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Разновидности сетевых топологий

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OIIIEIAEE NAOAE IAe, OOIEOeEIIE?OTHUEO

A NINOAAA NENOAI OI?AAEAIEss (NO)

E iaeaieaa aaaeiui o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e NIAe, ooieoeeiie?othuei
a NO ?ann?aaeioi/aiiuie iauaeoaie (NO?I), ioiinyony:

iaania/aiea ?aaiou NO a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie;

inouanoaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia n aunieie aa?iinoueth;

iaaeaaeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea.

Auiieiaiea yoeo o?aaiaaiee nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ia?aiao?ia e
oa?aeoa?enoee NIAe, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa NO?I.

Iniiaiua iieacaoaee e ia?aiao?u ethaie naoe iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
a?oiiu:

ii?oieiae/aneea (no?oeoo?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee); [Ii?oieiaey — iaoea i
oi?ia e no?iaiee i?aaiecia]

ooieoeeiiaeueiua (ia?aiao?u ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey e iieacaoaee
yooaeoeaiinoe IAe).

Iiae no?oeoo?ie NIAe, aoiaeyuae a ninoaa NO?I, iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
ieiia/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, yaeythuaainy iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ioieoia
oi?aaeaiey (IO) e eiio?iee?oaiuo ioieoia (EI), oceia eiiiooaoeee,
eiioeaio?aoi?ia, iinoia, oethcia e o.ae. e niaaeeiythueo eo eeiee e
eaiaeia nayce.

A aeaeueiaeoai ieiia/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, aoiaeyuaa a ninoaa IO e EI, i
oaeaea ?acee/iua oa?ieiaeu iu aoaeai iacuaaoue oa?ieiaeaie, ?aai/eie
noaioeeyie eee oceaie.

Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi no?oeoo?a naoae IAe ii?aaeaeyaony no?oeoo?ie
NO?I, a ninoaa eioi?uo iie aoiaeyo, e yaeyaony iiiaioi/a/iie.

Iiiaioi/a/iay no?oeoo?a — no?oeoo?a, a eioi?ie aeaa eee aieaa EI
niaaeeiythony EN n IO.

I?e ?anniio?aiee no?oeoo? naoae IAe, a aeaea niaieoiiinoe oa?ieiaeia e
niaaeeiythueo eo EN, iieuecothony oa?ieiii oiiieiaey. A aeaiiii neo/aa
oiiieiaey naoe — aaiiao?e/aneay oi?ia (eee oece/aneay nayciinoue) naoe.
Oiiieiaey naoe ii?aaeaeyaony niiniaii niaaeeiaiey aa oceia eaiaeaie
(eaaaeyie) nayce e oa?aeoa?ecoao oece/aneia ?aniieiaeaiea YAI, eaaaeae e
ae?. eiiiiiaioia naoe.

E?iia oa?ieia «oiiieiaey» aeey iienaiey oece/aneie eiiiiiiaee
oiio?aaeythony oa?ieiu:

oece/aneia ?aniieiaeaiea;

eiiiiiiaea;

aeeaa?aiia;

ea?oa.

I?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee naoae eniieuecoaony e iiiyoea «a?oeoaeoo?a», eioi?ay
ii?aaeaeyaony naiaeii oi?iaoia, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae aeaenoaee,
eioa?oaenia, i?ioieieia, eiae/aneeo no?oeoo?, a niaieoiiinoe
iaania/eaathueo acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo aiia?aoiuie e i?ia?aiiiuie
n?aaenoaaie naoe.

Oiiieiaey naoe aeeyao ia:

ninoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai naoaaiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey naoe (ia?aueaaaiinoue);

niinia oi?aaeaiey naoueth;

oa?aeoa?enoeee e ia?aiao?u naoaaiai iai?oaeiaaiey:

iaaeaaeiinoue,

noieiinoue,

caaea?aeea,

i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue.

Caaea?aeea naoe — yoi a?aiy ia?aaea/e niiauaiee iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie, o.a.
a?aiy iaaeaeo ia?aaea/ae niiauaiey aaiiaioii-enoi/ieeii e aai i?eaiii
aaiiaioii-iieo/aoaeai (aae?anaoii).

I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue — yoi iaeneiaeueiia /enei aeoia aaiiaioneeo
niiauaiee, eioi?ua iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny /a?ac naoue a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua e iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaiua oiiieiaee naoae IAe,
ooieoeeiie?othueo a NO?I. Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoe oiiieiaee iinyo iauee
oa?aeoa? e oe?iei eniieuecothony a EAN.

Ia i?aeoeea eniieuecothony neaaeothuea aaciaua oiiieiaee:

oeiiay,

caacaeiia?aciay,

eieueoeaaay,

ae?aaiaeaeiay,

y/aenoay (niaoaiiay eee iiiainayciay),

Ana inoaeueiua oiiieiaee iieo/athony eiiaeiaoeeae aaciauo.

I?eia/aiea. I?e ?anniio?aiee EAN auaeaeytho o?e aaciaua oiiieiaee:

oeiioth (bus);

caacaeiia?acioth (star);

eieueoeaaoth (ring),

ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo e no?iyo ana EAN.

Oeaii/a/iay no?oeoo?a NO?I — iiiaioi/a/iay no?oeoo?a, a eioi?ie EI
niaaeeiaiu iauei eaiaeii n IO.

?en. 1.

(?anneacaoue aaea eniieuecoaony oaeay no?oeoo?a — iaooa-aacii?iaiaeu)

Oeaii/a/iie no?oeoo?ie NO?I iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n oeiiie oiiieiaeae
aeey ?en.1a, eee n iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaaeeiaiiuie /a?ac iaeioi?ia
ono?ienoai oeiaie (?en. 1a).

