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Разработка и применение пакетов прикладных программ

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Oaia 1: I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, aai eeanneoeeaoeey ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea – niaieoiiinoue i?ia?aii, YAI, i?ioeaaeo? e
i?aaee aianoa ni anae, naycaiiie n yoeie eiiiiiaioaie, aeieoiaioaoeeae
iicaieythuae eniieueciaaoue AO aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo caaea/.

Aeiey ca?aaioiie ieaou a aeioiaeao oe?iu – 46-56%.

1–aue yoai : ?ac?aaioea II aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae;

2–ie yoai : Noaiiaeaiea oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Iiyaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea io/oaeaeaaiiai e oe?aaee?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa;

3–ee yoai : Yenoaineaiia i?iecaiaenoai II;

4–ue yoai : Ia?aoiae e eioaineaiiio i?iecaiaenoao II. Iiyaeyaony
oaoiieiae/aneay ia?aaioea II. Eniieueciaaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo e
oeiiauo n?aaenoa ia?aaioee (enoiaeiuo i?ioioeiia).

Iniiaiua oa?ieiu ii?aaeaeythony: ai–ia?auo, noaiaea?oii ANIAe (19.004) e
?yae oa?ieiia ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii “I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI
e aac aeaiiuo” 1992 aiae.

I?ia?aiiiia ecaeaeea (IE) – i?ia?aiia ia iineoaea aeaiiuo, yaeythuayny
i?iaeoeoii i?ia?aiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?ia?aiia – iauaeoeaiay oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey niaieoiiinoe aeaiiuo e
eiiaiae, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey YAI e ae?oaeo
eiiiuethoa?iuo ono?ienoa n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?acoeueoaoa. I?ia?aiia aeey YAI – iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu
iieo/aiiua a oiaea aa ?ac?aaioee e ii?iaeaeaaiua ath aoaeei–aecoaeueiua
ecia?aaeaiey.

IE – oieaa?naeueiia ecaeaeea, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa
iieueciaaoaeae.

IE – ecaeaeea, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey oe?ieiai oiio?aaeaiey, iii aeieaeii
auoue ouaoaeueii aeieoiaioe?iaaii, /oiau aai iiaee eniieueciaaoue ia
oieueei ?ac?aaio/eee.

I?ia?aiiiue i?iaeoeo – ethaay i?ia?aiiiay ?ac?aaioea, eioi?ay iiaeao
auoue iieo/aia ia oieueei eae ?acoeueoao i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai (IN) – i?ia?aiia, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey
iiiaie?aoiiai i?eiaiaiey ia ?acee/iuo iauaeoao e ?ac?aaioaiiay ethaui
niiniaii (/aua anaai eiatho aaeaeo – n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa IE, e
eino?oiaioa?ee aeey ?ac?aaioee IE).

Eeanneoeeaoeey II (ii iaeanoyi i?eiaiaiey)

AI – n?aaenoaa eiio?iey aiia?aoo?u, aeeaaiinoeea ?aaiou aiia?aoo?u.

IN – oi?aaeaiea ?ano?naie YAI (eiiaaea iauaaeeiythony n n/n
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey)

Nenoaia i?ia?aiie?iaaiey – niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii.
Iaania/eaaao aaoiiaoecaoeeth ninoaaeaiey, ioeaaeee e eniuoaiey i?ia?aii
(ycueiaua n?aaenoaa, o?aineyoi?u, ?aaeaeoi?u, ioeaae/eee, na?aeniua
i?ia?aiiu).

I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu /anoiiai i?eiaiaiey – yenieoaoe?othony ia iaeiii
iauaeoa, aeey eioi?iai e auee nicaeaiu.

III – io/oaeaeaaiia, oe?aaee?oaiia II. I?aaeiacia/aii aeey a?oii
iauaeoia n iaueie naienoaaie a ioiioaiee ?aoaaiie caaea/e. Oe?aae iaeaoa
caaeneo io aai ?aciiaeaeiinoe.

Ianoaiiaea ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea

? i/i II a Aa?iia ( 85 aiae ia/aei 90–o

1 III e IN 34 51

2 Caeaciia II e eiinoeueoaoeee 29 28

3 Iao/aiea 5 5

4 Au/eneeoaeueiua oneoae 32 16

Ia nenoaiiia Ii i?eoiaeeony ( 30% iauaai iauaia i?iaeaae, a ia
i?eeeaaeiia ( 70%.

III – eiiieaen i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa e aeieoiaioia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
?aaeecaoeee ooieoeeiiaeueii caaa?oaiiiai aeai?eoia ia?aaioee aeaiiuo. Ii
iaania/eaaao aaoiiaoecaoeeth nicaeaiey ?aai/eo i?ia?aii, aaoiiaoecaoeeth
i?ioeanna ?aoaiey caaea/.

Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou (3 naienoaa) :

Niaea?aeeo iaai? aioiauo aeai?eoie/aneeo ?aoaiee aeiaiaeeiuo aei
eiie?aoiie iaoeiiie ?aaeecaoeee;

Niaea?aeeo iaoaieci iano?ieee ia ia?aiao?u eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa
i?eiaiaiey;

Iaeao II aeieaeai i?aaeoniao?eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue aeiiieiaiey aai
i?ia?aiiaie, i?eaycuaathueie e niaoeeoeea eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa, a oaeaea
e eciaieaoeiny ai a?aiaie oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey III (ii iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey)

I?iaeaiii–i?eaioe?iaaiiia III i?aaeiacia/aii aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiuo a
?aieao ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie caaea/e, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iaania/aiea
iio?aaiinoae eiia/iiai iieueciaaoaey.

Iaoiaei–i?eaioe?iaaiiia III ?aaeecotho oio eee eiie iaoiae
(iaoaiaoe/aneee) ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua III iaania/eaatho iaeneiaeueioth aaoiiaoecaoeeth
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey i?e ?aoaiee eiie?aoiie caaea/e, io aoiaeiiai
aeieoiaioa, aeeth/ay iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/e e aei auaea/e auoiaeiiai
aeieoiaioa.

Iaoiaei–i?eaioe?iaaiiue iaeao ?aaeecoao eeoue /anoue ?aoaiey, naycaiioth
n aeaiiui iaoiaeii.

III iauaai iacia/aiey iiauoatho o?iaaiue aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aaio i?e
nicaeaiee II.

I?ioeaaeo?iua III – aaoiiaoece?otho nicaeaiea II ii ?aaeecaoeee oeiiauo
i?ioeaaeo? ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee (aaiae, o?aiaiea, auaiae,
ei??aeoe?iaaiea, iaiiaeaiea, oii?yaei/eaaiea, iiene, oeeueo?aoeey oaeeia
e o.ae.)

Eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa i?ia?aiie?iaaiey – aaia?aoi?u i?ia?aii,
aeieoiaioaoi?u i?ia?aii, aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey ioeaaeee e
i?iaa?ee i?ia?aii. Iai?eia?, aaia?aoi?u auaiaea oaaee/iuo oi?i,
aaia?aoi? aaiaea–auaiaea (AAA), aaia?aoi? ye?aiiuo oi?i, aaia?aoi?
aeieoiaioaoeee (FOXDOC) : nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiiiai aeieoiaioa – oaeno e
iienaiea i?ia?aiiu.

Na?aeniua – i?eaioe?iaaiiu ia iiaeaea?aeeo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
ia?aaioee i?ia?aii, aeiiieiaiea IN.

Aeinoieinoaa III.

Nie?auaiea cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo; (aei ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia i?ioeaioia,
a n?aaeiai 20–30%)

Ii n?aaiaieth n yeaiaioa?iuie n?aaenoaaie, aieaa aunieay eiiieaeniay
oaycea ?aoaiee;

Aieaa aunieia ea/anoai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey IE;

Aieaa aunieay ooieoeeiiaeueiay iaaeaaeiinoue;

Iaee/ea ?acaeoie nenoaiu nii?iaiaeaeaiey (iaai? na?aeniuo oneoa, eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaatho yenieoaoaoeeth o iieueciaaoaey);

III – n?aaenoai ia?aaea/e e iaiaia iiuoii iaaeaeo ?ac?aaio/eeaie e
iaaeaeo eiia/iuie iieueciaaoaeyie;

Iaaeinoaoee III.

Neiaeiinoue inaiaiey III;

Aieueoia ?aciiia?acea III ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiui caaea/ai cao?oaeiyao
auai?. Ia naaiaeiy ionoonoaotho iauaeoeaiua iaoiaeu ioeaiee III;

Ieceay noaiaiue nenoaiiie oaycee nouanoaothueo III (a neo/aa oaycee
ianeieueeeo eiie?aoiuo i?ia?aii ii aoiaeai–auoiaeai);

I?iaeaia ia?aueaaiey e iiaeeoeeaoeee;

Iaeay ooieoeeiiaeueiay iieiioa.

Oaia 2: AEeciaiiue oeeee IE (AEOeIE).

AEOeIE ii noaaeeyi niaiaaeaao n AEOe ethaiai ecaeaeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiii–oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey e o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiyoi
ecia?aaeaoue :

yenieoaoaoeey

?ac?aaioea-i?iecaiaenoai

nii?iaiaeaeaiea

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue (iauay) – 3–5 eao.

?ac?aaioea – noaaeey io iiiaioa enneaaeiaaiey iio?aaiinoae a IE aei
iiiaioa iieo/aiey aieiaiiai (yoaeiiiiai) ia?acoea.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue: a n?aaeiai io 0,3 aei 0,5 aiaea.

I?iecaiaenoai – iieo/aiea yecaiiey?a ecaeaeey, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey
i?eiaiaiey ia eiie?aoiii iauaeoa (yecaiiey? iinoaaee). Naiaeeony e
oe?aaee?iaaieth (eiie?iaaieth) yoaeiiiiai yecaiiey?a e aaeaioaoeee iiae
eiie?aoiiai iieueciaaoaey. Anee aaeeie/iue i?iaeoeo oi noaaeee
?ac?aaioee e i?iecaiaenoaa iauaaeeiythony.

Yenieoaoaoeey – i?ioeann i?eiaiaiey yecaiiey?a iieueciaaoaeai aeey
?aoaiey aai eiie?aoiuo caaea/.

Nii?iaiaeaeaiea IE – aeaenoaey, naycaiiua n iaania/aieai
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ecaeaeey a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee.

Iniaaiiinoe AEOeIE (ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ecaeaeeyie).

A AEOeIE cia/eoaeueii aaeee oaeaeueiue aan noaaeee ?ac?aaioee;

I?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa i?ino: e?aoie e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie naiaeeony
e eiie?iaaieth;

Nii?iaiaeaeaiea ea?aao ana aieueooth ?ieue.

