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Разработка и ведение деловых игр с использованием ЭВМ

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Aaaaeaiea

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia ia iniiaa aiaae?aiey
iiauo i?ia?anneaiuo oi?i e iaoiaeia iao/aiey – aaaeiay caaea/a, noiyuay
ia?aae iaaeaaiaaie. Iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia iiaeaioiaee
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia, iieo/eaoei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee
ae?oaeo oi?i iao/aiey, yaeythony aeaeiaua ea?u (AeE).

Aeaeiaua ea?u, aace?othueany ia i?eiaiaiee nia?aiaiiuo ia?niiaeueiuo
YAI, iicaieytho eieoe?iaaoue niaieoiiinoue oi?aaeyaiuo e iaoi?aaeyaiuo
i?ioeannia, iaania/eaay a onei?aiiii ianooaaa acaeiinaycaiioth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeeceeo e ?aaeueiui neooaoeee. i?ienoiaeyueo a
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Nooaeaioai i?aaeeaaaaony ia iniiaa eiie?aoiie,
iinoiyiii eciaiythuaeny neooaoeee au?aaaouaaoue oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey,
eioi?ua iaiaaeeaiii o/eouaathony IYAI i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee neaaeothueo
yoaiia ?acaeoey. Yoi nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe oaeoeee
oi?aaeaiey, aua?aiiie nooaeaioii, niinianoaoao aa niaa?oainoaiaaieth e
cae?aieaieth i?aeoe/aneeo iaaueia.

A oiaea aeaeiaie ea?u n eniieueciaaieai IYAI inouanoaeyaony naycue
ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey e eo aeeyiea ia eiia/iue ?acoeueoao ?aaiou, aiciiaeiinoue
auaeaeaiey iniiaiuo e aoi?inoaiaiiuo naycae a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
neooaoeee, oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e
yooaeoeaiinoue aa i?eiaiaiey aeey enneaaeiaaiey e oi?aaeaiey.
Ieaie?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe ii ianeieueeei iieacaoaeyi, a caoai
io/aoiinoue ii eaaeaeiio eo ieo io?aaeaao ioeaiee ?acee/iuo noi?ii
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey. Nooue yoeo ioeaiie a i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo
naaiaeiyoiae auaiaeie e yooaeoii a aoaeouai. Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
caieaie?iaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie e io/aoiinoueth ii iei iaaeaeaia /a?oaie
eiioeeeoa. Aeey i?eiyoey iioeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee a oaeeo neooaoeeyo ioaeiu
niaoeeaeueiua ciaiey. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi, auiieiea aeaiioth ?aaioo,
aoaeouee iaiaaeaea? i?eia?aoaao /anoeoeo oaeeo ciaiee.

Iaoiaeeee nia?aiaiiuo aeaeiauo ea? iicaieytho ?aoeeiiaeueii ni/aoaoue
i?ioanneiiaeueiue eioa?an nooaeaioia e iiaui iaoiaeai iao/aiey, aeoo
niia?ie/anoaa e eieeaeoeaecia.

Nicaeaiea aeaeiaie ea?u naycaii n ?ac?aaioeie iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey
ea?u e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioth iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth caaea/o.

1. IAOIAeE*ANEEA INIIAU

?AC?AAIOEE AeAEIAUO EA?.

1.1. Iacia/aiea aeaeiauo ea?.

Aeaeiaay ea?a ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie iaoiaeaie iao/aiey neoaeeo iaeiieaieth
oi?aaeai/aneiai iiuoa, aeecei e ?aaeueiiio, e ii nouanoao caiaiyao iiuo
eaai?aoi?iui, i?e/ai n iiiiuueth aeaeiauo ea? yoi oaeaaony naeaeaoue
ianeieueei eo/oa, /ai i?e ae?oaeo iaoiaeao iiciaiey. Ea?a, ai-ia?auo,
aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeueii eieoe?oao nouanoaothuoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue;
ai-aoi?uo, nicaeaao aeeiaie/iua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iiaeaee; a-o?aoueeo,
aieaa eioaineaii iiaoaeaeaao e ?aoaieth iaia/aiiuo oeaeae.

Aeaeiaua ea?u a iaeanoe iao/aiey oi?aaeai/aneei iaaueai iai?aaeaiu ia
iieo/aiea aieaa iaoe?iiai iiuoa ii i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee a o/aaiuo
eaai?aoi?eyo.

Yeaiaiou ?enea, aaiaeeiua a aeaeiaua ea?u, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iai?yaeaiiinoe, /oi iicaieyao nooaeaioo, aoaeouaio
iaiaaeaea?o, i?eieiaoue oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey ( /anoi ?eneiaaiiua ) a
iiaeaee?oaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neooaoeeyo e iaeaieeaaoue oiaiey e
iaauee oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aac oua?aa aeey ?aaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a aoaeouai. Oaeie iiuo iicaieeo aoaeouaio niaoeeaeenoo a
?aaeueiie ianoaiiaea, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?eieiaoue yooaeoeaiua ?aoaiey
n ieieiaeueiuie iioa?yie.