Oeiiay oiiieiaey (iaaeno?aeueiay), — oiiieiaey i?e eioi?ie noaioeee
iiaeeeth/athony e oeiiiio iaaeno?aeueiiio eaiaeo (eeiaeiay oeia (linear
bus)).

Aeaiiay oiiieiaey ioiineony e iaeaieaa i?inoui e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui
oiiieiaeyi EAN.

A naoyo n oeiiie oiiieiaeae ana oa?ieiaeu iiaeeeth/athony e iaeiiio
eaaaeth n iiiiuueth i?eaiiia?aaeao/eeia. Oaeie eaaaeue /anoi iacuaatho
iaaeno?aeueth).

Eaiae ieai/eaaaony n aeaoo noi?ii ianneaiuie oa?ieiaoi?aie,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey iiaeiuaiey iaaeathuae yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu.
Oa?ieiaoi?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iau/iua ?acenoi?u, aeeth/aiiua iaaeaeo
oieiianouae aeeeie e ye?aiii eaaaey. Nii?ioeaeaiea oa?ieiaoi?ia ?aaii
aieiiaiio nii?ioeaeaieth eaaaey. Ana eiioeu eaaaey aeieaeiu auoue e
/aio-ieaoaeue iiaeeeth/aiu (iai?eia?, e eiiiuethoa?o, e
aa??ae-eiiiaeoi?o aeey oaaee/aiey aeeeiu eaaaey). E ethaiio naiaiaeiiio
eiioeo eaaaey aeieaeai auoue iiaeeeth/ai oa?ieiaoi?.

A aieueoeinoaa ?aaeecaoeee oece/aneay n?aaea ia?aaea/e oeiiie naoe
iiaeao ninoiyoue ec iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo naeoeee eaaaey, naycaiiuo
niaoeeaeueiuie niaaeeieoaeyie. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acoaony oae iacuaaaiue
naaiaio eaaaey.

Oeiiua naoe eiatho aeiaieueii ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe ii ia?aueaaieth
a neeo caoooaiey neaiaeia a EN. Eaaeaeay a?acea e eaaeaeue niaaeeieoaeue
ianeieueei eciaiytho oa?aeoa?enoeee oece/aneie n?aaeu ia?aaea/e. Iiyoiio
aeey eaaeaeie ?aaeecaoeee eiathony, eae i?aaeei, ia?aie/aiey ia iauoth
aeeeio eaaaey nayce e aai naaiaioia, ia ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ninaaeieie
oi/eaie iiaeeeth/aiey oceia (o. a. iei. e iaen. Aeeeio naaiaioia) e ia
eiee/anoai iiaeeeth/aiee e eaaaeth.

A oi aea a?aiy iiaeeeth/aiea iiauo oceia inouanoaeyaony aanueia i?inoi n
iiiiuueth ianneaiuo a?acie. Eaaei inouanoaeyaony e o?anne?iaea eaaaeae
oeiu. A aieueoeinoaa ?aaeecaoeee ianeieueei ieiia/iuo nenoai iiaoo
iiaeeeth/aoueny e oeia /a?ac iauee i?eaiiia?aaeao/ee.

I?e ?aaeecaoeey oece/aneie oeiu aeaeaoaeueii ianneaiia iiaeeeth/aiea
noaioeee e oeia oaeei ia?acii, /oi ioeac eaeie-eeai noaioeee ia aeeye ia
?aaioo oeiiie naoe.

Oceu iiaeeeth/athony iaiin?aaenoaaiii e niaaeeieoaeyi eaaaeueiuo naeoeee
eeai n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie a?acee, eioi?ay i?inoi i?ieaeuaaao
eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue aei eiioaeoa n oeaio?aeueiui i?iaiaeieeii.

I?e oaeie oiiieiaee niiauaiey, iinueaaiua eaaeaeie noaioeeae,
ia?aaeathony a oe?ieiaauaoaeueiii ?aaeeia anai naoaaui noaioeeyi.

E?iia oiai, noaioeey iiaeao «i?ineooeaaoue» e i?eieiaoue ana niiauaiey,
eioi?ua iinooiatho a aa eioa?oaen n oeiie, iaeiaei iia ia iiaeao ecuyoue
E-th ec oeiu eee inouanoaeoue eaeoth-eeai ia?acaienue E-e, ia?aaeaaaaiie
ii oeia.

Eaaeaeue ocae eiaao oieeaeueiue eaeaioeoeeaoi? e i?eieiaao niiauaiea,
anee a iai aae?an ocea-iieo/aoaey eeai niaiaaeaao n aai nianoaaiiui
eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii, eeai yaeyaony eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii oe?ieiaauaoaeueiiai eee
a?oiiiaiai niiauaiey.

Iineieueeo iaeei iauee EN (oeia) eniieuecoaony anaie aaiiaioaie naoe,
oaeea naoe iacuaathony oaeaea iiiieaiaeueiuie. A iiiieaiaeueiuo naoyo
iau/ii inouanoaeyaony a?aiaiiia oieioiaiea eaiaea. *anoioiia oieioiaiea
a EN a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony i/aiue ?aaeei.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aaeaoue ii oeia, naie nianoaaiiua niiauaiey,
noaioeey aeieaeia iieo/eoue ia yoi niioaaonoaothuaa ?ac?aoaiea (i?aai).
?aaeecaoeey yoiai i?aaa inouanoaeyaony /a?ac aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiioth
i?ioeaaeo?o, eioi?ay iacuaaaony iaoiaeii aeinooia e n?aaea.

Oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e n?aaea aoiaeeo a ooieoeee eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy e
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n i?ioieieii eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy.