?ac?aaioea IE.

Ninoaaeythuea i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee IE:

iiaeoiae – io caaea/e; (1)

iiaeoiae noaiaea?oiue ANIAe. (2)

Eaeie au iiaeoiae ia i?eiaiyeny iaai? aeaenoaee, auiieiyaiuo nicaeaoaeai
IE i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeia. Aa?eaoeee naycaiiu eeoue n auaeaeaieai
ioaeaeueiuo aeaenoaee a yoaiu.

(1)

Nenoaiiue aiaeec (aiaeec o?aaiaaiee) i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Nia/aea aiaeec
iio?aaiinoae iieueciaaoaey, caoai ?ac?aaioea oeaeae, oi?ioee?iaea
caaea/e. Caaea/e noaayony ia?aae ioaeaeueiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Auai?
iaoiaeia ?aaeecaoeee caaea/e. Oi?ie?iaaiea caaeaiey ?ac?aaioee. (Eiaaony
aaeaeo niaoeeoeeaoeey IE).

Iac. (???) i?iaeoe?iaaiea IE (aiaoiaa).

(ninoaaeoue oi?ioeo aeieoiaioa)

?acoeueoaoii aiaoiaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey yaeyaony iiaeaioiaea aiaoiae
niaoeeoeeaoeee.

Aioo?aiiaa (aeaoaeueiia, no?oeoo?iia) i?iaeoe?iaaiea. (au?aaioea
i?ia?aiiiuo ?aoaiee ?ane?uaathueo aioo?aiithth /anoue IE). Ii?aaeaeaiea
no?oeoo?u i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena, ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u AAe, ec eaeeo
oaeeia e eaeiaa eo no?oeoo?a, naycue n iiaeoeyie, ninoaaeaiea aeai?eoia.

Iiaeaioiaea (eiaee?iaaiea) i?ia?aiiiuo oaenoia, ia?aeeaeueii n yoei
iiaeaioiaea i?ia?aiiiie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aaoiiiiiay ioeaaeea (ioeaaeea a noaoeea), ioeaaeea iiaeoeae, eo naycae

Eiiieaene?iaaiea eiiiiiaio e eiiieaeniay ioeaaeea;

Eniuoaiea. I?iaa?ea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ecaeaeey a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo
yenieoaoaoeee.

(2)

Aeaeeony ia 5 noaaeee :

Noaaeey oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey (i?aaei?iaeoiay noaaeey). Ii/oe
iieiinoueth niaiaaeaao n yoaiii nenoaiiiai aiaeeca. Yoaiu :

nai? naaaeaiee (ianeaaeiaaiea);

ia?aaioea naaaeaiee ianeaaeiaaiey e iiaeaioiaea OYI;

oaoie/aneia caaeaiea (caaa?oathuee yoai).

Oi?ie?oao caeac/ee, iio?aaeoaeue ?ac?aaio/eeo.

Yneeciia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (i?eioeeieaeueiay ?ac?aaioea IE, ?ac?aaioea
iaueo i?eioeeiia). Yneeciue i?iaeo ioaeai aeey niaeaniaaiey iaaeaeo
?ac?aaio/eeii e caeac/eeii iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia.

Oaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (oaoie/aneee i?iaeo). Iauaaeeiaiea anao
iaoa?eaeia aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoo
aeiaiaeeoueny aei iaoeiiie ?aaeecaoeee.

?aai/aa i?iaeoe?iaaiea:

iiaeaioiaea i?ia?aiiiuo oaenoia (aaeaioaoeey i?ia?aiiiuo eiiiiiaio);

ioeaaeea ai anao ?aciiaeaeiinoyo;

iiaeaioiaea i?ia?aiiiie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aiaae?aiea. (Eniuoaiey a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo).

A i?ioeanna aaaeaony iiaeaioiaea iauaeoa e yenieoaoaoeee. IE –
i?eaaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu, naycaiiie n IE, e oiio aeaeo, eioi?ue
o?aaoaony yenieoaoaoeeae.

Iao/aiea ia?niiaea.

Eeth/aaui iiiyoeai i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee IE yaeyaony ?aaioa. Eae i?aaeei,
i?e ieaie?iaaiee i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee ia aeioiaeyo aei o?iaiy
i?ia?aiiiuo iia?aoi?ia, iia?aoeee. … ?aaioa – niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee,
auiieiyaiuo iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie eniieieoaeyie n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
eiie?aoiiai eiio?iee?oaiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

Oaia 3: O/ao e aiaeec cao?ao a AEOeII.

I?e a?oiie?iaea cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa neaaeoao
enoiaeeoue ec iauaai iieiaeaiey a ii?aaeaeaiee noaoae ?anoiaeia aeey
o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Noaouee ?anoiaeia:

Cao?aou ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa (iniiaiie, aeiiieieoaeueiie e ana
io/eneaiey);

Cao?aou ia oaoiieiaeth (ia eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa, eniieuecoaiua
i?e nicaeaiee IE), a iniiaiii cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea e inaiaiea III,
eniieuecoaiuo eae eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa. Cao?aou ia IE, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony eae yoaeii.

?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
?ac?aaioee, yenieoaoaoeee e nii?iaiaeaeaiey (cao?aou ia iaoeiiia a?aiy).

Cao?aou ia iaoa?eaeu (eioi?iaoeeiiiua iineoaee).

Cao?aou ia yia?aeth, ia eniieueciaaiea eaiaeia nayce (aeey ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia).

Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu (cao?aou ia oi?aaeai/aneee ia?niiae, ia
niaea?aeaiea iiiauaiee).

Iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu (cao?aou naycaiiua n ?aeeaiie, iieneii
caeac/eeia, iinoaaeaie eiie?aoiuo yecaiiey?ia).

Eeanneoeeaoeey cao?ao

Auaeaeytho ?anoiaeu iniiaiua (iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n i?ioeannii
?ac?aaioee e yenieoaoaoeee II) e iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua iinyo
iaania/eaathuee oa?aeoa?.

Ii niiniao ioianaiey ia eiie?aoiue i?iaeoeo:

i?yiua (iiaoo auoue o/oaiu i?e nicaeaiee eiie?aoiiai yecaiiey?a
i?iaeoeoa);

einaaiiua (naycaiiua n nicaeaieai ianeieueeeo i?iaeoeoia).

Iniiaiua ioee/ey a ?an/aoa cao?ao ia i?ia?aiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth io
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoeoia :

Aieueoay aeeiaie/iinoue e aieueoay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoa a
caaeaiiua n?iee, iniaaiii ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?ac?aaioee.

Ionoonoaoao neiaeeaoayny oaoiieiae/aneay aaca aeey nicaeaiey i?ia?aiiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ?aciiia?aceth i?eaiia e iaoiaeia ?ac?aaioee
i?e nicaeaiee noiaeae i?iaeoeoeee ?acee/iuie ?ac?aaio/eeaie.

?aciiia?acea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Iaoiaeu ii?ie?iaaiey cao?ao ia i?ia?aiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ioee/athony io
cao?ao, neiaeeaoeony a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo io?aneyo. Iaoiae – aiaeec
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i oaeoe/anee caaa?oaiiuo ?ac?aaioeao, auyaeaiea
oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo ?aciiia?acea cao?ao, eeanneoeeaoeey yoeo
oaeoi?ia e i?aaeinoaaeaiea iieueciaaoaeth ii?iaoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia,
aiciiaeiinoe auai?a iaeaieaa aeeceiai aio aiaeiaa e ei??aeoe?iaee
cao?ao, eioi?ua i?iecioee i?e ?ac?aaioea aiaeiaa n iiiiuueth iaai?a
eiyooeoeeaioia, o/eouaathueo oaeoi?u ?aciiia?acey.

Iniaaiii yoi nouanoaaiii aeey cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea.

Noaaeee AEOeIE Noieiinoiua cao?aou, % A?aiaiiua cao?aou

?ac?aaioea o?aaiaaiee 10 6

I?iaeoe?iaaiea 10 5

I?ia?aiie?iaaiea 10 7

Ioeaaeea 20 15

Yenieoaoaoeey e nii?iaiaeaeaiea 50 67

N = N?+Ny+Nn ; N? – ?ac?aaioea, Ny – yenieoaoaoeey, Nn –
nii?iaiaeaeaiea.

N? = N1?+N2?+N3?+N4?+N5?+N6?, aaea

N1? – cao?aou o?oaea ia nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa;

N2? – cao?aou ia ecaioiaeaiea yoaeiiiiai yecaiiey?a;

N3? – cao?aou ia oaoiieiaeth (cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea IN,
eniieueciaaiiuo i?e ?ac?aaioea IE, eino?oiaioa?ee IN);

N4? – cao?aou ia AO, eniieueciaaiioth i?e ?ac?aaioea;

N5? – cao?aou ia iaania/aiea aeieaeiie eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?niiaea
?ac?aaioee;

N6? – ?acee/iiai ?iaea cao?aou iaeeaaeiua, einaaiiua, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
?ac?aaioee.

Iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho cao?aou ia o?oae, ia oaoiieiaeth e ia oaoieeo
(niaeanii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui).

Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeiaeeoue iaoiaeeeo aeey ?an/aoa N1?, N3? e N4?, oae eae
aaee/eia N2? e N5? a %–ii au?aaeaiee n?aaieoaeueii onoie/eaa e iinea
ii?aaeaeaiey noiiu N1?+N3?+N4? iiaeao auoue iieo/aia n eniieueciaaieai
eiyooeoeeaioa. N2? ( 0,05, N5? ( 0,07. N1? caaeneo io iauaia ?ac?aaioee.

, aaea ? – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eea, Ni –
i?iecaaaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioia, eioi?ua io?aaeatho eciaiaiea o?oaeiaieinoe
?ac?aaioee, a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee a eioi?uo iia
i?iaiaeeony.

Ia?a/aiue eiyooeoeeaioia Ni iiaeao auoue i/aiue ?aciiia?acai
i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiui ?ac?aaioeai. Aeey eaaeaeie ?ac?aaioee aaoi?o
?an/aoia N1? iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue naie ia?a/aiue eiyooeoeeaioia,
anee ioaeii eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua enoi/ieee.

Ia?a/aiue ia?aii/a?aaeiuo Ni :

Neiaeiinoue eiiieaena i?ia?aii (N1) i?iaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey i?ia?aii
ii a?oiiai neiaeiinoe (3–4 a?oiiu) e ii?aaeaeythony i?eciaee,
iicaieythuea ioianoe ?aciaaioeo e eiie?aoiie a?oiia neiaeiinoe. N1 – 1(4
(oaaee/aiea cao?ao o?oaea a ianeieueei ?ac, ii n?aaiaieth n i?inoaeoae).

Iaaeaaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (caueoa io ioeaie, aiciiaeiinoue
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiio?iey, iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe e ainnoaiiaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee, iaania/aiea ia?aie/aiey aeinooia). N2 ( 1–5.

Ia?aie/aiey ?aaeecothuae YAI (aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ianeieueei ian naea?aeeaaao oa YAI, eioi?ay aoaeao
naycaia n yenieoaoaoeeae). N3 – 1(1,2–3.

Anee a ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?aaioee caaeaenoaiaaii auei aei 50% iiuiinoe
?aaeecothuae YAI, oi aeeyiea yoiai oaeoi?a ia o/eouaaaony. Anee aea iu
i?aainoiaeei yoo aaee/eio, oi iiyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa yoiai
oaeoi?a. Anee iaoa aaee/eia ninoaaeyao aieaa 70%, oi aic?anoaao ia
ianeieueei aeanyoeia i?ioeaioia.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey eiiiiiaio nicaeaaaaiiai II aeey ae?oaeo
?ac?aaioie, oi anoue aaaeaony ?ac?aaioea oeiiaiai II. N4 – 1(1,1–1,4
(10–20%)

Eniieueciaaiea oeiiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee (OI?) e III i?e ?ac?aaioea IE.
N5 – 1(0,7–0,3 (0,3 – i?aaeaeueiia ?aoaiea)

Eniieueciaaiea ia?aaeiauo iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaioee. N6 –
1(0,8–0,5. (Noo?oeoo?iia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea, eniieueciaaiea
oi?iaeeciaaiiuo iaoiaeia i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee ?ano?nia, ienoiaeyuaa
i?iaeoe?iaaiea).

O?iaaiue aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ac?aaioee (eniieueciaaiea aeinoaoi/ii
nia?aiaiiuo eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa, iai?eia? nenoai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, i?iaeaiii–i?eaioe?iaaiiuo nenoai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey,
aaia?aoi?u i?ia?aii, eniieueciaaiea oaea/iiai oaenoiaiai ?aaeaeoi?a aeey
iiaeaioiaee oaenoia e aeieoiaioaoeee, n?aaenoaa aaoiiaoecaoeee aeey
ioeaaeee i?ia?aii). N7 – 1(0,5–0,25.

Ioiineoaeueiia auno?iaeaenoaea iaoei. N8 – 1(0,7–0,5, aiciiaeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia YAI.

Ioiineoaeueiia /enei aeinooiia e iaoeia (/enei aeenieaaa). N9 –
1(0,7–0,5.

Oaiaoe/aneay eaaeeoeeaoeey ?ac?aaio/eea. N10 – 1(0,8–0,4

Oaoiieiae/aneay eaaeeoeeaoeey ?ac?aaio/eea (iiuo eniieueciaaiey
oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony a aeaiiie
?ac?aaioea, iai?eia?: ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, III, IN). N11 – 1(0,8–0,6.

Eaaeeoeeaoeey caeac/eea (iiuo caeac/eea a oi?ioee?iaaiee oaoie/aneiai
caaeaiey ia aiaeiae/iua i?ia?aiiiiu i?iaeoeou e iiuo a yenieoaoaoeee).
N12 – 1(1,5 aieioue aei 5.

1 – I?aaei?iaeoiay noaaeey;

2 – I?iaeoe?iaaiea;

3 – Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea;

4 – I?ia?aiie?iaaiea;

5 – Aaoiiiiiay ioeaaeea;

6 – Eiieaeniay ioeaaeea;

7 – Auione aeieoiaioaoeee, iiaeaioiaea iineoaeae;

8 – Eniuoaiey.

A ii?aaeaeaiee eiie?aoiie aaee/eiu N1? eniieuecotho iiaeoiae “io
aiaeiaa”. Euoony aeeceea e iaoei, ii oaea caaa?oaiiua ?ac?aaioee.

Eieae:

OIA (oe?oiiaiiua ii?iu a?aiaie) – iicaieytho iiaeia?aoue aiaeia enoiaey
ec iniaaiiinoae oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia
iauaeoa.

OIA (oeiiaua ii?iu a?aiaie) – iicaieytho iiaeia?aoue aiaeia enoiaey ec
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ?aoaaiie caaea/e.

OIA – aace?othony ia iiaeai?a aiaeiaa, enoiaey ec oaoiieiaee ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee. Ii eaaeaeie oeiiaie i?ioeaaeo?a (aaiae, aaia?aoeey io/aoia,
iiene a AAe). Aeey i?iaiice?oaiiai iauaia ?ac?aaioee i?aaeeaaathony
aaciaua o?oaeiaieinoe. A aeaeueiaeoai aaciaua o?oaeiaieinoe
ei??aeoe?oaony enoiaey ec oaoiieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua naycaiu n
oneiaeyie ?aaeueiiai iauaeoa.

O/eouaathony neaaeothuea oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea o?oaeiaieinoue:

Iauai ?ac?aaioee (eiee/anoai iia?aoi?ia);

Neiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioee;

Noaiaiue iiaeciu;

Noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey oeiiauo i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee, noiaea?oiuo iiaeoeae
e o.ae. i?e ?ac?aaioea;

Yoaiu ii?aaeaeaiey o?oaeiaieinoe:

Ii?aaeaeyaony oei i?ioeaaeo?u;

Ii eaoaeiao aiaeiaia ii?aaeaeyaony neieueei iio?aaiaaea ?aaeecaoeey yoie
oeiiaie i?ioeaaeo?u a oanoiauo oneiaeyo (eiee/anoai no?ie enoiaeiiai
oaenoa):

Ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiue neiaeiinoe ?ac?aaioee;

3–4 a?oiiu neiaeiinoe, ii eaaeaeie ec a?oii neiaeiinoe caaeaiu
oa?aeoa?enoeee, eioi?ua iicaieytho ioianoe ?ac?aaioeo e oie eee eiie
a?oiia :

1 a?oiia : (aunoay) eioaeeaeo e ycueiaie eioa?oaen, ?aaioa a ?aaeeia
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie (i?ioeann ia?aaioee niiinoaaei ii a?aiaie n
o?aaiaaieyie), ?aaeei ?aaiou oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiue, iaoeiiay a?aoeea
(?ac?aaioea yeaiaioia), ?aaeecaoeey eiiieaena ?ac?aaioie.

2 a?oiia : iioeiecaoeeiiiua ?an/aou, i?eiaiaiea neiaeiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia, iano?ieea ia eciaiythueany aiaoiea oneiaey, i?aaeoniio?aiea
ia?aiineiinoe nicaeaaaaiiai i?iaeoeoa.

3 a?oiia : (ia ano?a/aaony ie/aai ec auoaia?a/eneaiiiai).

Ii a?oiia neiaeiinoe ec oaaeeoe ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeiaieinoue:

V A?oiia neiaeiinoe

oun. one. aae. 1 2 3

1

229

2

244

10 3905 2425 445

20 4700 2858 812

100 15598 8700 5800

200 35000 20000 15000

500 110000 65000 54000

Iinea iieo/aiey aaciaiai cia/aiey iaiaoiaeeii ioei??aeoe?iaaoue yoi
cia/aiea n o/aoii anao aiciiaeiuo eiyooeoeeaioia, o/eouaathueo aeyiea
oaeoi?ia naycaiiuo n i?ia?anneaiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie ?ac?aaioeaie
(N6(N9)

Ii noaiaie iiaeciu eeanneoeeaoeey ii o?ai a?oiiai.

Ei – eiyooeoeeaio iiaeciu.

A – i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua ?ac?aaioee.

A – ?acaeoea ia?aiao?e/aneiai ?yaea IN (a ecaanoiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe
eniieueciaaeanue eeai iiaay oaoieea, eeai iiaua i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa).

A – Eniieueciaaiea ciaeiiuo n?aaenoa ?ac?aaioee a ecaanoiie i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe.

A A A

Ei 1(1,75 1(0,8 0,7

Eniieueciaaiea oeiiauo yeaiaioia a ?ac?aaioea.

Eo – eiyooeoeeaio oeiiainoe.

Eo Noaiaiue i?eiaiaiey oeiiauo i?aeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee

0,6 >60%

0,7 40–60%

0,8 20–40%

0,9 <20%1,0 ia eniieueciaaeenueEiyooeoeaio neiaeiinoe.O? – ei??aeoe?oaony O? n o/aoii anao eiyooeoeeaioia neiaeiinoe.Ene1. Naycue n ae?oaeie i?ia?aiiiuie ecaeaeyie 0,082. Eioa?aeoeaiue ?aaeei 0,063. Aaaeaiea neiaeiie no?oeoo?u aeaiiuo 0,074. Iaee/ea ianeieueeeo oa?aeoa?enoee neiaeiinoe :– aeaoo 0,12– o?ao 0,18– aieaa o?ao 0,26?acianaiea o?oaeiaieinoe ii ioaeaeueiui yoaiai ?ac?aaioee:Eniieuecothony eiyooeoeeaiou Oy=Oi EyOaaeeoea: i?eaioe?iai/iua eiyooeoeeaiou oaeaeueiiai aana io yoaiia ai anae ?ac?aaioea., aaea O – o?oaeiaieinoue, N – eiee/anoai eniieieoaeae, a O – oiiae a?aiaie i?eoiaeyueeny ia eniieieoaey ca o/aoiue ia?eiae (aiae, ianyoe).Iaoiaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu oeia OIA o?aaotho a ea/anoaa enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo (eniieueciaaiea) ciaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, /oi ia anaaaea auaaao ecaanoii ia ?aiieo yoaiao nicaeaiey IE. I?e ninoaaeaiee oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey ecaanoiu eeoue caaea/e, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?aoaoueny n iiiiuueth nicaeaaaaiiai IE e ia?a/aiue oi?i aoiaeiie e auoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay naycaia n ?aoaaiie caaea/ae. A oaeii neo/aa i?eiaiaiea OIA cao?oaeieoaeueii. Eiie iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iaoiaeee ii?aaeaeaiey caoa?ao naycai n ia?a/iai ?aoaaiuo caaea/ (iiaeoiae “io caaea/e”): OIA – oeiiaua ii?iu a?aiaie.Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o?oaeiaieinoe naycaiiuo n oeiiaie eeanne/aneie eeanneoeeaoeeae caaea/, ?aoaaiuo ia yeiiiieei–i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iauaeoao. Nai?ii noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee iieo/atho naaaeaiey, iicaieythuea ii?aaeaeeoue o?oaeiaieinoue a caaeneiinoe io iauaia.OIA ninoieo ec oaaeeoe, iai?eia? :Auo\Ao Eiee/anoai oi?i1 2 3 … 42Eie–ai 1 17 22 … … 72oi?i 2 … OI iiaenenoaiu AO …… ……20 91 … … … 385Iinea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aaciaiai cia/aiey O? i?iecaiaeeony aai ei??aeoe?iaea n iiiiuueth eiyooeoeeaioia, o/eouaathueo aeeyiea oaeoi?ia, ioee/athueo eiie?aoioth ?ac?aaioeo io oeiiaie (noaiaiue iiaeciu, neiaeiinoue aeai?eoia, ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e o.ae.)Cao?aou ia oaoiieiaeth e IN aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ac?aaioee: Nc?.Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ?ac?aaioee ii?aaeaeyaiua a i?ioeanna oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee ?ac?aaioee : Nc?=Nc?1+Nc?2+Nc?3.Cao?aou ia oaoiieiaeth naycaiu:Cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa (i?aeneo?aioiay oeaia i?eia?aoaaiiai n?aaenoaa) – Nc?1;Cao?aou ia inaiaiea e aiaae?aiea i?eiyoie oaoiieiaee iiaeaioiaee (cao?aou o?oaea ia inaiaiea – CI, cao?aou ia iaoeiiia a?aiy, naycaiiia n iniaiaieai, cao?aou ia iao/aiea ia?niiaea) – Nc?2;Cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoeeth oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa (cao?aou ia nii?iaiaeaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai n?aaenoaa ia oio ia?eiae a?aiaie, ia eioi?ue i?eoiaeeony ?ac?aaioea) – Nc?3.*aua anaai i?eia?aoaiiua eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa eniieuecothony a ianeieueeeo ?ac?aaioeao, oiaaea Nc?1 ?acianaia ia ana ?ac?aaioee, a eioi?uo eniieuecoaony aeaiiia eino?oiaioaeueiia n?aaenoai. Ia eiie?aoioth ?ac?aaioeo nienuaaaony eeoue /anoue cao?ao, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony aii?oecaoeeiiiui ia?eiaeii eino?oiaioaeueiiai n?aaenoaa = i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?ac?aaioee. Anee a yoio aii?oecaoeeiiiue ia?eiae i?iaiaeeony ianeieueei ?ac?aaioie n i?eiaiaieai yoiai eino?oiaioaeueiiai n?aaenoaa, oi cao?aou aii?oecaoeeiiiai ia?eiaea ?ani?aaeaeythony ii anai ?ac?aaioeai, i?iii?oeeiiaeueii cao?aoai iaoeiiiai a?aiaie.Cao?aou ia oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa (N4?)Eae i?aaeei oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa i?eiaiyaiua aeey ?ac?aaioee (AO) ia naycaiu n iaeiie eiie?aoiie ?ac?aaioeie e ii ioiioaieth e iei iiaoo i?eiaiyoue ana oaaea i?aaeea ?acianaiey cao?ao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aii?oecaoeeiiiiio ia?eiaeo, oiaaea cao?aou ia oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa naiaeyony e cao?aoai ia iaoeiiiai a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioeo.Ii?aaeaeaiea cao?ao iaoeiiiai a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioeo naycaii n oaoiieiae/aneie YAI, oi anoue n oie iaoeiie, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony aeey ?ac?aaioee. Iiieii oaoiie. YAI a AEOeIE iiyaeyaony ?aaeecothuay YAI, ii eoi?ie aaaeaony yenieoaoaoeey e cao?aou ia yoo iaoeio ia naycaiu n ?ac?aaioeie. Iiaeaee?othuay YAI a neo/aa, eiaaea aaeeee ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oaoiieiae/aneie e ?aaeecothuae YAI. A iniiaiii iaoeiiia a?aiy cao?a/eaaaony ia:Oi?ie?iaaiea i?ia?aiiiiai oaenoa;Oi?ie?iaaiea i?ia?aiiiie aeieoiaioaoeee;Ioeaaeeo e eniuoaiey;Oaoiieiae/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo.Iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeaa iiaeoiaea a ii?aaeaeaiee cao?ao ia iaoeiiia a?aiy.Enoiaey ec cao?ao o?oaea (N1c–>N4?). I?e ii?aaeaeaiee cao?ao iaoeiiiai
a?aiaie enoiaeyo ec ii?iaoeaiie aeey aeaiiiai iauaeoa aaea/eiu
iaania/aiey iaeiiai ?a?aaio/eea iaoeiiui a?aiaiai 2(6 /ania a nooee ia
iaeiiai ?aaioieea (a n?aaeiai 4 /ana).

Ii?iaoeaiay aaee/eia, eae i?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeaaony cao?aoaie a?aiaie i?e
oeiiauo iaa?oceao ia ?ac?aaio/eea (yoai ???). Aeey inoaeueiuo ia?eiaeia
eniieuecothony caeiiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoeiiiai a?aiaie.

Iaoiaee/anee noiae n ii?aaeaeaieai aaee/eiu N1? (o.a. enoiaeeoue ec
aaee/eiu oeiiaiai aiaeiaa). Oiaaea iaeaieeaathony noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua
ii cao?aoai iaoeiiiai a?aiaie ai iiiaeanoaa auiieiaiiuo ?ac?aaioie,
iieo/aiiay noaoenoeea eeanneoeoee?oaony ii oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo aaeenue
eiie?aoiua ?ac?aaioee e oiaaea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aaee/eiu N4? aeey
iaeiiai /anoiiai neo/ay ?ac?aaio/ee auae?aao aiaeia, oo oeiiaoth
?ac?aaioeo, eioi?ay iaeaieaa aeecea e aai oneiaeyi, i?eieiaao a ea/noaa
aaciaiai n?aaeithth aaee/eio cao?ao e iioii ei??aeoe?oao yoo aaee/eio n
iiiiuueth anao aeinooiiuo eiyooeoeeaioia.

Oeiiaua neooaoeee eeanneoeoee?othony ii ooieoeeiiaeueii ?aoaaiui
caaea/ai. Ii eaaeaeie caaea/a oeacuaaaony eiee/anoai oi?i aoiaeiie e
auoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee.

Ao\Auo 1 … 42

1 6 … 51

… … … …

20 95 … 755

(I?eia? aeey caaea/ AO)

Aeaeaa yoa ii?ia ooi/iyaony a nayce n iiaeciie, neiaeiinoueth,
i?eiaiaieai ycueia i?ia?aiie?iaaiey (0,69(1,58).

N1?+N3?+N4?, N1c–>N?1–>N2? N5? N6?, N2?–>N?

Cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoeeth

N = N? + Ny +Nn

Ny = N1y + N2y +N3y, aaea

N1y – cao?aou ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii yenieoaoaoeeth IE;

N2y – iioa?e yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IE aneaaenoaea caaea?aeee e
iioa?ue eioi?iaoeee, iiaeeaaeauae ia?aaioea;

N3y – iioa?e yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IE, aicieeoea ec–ca naiy
eee ioeaie a ?aaioa i?ia?aiiu.

N2y, N3y – caaeneo io iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aaaouaaaiie IE. Anee oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue naycue iaaeaeo yooaeoii,
iieo/aiiui io ?aoaiey caaea/e a a oao neo/ayo eiaaea yoi ?aoaiea
i?ienoiaeeo aia?aiy e iaaeiiieo/aiey yooaeoa (a iiaeao auoue oo?aoii eee
yaii au?aaeaiiuie iioa?yie) i?e caaea?aeea ?aoaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiiia
a?aiy, oi ?aciinoue iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy aaee/eiaie iiaeao ninoaaeoue
noiio N2y e N3y.

N1y

Liti + Liti+CI+(CI)/Ec, aaea

Li – cao?aou iaoeiiiai a?aiaie (noieiinoue aaeeieoeu iaoeiiiai a?aiaie);

ti – a?aiy cao?a/aiiia ia ?aoaiea caaea/e;

ti – cao?aou iaoeiiiai a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
i?ia?aiii a ?aaioiniiniaiii ninoiyiee.

Iethn cao?aou ia ia?niiae naycaiiue n yenieoaoaoeeae IE e i?i/eie
?anoiaeaie, eioi?ua iiaeii n/eoaoue einaaiiuie ii ioiioaieth e CI.

Nn – cao?aou ii nii?iaiaeaeaieth.

Nn = N1n+N2n+N3n

N1n – cao?aou ia iaia?oaeaiea e eni?aaeaiea i?ia?aiiiuo ioeaie a
i?ioeanna nii?iaiaeaeaiey;

N2n – cao?aou ia aei?aaioeo e niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ia?aiiu
(iiaeeoeeaoeeth);

N3n – caoa?ou ia oe?aaee?iaaiea e aiaae?aiea iiauo aa?nee.

N1n=L1n*Ie*tc/n0, aaea

L1n – ii?ie?iaaiiay aaee/eia o?oaeiaieinoe eni?aaeaiey ioeaie;

Ie – iauai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiieaena;

tn – a?aiy nii?iaiaeaeaiey;

n0 – eiee/anoai ioeaie.

, aaea

L2n – eiyooeoeeaio o/eouaathuee iiauoaiea o?oaeiaieinoe ?aaio, naycaiiuo
n aianaieai eciaiaiee a i?ia?aiio (eciaiyaony io 1 aei 3);

N? – cao?aou ia ?ac?aaioeo;

Pi – aeiey i?ia?aiiiiai a eiieaena ia?a?aaioaiiiai i?e iiaeaioiaea iiaie
aa?nee.

N3n ecia?yaony a % io N2n.

Cao?aou ii AEOeIE ioaeiu, eiaaea:

Ioeaieaaaony yooaeoeaiinoue (ea/anoai) nicaeaaaaiiai IE;

Ii?aaeaeyaony oeaia.

Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa IE.

Ioeaiea iio?aaeoaey aeey auai?a IE;

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe IE.

Auaeaeytho aeaa aeaea iieacaoaeae :

iaiauaiiue;

/aniue.

(1) – oi?io n oi/ee c?aiey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia IE (a yenieoaoaoeee).

– i?iua a iieo/aiee e eiie?aoiii iacia/aiee ii iineieueeo iie ?aaioatho
a niaieoiiinoe, oi aiciiaeii iiyaeaiea i?ioeai?a/eauo ioeaiie ii
iiiaeanoao ??? iieacaoaeae.

Iaiauaiiua iiacaoaee.

Aeieaeiu eiaoue noieiinoiie oa?aeoa?.

Y = A – N

Y – yooaeo;

A – noiia?iay auaiaea, yeiiiiey io yenieoaoaoeee IE;

Aaee/eia yooaeoa aeey eiie?aoiiai IE /aua anaai auaaao naycaia n
yooaeoii yenieoaoaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu, /anoueth eioi?ie e
yaeyaony aeaiiia IE. A yoii neo/aa iaoiaee/anee ii?aaeaeaiea yooaeoa
aeieaeii auoue niaeaniaaii, niiinoaaeii n ii?aaeaeaieai yooaeoa io
yenieoaoaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu ia iauaeoa.