Ae?oaei iacia/aieai aeaeiauo ea? yaeyaony iao/iia enneaaeiaaiea. Anee a
iniiaa ea?u eaaeeo eieoaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee, oi i?e eo
aaeaeaaoiinoe ?aaeueiui oneiaeyi iaoiae noaiiaeony oaeiaiui iao/iui
eino?oiaioii.

I?aaeaea anaai n iiiiuueth aeaeiauo ea?iauo eieoaoeee iiaeii
inouanoaeyoue iieneiaua yenia?eiaiou, oi anoue enneaaeiaaoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua acaeiinayce iooai aa?uee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothueo
ia?aiaiiuo eieoaoeeiiiie iiaeaee a enneaaeoaiie iaeanoe.
Yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie aiciiaeii e ia
ae?oaeo eieoaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeyo (iai?eia?, i?e noaoe/aneii iiaeaee?iaaiee
ia IYAI), iaeiaei oieueei a aeaeiauo ea?ao enneaaeoaiuie yeaiaioaie
iiaoo auoue ethaee – ?aaioieee i?iecaiaenoaa. O/anoea ethaeae a
eieoaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue ia oieueei
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua yenia?eiaiou, ii e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-ineoieiae/aneea.

Iiiaea i?ioeannu a oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaii iinyo ea/anoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?, a iioiio ia io?aaeathony a noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo. Ainiieieoue
yoio iaaeinoaoie a eaeie-oi ia?a iiaoo aeaeiaua ea?u. Iai?aaeaieyie
enneaaeiaaiee iiaoo noaoue, iai?eia?, ioiioaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
eniieieoaeae, a?oii e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ioiineoaeueii
noeioeia, eioa?ania e oeaeae a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey.

N iiiiuueth ea?iauo eieoaoeee io?aaaouaathony nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneiai e
iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Aoaeouee iaiaaeaea? iiaeao iaaethaeaoue ca ineoieiae/aneei iiaaaeaieai
eeoe, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiea, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eieeaeoeaii eee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii i?ioaeaao yoio i?ioeann. Caeanue aea, a eaai?aoi?iuo
oneiaeyo, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa e aai aeeyiea ia
eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou.

Ainieoaiea aeaeiauo ea/anoa ia iniiaa ea?iauo eieoaoeee – aaaeiay
noi?iia eniieueciaaiey ea? i?e iiaeaioiaea aoaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia.
Neooaoeee, ?acua?uaaaiua a aeaeiaie ea?a, ?acaeaatho niiniaiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, eee aunooiathueo a ec “?iee” nooaeaioia, iia?aoeaii
iniuneeaaoue e iia?aoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia ieo, i?eieiay i?aaeeueiua,
yooaeoeaiua ?aoaiey. Eiaiii yoe ea/anoaa auaeaeaathony naaiaeiy ia iaeii
eo ia?auo iano a eiiieaena o?aaiaaiee iiaeaioiaee e iao/aiey
iaiaaeaea?ia.

1.2. Iaoiaee/aneay nouiinoue aeaeiaie ea?u.

A iniiaa aeaeiaie ea?u eaaeeo eieoaoeeiiiue yenia?eiaio. Ioee/ea
eieoaoeeiiiiai yenia?eiaioa io yenia?eiaioa “?aaeueiiai” ninoieo a oii,
/oi i?e eieoaoeee eniieuecoaony iiaeaeue ?aaeueiiai i?ioeanna, a ia nai
i?ioeann.

Iaoiaee/aneoth iniiao aeaeiaie ea?u a o/aaiii i?ioeanna ninoaaeytho
neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey:

1. A aeaeiaie ea?a i?eiaiyaony /eneaiiue iaoiae, iicaieythuee
eniieueciaaoue au/eneeoaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee,
iienuaathuea oaoiieiae/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e ae?oaea i?ioeannu, a
ea?iaie eieoaoeee iiaeaa?aathony /eneaiiiio enneaaeiaaieth e ia aai
iniiaa i?eieiathony eiee/anoaaiiua ?aoaiey.

2. IYAI – aaaeiue ninoaaeythuee yeaiaio aeaeiaie ea?u. I?eiaiaiea IYAI
ia yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai, iaeiaei, eniieueciaaiea aai
niinianoaoao oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee eieoaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, iaeiaei
eniieueciaaiea aai niinianoaoao oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee eieoaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, iaania/eaay ?yae i?aeiouanoa. Ai-ia?auo, IYAI inaiaiaeaeaao
ea?athueo io ooiieoaeueiuo ?ooeiiuo au/eneaiee. Ai-aoi?uo, iicaieyao
aeinoaoi/ii auno?i iia?e?iaaoue eiae/aneeie e a?eoiaoe/aneeie
aeaenoaeyie, iaiaoiaeeiuo i?e ?an/aoao iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae.
A-o?aoueeo, iiaeao caiiieiaoue e o?aieoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeaeiaie ea?u. A-/aoaa?ouo,
eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa aaia?aoi?a neo/aeiuo /enae e neo/aeiuo
i?ioeannia.

