioiaiinoe ioi?aaeoaey, neaiaeece?oy n aa
iiiiuueth i naiae aioiaiinoe i?eieiaoue aeaiiua. Iiaeoeue, iacia/aiiue
iieo/aoaeai, eiio?iee?oao eeieth aioiaiinoe iieo/aoaey, neaiaeece?oy n
aa iiiiuueth i aioiaiinoe i?eieiaoue aeaiiua.

I?e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo aeieaeiu niaethaeaoueny aeaa oneiaey. Ai-ia?auo,
ia?aaea/a inouanoaeyaony eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iieo/aoaeue e
ioi?aaeoaeue neaiaeece?otho i naiae aioiaiinoe. Ai-aoi?uo, eaaeaeia
neiai aeieaeii ia?aaeaaaoueny iaeei ?ac. Aeey iaania/aiey yoeo oneiaee
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee i?e
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Yoa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iineo iacaaiea i?ioieiea.

A niioaaonoaee n i?ioieieii ioi?aaeoaeue, iiaeaioiaea iiaia neiai,
eioi?ie?oao ia yoii iieo/aoaey. Iieo/aoaeue, i?eiya i/a?aaeiia neiai,
eioi?ie?oao ia yoii ioi?aaeoaey. Ninoiyiea eeiee aioiaiinoe a ethaie
iiiaio a?aiaie ii?aaeaeyao aeaenoaey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auiieiyoue iaa
iiaeoey.

Eaaeaeue oaa a ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo io iaeiie /anoe nenoaiu e ae?oaie
iacuaaaony oeeeeii iaaeno?aee (eee /anoi iaoeiiui oeeeeii). *anoioa yoeo
oeeeeia ii?aaeaeyaony oaeoiauie neaiaeaie OeI. Aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea
iaaeno?aee naycaia n /anoioie oaeoiauo neaiaeia.

Ia?aie nenoaiiie, ?ac?aaioaiiie aeey eiiiuethoa?ia PC/XT, a iniiaa
eioi?uo eaaeaee iee?ii?ioeanni?u, auea oeia PC/XT-bus. Iia auea 8-e
?ac?yaeiie a aa eiio?iea? iaania/eaae ?aaioo ia /enoioa iee?ii?ioeanni?a
(4,77iaoe). N iiyaeaieai iaoei oeia PC/AT, eniieuecothueo 16-e
?ac?yaeiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u 80286, a iicaea e 80386 (aa?ney SX), auea
nicaeaia oeia PC/AT-bus. A nayce n ?inoii oaeoiaie /anoiou
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia aei 12-16 IAoe eiio?iea? auiieiye aa aeaeaiea iiiieai
aeey iaania/aiey i?eaieaiie oaeoiaie /anoiou ?aaiou oeiu.

ISA

Ia aaca yoeo aeaoo oei aue ?ac?aaioai iaaeaeoia?iaeiue noaiaea?o ISA
(Industry Standard Architecture), oe?iei eniieuecothueeny a nia?aiaiiuo
eiiiuethoa?ao. Oeiiaay oaeoiaay /anoioa — 8 Iaoe. Aeaeaiea /anoiou
inoaaony ooieoeeae eiio?iea?ia nenoaiiuo oei, ii iineieueeo i?iecioei
aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea oaeoiaie /anoiou iee?ii?ioeanni?u aei 25,33 e 50
Iaoe, eiyooeoeeaio aeaeaiey aue oaaee/ai. E?iia oaaee/aiey ?ac?yaeiinoe
oaaee/eeinue eiee/anoai i?a?uaaiee (IRQ) e eaiaeia i?yiiai aeinooia a
iaiyoue (DMA) (a ISA 15 e 7 niioaaonoaaiii), a oaeaea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae. A oiaea a?aiy nio?aiyeanue
i?aainoaaiiinoue nenoaiiuo oei, a oii /enea ia o?iaia eiioaeoia
?acueaiia. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio a iiauo nenoaiao iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
?ac?aaioaiiua ?aiaa eiio?iea?u e ea?ou. Oai?aoe/aneay i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue oeiu — 16 Iaaeo/n, i?aeoe/anee iia ieaea iineieueeo iaiai
aeaiiuie ii oeia i?iecaiaeeony ca o?e oaeoa ?aaiou i?ioeanni?a. Aeey
neioia ?anoe?aiey ia iaoa?eineie ieaoa eiiiuethoa?ia n oeiie ISA-16
onoaiaaeeaaaony noaiaea?oiay ia?a ?acueaiia (eee iaeei naeaiaiiue
?acuai) n /eneii eiioaeoia 62+36, a ia oeia ISA-8 onoaiaaeeaaaony
?acuaiu n 64-eiioaeoaie.