Aaea eiaeaen a – ioiineony e aaciaiio aa?eaioo, a i – e i?aaeeaaaaiiio.

N – oaeouea cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoeeth IE niiinoaaeaiey aa?eaioia.

E – aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou ia niiinoaaeaiea aa?eaioia.

?acee/atho aeaeu yooaeoa:

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue (ii?aaeaeaiiue aei ia/aea ?ac?aaioee eee ia
i?aaei?iaeoiie noaaeee);

iioaioeeaeueiue (?ann/eoaiiue ii caaa?oaiee ?ac?aaioee, naycai n
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiui i?eiaiaieai ia anao aiciiaeiuo iauaeoao,
aeiioneathueo aai eniieueciaaiea);

aa?aioe?iaaiiue (naycai n iaeiei eiie?aoiui iio?aaeoaeai);

oaeoe/aneee (?ann/eoaiiue ii ?acoeueoaoai yenieoaoaoeee IE ia eiie?aoiii
iauaeoa ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae).

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aaee/eiu yooaeoa i?iaiaeeony niiinoaaeaiea cao?ao ii
aa?eaioai ?aaeecaoeee II ia eiie?aoiii iauaeoa. Iiaeii a ii?aaeaeaiee
yooaeoa o/eouaaoue ia ana noaouee cao?ao, a oieueei oa, ii eioi?ui
niiinoaaeyaiua aa?eaiou nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony.

Anee ii eaeei–oi noaoueyi cao?ao aa?eaiou niiinoaaeiu (iacia/eoaeueii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa), oi iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii?aaeaeyoue
cia/aiey cao?ao ii yoei noaoueyi.

I?e auai?a aaciaiai aa?eaioa neaaeoao:

I?e ?ac?aaioea IE aeey eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa a ea/anoaa aaciaiai
i?eieiaaony oio aa?eaio ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, eioi?ue caiaiyaony
i?aaeeaaaaiui (iau/ii nouanoaothuee, aeaenoaothuee);

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aaee/eiu yooaeoa aeey oe?aaee?oaiiai IE, auioneaaiiai
ia ?uiea a ea/anoaa aaciaiai aa?eaioa i?eieiaaony eiieo?aioiue III,
iaeaaeathuee iaeeo/oeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, eae yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie, oae e
cao?aoiuie.

Iniiaiua cao?oaeiaiey a ii?aaeaeaiee /anoiuo iieacaoaeae naycaiu n oai,
/oi iie iinyo ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa? e aeieaeiu ioeaieaaoue ?acee/iua
naienoaa niiinoaaeyaiuo i?ia?aiiiuo ecaeaeee. A yoe naienoaa i?enoue ia
naiiio i?ia?aiiiiio ecaeaeeth, a naycaiu n iauaeoii i?eiaiaiey IE.

Oaeei ia?acii ea/anoai IE ioiineoaeueiia iiiyoea, eioi?ia eiaao niune
oieueei eeoa a nayce n ?aaeueiuie oneiaeyie i?eiaiaiey. Niaieoiiinoue
naienoa i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa, eio?ua iaoneaaeeaatho aiciiaeiinoue
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ii?aaeaeaiiua iio?aaiinoe iieueciaaoaey a niioaaonoaee n
iacia/aieai – ea/noai IE.

Aiciiaeia eeanneoeeaoee oa?aeoa?enoee ea/anoaa IE ii ?acee/iui
iai?aaeaieyi:

Ioeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe nicaeaaaaiiai ecaeaeey.

Caueoa io ioeaie a ?aaioa IE;

iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe IE nio?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee a neo/aa iioa?e
eaeie–eeai /anoe o?aieiuo aeaiiuo (iai?eia? o?aiaiea eiiee);

iaania/aiea caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia.

Iiaeeoeoee?oaiinoue IE (iiaea?iece?iaaiiinoue).

iaee/ea ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iicaieytho ?ac?aaaouaaoue iiaua aa?nee i?e
eciaiaiee oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee;

iiaeeueiinoue (ii?oaoeaiinoue, ia?aiineiinoue) – aiciiaeiinoue IE e
aaeaioaoeee i?e ia?aiina aai ia iiaue iauaeo;

ioiioaiea eciaiaiey iauaia i?e ia?aiina i?ia?aiiiiai oaenoa e iauaio
iauaio i?ia?aiiiiai oaenoa.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia.

Ea/anoai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey naaaeaiey ia ioeaeao :

iiiaeanoai niiniaia ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iio?aaeoaeth (aoiaaeiay
aeieoiaioaoeey, oaee oaenoiaue, iaee/ea ni?aai/iiai eioa?oaena,
aiciiaeiinoue eiioaenoiie iiaeneacee);

iao/athuea aa?nee i?ia?aii, eo i?aaenoaaeaiea;

iaee/ea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu iao/aiey;

iaee/ea eino?oeoeee a yenieoaoaoeeiiiie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aeinooiiinoue (eaaeinoue inaiaiey). O?aaiaaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeee
iieueciaaoaey.

Ei??aeoiinoue (noaiaiue aaeaeaaoiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiuo a III iaoiaeia
o?aaiaaieyi i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe).

Iaai? ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iieacaoaeae III (niiinoaaeaiea oaeoe/anee
iieo/aiiuo cia/aiee yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo iieacaoaeae n o?aaiaaieyie
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe).

Ii iaai?o iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa III aiciiaeii i?eiaiaiea yenia?oiuo
ioeaiie (aaeeu) e iieo/aiea noiia?iie ioeaiee (aaeeu), naycaiiie n
aaeiaui eiyooeoeeaioii, eioi?ue o/eouaaao cia/eiinoue eaaeaeie
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

I?eia?:

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iiiainoi?iiiinoue ia?aaioea ioeaie neiaeiinoue
iao/aiey neiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey iauay iieueciaaoaeueneay ioeaiea
iiuiinoue