3. Oaeoi? a?aiaie, i?enoonoaothuee e o/eouaaaiue a aeaeiaie ea?a,
iaeeaaeuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey ia i?ioeann e ?acoeueoaou ea?u.

Eciaiaiea ianooaaa a?aiaie aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nie?auaoue aei ieioo e
/ania aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeannia, ecia?yaiuo a nooeao, aiaeao.

4. Aeaeiaay ea?a aace?oaony ia iaoiaea yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey.
Yenia?eiaio, n/eoathueeny aaaeiaeoei eino?oiaioii enneaaeiaaiee a
oeceea, aeieiaee e ae?oaeo anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao, noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui e
i?e enneaaeiaaiee yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee.

5. Iaee/ea ia?aoiie nayce a eieoaoeeiiiie nenoaia, aeaaiaea?y
iiiaie?aoiiio i?iea?uaaieth ?acee/iuo neooaoeee, iicaieyao ea?athuei,
aiaeece?oy ?acoeueoaou, iao/aoueny e a eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai ia?eiaea
i?eieiaoue aieaa yooaeoeaiua ?aoaiey.

6. Eniieueciaaiea aeaeiaie ea?u a o/aaiii i?ioeanna i?aaeiieaaaao
iaee/ea a iae aeeaeaeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. A iaaeaaiaeea oaea aeaaii
oniaoii eniieuecothony aeeaeaeoe/aneea i?eioeeiu iaaeyaeiinoe,
aeoeaiinoe, aeinooiiinoe, nayce oai?ee n i?aeoeeie, iao/iinoe,
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe e ae?oaea. Eaaeaeay o/aaiay aeaeiaay ea?a a oie eee
eiie ia?a ?aaeecoao yoe i?eioeeiu a niioaaonoaothuea aeeaeaeoeee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?eioeeiia iao/aiey yaeyaony naycue oai?ee n
i?aeoeeie. Ii ?aaeecoaony a iaoiaeao, oaycuaathueo oai?eth n i?aeoeeie,
iiaeoaa?aeaeay i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eco/aaiuo yaeaiee. A aeaeiauo
ea?ao, eniieuecoaiuo a o/aaiii i?ioeanna, yoa naycue iaoneaaeeaaaony
i?iaeaiiui iiaeoiaeii e onaiaieth o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea,
yenia?eiaioe?iaaieai e eiie?aoiinoueth ?anniao?eaaaiuo neooaoeee.

1.3. ?ac?aaioea aeaeiaie ea?u.

Eceiaeaiiua auoa iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee iicaieytho iainiiaaoue
iaeioi?ua oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey e iaiaoiaeeioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
eiino?oe?iaaiey aeaeiaie ea?u:

§ n o/aoii iacia/aiey aeaeiaie ea?u (iao/aiea e enneaaeiaaiea)
i?eaiaeeony iienaiea eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, iniiaiua i?iaeaiu e ?aoaiey,
aucuaathuea aeaiioth neooaoeeth;

§ inouanoaeyaony oi?iaeecaoeey ea?u, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeao
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu. Eiee/anoaaiiua caaeneiinoe,
iienuaathuea caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae aeaiiie eiie?aoiie
neooaoeee e i?aaenoaaeythuea no?oeoo?o eieoaoeeiiiie ea?iaie iiaeaee,
iicaieytho iaaethaeaoue caaeneiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe nenoaiu
io oi?aaeyaiuo e iaoi?aaeyaiuo aaee/ei. A iauai aeaea eieoaoeeiiiay
iiaeaeue ninoieo ec ia?aiaiiuo, ia?aiao?ia e e?eoa?eaa, eioi?ua a naith
i/a?aaeue iiaoo auoue oeaeuie ooieoeeyie, i?eiyouie n ia?aie/eaathueie
oneiaeyie. Iaeioi?ua i?ioeannu iienuaathony eiae/aneeie iia?aoeeyie a
aeaea aeai?eoiia e aeie-noai. Neo/aeiua aaee/eiu oi?iaeecothony a aeaea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae eee aaia?e?othony iaiin?aaenoaaiii IYAI;

§ onoaiaaeeaaaony aaeaeaaoiinoue iiaeaee ?aaeueiie neooaoeee. Yoio
i?ioeann eniieuecoao iaoiae aiaeeca e neioaca nenoaiu. Iino?iaiea
iiaeaee naycaii n oi?iuaieai ?aaeueiie nenoaiu iaoiaeii aano?aae?iaaiey
aa ia /anoe, caoai ioaeaeueiua oi?iuaiiua ninoaaiua nenoaiu
iauaaeeiythony a aaeeiia oeaeia n oai, /oiau nicaeaoue iiaeaeue,
aaeaeaaoioth ?aaeueiie eiie?aoiie neooaoeee.