EISA

N iiyaeaieai 32-?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia 80386 (aa?ney DX) oe?iaie
Compaq, NEC e ?yaeii ae?oaeo auea nicaeaia 32-?ac?yaeiay oeia EISA
(Extended ISA), iieiinoueth niaianoeiay c ISA. I?aainoaaiiinoue EISA n
ISA iaania/eaaaony eniieueciaaieai “aeaooyoaaeiiai” ?acuaia. Ia?aue
“yoaae”- noaiaea?oiay oeia ISA, /oi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue ISA
eiio?iea?u e ea?ou, ?ac?aaioaiiua eae aeey ISA-16, oae aeaaea e aeey
ISA-8. Oeia EISA iicaieyao aaoiiaoe/anee i?iecaiaeeoue eiioeao?aoeeth e
a?aeo?aae cai?inia ia ianeoaeeaaiea (bus mastering), /oi auaiaeii aa
ioee/aao io oeiu ISA.

VESA

Eieaeueiie oeiie (local bus) iau/ii iacuaaaony oeia, yeaeo?e/anee
auoiaeyuay iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia eiioaeou iee?ii?ioeanni?a, o.a. yoi oeia
i?ioeanni?a. Iia iau/ii iauaaeeiyao i?ioeanni?, iaiyoue, noaiu
aooa?ecaoeee aeey nenoaiiie oeiu e aa eiio?iea?, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea aniiiiaaoaeueiua noaiu. ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth eieaeueiie oeiu
aaeenue ?aciuie oe?iaie ia?aeeaeueii, ii a eiioea eiioeia auea nicaeaia
annioeeaoeey noaiaea?oia aeaeai iai?oaeiaaiey — Video Equipment Standard
Association (VESA). Ia?aay niaoeeoeeaoeey ia noaiaea?o eieaeueiie oeiu
iiyaeeanue a 1992 aiaeo. Iiiai auei iicaeinoaiaaii ec a?oeoaeoo?u
eieaeueiie oeiu 80486. Auee ?ac?aaioaiiu oieueei iiaue i?ioieie
ia?aaioee neaiaeia e oiiieiaey ?acueaiia. Aeinoieinoaaie VLB yaeyaony
aunieay nei?inoue iaiaia eioi?iaoeee (oeia iiaeao ?aaioaoue a nenoaia n
i?ioeanni?ii 80486DX-50). Ii aicieeaao caaeneiinoue io /anoiou ?aaiou
i?ioeanni?a (eiino?oe?iaaiea ieao n oe?ieei /anoioiui aeeaiaciiii).
Yeaeo?e/aneay iaa?ocea ia iicaieyao iiaeeeth/aoue aieaa o?ao ieao. E?iia
oiai, VLB ia ?ann/eoaia ia eniieueciaaiea n i?ioeanni?aie, i?eoaaeoei ia
caiaio 486-io eee ia?aeeaeueii nouanoaothueie n ieie: Alpha, PowerPC e
ae?. Iiyoiio n na?aaeeia 1993 aiaea ec annioeeaoeee VESA auoae ?yae
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ai aeaaa n Intel. Yoe oe?iu nicaeaee niaoeeaeueioth
a?oiio aeey ?ac?aaioee iiaiai aeueoa?iaoeaiiai noaiaea?oa, iacaaiioth
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI).

PCI

?ac?aaioea oeiu e i?iecaiaenoai niioaaonoaothueo eiiiiiaioia caiyee
aieueoa a?aiaie, /ai aeey VLB, e ia?aua nenoaiu n oeiie PCI iiyaeeenue
oieueei aiae nionoy. No?iai aiai?y oeia PCI ia yaeyaony eieaeueiie, a
ioiineony e eeanno mezzanine bus, iineieueeo eiaao iaaeaeo niaie e
eieaeueiie oeiie i?ioeanni?a niaoeeaeueiue ocae — niaeanothuee iino. I?e
yoii noaiaea?o PCI i?aaeoniao?eaaao eniieueciaaiea eiio?ieea?a, eioi?ue
caaioeony i ?acaeaeaiee oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia oeiu e i?ioeanni?a e
inouanoaeyao a?aeo?aae ii oeia PCI, a oaeaea aenaea?aoi?. Yoi aeaeaao
oeio i?ioeanni?ii iacaaeneiie.

Noaiaea?o PCI i?aaeoniao?eaaao ianeieueei niiniaia iiauoaiey i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe. Iaeei ec ieo — aei/iay ia?aaea/a iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo aeaiiuo
(iai?eia? a?aoeea, aeeneiaua oaeeu), /oi ia o?aaoao a?aiaie ia onoaiiaeo
aae?ana eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa. Aieaa oiai, aenaea?aoi? iiaeao iaeaieeaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth a aooa?ao, /oi iaania/eaaao iaeiia?aiaiiue n /oaieai
aeaiiuo ec iaiyoe aei/iue iaiai n ia?eoa?eeiui ono?ienoaii. Ae?oaie
niinia onei?aiey ia?aaea/e — ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea — i?aaeoniao?eaaao
ia?aaea/o iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo aeaiiuo ii aae?aniui eeieyi, /oi oaeaaaaaao
i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue oeiu. Oeia PCI eniieuecoao onoaiiaeo i?a?uaaiee
ii o?iaith, /oi aeaeaao aa aieaa iaaeaaeiie e i?eaeaeaoaeueiie (a
ioee/ea io VLB). Aua iaeii ioee/ea — PCI ?aaioaao ia 33 Iaoe, iacaaeneii
oi /anoiou i?ioeanni?a. Oai?aoe/anee i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue oeiu 132
Iaaeo/n. ?aaeueiay aea i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue ianeieueei aieueoa
iieiaeiu io oai?aoe/aneie. Noaiaea?o PCI i?aaeoniao?eaaao e
64-?ac?yaeioth aa?neth. Aeey 32-?ac?yaeiie oeiu PCI eniieuecoaony 124-
eiioaeoiue ?acuai, i?e/ai a iai i?aaeoniio?aiu eeth/e e eiioaeou,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ioeaiee iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aaiou ieaou ?anoe?aiey
iai?yaeaiey ieoaiey (5A eee 3,3A).