dBase ( ( ( ( ( 7.0 6.7

Paradox ( ( ( ( ( 6.8 5.1

FoxPro ( ( ( ( ( 6.8 7.1

R:Base ( ( ( ( ( 5.8 3.6

Clarion ( ( ( ( ( 5.7 6.0

( – 7(10; ( – 5(6,9; ( – <5.Oa?aeoa?enoeee III:iiuiinoue iaeaoa ( n?aaieoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeaoo oa?aeoa?enoee: i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e iiiainoi?iiiinoe);iauay iio?aaeoaeueneay ioeaiea:((3*EAAEINA)+(6*oaeianoa.eni.)+(2*ia?.ioea.)+ioeaiea eniuo.)/12Oaia 4: Oeaiiia?aciaaiea i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Iauaeoii ?an/aoa oeai yaeythony:IE, ecaioiaeaiiua ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio caeaco (aeiaiai?o);IE, oe?aaee?oaiia e iinoaaeyaiia iio?aaeoaeth n iiiiuueth oi?aothueo iin?aaeieeia;I?iiuoeaiiua oneoae, ieacuaaaiua i?e aiaae?aiee IE.Iniiaie oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu yaeyaony:Ii?aaeaeaiea yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiuo cao?ao ia nicaeaiea IE. Iainiiaaiea cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo IE aiciiaeii n i?eaea/aieai ii?iaoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia (OIA, OIA) n iaycaoaeueiuie ooi/iaieyie n iiiiuueth o/aoa anao aeeyiey anao aeiiieieoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, i?eaeeaeaiiinoue iaoa?eaeia e enoi/ieeo e oneiaeyie eiie?aoiie ?ac?aaioee;Iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa IE a eo niiinoaaeaiee ia ?uiea i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.?acee/atho aeaa aeaea oeai: aeiaiai?iua e i?aeneo?aioiua, naycaiiua n iinoaaeie oe?aaee?oaiiai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa (i?aeiouanoaaiii /a?ac iin?aaeieea).Aeiaiai?iua (iioiaua) oeaiu - ii?aaeaeythony noi?iiaie, enoiaey ec aeiaiai?a (oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey, oneiaee aeiaiai?a), n o/aoii yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiuo cao?ao e niaeaniaaiiiai noi?iiaie ?acia?a i?eauee. Iaoa?eaeu, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai aeiaiai?iie oeaiu ioi?ieythony a aeaea eaeueeoeyoeee oeaiu, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeaiu eae ioaeaeueiua ninoaaeythuea cao?ao ii ?ac?aaioea.I?aaeeiaeaiea ii I iainiiauaaaony, enoiaey ec ?an/aoa o?iaiy i?eauee, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony a io?anee, naycaiiie n ?ac?aaioeie e i?eiaiaieai i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Caeac/ee enoiaeeo ec o?iaiy i?eauee, eioi?ue neiaeeeny a io?anee, aaea aoaeao i?eiaiyoueny IE (a naiae iaeanoe).Yoe aeaa o?iaiy iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue (eiioeeeo iaaeaeo ?ac?aaio/eeii e caeac/eeii).I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeiaiai?iie oeaiu ia i?ia?aiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, iinoaaeyaioth ianeieueeei caeac/eeai (eee a ianeieueeeo yecaiiey?ao) a oeaio yecaiiey?a iinoaaee aeeth/athony cao?aou ia ?ac?aaioeo ?acianaiiua ia iauaa eiee/anoai yecaiiey?ia iinoaaee.A neo/aa auiieiaiey iiauo caeacia ia yoo aea i?iaeoeoeeth ec nenoaiu ?ac?aaioee aeieaeiu eneeth/eoueny cao?aou, naycaiiue n nicaeaieai e ecaioiaeaieai ia?aie ia?oee, oi anoue cao?aou eiiiaine?othony i?aaeuaeoueie ia?oeyie.I?e oi?ie?iaaiee aeiaiai?iie oeaiu nia/aea ii?aaeaeytho i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth aeiaiai?ioth oeaio (IAeOe), eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony ec ninoaaeythueo:IAeOe = N + I + IN - naaanoieiinoue, I - i?eaueue, I - iaeiae.Iinea oiai eae iiaeaioiaeaii i?aaeeiaeaiea i IAeOe aiciiaeia e ei??aeoe?iaea:AeOe = IAeOe + IIII - i?aaeeiaeaiey ii i?eauee.Aiaeiae/ii ii?aaeaeythony oeaiu ia oneoae ii nii?iaiaeaeaieth i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee, n oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi oeaia ia oneoae iiaeao auoue naycaia ia n naiei oaeoi?ii i?iaaaeaiey ?aaio, a n ia?eiaeii a oa/aiea eioi?iai ieacuaathony yoe oneoae.eiee/anoai eioa?aaeia auieaou - 12 eee 4 (ianyoe eee eaa?oae).Anee cao?aou ca ia?eiae niae?athony ia ia eiie?aoiiai iio?aaeoaey oneoa, a ia anao iio?aaeoaeae, oi aeeth/atho a ciaiaiaoaeue eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae.I?aeneo?aioiua oeaiu (IOe).Ia i?aaeiieaaaaony niaeaniaaiea ?acia?a oeaiu iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e iio?aaeoaeai. Iie oeene?iaaiu a i?aeneo?aioao, iau/ii ia nii?iaiaeaeathony eaeueeoeyoeeyie (oi anoue ?an/ao eaeao ii i?eioeeio “i?aaeony eee iao”).IOe /anoi eniieuecothony i?e ?aaioa oiiaeia i?ia?aii, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaathony i?aaiecaoeeyie - iin?aaeieeaie. ?ac?aaio/eee e iinoaaueee ia iaeii e oi aea eeoei., aaeaNE - naaanoieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey;I - iaeiae;IE - i?eaueue ecaioiaeoaey;A naaanoieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey eiie?aoiiai yecaiiey?a iinoaaee aeeth/atho:cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea yoaeiiiiai yecaiiey?a, yoe cao?aou /aua ii?aaeaeytho OeAe;cao?aou ecaioiaeaiey yecaiiey?a iinoaaee (cao?aou ia oe?aaee?iaaiea, iaeioi?ua cao?aou ii einoaeeyoeee yecaiiey?a a oneiaeyo eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa);cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai.IE - i?eaueue ecaioiaeoaey caaeneo io eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea.Aeey oiai /oiau noeioee?iaaoue ?ac?aaio/eea ia nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iaeneiaeueii aieueoie oe?aae, a IOe iiaeii aeeth/eoue eiyooeoeeaio % aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.Ii ioiioaieth e IOe aiciiaeii i?eiaiaiea anao oao niia?aaeaiee, naycaiiuo n eiiiainaoeeae cao?ao.Oeaiu ia?aie nooiaie iau/ii naycaiu n eiiiainaoeeae cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea yoaeiiiiai ia?acoea;Oeaiu aoi?ie e iineaaeothueo nooiaiae eneeth/atho yoe cao?aou e i?aaeiieaaaaiua cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai.Oaia 6: Oi?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioeie i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.Oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony aeey iaania/aiey o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa ecaeaeey (a oaoie/aneii caaeaiee);Niaethaeaiea n?ieia ?ac?aaioee (OC);Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia ?ac?aaioee.Oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee ?aaio e yoaiia AEOeII:A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaaei aanue i?ioeann ?ac?aaioee ?acaeoue ia ioaeaeueiua yoaiu e ?aaiou. Aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia (?aaiou) oi?ie?oaony caaeaiea, eiathuaa ?aaeueiue, eiio?iee?oaiue ?acoeueoao.Inouanoaeyaony o/ao auiieiaiey yoaiia e ?aaio.Ia iniiaaiee eiio?iey i?eieiathony oi?aaeai/aneea aeaenoaey ii eeeaeaeaoeee ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia io caieaie?iaaiiuo.Iniaaiiinoe ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.E?oiiiianooaaiinoue ieaie?iaaiey. Ieaie?iaaiea aaaeaony ia o?iaia yoaiia e ?aaio.iiiaieeaoo?a ?aaio, auiieiyaiuo ai a?aiy nicaeaiey II, ai iiiaii caaeneo io o?aaiaaiee eiie?aoiie ?aaeecaoeee.Ieioay naaeaine?iaaiiinoue ieaiia ?aaio ii ?ano?nai. ionoonoaea aeinoiaa?iuo iaoiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia ii ?aaioai i?eaiaeeo e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia.Aeey oiai /oiau inouanoaeoue ea/anoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioeie inouanoaeyaony oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea ?ac?aaioee.Ii?aaeaeeoue ninoaa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey ?aaio.Ii?aaeaeeoue ninoaa e eaaeeoeeaoeeth eniieieoaeae ii auiieiaieth ?aaio.Ii?aaeaeeoue iai?oaeiaaiea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey auiieiaiey ?aaio.Iaoiaeu e eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa auiieiaiey ?aaio.Iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa eiio?iey ?acoeueoaoia ?aaio.Ii?ia ?anoiaea ?ano?nia ii ioaeaeueiui ?aaioai.Ninoaa aeaeeioaee i?iaeoa, oi anoue eaeeie aioo?aiieie aeieoiaioaie ioi?ieyaony oiae ?ac?aaioee, oeene?othuee i?iiaaeooi/iua ?acoeueoaou.Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny eae niaoeeaeueiie neoaeaie, yoi iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo a e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo-?ac?aaio/eeao, eeai oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iaiaeeony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa eee ioaaonoaaiiui eniieieoaeai a ?aieao ianeieueeeo a?eaaae.A ?acoeueoaoa oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee iieo/atho oaoiieiae/aneoth noaio ?ac?aaioee II, a eioi?ie i?aaenoaaeai ia?a/aiue ?aaio, a oie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie iie aeieaeiu auoue i?iaaaeaiu, e ii eaaeaeie ?aaioa oeacaiiu ana ?ano?nu e n?aaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aa auiieiaiey.A ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu a i?ia?aiiino?iaiee aunooiatho eeiaiaeiua ieaiu e iaai?u caaeaiee.Ionoonoaea aeinoiaa?iuo iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia iaeaa/athueo ii?aaeaeaiea ia?a/iy ?aaio, i?iaiaeeiuo ia iicaeieo yoaiao nicaeaiey II, oiaaea, eiaaea aai ?ac?aaioea oieueei ia/eiaaony, i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea io yoaia e yoaio ia?a/aiue ?aaio i?eoiaeeony ia?aniao?eaaoue. Ionthaea e oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea iiaeao auoue ?ann?aaeioi/aia ai a?aiaie. Aeey oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee iaiaoiaeeii:Oaoie/aneia caaeaiea (OC);Ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey (noaiaea?ou, iaoiaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu);A?oea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ii i?aaeuaeouei ?ac?aaioeai;Iaai? eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa (nenoai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, aeieoiaioaoeee).?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee eniieuecothony aeey oiai /oiau noi?ioee?iaaoue caaeaiea ?ac?aaio/eeai.I?iecaiaeeony aeeniao/a?neia ianeoaeeaaiea ?ac?aaioee (eiio?iey oiaea auiieiaiey caaeaiey);A neo/aa iieo/aiey ?acoeueoaoia ia ioeeiiaiee i?eieiathony ?aoaiey ii ei??aeoe?iaea i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee;Iicaieytho ia?aueaaoue a?oea ?ac?aaioee e eniieuecothony a aeaeueiaeoai.I?aaiecaoeey eieeaeoeaa ?ac?aaio/eeia.I?aiaeaaeathuei iaoiaeii i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey a?eaaae. Iaoiae i?aaeiaoiuo naycae eniieuecoaony ?aaea, oiaaea eiaaea aaaeaony ?ac?aaioea ia oe?aaee?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa neeaie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay aoaeaoe aanoe aai yenieoaoaoeeth.N oi/ee c?aiey aaeieieno?aoeaiie, a?eaaaea - no?oeoo?iay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aaeeieoea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ia?aciaaia a ?aieao nouanoaothuaai no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey aeey auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaiou, eiathuae eiie?aoiue ?acoeueoao.I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou a?eaaaeu iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaaii /anoe/iia oaoie/aneia caaeaiea.Nouanoaotho aeaa aa?eaioa a?eaaae:i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue IE ii?aaeaeyaony a oa?ieiao i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, oi anoue caaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony niaie ?acoeueoao ?aaiou ioiinyueeny e i?ia?aiie?iaaieth;i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue IE ii?aaeaeyaony a oa?ieiao oiai ycuea, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe (ooieoeeiiaeueii e iaoaiaoe/anei i?eaioe?iaaiiua III);A ia?aii neo/aa i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue eiaao aeae oi?ioi ciaeiiue e iiiyoiue i?ia?aiienoo e ?aaioa i?aaeiieaaaao oaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea iiaeao auiieieoue i?ia?aiieno. A?eaaaea iiaeao auoue noi?ie?iaaia ec niaoeeaeenoia iaeiiai i?ioeey (a iniiaiii i?ia?aiienou).Ai aoi?ii neo/aa ?aaiou ii oaoie/aneiio i?iaeoe?iaaieth iiaoo auoue auiieiaiu niaoeeaeenoii a i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. I?eiyoia ei i?iaeoiia ?aoaiea, aieioue aei oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoa a aeaeueiaeoai aeiaiaeeony aei iaoeiiie ?aaeecaoeee niaoeeaeenoii-i?ia?aiienoii. ia?aeeaeueii yenieoaoe?oaony aeieoiaioaoeey, ii aiciiaeiinoe, aeieaeia ?ac?aaaouaaoueny niaoeeaeenoii ec i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. A i?ioeanna aiaae?aiey, i?iaa?ea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe III oiaea i?iaiaeeony niaoeeaeenoii ec i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.I?e ?ac?aaioeao aoi?iai aeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiea niaoeeaeenoia ii a?eaaaeai iiaeao auoue:Oi?ie?iaaiea a?eaaaeu.…?ac?aaaouaathony 2-3 i?ia?aiiiuo ecaeaeey iaeiie a?eaaaeie, ia?aeeaeueii, ii n iaeioi?ui naeaeaii ii a?aiaie.IOC OI ?I AIIIOC OI ?IIIIOC OIOi?ie?iaaiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo a?eaaae (ec niaoeeaeenoia iaeiiai i?ioeey). ?acoeueoao ?aaiou ioaeaeueiie a?eaaaeu ia anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiia/iue ?acoeueoao ?ac?aaioee.Neiaeiaa aanoe oi?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioeie, o?aaoaony no?iaay oi?iaeecaoeey ?aaio eaaeaeie a?eaaaeu. Ia iicaeieo yoaiao ?ac?aaioee ?acoeueoaou iiaoo ioeeiiyoueny io OC.Anee ec-ca neiaeiinoe e ianooaaiinoe ?ac?aaioee o?aaoaony aieueoia /enei eniieieoaeae e i?aaiecaoeey ianeieueeeo a?eaaae, oi ?aeiiaiaeoaony:?anniio?aoue aii?in i niaoeeaeecaoeee a?eaaae ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo;AEaeaoaeueii aiaae?eoue aaaeouoth, aeaaioth a?eaaaeo. Yoa a?eaaaea auiieiyao iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia caaeaiea e eae iiaeii aieueoa o/anoaoao a aeeciaiiii oeeeea. A?eaaaea aeathony ae?oaea a?eaaaeu nieniieieoaee (eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ni naiei OC).I?ioanneiiaeueiue ninoaa eniieieoaeae.Oaeiaii oaycaoue n yoaiaie ?ac?aaioee (noaaeeyie):OC - oi?ie?oaony 1 a?eaaaea (ia i?aaei?iaeoiie noaaeee). ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?ac?aaioee, aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo iinoaiiaueeia-aiaeeoeeia.I?e ia?aoiaea ia neaaeothuea yoaiu, /eaiu a?eaaaeu, i?iaiaeyuea i?aaei?iaeoiua enneaaeiaaiey, /aua anaai noaiiayony ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie eieeaeoeaa ?ac?aaio/eeia.OI (oaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea) - aaaeouea iinoaiiaueee n eo iiae/eiaiiuie nieniieieoaeyie iinoaiiaueeaie. Aaaeouee iinoaiiauee auaeaeyaony ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo. Eaaeaeiio aaaeouaio iinoaiiaueeo e aai eieeaeoeao iieacii i?eaeaoue eiinoeueoaioa-i?ia?aiienoa.?I (?aai/aa i?iaeoe?iaaiea) - oi?ie?oaony eieeaeoeau i?ia?aiienoia ai aeaaa n aaaeouei (i?ia?aiienoii-eiinoeueoaioii) a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinoaiiaueee noaiiayony eiinoeueoaioaie. … e niaoeeaeenou ii aeieoiaioe?iaaieth.AI (aiaae?aiea) - aaaeouei noaiiaeony iinoaiiauee, aeaeaoaeueii aeeth/eoue a ninoaa eniieieoaeae i?aaenoaaeoaeae io caeac/eea.Iieacii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei eeoe, noiyueo aia a?eaaae:?oeiaiaeeoaeue : ia aeeth/aaony a ninoaa ieeaeeo a?eaaae :“+” ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iauaeoeaai ei anai a?eaaaeai e n oi/ee c?aiey naieo eniieieoaeae;“-“ ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oa?yao oaoiieiae/aneoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth e noaiiaeony aaeieieno?aoi?ii.nenoaiiue i?ia?aiieno - eiinoeueoaoeeiiiay ?aaioa, ii a oi aea a?aiy ?aaioie ii ia oae caa?oaeai, /oiau aoiaeeoue a ninoaa a?eaaaeu. Niaoeeaeeno oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ni ciaieai eino?oiaioa?ey.eeoei, eioi?ia aaaeao ?aaioo n caeac/eeaie, ?aaioa ia ?uiea ii iiaeai?o caeac/eeia.*eneaiiue ninoaa ?ac?aaio/eeia:O - o?oaeiaieinoue, t - n?ie ?ac?aaioee.Anee ?an/aoiay aaee/eia O cia/eoaeueii ioeeiiyaony io oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey, oi iiaeii aa?iooueny e ia?aniio?o /eneaiiinoe eee iiaeia?aoue iauai ?aaio iiae n?ie e iiae /eneaiiinoue.T-tN, cia/eo iu ia?aniao?eaaai oaoie/aneia caaeaiea.Iiiooii ?aoaaony aii?in i oeiaine?iaaiee ?ac?aaioee. Noiia cao?ao a caaeaiee ia ?ac?aaioeo (S) auaiaeeony ec /eneaiiinoe (N), i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aaiou (t) noiiu oiiaea CI ia iaeiiai ?ac?aaio/eea (F). E - aeiey CI e cao?ao ia o?oae a iaueo cao?aoao ia ?ac?aaioeo:Iineaaeiyy ae?iaue a neiaeao - au?aaioea iaeiiai ?ac?aaio/eea.Aeey e?oiiuo oe?i niaoeeaeece?othueony ia ?ac?aaioea E(0,3(0,4;Iaeua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu a aeaea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee (20-30 /ae.) E(0,5(0,7;Ai a?aiaiiuo eieeaeoeaao E>0,8 aeeaea e 1.