Oi/iinoue oi?ie?oaiie eieoaoeeiiiie iiaeaee e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ai iiiaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony aeinoiaa?iinoueth aeaiiuo. Anee aeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiu
oaeoe/aneeie iieacaoaeyie i?ioeie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi eo aeinoiaa?iinoue
iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia ecaanoiuie noaoenoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie. Eiaaea aea
iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aoaeouea aeaiiua, iienaiiua ea/anoaaiii e
eiee/anoaaiii, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey eo aeinoiaa?iinoe.
Yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua ?aoaiey a iniiaiii iaoeaeaiu ia aoaeouaa,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaioe?othony ia eniieueciaaiea ai?ei?iie eioi?iaoeee.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey i?iaiiciuo
aeaiiuo.

?ac?aaioea nenoaiu noeioeia, niinianoaothueo aeoeaecaoeee o/anoieeia
ea?u, aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny i?aaeaea anaai ia iioeaao, aucaaiiuo
iieiaeeoaeueiuie yiioeeyie e a iaiueoae noaiaie ia io?eoeaoaeueiuo, oae
eae iineaaeiea oi?iicyo iuneeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue iao/athuaainy.
Iaeaieaa neiaeiui e aaaeiui eiino?oeoeaiui yeaiaioii aeaeiaie ea?u
yaeyaony nenoaia noeioeia, aace?othuayny ia ?aaeueii aeaenoaothueo
oneiaeyo a ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

IYAI yaeyaony aaaeiui ninoaaiui yeaiaioii aeaeiaie ea?u, iaania/eaathuei
?yae i?aeiouanoa yoiio iaoiaeo iao/aiey: auno?iaeaenoaea, niiniaiinoue
iaeaieeaaoue e o?aieoue aieueoie iau?i aeaiiuo, aacioeai/iinoue,
oi/iinoue, iaaeyaeiinoue iieo/aaiie eioi?iaoeee, aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey ea?u a ?aaeeia aeeaeiaa “/aeiaae-eiiiuethoa?”, aiciiaeiinoue
eieoaoeee aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee e ae?oaea. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee eieoaoeeiiiuo
iiaeaeae ia IYAI iaiaoiaeeia ?ac?aaioea niioaaonoaothueo aeai?eoiia,
i?ia?aii e ?acee/iuo eino?oeoeee. Eniieueciaaiea IYAI inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Ana au/eneeoaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u,
naycaiiua n oaeoueie ?an/?oaie, i?ia?aiie?othony aeey eiie?aoiie IYAI,
caiyoie a aeaeiaie ea?a.

Nicaeaiea aeaeiaie ea?u caaa?oaaony i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie iieiaeaieyie ii
i?iaaaeaieth ea?u, aeeth/athueie i?aaeea, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eeai
aaeeiuie aeey anao o/anoieeia, eeai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie. I?aaeea
aeeth/atho ?yae o?aaiaaiee e oneiaee, eioi?uo aeieaeiu i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
ea?athuea. Yoi, iai?eia?, aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie,
a?aiy, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiia aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia eaaeaeii yoaia e
ae?oaea. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe a i?aaeeao i?aaeoniao?eaathony eneeth/aiey.
I?aaiecaoeey ea?u i?aaeoniao?eaaao iienaiea eaai?aoi?ee, oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa, IYAI e iai?oaeiaaiey ?aai/eo iano o/anoieeia.

2. OeAEUe ?AAIOU

Aeaaiay oeaeue AeE ninoieo a oii, /oiau i?aaeinoaaeoue a ?anii?yaeaiea
nooaeaioia, aua?aaoeo naiae aoaeouae i?ioanneae iaiaaeaeiaio,
aeinoaoi/ii i?inoia e aeinooiiia ?oeiaiaenoai, niaea?aeauaa
yeaiaioa?iia, ii ioiioaieth e aeai?eoie/aneei ycueai, eceiaeaiea oaeiai
i?ia?aiiiiai aiia?aoa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue ethaua
aiaeiai-eiae/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey ianneaia yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee e
auaiaeeoue oaaeeoeu-aeieoiaiou ia i?eioa? a oaeiaiii aeey aecoaeueiiai
aini?eyoey aeaea.

Oi?iaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e eiie?aoiui iaoaiaoe/aneei
ciaieyi nooaeaioia, ?aaioathueo a oneiaeyo yeaeo?iiiuo oaaeeoe (YO) SUP
,aanueia ne?iiiu. Iie ia auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu yeaiaioa?iuo aii?inia
eeiaeiie aeaaa?u e ia/aeueiuo naaaeaieyo i ianneaao, IYAI, yeiiiieee.
Iaoaiaoe/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey i?inou, ii caoai iie neeaaeuaathony a
aeiaieueii neiaeioth eiae/aneoth no?oeoo?o. Io/aoeeaia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
caaea/a iienea naaeeiauo oi/ae a ianneaa yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee
iio?aaoao aeinoaoi/ii aieueoeo oneeee, ii aianoa n oai iiieiaiea
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai ianoa aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e ia ninoaaeo
o?oaea : a aeie-noaia aeai?eoia oiiiyioo i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue
eiae/aneee oaa, a ?aoaiea caaea/e iienea oi/ae ?aaiiaaney aeiaaaeaii
aei ?an/aoiie iaoiaeeee.