Oaeoiaue aaia?aoi?

Aieueoeinoai eiae/aneeo yeaiaioia eiiiuethoa?a ?ac?aaioaiii oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iie aeieaeiu ?aaioaoue neio?iiii, oi anoue ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
oaeoiaui neaiaeai.

Eiio?iea? i?a?uaaiee

A ia?auo eiiiuethoa?ao eniieueciaaeanue iee?inoaia eiio?ieea?a
i?a?uaaiee i8259, eioi?ay eiaao 8 aoiaeia aeey neaiaeia i?a?uaaiee. A
IBM PC/AT ainueie eeiee i?a?uaaiee noaei oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii e eo
eiee/anoai auei oaaee/aii aei 15, iooai eaneaaeiiai aeeth/aiey aeaoo
iee?inoai eiio?iea?ia i?a?uaaiee.

Iaiyoue

Anai eiiiuethoa?ai o?aaoaony iaiyoue ianeieueeeo aeaeia. Iaiyoue
o?aaoaony ia eaaeaeii oaao auiieiaiey i?ia?aii. Iaiyoue ioaeia eae aeey
enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo oae e aeey o?aiaiey ?acoeueoaoia. Iia iaiaoiaeeia aeey
acaeiiaeaenoaey n ia?eoa?eae eiiiuethoa?a e aeaaea aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
ia?aca, aeaeeiiai ia ye?aia.

Any iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a aeaeeony ia aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth.

A eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao ?aaioa n iaiyoueth iniiauaaaony ia i/aiue
i?inouo eiioeaioeeyo. A i?eioeeia, an?, /oi o?aaoaony io eiiiuethoa?iie
iaiyoe, — yoi nio?aiyoue iaeei aeo eioi?iaoeee oae, /oiau iioii ii iia
auoue ecaea/ai ioooaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee ono?ienoaa
aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe aace?othueany ia niiniaiinoe nio?aiyoue
yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae (eiiaeainaoi?u). N ia?aiai acaeyaea eiiaeainaoi? ia
oaeiaeaoai?yao iniiaiiio o?aaiaaieth ono?ienoa iaiyoe. Ii ia niiniaai
nio?aiyoue ca?yae a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie, ii ii
iicaieyao aeaeaoue yoi a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo ieeeenaeoiae, /oi aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau eniieueciaaoue yoi a yeaeo?iieea. Ca yoi a?aiy
niaoeeaeueiua oeaie eiiiuethoa?a iaania/eaatho iiaeca?yaeeo
eiiaeainaoi?a, oi anoue iaiiaeaiea eioi?iaoeee. Ec-ca iai?a?uaiie
i?e?iaeu yoiai i?ioeanna oaeay iaiyoue iacuaaaony aeeiaie/aneie.

A nia?aiaiiuo ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue
?aaeecoaony ia aaca niaoeeaeueiuo oeaiae i?iaiaeieeia, caiaieaoeo
iau/iua eiiaeainaoi?u. Aieueoia eiee/anoai oaeeo oeaiae iauaaeeiythony a
ei?iona iaeiiai aeeiaie/aneiai /eia. Iaeiaei iiaeiaii iaiyoe ia
eiiaeainaoi?ao, iia aeieaeia iinoiyiii inaaaeaoueny.

A oi a?aiy eae aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue, iieo/ea ca?yae yeaeo?e/anoaa
oaea?aeeaaao aai, oae iacuaaaiay noaoe/aneay iaiyoue, iicaieyao iioieo
yeaeo?iiia oee?eoee?iaaoue ii oeaie. I?eeeaaeuaaaiia iai?yaeaiea iiaeao
eciaieoue iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia. I?e/ai nouanoaoao oieueei
aeaa iai?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey iioiea, /oi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue aeaiiua
oeaie a ea/anoaa yeaiaioia iaiyoe. Noaoe/aneay iaiyoue ?aaioaao
iaiiaeiaea aueeth/aoaey, eioi?ue ia?aeeth/aao iai?aaeaiea yeaeo?iiiiai
iioiea.

E?iia iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe nouanoaoao aua e iinoiyiiay iaiyoue(ICO). Aa
aeaaiia ioee/ea io ICO – iaaiciiaeiinoue a i?ioeanna ?aaiou eciaieoue
ninoiyiea y/aae ICO. A naith i/a?aaeue e yoa iaiyoue aeaeeony ia
iinoiyiioth e ?ai?ia?aiie?oaioth. I?eioeeiu aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiiyoiu
ec iacaaiey.