Anee eiaaony neo/ae iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaaeeiaiiuo iaaeno?aeueiuo eeiee
(naaiaioia) (aeey NO?I ia ?en. 1a), oi a yoii neo/aa a ianoao
niaaeeiaiey naaiaioia onoaiaaeeaathony niaoeeaeueiua naycothuea
yeaiaiou:

iiaoi?eoaee, inouanoaeythuea o?aineyoeeth neaiaeia ec iaeiiai naaiaioa
naoe a ae?oaie e niaeaniaaiea ia?aiao?ia i?iaiaeiuo EN. Iiaoi?eoaee
iiaoo auoue aeaoo oeiia:

inouanoaeythuea i?inoia oneeaiea e oneeaiea n ainnoaiiaeaieai (a yoii
neo/aa iiaoi?eoaeue ?anniao?eaaaony eae ioe?uoay nenoaia,
inouanoaeythuay o?aineyoeeth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeo ia oece/aneii
o?iaia);

i?iecaiaeyuea: i?eai — aeaeiaee?iaaiea n eni?aaeaieai ioeaie —
eiaee?iaaiea — ia?aaea/o (a yoii neo/aa iiaoi?eoaeue inouanoaeyao
o?aineyoeeth eaiaeueiuo AAeI ia eaiaeueiii o?iaia YIAIN);

iinou, niaaeeiythuea iaeii?iaeiua naoe i?iecaiaeyuea o?aineyoeeth
iaeaoia:

1 — anaaaea,

2 — oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea iaeao i?aaeiacia/ai noaioeeyi,
iaoiaeyueiny a ae?oaii naaiaioa.

A iinoa ?aaeecoaony iaoaieci aeinooia e n?aaea, i?e/ai aeey eaaeaeiai ec
naaiaioia naoe oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii i?iecaiaeeony iacaaeneii;

oethcu, niaaeeiythuea ?acii?iaeiua naoe, e inouanoaeythuea
i?aia?aciaaiea oi?iaoia e i?ioieieia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. A oethcao aeey
eaaeaeiai ec naaiaioia ?aaeecoaony naie aiciiaeii ?acee/athueeny
iaoaieci aeinooia e n?aaea.

Iaaeno?aeueiay eeiey ?en. 1a iiaeao auoue oaeaea ?acaeoa ia naaiaiou.
?acaeaiea aeaeaaony a aeaoo neo/ayo:

eiaaea aeeeia eeiee aieueoay e iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue iiaoi?eoaee eee
iinou aeey oneeaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey neaiaeia;

anee ?anniio?aoue a NO?I iai?aaeaiiinoue e eioaineaiinoue E-o iioieia,
oi i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oaeo, /oi eioaineaiinoue iioiea aoaeao oauaaoue
ii ia?a oaeaeaiey io IO. Iiyoiio eiiaaea oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeaeeoue oeio
ia naaiaiou e a eaaeaeii naaiaioa eniieueciaaoue naoe IAe n ?acee/iuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A naaiaioa, e eioi?iio iiaeeeth/ai IO iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue aunieinei?inoioth naoue IAe n aei?iainoiyueie EN,
iaeaaeathueie aieueoie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth. A naaiaioao,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia ia?eoa?ee, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ieceinei?inoiua naoe
n aeaoaauie EN.

Oeiiua naoe /oanoaeoaeueiu e cacaieaieth EN eee e iiaea/a ia iaai
ecauoi/iiai ii o?iaith neaiaea (yeaeo?e/aneee ?ac?yae, neo/aeiia
caiueaiea ia iinoi?iiiea eeiee ieoaiey), iiyoiio a i?eaiiia?aaeao/eea
oeiiie naoe iaiaoiaeeia yeaeo?e/aneay (o?ainoi?iaoi?iay eee iioe/aneay)
?acaycea aai aaiiaioneie e eaiaeueiie /anoae.

I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue e caaea?aeea a oeiiuo naoyo ii?aaeaeythony
aieueoei /eneii ia?aiao?ia: iaoiaeii aeinooia, iieinie i?iioneaiey EN,
/eneii oceia naoe, aeeeiie niiauaiee e ae?.

?anoe?aiea EAN

Oaaee/aiea o/anoea, ioaaouaaaiiai naoueth, aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aa
?anoe?aiey. A naoe n oiiieiaeae «oeia» eaaaeue iau/ii oaeeeiyaony aeaoiy
niiniaaie.

Aeey niaaeeiaiey aeaoo io?aceia eaaaey iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny
aa??ae-eiiiaeoi?ii (barrel connector).

Ii ceioiio?aaeyoue eie ia noieo, oae eae neaiae i?e yoii ineaaaaaao.
Eo/oa eoieoue iaeei aeeeiiue eaaaeue, /ai niaaeeiyoue ianeieueei
ei?ioeeo io?aceia. I?e aieueoii eiee/anoaa «noueiaie» ia?aaeei
i?ienoiaeeo eneaaeaiea neaiaea.

2. Aeey niaaeeiaiey aeaoo io?aceia eaaaey neoaeeo ?aieoa? (repeater). A
ioee/ea io eiiiaeoi?a, ii oneeeaaao neaiae ia?aae ia?aaea/ae aai a
neaaeothuee naaiaio. Iiyoiio i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa eniieueciaaoue ?aieoa?,
/ai aa??ae-eiiiaeoi? eee aeaaea iaeei aeeeiiue eaaaeue: neaiaeu ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey iieaeoo aac eneaaeaiee.

?en. ?aieoa? niaaeeiyao io?acee eaaaey e oneeeaaao neaiae.

I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee oaeie oiiieiaee i/aaeaeiu.