A eaaeaeie ?aaioa aeaaiia aieiaiea ia?auaaony ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiue,
eioi?iaoeeiiiue e aeai?eoie/aneee aniaeou, aaaei cao?aaeaaaony
i?ia?aiiiue.

A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey AeE nooaeaioo i?eoiaeeony inaaeaaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth YO SUP, iiiai iai?eau/iuo iiiyoee, a
aeaaiia ?aaeeciaaoue iaoiae iienea oi/ae ?aaiiaaney ( naaeeiauo ), ?aiaa
ia eniieuecoaiuo i?e ?aoaiee eaeeo-eeai caaea/.

AeE ?ann/eoaia ia nooaeaioia, oiathueo eiae/anee iuneeoue, e o/eo
aea?aeaoue a iiea aieiaiey iaeiia?aiaiii aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia /enei
yeaiaioia, ioaeaeyy aeaaiua io aoi?inoaiaiiuo.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna iienea ?aoaiee yaeyaony iieacaoaeai oiai, ia
neieueei nooaeaio niaethaeaao i?aaeei iienea iaeneioiia e ieieioiia,
oiaao iieueciaaoueny i?aaeeaie ia?aai?a.

Ioeaiea ca auiieiaiea AeE eiaao o?e ninoaaeythuea:

a) i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?an/aoia;

a) ea/anoai ?an/?oia;

a) oiaiea iauaoueny n IYAI .

3. CAAeAIEA IA AUIIEIAIEA AeAEIAIE EA?U.

3.1. Ii?yaeie auiieiaiey ?aaiou.

1. Ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou nooaeaio aeieaeai iciaeiieoueny: n oeaeueth
?aaiou; n oai?eae YO SUP; n oai?eae iienea naaeeiauo oi/ae; n
iinoaiiaeie caaea/e; n aeie-noaiie aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e.

2. Noi?ie?iaaoue naith oaaeeoeo i?eauee a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo
oneiaiiai i?iaeoeoa a niioaaonoaee n aa?eaioii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
caaeaiey.

3. Ii?aaeaeeoue /enei N- eiee/anoai aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ioaaoia a
niioaaonoaee n enoiaeiuie aeaiiuie.

4. Caa?oceoue a IYAI YO SUP niaeanii eino?oeoeee.

5. Aianoe enoiaeiua aeaiiua a SUP.

6. Iaeoe naaeeiaua oi/ee a naiae iao?eoea 7 o 5. Iaeoe iioeiaeueioth

naaeeiaoth oi/eo.

7. Iinea ieii/aiey ?an/aoia naeaeaoue ?ania/aoeo ia i?eioa?a.

8. Aiaeeoe/anee a aeieacaoaeueiie oi?ia iiaeaioiaeoue iaeiicia/ii
aini?eieiaaioth ?aeiiaiaeaoeeth ia/eiathuaio i?aaei?eieiaoaeth; eee
nia/aea caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?a i iinoaaeao.

9. Ioi?ieoue io/?o ii AeE. Caueoeoue oai?aoe/aneoth e i?aeoe/aneoth
/anoe.

3.2. Iauay caaea/a.

I?aaenoaaueoa, /oi au iaiaaeaea? iaooai/enoeoaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey.
I?aaei?eyoea caeeth/eei aeiaiai? i iinoaaeao. A niioaaonoaee n
aeiaiai?ii i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo iaaeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aaiceia e
aeecaeueiie iaooe, ii eciaieee eiee/anoai aoiea?iie oiieeaiie iaooe.
Iineieueeo aeiaiai? oaea caeeth/ai, oi iaooai/enoeoaeueiua
i?aaei?eyoey aeey iaania/aiey aeiaiai?iuo iinoaaie auioaeaeaii
iieoiaoue aaicei e aeecoiieeai ia noi?iia e i?iaeaaaoue eceeoee
oiieeaiie iaooe ia ?uiea. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e eceeoiei o?ainii?oiui
?anoiaeai e nie?auaieth i?eauee. Iaiaaeaea? ?aoee iiniaaoiaaoueny n
eieeaeoeaii, iinea /aai iieo/ee /aou?a ?acee/iuo i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
oaaee/aieth i?eauee. I?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaeoniao?eaatho iiaea?iecaoeeth
iaeioi?uo noa?uo, a oaeaea onoaiiaeo iiauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.
Inouanoaeaiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo oaaee/eaaao i?eaueue a ?acee/iie noaiaie.
Iau/ii i?eaueue ninoaaeyao 30 ?oaeae ia oiiio ( a NOA e Aiaeee
eniieuecotho aaeeieoeo ecia?aiey ia oiiio, a aa??aeue , i?e/ai a NOA 1
aa??aeue 158,76 e, a Aiaeee 163,65 e ).

A ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey ia?aiai i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaueue oaaee/eeanue
au aei 35 ?oaeae ia oiiio, aoi?iai i?aaeeiaeaiey – aei 39, o?aoueth –
aei 42 e /aoaa?oiai – aei 44 ?oaeae ia oiiio. ( I?e iiaen/aoa i?eauee
o/eouaaeanue aii?oecaoeey, naycaiiay n cao?aoaie ia iiaea?iecaoeeth
iai?oaeiaaiey).

Eaeia eiaiii i?aaeeiaeaiea neaaeoao i?eiyoue?

Ia ia?aue acaeyae – /aoaa?oia i?aaeeiaeaiea, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaa
oaaee/aiea i?eauee aei 44 ?oaeae ia oiiio. Iaeiaei a ?acoeueoaoa aieaa
ouaoaeueiiai aiaeeca ?uiea iaiaaeaea? auyniee, /oi ni?in ioiineoaeueii
onoie/ea e oaeiaeaoai?yaony ca n/ao i?iaeoeoeee eae aaoaai i?aaei?eyoey,
oae e i?aaei?eyoey aaoaai iniiaiiai eiieo?aioa. Iio?aaiinoe ?uiea
eciaieoue iaeuecy. Aieaa oiai, aao eiieo?aio oaeaea ?anniao?eaaao
aiciiaeiinoue iiaea?iecaoeee e caiaiu iai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea aiaae?aiey
iiauo iaoiaeia, niinianoaothueo oaaee/aieth i?eauee. Iineieueeo aai
ecaanoii iiiaia i iieiaeaiee eiieo?aioa e i ninoiyiee ?uiea, oi iiaeii
i?aaeoaaaeaoue aiciiaeiua oaae n aai noi?iiu. Ia iniiaa yoeo i?iaiicia
ninoaaeytho oaaeeoeo i?aaeiieaaaaiuo i?eaueae a ?an/aoa ia iaeio oiiio
i?iaeoeoa (oaae 1).

Oaaeeoea 1.

No?aoaaey

eiieo?aioa

Aaoa

no?aoaaey

1

2

3

4

5

Auea 1

2

I?aaeeiaeaiey 3

4

5

30

36

39

40

44

34

37

41

43

42

37

38

42

41

39

35

41

40

38

39

34

39

37

40

30

Ia?aue noieaaoe oaae.1 iieacuaaao, /oi anee iieiaeaiea eiieo?aioa ia
eciaieeinue, oi inouanoaeaiea aaoae ia?aie no?aoaaee (oi anoue
nio?aiaiea iinoiyiiiai iieiaeaiey) aeano aai 30 ?oaeae i?eauee ia oiiio.
Anee iieiaeaiea eiieo?aioa ana aua ia eciaiyaony (aai no?aoaaey – 1) e
anee au i?eieiaaoa ia?aia i?aaeeiaeaiea ( o.a. no?aoaaeth – 2), oi
iieo/eoa 36 ?oaeae i?eauee ia oiiio, anee au i?eieiaaoa aoi?ia
i?aaeeiaeaiea ( no?aoaaeth – 3), oi iieo/eoa 39 ?oaeae i?eauee, anee
o?aouea i?aaeeiaeaiea (no?aoaaeth – 4), oi iieo/eoa 41 ?oaeue i?eauee,
anee /aoaa?oia (no?aoaaeth – 5), oi iieo/eoa 44 ?oaey i?eauee. Iaeiaei,
anee eiieo?aio i?eieiaao aeey oeo/oaiey naiaai iieiaeaiey no?aoaaeth 2,
oi eciaieony noiia e aaoae i?eauee. A yoii neo/aa, anee au ia iaiyaoa
naith no?aoaaeth, oi iieo/eoa 34 ?oaey i?eauee ia oiiio; i?e i?eiaiaiee
no?aoaaee 2 i?eaueue aic?anoaao aei 37 ?oaeae, no?aoaaee 3 – aei 41
?oaey e o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oaae.1 i?eaiaeyony aeaiiua i ?acia?ao aaoae i?eauee
i?e i?eieiaaiuo aaoeo no?aoaaeyo e no?aoaaeyo aaoaai eiieo?aioa. *oi
neaaeoao i?aaei?eieiaoue a yoii neo/aa? *oi neo/eeinue au, anee au au
i?eiyee no?aoaaeth 5? Anee aao eiieo?aio ia i?aaei?eieiaao ieeaeeo ia?
aeey oaaee/aiey i?eauee, o.a., anee ii i?eieiaao no?aoaaeth 1, oi a yoii
neo/aa i?eaueue aaoaai i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeo 44 ?oaey ia oiiio. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, anee ii i?eieiaao, iai?eia?, no?aoaaeth 5, oi iieo/eoa
oieueei 30 ?oaeae i?eauee ia oiiio. Neaaeoao ee aai i?eiaiyoue
no?aoaaeth 3? A yoii neo/aa eiaeanue au oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi au
iieo/eoa ia iaiaa 37 ?oaeae i?eauee ia oiiio. Aieaa oiai, anee eiieo?aio
ia i?eieiaao no?aoaaeth 5, oi aaoa i?eaueue (i?e aaoae no?aoaaee 3)
i?aauneo 37 ?oaeae i?eauee ia oiiio. Iaeiaei aii?in caeeth/aaony a oii,
yaeyaony ee iaeeo/oei aeey aan ?aoaieai auai? no?aoaaee 3? Iiaeii ee
auoue oaa?aiiui a iieo/aiee i?eauee, i?aauoathuae 37 ?oaeae ia oiiio?