Yaiethoeey iee?inoai ICO aieioioth naycaia n yaiethoeeae ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia. Aeey oniaoa ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia o?aaiaaeenue
ieieaoth?iua /eiu ICO. Ii ia?a oaaee/aiey aieinoe iaiyoe oeaia
nea/eiia?acii aic?anoaea, ii iioii iinoiyiii oiaiueoaeanue ii ia?a
io?aaioee oaoiieiaee e ?inoa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia?aua PC ?aaeeciauaaeenue ia noaiaea?oiuo RAM-/eiao ii 16 Eaeo.
Eaaeaeiio aeoo niioaaonoaiaae naie nianoaaiiue aae?an.

Aaea-oi ieiei aiaea iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey XT iiyaeeinue ICO n aieueoeie
aiciiaeiinoyie e aieaa yooaeoeaiia n oi/ee c?aiey aai oeaiu. Oioy iiaua
iee?inoaiu iiaee aiauaoue ii 64 Eaeo, iia auee aeaoaaea /ai 4 ii 16
Eaeo. Nenoaiiay ieaoa PC auea nicaeaia n o/aoii eniieueciaaiey iiauo
iee?inoai iaiyoe. *a?ac ianeieueei eao 64 Eaeoiua /eiu noaee ianoieueei
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu, /oi noaee aeaoaaea /ai 16 Eaeoiua iee?inoaiu.

E 1984 aiaeo aue naeaeai aua iaeei oaa ii oaaee/aieth iauaia iaiyoe a
iaeiii ei?iona – iiyaeeenue 256 – Eaeoiua iee?inoaiu. E RAM /eiu yoiai
iiieiaea auee onoaiiaeaiu ia ia?auo AT. A naaiaeiy iee?inoaiu a 1 Iaeo
noaee iau/iui yaeaieai.

PC eiae aeiaieueii i?inooth a?oeoaeoo?o iaiyoe, ii e?aeiae ia?a, anee ia
iaa niio?aoue nae/an n auniou iineaaeieo aeinoeaeaiee eiiiuethoa?iie
eiaeono?ee. Iaiyoue PC auea i?aaenoaaeaia iaeiei aeieii, a eioi?ii
eaaeaeue aaeo aue aeinooiai ii oeacaieth aai aae?ana.

Iee?inoaiu iaiyoe auee ?acaeou ia 9 aaieia, eniieuecothueo a ?aiieo PC
16-Eaeoiua, a caoai e 64-Eaeoiua iee?inoaiu. Ainaiue iee?inoai auaeaeyee
ii iaeiiio aeoo aeey i?aaiecaoeee eaaeaeiai aaeoa iaiyoe, aeaayoay
iee?inoaia eniieueciaaeanue a ea/anoaa eiio?ieueiiai aeoa /aoiinoe.

Eiaaea iee?ii?ioeanni? 80286 noaee eniieueciaaoue a AT e eo aiaeiaao,
aicieeea i?iaeaia n i?aaiecaoeeae a?oeoaeoo?u iaiyoe. Iau/iua iee?inoaiu
iaiyoe ia iiaee ?aaioaoue a oaeii auno?ii oaiia, a eioi?ii ?aaioae
iee?ii?ioeanni?. Iiyoiio i?eoeinue eniieueciaaoue noaoon iaeeaeaiey, a
neo/aa eiaaea i?ioeanni? o?aaiaae eioi?iaoeeth ec iaiyoe, oi anoue
iee?ii?ioeanni?o i?eoiaeeeinue caaenaoue ia iaeei-aeaa oaeoa, /oi
aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iaiyoe ia?aaioaoue cai?in.

Aeeiaie/aneea iee?inoaiu iaiyoe ia?ea?othony niaoeeaeueiui /eneii,
aiai?yuei ia eo nei?inoiuo aiciiaeiinoyo. Oeacaiiia ia ei?iona /enei
io?aaeaao a?aiy aeinooia a iaiinaeoiaeao aac iineaaeiaai ioey.

A?aiy aeinooia ia yaeyaony, iaeiaei, aaeeinoaaiiie eee iaeaieaa aaaeiie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie iee?inoai iaiyoe. Aieaa cia/eii oaeia iiiyoea, eae a?aiy
oeeeea, eioi?ia aiai?eo i oii, eae auno?i iiaeii i?iecaanoe iiaoi?iia
ia?auaiea. A aeeiaie/aneeo iee?inoaiao yoi a?aiy aieueoa a?aiaie
aeinooia, a noaoe/aneeo /eiao yoe a?aiaia ?aaiu, /oi aiai?eo i aieaa
nei?inoiuo ?aaeeiao iineaaeieo.

*oiau ni?aaeoueny n ia?aie/aieai ii nei?inoe, auee eniieueciaaiu
niaoeeaeueiua ?aoaiey ii i?aaiecaoeee iaiyoe. Iaeaieaa i?inoia ec ieo –
yoi eniieueciaaiea iau/iie a?oeoaeoo?u n iaiaoiaeeiui /eneii oeeeeia
iaeeaeaiey.