I?aeiouanoaa:

ieieiaeueiay aeeeia EN;

eaaei ?anoe?yaony;

aunieay nei?inoue iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie (iao
aeiiieieoaeueiuo caaea?aeae ia i?ioiaeaeaiea neaiaeia /a?ac oceu, eae
yoi eiaao ianoi a eieueoeaaie oiiieiaee);

oeia ianneaiay oiiieiaey. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eiiiuethoa?u oieueei
«i?ineooeaatho» ia?aaeaaaaiua ii naoe aeaiiua, ii ia i?iaeaeaatho eo io
ioi?aaeoaey e iieo/aoaeth. Iiyoiio anee iaeei ec eiiiuethoa?ia auoiaeeo
ec no?iy, yoi ia neacuaaaony ia ?aaioa inoaeueiuo. A aeoeaiuo oiiieiaeyo
i?ienoiaeeo ?aaaia?aoeey neaiaeia a eiiiuethoa?ao e iineaaeothuay eo
ia?aaea/a a naoue.

Iaaeinoaoee:

ieceay iaaeaaeiinoue (?ac?ua EN ia?ooaao naycue iaaeaeo noaioeeyie); i?e
iaeni?aaiinoe noaioeee, i?iyaeythuaeny a oii, noaioeey ia/eiaao
iai?a?uaioth ia?aaea/o, naoue oaeaea noaiiaeony ia?aaioiniiniaiie;

o?oaeiinoue eieaeecaoeee ioeacia n oi/iinoueth aei ioaeaeueiie
eiiiiiaiou, iiaeeeth/aiiie e oeia;

?ac?ua eaaaey eee ioniaaeeiaiea iaeiiai ec eiioeia i?eaiaeeo e
i?ae?auaieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naoe (Naoue «iaaeaao»);

anee ?acaeaeaiea eaiaeia i?iecaiaeeony ia ii /anoioa, a ii a?aiaie, oi
anaaaea eiaaony caaea?aeea iaaeaeo iiiaioii iiyaeaiey aeaiiuo aeey
ia?aaea/e e iiiaioii a?aiaie, eiaaea yoe aeaiiua iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu.
I?e/ai yoa caaea?aeea i?e aieueoii eiee/anoaa noaioeee e aeeeiiuo
niiauaieyo iiaeao aeinoeaaoue cia/eoaeueiuo aaee/ei. A yoii neo/aa, aeey
oi?aaeaiey a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii eeai oaaee/eaaoue
nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, /oi iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue aieueoeo cao?ao,
eeai ia?aie/eaaoue aeeeio iaeaoia, eioi?uie iaiaieaathony noaioeee.

Aeey iioiaieieiiiuo EN aeinoeaeaiea iieiie nayciinoe oeia
«noaioeey-noaioeey» oeiiay ?aaeecaoeey naoe o?aaoao aeaoo oei. Yoi
iauyniyaony iaeiiiai?aaeaiiui oa?aeoa?ii iioiaieieiiiiai eaiaea. *aua
anaai eniieuecothony aeaa ioaeaeueiua ano?a/ii iai?aaeaiiua oeiu.

Oiiieiaey naoe Fasnet.

Caeanue noaioeee eiatho aeinooi e eaaeaeie iioiaieieiiiie oeia /a?ac
niioaaonoaothuee ioaiae /oaiey, ca eioi?ui ?aciauaaony ioaiae caiene.
Oeiu iaaeaeo niaie ia naycaiu. Ia?aay e iineaaeiyy noaioeey ia?yaeo n
ooieoeeyie eiioi?ieea?ia naoe auiieiytho ooieoeee o?aineyoeee iaeaoia.

Eae aeueoa?iaoeaiue aa?eaio iiaeii i?eiaiyoue eiioeao?aoeeth,
eniieuecothuoth aaeeinoaaiioth U- eee D-ia?acioth iioiaieieiiioth oeio

Oiiieiaey D-naoe

A yoii neo/aa noaioeey iiaeeeth/aaony n iiiiuueth ioaiaeia caiene ia
enoiaeyuae noi?iia e n iiiiuueth ioaiaea i?eaia ia aoiaeyuae noi?iia
oeiu. A yoii neo/aa noaioeey, yaeythuaeny iineaaeiae ia ia?aaea/o
ieacuaaaony ia?aie ia i?eai, /oi ia anaaaea oaeiaii. Yoiai iaaeinoaoea
eeoaia S-oeia

Oiiieiaey naoe Expressnet

Iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe oeiiuo naoae IAe aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
i?ieeaaeuaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo EN. *aua anaai a NO?I eniieuecothony
aeoaee?othuea eaiaeu. A iaeioi?uo nenoai oi?aaeaiey iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny ianeieueei aeiiieieoaeueiuo EN. Iai?eia? a
naiieaoino?iaiee, a ai?oiauo nenoaiao eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia
eniieuecothony o?eiee?iaaiiay oeia, eaeouay aaeieue iaeiiai ai?oa, e
aeoaee?othuay aa o?eiee?iaaiiay oeia — aaeieue ae?oaiai ai?oa.

Anee NO?I niaea?aeeo IO e EI, ?ann?aaeioi/aiiua ii iaeioi?ie oa??eoi?ee,
oi a yoii neo/aa oeiiay oiiieiaey naoe IAe i?aeoe/anee ia
eniieuecoaony, a i?eiaiythony inoaaoeany ec auoa ia?a/eneaiiuo oiiieiaee
e, a /anoiinoe, ?aaeeaeueiay oiiieiaey.