3.3. Noaia iaoiaeaeaiey naaeeiauo oi/ae.

Ionoue caaeaia iao?eoea // aij // eae oaaeeoea i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
i?eaueae a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo eaeiai-eeai i?iaeoeoa.

a11 a12 a13 … a1n

a21 a22 a23 … a2n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

am1 am2 am3 … amn

Aaoe no?aoaaee iaicia/ei iiia?aie niioaaonoaothueo no?ie, a no?aoaaee
aaoaai eiieo?aioa – iiia?aie noieaoeia. Caeanue iiae neooaoeeae aoaeai
iiae?acoiaaaoue ia?o /enae ( i, j ) , aaea i – iiia? no?iee iao?eoeu
i?aaeiieaaaaiuo i?eaueae, j – iiia? noieaoea.

Neooaoeey iacuaaaony ?aaiiaaniie ( naaeeiaie oi/eie ), iaeiia?aiaiii
i?eaieaia e aeey aan e aeey aaoaai eiieo?aioa ( eiieo?aioia ).
Ieacuaaaony, /oi iiene iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey ?aaiineeai e iieneo
naaeeiauo oi/ae.

I?iaa?ea nouanoaiaaiey naaeeiauo oi/ae e eo iaoiaeaeaiea iiaoo auoue
i?iaaaeaiu ii neaaeothuae noaia :

a11 a12 a13 … a1n max a1j

a21 a22 a23 … a2n max a1j
min max aij

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i j

am1 am2 am3 … amn max a1j

min ai1 min ai1 min ai1 min ai1

max min aij

i j

Anee min max aij max min aij ,

i j i j

oi naaeeiaie oi/ee eee oi/ee ?aaiiaaney iao.

Anee min max aij = max min aij ,

i j i j

oi ana neooaoeee ?aaiiaaney yaeythony naaeeiauie oi/eaie. Naaeeiaie
oi/eie oaae.1 yaeyaony neooaoeey (1, 3), a13 = 37. Yoi neaaeoao ec
neaaeothueo ?an/aoia:

30 34 37 35 34 37

36 37 38 41 39 41

39 41 42 40 37 max 42 min 37

41 43 41 38 40 i 43 j

44 42 39 39 37 44

min j

30 34 37 35 30

max

i

37

3.4. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua.

3.5. Ii?aaeaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa ?aaeoeee

iaiaaeaea?a ia caaeaiea.

Oniaoiinoue ?aaiou iaiaaeaea?a au?aaeaaony a oi/iinoe e nei?inoe
?aaae?iaaiey ia aieueoia /enei iaeiia?aiaiii iinooiathueo aii?inia,
o?aaothueo ?aoaiey.

Caaeneiinoue a?aiaie O ?aaeoeee iaiaaeaea?a ia aii?in (o.a.
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiey) io noaiaie neiaeiinoe auai?a
ioaaoa (o.a. io eiee/anoaa e anaaiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia ioaaoia, ec eioi?uo
iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai aua?aoue iaeeo/oee), au?aaeaaony oae:

O = a*ln n , a = const 0,

aaea n 1, oeaeia.

Yoa oi?ioea iieo/aia io/aoii-noaoenoe/aneei iooai. Anee ?aniieiaeeoue
ii ine aanoeenn n eae iauaa /enei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee, a ii ine
i?aeeiao – cia/aiea a?aiaie O – aeeeoaeueiinoue i?eiyoey eiie?aoiiai ec
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee, oi oi/ee caaeneiinoe a?oiie?othony aaeieue
e?eaie, eae iieacaii ia ?en. 2a

Anee ?anniio?aoue a?aoee e?eaie y = ln x (?en 2a), oi iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi e?eaay, aaeieue eioi?ie a?oiie?othony oiiiyiooua oi/ee,
yaeyaony eiaa?eoie/aneie.