Oi?ioay aeueoa?iaoeaa i?aaeuaeouaio iaoiaeo – eniieueciaaiea eyo-iaiyoe,
/oi iicaieeo ecaaaeaoue iieiiai caiieiaiey anae iaoeiu auno?ie RAM
iaiyoueth. Iau/ii i?ia?aiia eniieuecoao iaiyoue eaeie eeai ia?aie/aiiie
iaeanoe. O?aiy ioaeioth eioi?iaoeeth a eyo-iaiyoe, ?aaioa n eioi?ie
iicaieyao i?ioeanni?o iaoiaeeoueny aac anyeeo oeeeeia iaeeaeaiey.

Ia anyeay eyo-iaiyoue ?aaiicia/ia. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oio oaeo, eae
iiiai eioi?iaoeee iiaeao niaea?aeaoue eyo-iaiyoue. *ai aieueoa
eyo-iaiyoue, oai aieueoa eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue a iae ?aciauaii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oai aieueoa aa?iyoiinoue, /oi ioaeiue aaeo aoaeao
niaea?aeaoueny a yoie auno?ie iaiyoe. I/aaeaeii, noi naiue eo/oee
aa?eaio – yoi eiaaea iau?i eyo-iaiyoe niioaaonoaoao iauaio anae
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. A yoii neo/aa any inoaeueiay iaiyoue noaiiaeony ia
ioaeiie. E?aeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiay neooaoeey – 1 aaeo eyo-iaiyoe – oiaea
ia eiaao i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey, oae eae aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ioaeiay
eioi?iaoeey ieaaeaony a yoii aaeoa, no?aieony e ioeth. I?aeoe/anee,
aeeaiacii eniieuecoaiie eyo-iaiyoe eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 16-64E.

Ia naiii aeaea ?aaeecaoeey eyo-nenoai ia oae i?inoa, eae yoi iiaeao
iieacaoueny n ia?aiai acaeyaea. Iee?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai ia oieueei
/eoaoue ec iaiyoe, ii e ienaoue a iaa. *oi neo/eony, anee i?ioeanni?
caianao iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth a eyo-iaiyoue, a ia?aae eniieueciaaieai yoie
eioi?iaoeee iia aoaeao eciaiaia a iniiaiie iaiyoe. Aeey ecaaaeaiey
iiaeiaiie neooaoeee eiiaaea ?aaeecoaony iaoiae, iacaaiiue caienueth
/a?ac eyo-iaiyoue. I/aaeaeii, noi yoio iaoiae nieaeaao auno?iaeaenoaea
nenoaiu, iioiio /oi i?eoiaeeony ienaoue ia oieueei a eyo-iaiyoue. Ooaea
oiai, iee?ii?ioeanni?o iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny eioi?iaoeey, eioi?oth ii
oieueei /oi caienae e eioi?ay aua ia auea ia?acaa?oaeaia a eyo-iaiyoue.

Oeaeinoiinoue iaiyoe – yoi iaeia ec naiuo aieueoeo i?iaeai ?ac?aaio/eeia
eyo-iaiyoe.

Ana aii?inu ii i?aiaeieaieth yoeo i?iaeai auee aiceiaeaiu ia
ioaeaeueioth iee?inoaio – eyo-eiio?ieea? Intel82385.

Aua iaeia ?aciiaeaeiinoue a?oeoaeoo?u iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a –
yoi aa ?acaeaea ia ioaeaeueiua naeoeee e ?aaioa n yoeie naeoeeyie eae n
iaeie eyo-iaiyoueth. Aieueoay nei?inoue aeinooia e ia?aie/aiiui iaeanoyi
iaiyoe yaeyaony iniaaiiinoueth iaeioi?uo niaoeeoe/aneeo iee?inoai,
eioi?ua iicaieytho iaeioi?iio iauaio, ii ia anae iaiyoe, auoue
n/eoaiiiio aac oeeeea iaeeaeaiey. Yoio iiaeoiae o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiuo
RAM iee?inoai, eioi?ua aeaeyo naie aae?ana ii no?aieoeai. Yoa oaoiieiaey
iieo/eea iacaaiea ?aaeeia no?aie/iiai aeinooia. Yoe niaoeeaeueiua
iee?inoaiu iaania/eaatho i/aiue auno?ue aeinooi a iaeiii ec aeaoo
iai?aaeaiee eo i?aaiecaoeee. Anee o?aaoaony /oaiea eee caienue
eioi?iaoeee, o?aiyuaeny ia ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aieoea iaiyoe, e
i?aaeuaeouay eiiaiaea ii ?aaioa n iaiyoueth eniieueciaaea eioi?iaoeeth n
oie aea no?aieoeu, oeeeea iaeeaeaiey ia o?aaoaony. Iaeiaei i?e ia?aoiaea
n iaeiie no?aieoeu ia ae?oaoth oeeeeu iaeeaeaiey iaecaaaeiu.