Iiieii niaoeeaeecaoeee eniieieoaeae ii iniiaiui ?aaioai, naycaiiui n
nicaeaieai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa (iinoaiiaueee e i?ia?aiienou) iiaeii
niaoeeaeece?iaaoue eniieieoaeae ii iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui , oeie/iui
?aaioai, naycaiiui n nicaeaieai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Oaeea
eniieieoaee eae iiaoo aoiaeeoue a ninoaa a?eaaae neoaea ?ac?aaioee, oae
iiaoo auoue i?aaieciaaiiu a nianoaaiiua eieeaeoeau (niaoeeaeueiay
a?eaaaea).

a) niaoeeaeenou ?ac?aaioee (neoaeau ?ac?aaioee);

a) niaoeeaeenou ii ianeoaeeaaieth (a oii /enea iao.-oaoi. ianeoaeeaaiea
?ac?aaioee, eioi?iaoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea: iieo/aiea naaaeaiee i ae?oaeo
?ac?aaioeao e eino?oiaioao, iaoiaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu, iaoaioiay ?aaioa:
ianeoaeeaaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa);

a) niaoeeaeenou ii eniuoaieth ecaeaeee. Niioaaonoaea ?acoeueoaoia
?ac?aaioee OC. (Naie ?aaiou ii eniuoaieyi o?aaotho ae?oaeo iaaueia);

?aaiou ii eniuoaieth iiaoo ia?aoiaeeoue a ?aaiou ii na?oeoeeaoeee
(enneaaeiaaiea /oaeiai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa n oeaeueth i?aaeinoaaeaiey
na?oeoeeaoa). Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii au?aaioaoue noaiaea?ou e
auionoeoue aeieoiaio n o?aaiaaieyie noaiaea?oa.

a) ?aaiou ii iiaeaioiaea e auioneo aeieoiaioaoeee. Aeieoiaioaoeey a
aieueoae noaiaie iiaeaeaaony noaiaea?oecaoeee, /ai ?aaiou ii
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth. AEaeaoaeueia ?ac?aaioea noaiaea?oia a ?aieao io?anee

ae) Niaoeeaeenou ii iiaeaea?aeea IE. Eco/aiea o?aaiaaiee iio?aaeoaeae,
?aeeaia, eiinoeueoaoeee, iao/aiea, onoaiiaea IE o iieueciaaoaeae.

a) Niaoeeaeenou ii nii?iaiaeaeaieth. Iieo/aao naaaeaiey ia ioeaeao,
iiaeaeaieyo, eni?aaeyao ioeaea eee aaaeao aei?aaioeo IE.

ae) Niaoeeaeenou oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeey.

A e?oiiuo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo niioiioaiea iauaiia ?aaio
?ac?aaioee, eniuoaiee, aeieoiaioe?iaaiey (a /ae.):

10 – 3 – 2

Ai a?aiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo:

10 – 5 – 3

Aeey eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaiou naycaiiie n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?acee/iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee auioneathueo II e niioonoaothuea iaoa?eaeu o?aaothony
?aaiou ii oi?aaeaieth oaeiai ?iaea i?aaiecaoeeyie. Iaiaoiaeeia
eii?aeeiaoeey ieaiia :

Oeaeaaua i?ia?aiiu, iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi e ?ieue i?aaiecaoeee ia
?uiea II; naycuaatho n i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoueth, n II ii?aaeaeaiiie
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie a?oiiu. I?eaioaoeey ia ii?aaeaeaiiue eeann
eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

No?aoaae/aneea ieaiu. Ii?aaeaeytho eaeie i?iaeoeo a eaeia a?aiy aeieaeai
auoue auiouai a naao aeey oiai, /oiau auiieieoue (1).

Oaeouea ieaiu (oaeoe/aneea). Eae, eoi, eiaaea, n iiiiuueth eaeeo
n?aaenoa ?aaeecoao ia?niaeoeaiua ieaiu, yoaiu e eiiieaeniua ?aaiou.

Eaeaiaea?iua ieaiu, aaea eiiieaenu ?aaio iiaoo ?acaeaaoueny ia ?aaiou
/anoiiai oa?aeoa?a e ii iei i?aaeeaaathony eiie?aoiua eniieieoaee.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ieai (caaeaiey) aeey eiie?aoiiai eniieieoaey
oeacuaatho oa ?aaiou eioi?ua ii aeieaeai auiieieoue e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
iiiaioo, iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue oi?io iieo/aaiiai aeieoiaioa
(?acoeueoaoa) e iaoiae.

Niaoeeaeenou naycaiiua n oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth:

Ii?aaeaeytho iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoeoia;

Acaeiinaycue ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae a ?aaioa oaiaoe/aneeo e
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee (inouanoaeaiea eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaio yoeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee);

Ii?aaeaeaiea oaeeo cia/aiee ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae a ?aaioa oaiaoe/aneeo
neoaea, eioi?ua noeioee?iaaee au ia ?aaiou, ia aoiaey a i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
n eioa?anaie i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii;

Ioeaiea iio?aaiinoe a ?ano?nao aeey auiieiaiey ?aaio e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
eiathueony ?ano?nia ii eniieieoaeyi;

Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii auiieiaiey ?aaio (ia oieueei eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa)
ii e oaeouee eiio?ieue ii i?iiaaeooi/iui aeaenoaeyi e ia?aiao?ai,
i?aaeainoeoeoue aiciiaeiua ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa io
o?aaoaiiai;

Au?aaioea aeaenoaee oi?aaeaiey, naycaiiuo n eeeaeaeaoeeae ioeeiiaiey
oaeoe/aneiai ninoiyiey io ieaiiaiai.

Yoe ?aaiou iiaoo auiieiyony a aeaoo ?ac?acao:

oaiaoe/aneee;

i?aaiecaoeeiiii-a?aiaiiie.

A (1) ana ieaiu naycaiu n eiie?aoiui IE. Oeacuaathony ana eniieieoaee,
?ano?nu iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?ac?aaioee yoiai eiie?aoiiai ecaeaeey
(ai?eciioaeueiue ?ac?ac iao?eoeu ((*) ni. auoa).

OAIA … III …

EIOI?IAOeEss II OAIA (?oeiaiaeeoaeue, n?iee, ?ano?nu …)

Yoai (?aaioa) N?ie auiieiaiey Eniieieoaeue (neoaeaa) Cao?aou ?ano?nia 1
Cao?aou ?ano?nia 2 Oi?ia ?acoeueoaoa

ia/aei eiiaoe

Ai (2) neo/aa ana naaaeaiey i?eaiaeyony ii ioaeaeueiiio eniieieoaeth
(aa?oeeaeueiue ?ac?ac).