Ca iaeiaieai aieaa oi/iiai e?eoa?ey ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a,
iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny cia/aieai eiyooeoeeaioa

T

a = —— ,

ln n

eioi?ue aeey eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai iaiaaeaea?a aoaeao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui,
oauaathuei n i?eia?aoaieai iiuoa a eiie?aoiie iaeanoe i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.
Aeey ia/eiathuaai iaiaaeaea?a a 1.

O/ao iaiaaeaea?ii noaiaie cia/eiinoe i?eieiaaiiai ei ?aoaiey i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth nei?inoe ?aaeoeee e e eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioeanna aini?eyoey.

4. Oaaee/iue i?ioeanni?.

Oaaee/iue i?ioeanni? Supercalc i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey ?aoaiey n?aaenoaaie au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee
eiaeaia?iuo e yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ n?aaeiae neiaeiinoe e i?aaenoaaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia a aeaea aioiaie aeieoiaioaoeee iieueciaaoaeyie, eiathueie
iaeue iiuo ?aaeecaoeee iaoeiiuo aeai?eoiia n?aaenoaaie ycueia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

A iniiaa nenoaiu eaaeeo i?eioeei eniieueciaaiey oaaee/iuo au/eneaiee,
iicaieythuee eaaei i?aaenoaaeoue caaea/o eae niaieoiiinoue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo aeaenoaee ii ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee a ioaeaeueiuo
eeaoeao (y/aeeao) oaaeeoeu e naycae iaaeaeo ieie.

Aeinoieinoaaie oaaee/iuo i?ioeanni?ia yaeythony i?inoioa iaeaaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey, ?acaeoay neooaoeeiiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiay iiiiuue nenoaiu
iieueciaaoaeth, aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea. E iaaeinoaoeai neaaeoao ioianoe
aieueoea iauaiu eniieuecoaiie i?e yoii iaiyoe.

4.1. No?oeoo?a yeaeo?iiiie oaaeeoeu.

I?e ?aaioa oaaee/iiai i?ioeanni?a iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue IYAI i?aa?auaaony
a yeaeo?iiioth oaaeeoeo, ecia?aaeaiea eioi?ie auaiaeeony ia ye?ai
aeenieay.

Yeaeo?iiiay oaaeeoea ninoieo ec ai?eciioaeueiuo no?ie (?yaeia) e
aa?oeeaeueiuo noieaoeia (eieiiie). Eo ia?ana/aiea ia?acoao eeaoeo
(y/aeeo), a eioi?ie ?aciauaaony eioi?iaoeey, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey ?aaiou
nenoaiu, a aeaea /eneiauo eee neiaieueiuo aeaiiuo.

No?iee iaicia/athony /eneaie, noieaoeu iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie aoeaaie
eaoeineiai aeoaaeoa. Eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii eeaoee neoaeeo ni/aoaiea
iaicia/aiey noieaoea e no?iee, Iai?eia? A5.

Aeey ?aaiou n ioaeaeueiuie /anoyie oaaeeoeu a aa ninoaaa iiaoo
auaeaeyoueny i?yiioaieueiua aeiee (aeeaiaciiu), iaicia/aaiua
eaeaioeoeeaoi?aie ia?aiai e iineaaeiaai yeaiaioa, ?acaeaeaiiuo
aeaiaoi/eyie, iai?eia?:

1 : 4 – aeie no?ie n ia?aie ii /aoaa?ooth aeeth/eoaeueii;

A1 : A4 – aeie eeaoie , aaea A1 e A4 – niioaaonoaaiii iaicia/aiey
yeaiaioia a eaaii aa?oiai e i?aaii ieaeiai oaeao.

Iaeneiaeueiua ?acia?u yeaeo?iiiie oaaeeoeu ninoaaeytho 1999 no?ie e 127
noieaoeia. Oaeouea ?acia?u onoaiaaeeaathony aaoiiaoe/anee i?e
eieoeeaoeee oaaee/iiai i?ioeanni?a a caaeneiinoe io iauaia aeinooiiie
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.

4.2. Aucia oaaee/iiai i?ioeanni?a.

I?ia?aiiiue iaeao oi?aaeaiey yeaeo?iiiuie oaaeeoeaie Supercalc
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen i?ia?aii, o?aiyueony a ianeieueeeo oaeeao
ia iaaieoiii aeenea. Iniiaiie aucuaaaiue oaee, niaea?aeauee
oi?aaeythuoth i?ia?aiio, eiaao eiy sc5.com. Aeey caa?ocee yoiai oaeea a
iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue eo?ni? ia eiy
yoiai oaeea ia iaeiie ec eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iaiaeae Norton Commander e
iaaeaoue eeaaeoo Enter/ Iinea ieii/aiey caa?ocee ia ye?aia aeenieay
iiyaeyaony canoaaea, a caoai iinea iaaeaoey ia eeaaeaoo?a ethaie eeaaeoe
– ecia?aaeaiea yeaeo?iiiie oaaeeoeu e iaiaee aeeaeiaa Nia?eaeea n
iieueciaaoaeai.

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