Neaaeothuay eioa?aniay oaoiieiaey, iacaaiiay interleaved memory, i/aiue
iioiaea ia ICO no?aie/iiai ?aaeeia. Iia nouanoaaiii iiauoaao nei?inoue
ia?auaiey e iaiyoe, ii ia eiaao ia?aie/aiee ii no?aie/iie ?acaeaea. I?e
eniieueciaaiee yoie oaoiieiaee any iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ?acaeaaaony ia
aeaa eee aieueoaa /enei aaieia. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeoia o?aieony a
?aciuo aaieao, iiyoiio iee?ii?ioeanni? ia?auaaony oi o iaeiiio oi e
ae?oaiio aaieo i?e /oaiee yoie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.

Ai a?aiy ia?auaiey e iaeiiio aaieo, ae?oaie ?aaeecoao oeeee iaiiaeaiey,
e iiyoiio i?ioeanni?o ia i?eoiaeeony aeaeaoue. E oieueei, anee
iee?ii?ioeanni?o i?eoiaeeony /eoaoue ianiaaeiua aeou, noaoon iaeeaeaiey
iaieioai, ii aa?iyoiinoue aai iiyaeaiey oiaiueoaaony.

Iaeaieaa oeiiaay ?aaeecaoeey yoie oaoiieiaee i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acaeaeie
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ia aeaa aaiea, A neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa?iyoiinoue
aicieeiiaaiey iaeeaeaiey – 50%. *aou?ao aaieiaay i?aaiecaoeey oiaiueoaao
yoo aa?iyoiinoue aei 25%.

Oae eae aeaiiay oaoiieiaey ia o?aaoao i?eiaiaiey niaoeeaeueiuo iee?inoai
iaiyoe, iia yaeyaony iaeaieaa oaeiaiie aeey iiauoaiey nei?inoe nenoaiu.
E?iia oiai iia iiaeao niaiauaoueny n ICO no?aie/iiai ?aaeeia, /oi aua
aieueoa oaaee/eaaao iia?aoeaiinoue.

Eiae/aneay i?aaiecaoeey iaiyoe.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ?aoaiey auee i?eiyou i?e ?ac?aaioea ia?auo PC. Aeey
oiai, /oiau iee?ii?ioeanni? 8088 iia iieueciaaoueny, iia aeieaeia auoue
aae?anoaiie. E yoio iee?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue aiciiaeiinoueth
aae?aniaaoueny e 1I. Eiino?oeoi?u IBM ?aoeee auaeaeeoue niaoeeaeueiua
iaeanoe iaiyoe aeey niaoeeoe/anee oeaeae. Iie ?acaeaeeee anth iaiyoue ia
?acaeaeu, e eaaeaeue ?acaeae i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo
ooieoeee. ?acoeueoe?othuay aeeaa?aiia iacaaia ea?oie iaiyoe.

I?e ?ac?aaioea PC iieiaeia anae iaiyoe auea ca?aca?ae?iaaia. Aa?oiyy
iieiaeia aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, auea auaeaeaia aeey niaea?aeaiey
eiaeia BIOS e aeey i?yiiai i?ioeanni?iiai aeinooia e iaiyoe,
eniieuecoaiie aeaeainenoaiie. Ia?aua ianeieueei Eaaeo auee
ca?aca?ae?iaaiu iiae eioi?iaoeeth i nenoaia e ?aniieiaeaiea eiie?aoiuo
naeoeee eiaeia, eioi?ua auiieiyeenue ia iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey i?a?uaaiee
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Yoe y/aeee iaiyoe iacuaathony aaeoi?aie
i?a?uaaiey, a ooieoeey i?ia?aiiiiai eiaea – iaoaieciii i?a?uaaiey.

A eiioea aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa ?aniieaaaaony aooa? eeaaeaoo?u –
iiieiaeii 16 aaeo. Caeanue o?aiyony 16 iineaaeieo neiaieia aaaaeaiiuo n
eeaaeaoo?u. Yoio aooa? ioaeai aeey nio?aiaiey iaa?aiiiai oaenoa ai
a?aiy, eiaaea i?ioeanni? caiyo ae?oaie caaea/ae, iinea oiai eae ii
inaiaiaeeony, oaeno aoaeao ia?aaioai. Iia?ceoaeueiue iene eiiiuethoa?a
icia/aao – aooa? ia?aiieiai e aeaeueiaeoee iaai? aanniuneaiai.

E?iia oiai, ?acee/iua nenoaiiua oeaae, oeacuaathuea ia aioo?aiiaa
ninoiyiea nenoaiu, oaeaea o?aiyony a ieaeiai ?acaeaea iaiyoe.

A oa aeie, eiaaea aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?ia eiaee 60E iaiyoe, 512E
eacaeenue oea?neie uaae?inoueth. Iiyoiio 128E auee ioaeaiu iiae
th?enaeeeoeeth i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, inoaeueiua 384E io ia/aea
aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey eniieueciaaiey
i?ia?aiiaie BIOS e aeaeaiiaiyoueth.