?aaeeaeueiay oiiieiaey (Caacaeiia?aciay oiiieiaey, oiiieiaey «caacaea»),
i?e eioi?ie eaaeaeay noaioeey iiaeniaaeeiaia iaeiei eee aeaoiy
auaeaeaiiuie EN e aaeeinoaaiiiio oeaio?aeueiiio oceo, eiaioaiiio
eiioeaio?aoi?ii (hub). Noaioeey iiaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii inouanoaeyoue
aeinooi oieueei e yoiio oceo. A naoyo n oaeie oiiieiaeae /a?ac
oeaio?aeueiue ocae i?ioiaeeo aanue naoaaie o?aoee.

Yoa oiiieiaey iaeia ec iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo no?oeoo? naoae
IAe. Iia oe?iei eniieueciaaeanue a 60-o -70-o aiaeao, iineieueeo
aeaaiaea?y eaaeinoe oi?aaeaiey II auei ia neiaeiui, a iioie o?aoeea
i?inoui. Aanue o?aoee enoiaeeo ec oeaio?aeueiiai ocea caacaeu, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeye ec naay aeaaioth YAI, a inoaeueiua oceu yaeyeenue
oa?ieiaeaie.

Eiioeaio?aoi?u

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiei ec noaiaea?oiuo eiiiiiaioia naoae noaiiaeony
eiioeaio?aoi?. A a naoyo n oiiieiaeae «caacaea» ii neoaeeo oeaio?aeueiui
oceii.

N?aaee eiioeaio?aoi?ia auaeaeythony aeoeaiua (active) e ianneaiua
(passive).

Aeoeaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u. Aeoeaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u ?aaaia?e?otho e
ia?aaeatho neaiaeu oae aea, eae yoi aeaeatho ?aieoa?u. Eiiaaea eo
iacuaatho iiiaiii?oiauie ?aieoa?aie — iie iau/ii eiatho io 8 aei 12
ii?oia aeey iiaeeeth/aiey eiiiuethoa?ia.

Ianneaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u. Iaeioi?ua oeiu eiioeaio?aoi?ia yaeythony
ianneaiuie, iai?eia? iiioaaeiua iaiaee eee eiiiooe?othuea aeiee. Iie
i?inoi i?iioneatho /a?ac naay neaiae eae oceu eiiiooaoeee, ia oneeeaay e
ia ainnoaiaaeeaay aai. Ianneaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u ia iaaei iiaeeeth/aoue e
enoi/ieeo ieoaiey.

Aea?eaeiua eiioeaio?aoi?u. Aea?eaeiuie (hybrid) iacuaathony
eiioeaio?aoi?u, e eioi?ui iiaeii iiaeeeth/aoue eaaaee ?acee/iuo oeiia.
Naoe, iino?iaiiua ia eiioeaio?aoi?ao, eaaei ?anoe?eoue, anee
iiaeeeth/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiua eiioeaio?aoi?u.

?en. Aea?eaeiue eiioeaio?aoi?

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?acee/atho:

caacaeiia?acioth naoue n eiiiooaoeeae, eiaaea oeaio?aeueiue ocae
ioaa/aao ca ia?o?ooecaoeeth e auiieiyao ooieoeee ia?anueee n
i?iiaaeooi/iui o?aiaieai eee eiiiooaoeeiiiua ooieoeee aac
i?iiaaeooi/iiai o?aiaiey. A iineaaeiai neo/aa naoe no?iyony ia aaca
iaoiaea eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia. Eiaaea ia?aae ia/aeii ia?aaea/e aucuaathuay
noaioeey cai?aoeaaao o oeaio?aeueiiai ocea onoaiiaeaiea oece/aneiai eee
eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey n aucuaaaiie noaioeeae (oceii). Iinea
onoaiiaeaiey niaaeeiaiey niioaaonoaothuee oece/aneee eee eiae/aneee
iooue iiiiiieueii eniieuecoaony aaiiaioaie-ia?oia?aie aeey iaiaia
aeaiiuie. Ii ieii/aiee iaiaia iaeei ec aaiiaioia cai?aoeaaao o
oeaio?aeueiiai ocea ?acuaaeeiaiey.

oe?ieiaauaoaeueioth caacaeiia?aciay naoue, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae
eniieueciaaiea oeaio?aeueiiai ocea eae aacaooa?iiai iiaoi?eoaey, eioi?ue
iai?aaeyao ana i?eoiaeyuea neaiaeu ai ana enoiaeyuea ec iaai eeiee.

Oeaio?aeueiue ocae i?iecaiaeeo eieaeecaoeeth iaeni?aaiinoae, eioi?ay a
aeaiiii neo/aa ieacuaaaony i?inoie, iineieueeo naiaeeony e eieaeecaoeee
ioaeaeueiie ?aaeeaeueiie nayce (eaiae eee ieiia/iue ocae). I?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaoaeoiay ?aaeeaeueiay naycue ioeeth/aaony ia ia?ooay
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey inoaeueiie /anoe naoe.

I?aeiouanoaa oiiieiaee:

?ac?ua eaaaey a naoe n iau/iie oiiieiaeae «eeiaeiay oeia» i?eaaaeao e
«iaaeaieth» anae naoe. ?ac?ua eaaaey, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e eiioeaio?aoi?o,
ia?ooeo ?aaioo oieueei aeaiiiai naaiaioa. Inoaeueiua naaiaiou inoaioony
?aaioiniiniaiuie.

i?inoioa eciaiaiey eee ?anoe?aiey naoe: aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi iiaeeeth/eoue
aua iaeei eiiiuethoa? eee eiioeaio?aoi?;

eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo ii?oia aeey iiaeeeth/aiey eaaaeae ?aciuo oeiia:

oeaio?aeeciaaiiue eiio?ieue ca ?aaioie naoe e naoaaui o?aoeeii: ai
iiiaeo naoyo aeoeaiua eiioeaio?aoi?u iaaeaeaiu aeeaaiinoe/aneeie
aiciiaeiinoyie, iicaieythueie ii?aaeaeeoue ?aaioiniiniaiinoue
niaaeeiaiey;

oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea.