ENIIEIEOAEUe (a?eaaaea, /aeiaae)

IEAI IA?EIAe

Oaia IE Yoai Ioaaonoaaiiue eniieieoaeue Cao?aou ?ano?na 1 … Oi?ia
?acoeueoaoa

Iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii ?ac?aaioee

Oi?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioeie II ia iniiaa iaeeiaeiie iiaeaee ieaie?iaaiey
?ano?nia ?ac?aaioee (n iiiiuueth eco/aiey noaoenoeee ?acee/iuo
?ac?aaioie, eioi?ay iieacuaaao, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
?ac?aaio/eea ia naycaia eeiaeiie caaeneiinoueth n a?aiaiai ?ac?aaioee, a
iauai auiieiaiiuo ?aaio ia i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeai iauaio auoiaeiiai
i?iaeoeoa).

Yoi niioiioaiea oa?aeoa?ii e aeey ioaeaeueiuo noaaeee yoaiia ?ac?aaioee
e e?eaua iio?aaeaiey ia ioaeaeueiuo n. e y. ia?anaeathony, e
iaeeaaeuaaaiua /anoe e?eaie, naycaiiie n eiie?aoiui yoaiii iiaoo
ia?aoiaeeoue ia neaaeothuea yoaiu.

t – a?aiy, cao?a/aiiia n ia/aea ?ac?aaioee;

ta – iiiaio iiyaeaiey ecaeaeey a ninoiyiee iia?aoeeiiiie aioiaiinoe
(iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae aaeeiia oeaeia)

E – iauai ?ano?nia, auaeaeyaiuo ia ?ac?aaioeo.

Anee cia/aiea a a?aoue aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei e iaeeii e?eaie ia o/anoea
0-ta noaiiaeony aieueoei (e?ooui), oi ?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaioeie
oneiaeiyaony. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia anaaaea iiaeao aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii
caa?oceoue eniieieoaeae ?aaioie. Yoi aucaaii oai, /oi ia ana ?aaiou
iiaeii auiieiyoue ia?aeeaeueii. Iiieii ooieoeeiiaeueii neiaeiinoe
?ac?aaioee iiaeii aaanoe iiiyoea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie neiaeiinoe (iii
auoaeaao ec aii?inia ?oeiaiaenoaa).

, aaea /ai iaiueoa cia/aiea t0, oai i?iua ?ac?aaioea.

Aiaeec yiie?e/aneie caaeneiinoe iicaieyao auaanoe niioiioaiea
naycuaathuaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eea ni neiaeiinoueth.

? – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea:

N – caaeneo io i?eiaiyaiiai eino?oiaioa?ey (eiyooeoeeaio
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe). Iai?eia?: N = 10 000 – ycue aunieiai o?iaiy
enoiaeyuaai ec no?oeoo?iiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey: N = 1, Ae = 1, ? = 1; Ae =
2, ? = 1,6)

S – iauai i?ia?aiiiiai ecaeaeey:

Naiaai ?iaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey. Anee i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia
S=const, oi iaeoe au?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ?ano?nia,
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey caiauaiee, aeey iaania/aiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
?ac?aaioee ia aaeeieoeo a?aiaie (eae i?aaeei oiaiueoaiea).

, neaaeiaaoaeueii nie?auaiea a?aiaie ?ac?aaioee o?aaoao oaaee/aiea
cao?ao ?ano?nia (a noaiaiiie caaeneiinoe). AEaeaiea ?acei oaaee/eoue
caaeaenoaiaaiea ?ano?nia ia aeaao eeiaeiiai oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?aaoaony e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia yoiio nie?auaiea
cao?ao a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioeo. I?e eiioeaio?aoeee ?ano?nia ai iiiai ?ac
oaaee/eaaaony neiaeiinoue, oa?yaony yooaeoeaiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey
iiiaeanoaa i?ia?aiienoia => ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony oaaee/eaaoue cao?aou
?ano?nia aieaa /ai ia 30% ca iieaiaea.

Ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?acia?a nicaeaaaaiiai IE i?eoiaeeony oaaee/eaaoue
a?aiy ?ac?aaioee, iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeeie ?ano?naie iu ?aniieaaaai
(neaaay caaeneiinoue – 4 noaiaiue).

Niioiioaiea (*) eniieuecoaony eae iniiaa aeey oi?aaeaiey ?ac?aaioeie. Ec
niioiioaiee (**) e (***) ii cia/aieyi caaeaaaaiuo ia?aiao?ia
?ac?aaaouaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea auae?aaiuo ia?aiao?ia ?ac?aaioee.

S,t0 – caaeaaaaiua cia/aiey (S – ia yaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea, caaeaia /a?ac
ooieoeeiiaeueioth iaa?oceo).

N – auae?aaiia cia/aiea ?ac?aaio/eeii enoiaey ec iaeaieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiiai aa?eaioa oaoiieiaee.

?acoeueoaoiua ia?aiao?u (o?oaeiaieinoue ?ac?aaioee) e enoiaey ec n?iea
?ac?aaioee ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoai eniieieoaeae:

N=F/ta

A i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee iiaoo iaiyoueny iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

iaiythony ooieoeeiiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e IE;

aaiaeyony iiaua aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee, eeai caiaiythony.

A ethaii neo/aa /anoue ooieoeee ?ac?aaaouaaaony ca a?aiy iaiueoa, /ai
ta, i?e yoii iiaeao ia iaiyoueny S.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee oaeeo ooieoeee iiiaaeiayony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?ano?nu
ec-ca aic?anoaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie neiaeiinoe.

S = (d+4m+b)/6

d – ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiue iauai ?ac?aaioee ii iiaieth yenia?oia;

b – iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue iauai ?ac?aaioee ii iiaieth yenia?oia;

m – n?aaeiaa cia/aiea.

Oaia 7: Noaaeee ?ac?aaioee IE. Niaea?aeaiea e iaoiaeu auiieiaiey ?aaio.

Noaaeey OC (i?aaei?iaeoiay noaaeey). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aiaeaaeathuee
iauaeo ?ac?aaioee IE yaeyaony i?ia?aiiiay ?aaeecaoeey eiiieaena
eioi?iaoeeiiii e ooieoeeiiaeueii acaeiinaycaiiuo caaea/.

?ac?aaioea II ii iiaenenoaiai;

?ac?aaioea II aeey iauaeoa a oeaeii (?aaea ano?a/aaony).

Iniiaiua aeueoa?iaoeau:

Nouanoaoao ee aiciiaeiay ?aaeecaoeey IE nia?aiaiiuie n?aaenoaaie. Anee
“aea”, oi auea ee yoa ?aaeecaoeey yooaeoeaia. ?anniao?eaaaony
niaieoiiinoue /anoiuo iieacaoaeae.

Neaaeoao ee i?iaiaeeoue i?eaeiaeueioth ?ac?aaioeo eee aiciiaeia
aaeaioaoeey nouanoaothuaai II.

Anee i?iaiaeeony i?eaeiaeueiay ?ac?aaioea, oi i?eaioe?iaaoue ee aa ia
ecaioiaeaiea eieaeueiiai IE, eee aea aanoe ?ac?aaioeo oe?aaee?oaiiai II
(iai?eia? a aeaea III).

Oae eae ioaao ia (1) aii?in iiaeao auoue io?eoeaoaeueiui, oi iaoa?eaeu
naycaiiua n ?aoaieai iniiaiuo aeueoa?iaoea iiaoo ioi?ieyoueny
ioaeaeueiui aeieoiaioii, iai?eia? OYI. Anee anoue aiciiaeiinoue, oi
?aeiiaiaeoaony aeey i?eaeiaeueiuo ?ac?aaioie ?aaiou i?aaei?iaeoiie
noaaeee ioi?ieyoue ioaeaeueiui aeiaiai?ii.

I?e ieaie?iaaiee ?aaio i?aaei?iaeoiie noaaeee i?eaioe?iai/ii
aeeeoaeueiinoe aai io 1 ianyoea, ?aaea ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue, e aei 1
eaa?oaea.

O?oaeiaieinoue ?aaio i?aaei?iaeoiie noaaeee: io 15 /ae./aeiae aei 150
/ae./aeiae. *aua anaai 30-50. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ia iaeei eiiieaen caaea/
auaeaeyaony 1-2 /aeiaaea.

I?eia?ii neiaeeaoayny aaee/eia 10%, e anee eiaaony aeaei n i?eaeiaeueiie
?ac?aaioeie, oi yoa aeiey oiaiueoaaony aei 7-8%, eee anee n III oi
aic?anoaao aei 13-15%.

?aaiou ii ianeaaeiaaieth i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe e oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa.

Ia/eiay n ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u ianeaaeoaiiai iauaeoa.
Eaaeaeiio ec neiaieia iaiaoiaeeii niiinoaaeoue ooieoeeiiaeueiua
iaycaiiinoe e iiae/eiaiey. Yoi aeaeaaony aeey:

ciaiey eiio aeaeaaony;

aiciiaeiinoe i?iieeiooue a ioaeae.

Auyaeythony ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, iiaeeaaeauea aaoiiaoecaoeee, eee oa ii
eioi?ui ia?aniao?eaathony ?aiaa aeaenoaothuea ?aoaiey. ?aoathony caaea/e
iaoiaeaie ea?a?oe/aneie aeaeiiiiceoeee: ?acaeaiey iaeioi?ie neiaeiie
i?iaeaiu ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia ?yae aa /anoiuo ninoaaeythueo
(iiaei?iaeai), aei oao ii?, iiea ii eaaeaeie ninoaaeythuae iieo/aiiie ia
i/a?aaeiii oaaa ia aoaeao aeaoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiua aoiaeu
e auoiaeu.

Ianeaaeiaaiea aaaeaony ia ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo, a ii
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio.

Ianeaaeiaaiea nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia ?aaeecaoeee ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey
iauaeoaie, iii ia aeieaeii iineoue iienaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? (aeaoue aiaeec
e ?ac?aaioaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth yoeo ooieoeee).

HIPO – iinea oiai eae ii?aaeaeeeenue Ni acaeiinaycueth ioaeaeueiuo
caaea/, i?iaiaeeony ianeaaeiaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie noaiu ?aoaaiuo caaea/.
Nia/aea auoiaeiay eioi?iaoeey (iiaeaeaiey caeac/eea), aoiaeiay
eioi?iaoeey (iia?aoeaiay, ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iay) ? i?ioeann-iaoiae
?aaeecaoeee ia?aoiaea io aoiaea e auoiaeo.

I?e auyaeaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie noaiu ?aaeecaoeee ooieoeee iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue ana 3 aniaeoa, a eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoai
eioi?iaoeee:

neioaene/aneii (neiaieueiui);

naiaioe/aneei (eae ioaeaeueiua aeaiiua oaycuaathony a aeieoiaiou,
niuneiaay iaa?ocea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe);

i?aaiaoe/aneee (iieaciinoue aeey iio?aaeoaey).

Oi?ioee?oaony OC.

PAGE 12

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