Yoe ?aoaiey auaeaeyee 640E aeey DOS – yoi aue iaeneioi aae?anoaiiai
i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?ui iia iia?e?iaaoue 8088 i?e auiieiaiee i?ia?aii. Ni
a?aiaiai yoe 640E auee iacaaiu aaciaie iaiyoueth, iioiio /oi yoi
yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei noaiaea?oii, ia eioi?ii aeieaeiu
aace?iaaoueny ana IBM niaianoeiua nenoaiu.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue

Iaiyoue, auoiaeyuay ca i?aaeaeu 1 Ia aae?anoaiiai i?ino?ainoaa 8088,
eioi?ay iiaeao noaoue aeinooiiie a caueuaiiii ?aaeeia Intel 80286 e
80386, iau/ii iacuaaaony aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoueth, oioy IBM eiiaaea
iacuaaao yoo iaiyoue ?anoe?aiiie (expanded). Ii aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia
eniieuecoao oa?iei (extnded). Aieioue aei 15 Ia aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe
iiaeao auoue i?eaaaeaii a eiiiuethoa?u ia 80286 iee?ii?ioeanni?a, e aei
4 Aa n 80386. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui ?acee/eai aaciaie e aeiiieieoaeueiie
iaiyoe yaeyaony oi, /oi i?ia?aiiu, ?aaioathuea a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia, ia
iiaoo auiieiyoueny a aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe. A oae eae DOS iaienai aeey
?aaeueiiai ?aaeeia, aio i?eoiaeeony iaoiaeeoueny oieueei aaciaie
iaiyoueth.

Ii neacaoue, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue aaniieacia a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia
– iaaa?ii. I?ia?aiiu ia ciatho, eae aae?aniaaoueny e aeiiieieoaeueiui
y/aeeai iaiyoe. Ii aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia
aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. A neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?inoi ioaeii ?ac?aaioaoue
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, /oiau eniieueciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe
aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe. E oaeea DOS-i?ia?aiiu nouanoaotho. I?ae?aniue
i?eia? oiio eieoaoi? eiae/aneiai aeenea – VDISK, eioi?ue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony DOS, ia/eiay n aa?nee 3.0. Oioy i?ia?aiiiua eiaeu
VDISK auiieiythony a iau/iie iaiyoe DOS a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia,
aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey o?aiaiey aeaiiuo.

Oae eae OS/2 iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a caueuaiiii ?aaeeia, ae aeinooiiu
ana ?ano?nu aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe. Iaeiaei noieo iaiiiieoue, /oi,
eiaaea OS/2 eniieuecoao iiaei?ia?aiiu noa?ooee DOS, ae i?eoiaeeony
aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny ia?aie/aieyie iaiyoe ?aaeueiiai ?aaeeia a 640 Ea.

A ai?aea 1985 aiaea ianeieueei ianyoeaa nionoy iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey
ia?auo AT n ianeieueeeie Ia aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe – aeaaiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai ii i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth e ?ac?aaio/ee oaoie/aneiai
iaania/aiey noi?ioee?iaaee naie nianoaaiiue iaoiae i?aiaeieaiey
ia?aie/aiey a 640E noa?uo eiiiuethoa?ia ia 8088 iee?ii?ioeanni?a,
?aaioathueo a DOS. *a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa e iei i?eniaaeeieeanue e
Microsoft Corporation. Eo ?ac?aaioea iacaaia Lotus-Intel-Microsoft
Expanded Memory Specification eee LIM iaiyoue, eee EMS, eee i?inoi
?anoe?aiiay iaiyoue. Ia?aay aa?ney auea iacaaia EMS 3.0, /oiau oeacaoue
ia niaianoeiinoue n oiaaea iineaaeiae aa?neae DOS.

Iiaay nenoaia ioee/aeanue eae io aaciaie iaiyoe, oae e io
aeiiieieoaeueiie. Iia ia auea a i?aaeaeao aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa
oeaio?aeueiiai iee?ii?ioeanni?a. Aa ?aaioa iniiauaaeanue ia
niaoeeaeueiie noaia oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey, eioi?ay ooieoeeiie?iaaea
iaiiaeiaea ia?aeeth/aoaey. Yoi ono?ienoai ia?aeeth/aei aaiee iaiyoe ec
ii?iaeueiiai aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa 8088 iee?ii?ioeanni?a, aaea /ei iia
/eoaoue e ienaoue a iaa. Yoa noaia, iacaaiiay ia?aeeth/aoaeai aaieia, ia
auea ie iiaie ie iaiau/iie. Iiaeiaiia ono?ienoai eniieueciaaeinue a
eiiiuethoa?ao ia Z80 aeey i?aiaeieaiey eeieoa a 64E.

Ia?aua EMS eiaee aeaei n ?anoe?aiiie iaiyoueth, ?acaeoie ia aaiee ii
16E.

I?aaenoaaeaiea AT n iioaioeeaeueii aae?anoaiuie 16I caoieei EMS, iiea
oyaeaeay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iaaeinooiiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe auea
aei eiioea iniciaia. Aeaaea ianeieueei eiathueony i?ia?aii, eioi?ua
iiaee iieueciaaoueny aeinoieinoaa ie EMS, auee aieaa iieaciu /ai
ae?aeaa? VDISK, eioi?ue aue aaeeinoaaiiie niaianoeiie n DOS i?ia?aiiie,
iicaieythuae eniieueciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueioth iaiyoue.

Ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea EMS iiaeii auei ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu.
Ia?aay eniieuecoao aiciiaeiinoe 80386 ?aaioaoue n ea?oaie iaiyoe
ae?ooaeueiuo no?aieoe. Aoi?ay eiie?oao aaiee a 16E ec aeiiieieoaeueiie
iaiyoe a iniiaioth. Oioy iaa oeia i?ia?aii yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony,
Lotus cayaeyao, /oi nenoaiu eniieuecothuea eiie?iaaiea aeieia i?ia?aii,
ia iiaoo iaania/eoue iieioth ei??aeoioth ?aaeecaoeeth EMS.

Caeeth/aiea

Oaea ia i?ioyaeaiee 25 eao, ni aeiy nicaeaiey ia?aiai a ie?a
iee?ii?ioeanni?a 4004 oe?iie Intel, nouanoaotho eiiiuethoa?u. Iie i?i/ii
aiaae?eeenue a iaoo aeeciue. Ii ca yoe 25 eao a?oeoaeoo?a iaoa?eineeo
ieao aeey ?N ia i?aoa?iaea iniauo eciaiaiee, oi/iaa aa ninoaa
(iee?ii?ioeanni?; oeiu aae?ana, aeaiiuo e oi?aaeaiey; ?acuaiu aeey ieao
?anoe?aiey, aiaoiae iaiyoe, aiaoiaai eyoa; eiio?iea?ia aaiaea/auaiaea e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo n iee?inoai). Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
a iaoa?eineoth ieaoo ano?aeaatho eiio?iea? HDD e aiaoieie ono?ienoaaie
(COM e LPT: ii?ou). A?oeoaeoo?a aea iaoa?eineie ieaou
niaa?oainoaiaaeanue aianoa n iee?ii?ioeanni?aie. Iiyaeyeenue iiaua oeiu,
oaaee/eaaeanue ?ac?yaeiinoue, auno?iaeaenoaea oei, eo i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue.

Iiiaea oe?iu i?iecaiaeeoaee ia naie no?ao e ?ene nicaeatho iiaua oeiu (a
oii /enea e neiou ?anoe?aiey). Oae aeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiay oe?ia AsusTeK
nicaeaea naie nianoaaiiue neio MediaBus. Ia naaiaeiyoiee iiiaio MediaBus
aieueoa ieeoi ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao, aea e naia oe?ia AsusTeK nicaeaea
oieueei ieaoo aeaeaiaaeaioa?a, niaaeeiaiioth n caoeiaie ea?oie. I?aaaea
MediaBus i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inoi ?anoe?aiioth PCI aeiiieieoaeueiui
?acueaiii. A i?eeiaeaiee i?eaaaeaii oaaeeoe n nianoaaiiuie oanoaie
ianeieueeeo iaoa?eineeo ieao aeey PC, auioneaaiuie oe?iie AsusTeK.

Aiai?eoue i iaoa?eineie ieaoa a ioaeaeueiinoe io anao inoaeueiuo /anoae
eiiiuethoa?a ia aiciiaeii — yoi eiiieaen, ?aaioathuee eae iaeei
i?aaieci. Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoa?eineeo ieao a iniiaiii aeeeoothony
?acaeoeai iee?ii?ioeanni?ia. Iee?ii?ioeann?i?u naeaeaee ia?iiiue i?uaeie
aia?aae (4004 — Pentium Pro). Ii CISC a?oeoaeoo?a iino?iaiey
i?ioeanni?ia i?aeoe/anee ennyeea. Oe?ia Intel e HP oaea ?aaioatho iaae
nicaeaieai iiaiai i?ioeanni?a iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai (niaianoeiiai) eae n
i?ioeanni?u aeey PC oae e i?ioeanni?u, iino?iaiiuie ia RISC a?oeoaeoo?a.
Aneaae ca i?ioeanni?aie, iaoa?eineea ieaou aoaeoo oiaea iaiyoue naith
eiioeao?aoeeth e a?oeoaeoo?o e iai?aaeaiea yoiai ?acaeoey eaaeeo a
noi?iio RISC-a?oeoaeoo?u.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Ai?caiei A. IBM PC: ono?ienoai, ?aiiio, iiaea?iecaoeey. — I.:
Eiiiuethoa? I?ann,1995

Ica?oeianeee N. Iee?ii?ioeanni?u Intel: io 4004 aei Pentium Pro.
Computer Week. #41. 1996.

Aa?ei N. Eiiiuethoa?iua a?oa?ee. Hard ‘n’ Soft. #6. 1994

Bus Architectures. Introduction. IBM PC Institute.

O?ieia A.A.,O?ieia A.A. Aiia?aoiia iaania/aiea IBM PC. — I.:
AeEAEIA-IEOE.1992.

Motherboard CH-498B. User’s Manual.

Motherboard P/I-P55T2P4. User’s Manual.

Performance Measurement. P/I-P6NP5, P/I-P55TVP4. AsusTeK Inc.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020