A oiaea a?aiy oeaio?aeueiue ocae yaeyaony neaaui ianoii oaeie naoe.

Iaaeinoaoee:

i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue naoe ia?aie/eaaaony i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth
oeaio?aeueiiai ocea.

auoiae ec no?iy oeaio?aeueiiai ocea i?eaiaeeo e ioeaco anae naoe.
Iiyoiio /anoi o?aaoaony ?aca?ae?iaaiea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ono?ienoa
oeaio?aeueiiai ocea.

?anoe?yaiinoue naoe ia?aie/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoyie oeaio?aeueiiai ocea ii
iiaeeeth/aieth EN n ieiia/iuie nenoaiaie.

oeaio?aeueiue ocae yaeyaony aeiaieueii aei?iaei ono?ienoaii, iineieueeo
auiieiyao ana iniiaiua ooieoeee ii oi?aaeaieth naoueth.

iaeneiaeueiay noiia?iay aeeeia EN, iiyoiio noieiinoue eaaaeae e
noieiinoue eo i?ieeaaeee auoa, /ai i?e ae?oaeo oiiieiaeyo n oaeei aea
/eneii oceia. Aeey oiaiueoaiey yoie noieiinoe eniieuecoaony iaeei ec
aa?eaioia caacaeiia?aciie oiiieiaee EAN iacuaaaiue ?ani?aaeaeaiiay
caacaeiia?aciay oiiieiaey, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie ieiia/iua nenoaiu
niaaeeiythony eaaaeyie n niaaeeieoaeueiie ei?iaeie, iacuaaaiie
eiioeaio?aoi?ii eaaaeae. Iineaaeiee iiaeao iiaeniaaeeieoue e naoe, eae
i?aaeei, ia aieaa /aou?ao-ainueie ieiia/iuo nenoai. Eiioeaio?aoi?u
eaaaeae niaaeeiythony iaaeaeo niaie iauei ?acaeaeyaiui iiiaiaeeeueiui
eaaaeai. Oaeay oiiieiaey oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a EAN ia?niiaeueiuo YAI,
eiaaea ieiia/iua nenoaiu oe?iei ?aca?inaiu ii caeaieth o/?aaeaeaiey.

Eieueoeaaay oiiieiaey i?e eioi?ie noaioeee naycaiu caaiueyie oeia
«oi/ea—oi/ea» a oiiieiaee caieiooie iaoee.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee naoe oeia oece/aneiai eieueoea eaaeaeay noaioeey
iiaeeeth/aaony e eieueoeo n iiiiuueth aeoeaiiai eioa?oaena, iacuaaaiiai
iiaoi?eoaeyi neaiaeia eee eieueoeaaui eioa?oaenii.

A oaeie oiiieiaee oa?ieiaoi?u ia eniieuecothony (eo i?inoi iaeoaea
iiaeniaaeeiyoue).

Ia?aaeaaaaiua ii eieueoeo aeaiiua i?ioiaeyo /a?ac ?aaeno?u iiaoi?eoaey e
caaea?aeeaathony oai ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy.

Noaioeey iiaeeeth/athony e iaeiiio iiaoi?eoaeth, aeeth/aiiiio a
iaeiiiai?aaeaiiia eieueoei, eee e aeaoi iiaoi?eoaeyi, naycaiiui a aeaa
?aciiiai?aaeaiiuo eieueoea.

Ec-ca i?inoiou ?aaeecaoeee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee naoe n
iaeiei eieueoeii. A iaeiiiai?aaeaiiii eieueoea ia?a niaaeiuo
iiaoi?eoaeae naycaia naeoeeae eaaaey — auaeaeaiiui eaiaeii nayce.

Eaaeaeia niiauaiea eiaao eiaeaioeoeeaoi? (aae?an) ocea-iieo/aoaey.
Ia?aaeaaaaiia ec ocea-enoi/ieea niiauaiea i?ioiaeeo ii eieueoeo aei
ocea-iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ue iiiciaao naie aae?an a niiauaiee e eeai
i?eieiaao e iiaeiuaao niiauaiea, eeai i?eieiaao e ?ao?ainee?oao
niiauaiea (aeiaaaea eee ia aeiaaaea niioaaonoaothuoth iaoeo), eioi?ia
ia?aiauaaony ii eieueoeo aei ocea-enoi/ieea, aaea iiaeiuaaony. Eaaeaeiio
ec yoeo aeaoo niiniaia iiaeiuaiey niiauaiey niioaaonoaoao ?aaeecaoeey a
oceao e iiaoi?eoaeyo ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioieiea eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy.
Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoei iiaeiuaiea niiauaiey oceii-enoi/ieeii,
iineieueeo yoi iicaieyao i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue i?aaeeueiinoue ia?aaea/e
niiauaiey.

I?e aieueoie aeeeia eieueoea, ei?ioeeo niiauaieyo e (eee) aieueoie
nei?inoe ia?aaea/e aiciiaeia iaeiia?aiaiiay ia?aaea/a ii iaio aieaa /ai
iaeiiai niiauaiey, iineieueeo eieueoei ia/eiaao ?aaioaoue eae eeiey
caaea?aeee n iaiyoueth.

N oi/ee c?aiey iaaeaaeiinoe naiui «neaaui» ianoii a eieueoeaauo naoyo
yaeythony iiaoi?eoaee. Ioeac iiaoi?eoaey iiaeao eeai auaanoe ec no?iy
anth naoue, eeai caaeiee?iaaoue aeinooi a naoue ocea, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e
yoiio iiaoi?eoaeth. Iiyoiio iiaoi?eoaee iau/ii ninoiyo ec aeaoo /anoae —
iniiaiie, n yeaeo?iieoaieai io ocea, e eioa?oaeniie, n yeaeo?iieoaieai
io aaoiiiiiiai enoi/ieea e iino?iaiiie ia ?aeaeiie noaia. I?e ioeaca
iiaoi?eoaey aai eioa?oaeniay /anoue auno?i ioeeth/aao ioeacaaoee
iiaoi?eoaeue e iai?yioth niaaeeiyao aoiaeiie e auoiaeiie eaiaeu.

Aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiiio eioa?oaeno noaioeey eiaao aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeyoue
ciaee (neiaieu) eee niiauaiey, eioi?ua iia iieo/aao ec n?aaeu, a oaeaea
i?iecaiaeeoue caienue ia ianoi ciaeia e niiauaiee, ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii
n?aaea, eiaaea iie i?ioiaeyo /a?ac eioa?oaen.

Aeoeaiue eioa?oaen ni n?aaeie iicaieyao oaeaea oneeeaaoue neaiaeu,
eioi?ua i?ioiaeyo /a?ac iaai, aneaaenoaea /aai cia/eoaeueii nieaeathony
aiineiua iioa?e. Yoi eiaao iniai aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e iiaeeeth/aiee e
iioiaieieiiiie n?aaea, iineieueeo ianneaiue eioa?oaen aiineo iuooeiua
iioa?e, /oi i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio ia?aie/aieth /enea noaioeee,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ianneaii iiaeeeth/aiu e iioiaieieiiiie oeia aac
aaaaeaiey iioe/aneeo oneeeoaeae.

Oneeaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo neaiaeia e ?aaioa ii oi?aaeaieth aeinooiii e
n?aaea a aeoeaiii eioa?oaena nii?yaeaiu n aeaieiui i?aia?aciaaieai:
i?aia?aciaaieai i?eieiaaiuo iioe/aneeo neaiaeia a yeaeo?e/aneea (n
iaiaoiaeeiie ia?aaioeie) e i?aia?aciaaieai ia?aaeaaaaiuo neaiaeia a
iioe/aneea neaiaeu. A ?acoeueoaoa nei?inoue aeinooia noaioeee aeieaeia
auoue aua?aia oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iia niioaaonoaiaaea nei?inoe
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo yeaeo?iiiuie ono?ienoaaie a eioa?oaenao noaioeee,
iineieueeo nei?inoe ii iioe/aneiio eaiaeo i/aiue auniee.

I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue e caaea?aeea eieueoeaaie naoe caaenyo io iaoiaea
ia?aaea/e niiauaiee, ?aaeeciaaiiiai a iiaoi?eoaea. A naiii i?inoii
neo/aa niiauaiey iieiinoueth iaeaieeaathony a eaaeaeii iiaoi?eoaea aeey
aiaeeca aae?ana ocea-iieo/aoaey e eeoue caoai, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe,
ia?aaeathony ninaaeiaio iiaoi?eoaeth. Iaeiaei nouanoaotho iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e niiauaiee, iicaieythuea naanoe caaea?aeeo a iiaoi?eoaea ei
a?aiaie ia?aaea/e iaeiiai aeoa niiauaiey. (a yoii neo/aa noaioeee
i?iecaiaeyo ?ao?aineyoeeth niiauaiee n onoaiiaeie eee na?inii
ioaeaeueiuo oi?aaeythueo aeoia iinea oiai eae iieo/ai e i?iaiaeece?iaai
aae?an, a noaioeey-eiio?ieea? naoe i?eieiaao e aiaeece?oao ana niiauaiea
e aunoaaeyao iiaue ia?ea?).

?anoe?yaiinoue eieueoeaaie naoe aeinoaoi/ii aunieay. Aeey iiaeeeth/aiey
iiaiai ocea iaiaoiaeeii i?enaieoue aio eaeaioeoeeaoi?, ioee/iue io
eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia ae?oaeo oceia naoe, e aeeth/eoue a ninoaa eieueoea
iiaue iiaoi?eoaeue. Iiaeeeth/aiea iiauo oceia n oaeeeiaieai nianoaaiii
eieueoeaaie naoe, eae i?aaeei, o?oaeiaieay iia?aoeey. Iiyoiio n?aco
iuoathony inouanoaeoue o?anne?iaeo eaaaey oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ii
i?ioiaeee /a?ac ana oa ianoa, aaea iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny iiaeeeth/aoue
ieiia/iua nenoaiu. Yoi oneiaeiyao o?anne?iaeo eaaaeae ia?aae
?acaa?ouaaieai naoe. Aeeth/aiea iiaiai iiaoi?eoaey oaaee/eaaao
caaea?aeeo naoe.

I?aeiouanoaa:

ana eiiiuethoa?u eiatho ?aaiue aeinooi;

eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae ia nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Iaaeinoaoee:

auoiae ec no?iy eiiiuethoa?a iiaeao i?eaanoe e ioeaco anae naoe;

eieueoeaaua naoe /oanoaeoaeueiu e ioeacai oeia ?ac?uaa EN;

o?oaeii eieaeeciaaoue iaeni?aaiinoe;

iiaeeeth/aiea iiaiai iieueciaaoaey eee eciaiaiea eiioeao?aoeee naoe
o?aaoao inoaiiaee ?aaiou anae naoe.

Ae?aaiaeaeiay oiiieiaey (ea?a?oe/aneay, aa?oeeaeueiay).A yoie oiiieiaee
oceu auiieiytho ae?oaea aieaa eioaeeaeooaeueiua ooieoeee /ai a oiiieiaee
«caacaea».

Naoaaay ea?a?oe/aneay oiiieiaey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony iaeiie ec
naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo.

II aeey oi?aaeaiey naoueth yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii i?inoui e yoa
oiiieiaey iaania/eaaao oi/eo eiioeaio?aoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey e
aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey ioeaie.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa naoueth oi?aaeyao noaioeey A ia naiii aa?oiai
o?iaia ea?a?oee e ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?aoeea iaaeaeo noaioeeyie oaeaea
eieoeee?oaony noaioeeae A.

Iiiaea oe?iu ?aaeecotho ?ani?aaeaeaiiue iiaeoiae e ea?a?oe/aneie naoe,
i?e eioi?ii a nenoaia iiae/eiaiiuo noaioeee eaaeaeay noaioeey
iaania/eaaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea noaioeeyie, iaoiaeyueieny
ieaea a ea?a?oee. Ec noaioeee B i?iecaiaeeony oi?aaeaiea noaioeeyie C e
D. Yoi oiaiueoaao iaa?oceo ia oeaio?aeueioth noaioeeth A.

A oi a?aiy eae ea?a?oe/aneay oiiieiaey yaeyaony i?eaeaeaoaeueiie n oi/ee
c?aiey i?inoiou oi?aaeaiey, iia ianao a naaa iioaioeeaeueii o?oaeii
?ac?aoeiua i?iaeaiu.

Eiaaea oi?aaeaiea naoueth (anai o?aoeeii iaaeaeo noaioeeyie)
i?iecaiaeeony ec aa?oiaai ocea A. Yoi iiaeao nicaeaoue ia oieueei «oceea
ianoa» (n oi/ee c?aiey i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe), ii e i?iaeaiu
iaaeaaeiinoe. A neo/aa naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy ooieoeee naoe ia?ooathony
iieiinoueth, anee oieueei a ea/anoaa ?aca?aa ia i?aaeoniio?ai ae?oaie
ocae. Iaeiaei a i?ioeii ea?a?oe/aneea oiiieiaee oe?iei i?eiaiyeenue e
iiiaea aiaeu aoaeoo iaoiaeeoue i?eiaiaiea. Iie aeiioneatho iinoaiaiioth
yaiethoeeth a iai?aaeaiee aieaa neiaeiie naoe, iineieueeo iiaoo
n?aaieoaeueii eaaei aeiaaaeyoueny iiae/eiaiiua noaioeee.

ss/aenoay oiiieiaey (niaoaiiay eee iiiainayciay). Naoue n y/aenoie
oiiieiaeae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, eae i?aaeei, iaiieiinaycaiioth naoue
oceia eiiiooaoeee niiauaiee (eaiaeia, iaeaoia), e eioi?ui
iiaeniaaeeiythony ieiia/iua nenoaiu. Ana EN yaeythony auaeaeaiiuie
aeaoooi/a/iuie.

Oaeiai ?iaea oiiieiaey iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecothony a e?oiiiianooaaiuo
e ?aaeiiaeueiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo naoyo, ii eiiaaea iie i?eiaiythony e a
EAN.

I?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue y/aenoie oiiieiaey caeeth/aaony a ioiineoaeueiie
onoie/eainoe e ia?aa?oceai e ioeacai. Aeaaiaea?y iiiaeanoaaiiinoe iooae
ec noaioeee a noaioeeth o?aoee iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai a iaoiae
ioeacaaoeo eee caiyouo oceia.

Aeaaea ianiio?y ia oi /oi aeaiiue iiaeoiae ioia/aaony neiaeiinoueth e
aei?iaiaeciie (i?ioieieu y/aenouo naoae iiaoo auoue aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiuie n oi/ee c?aiey eiaeee, /oiau iaania/eoue yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee),
iaeioi?ua iieueciaaoaee i?aaeii/eoatho y/aenoua naoe naoyi ae?oaeo oeiia
aneaaenoaea eo aunieie iaaeaaeiinoe. Iaaeaaeiinoue y/aenoie naoe
iaania/eaaaony oaeei niaaeeiaieai oceia eiiiooaoeee eaiaeaie nayce,
/oiau iaaeaeo ethaie ia?ie noaioeee eiaeinue ii iaiueoae ia?a aeaa iooe
ia?aaea/e niiauaiee. Aaaaeaiea ecauoi/iuo eaiaeia iaaeaeo oceaie
eiiiooaoeee, o.a. oaaee/aiea nayciinoe naoe, – noaiaea?oiue niinia
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe.

A oceao eiiiooaoeee y/aenoie naoe iau/ii ?aaeecoaony noaoe/aneay (ii
oeene?iaaiiui iooyi) eee aeeiaie/aneay (aaeaioeaiay) ia?o?ooecaoeey
niiauaiee, ia?aaeaaaaiuo a aeaea iaeaoia eee ii ae?ooaeueiui eaiaeai,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe no?ieoue oceu eiiiooaoeee ia aaca
niaoei?ioeanni?ia n aeinoaoi/iuie auno?iaeaenoaeai e aieinoueth
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. A ?acoeueoaoa aeey iaeiiai e oiai aea /enea
ieiia/iuo nenoai noieiinoue niaoaiiie naoe auoa noieiinoe ethaie ae?oaie
naoe.

Aiciiaeiinoe ii ia?aueaaieth y/aenoie naoe ii?aaeaeythony iaeneiaeueiui
/eneii eaiaeia aaiaea/auaiaea ocea eiiiooaoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey ieiia/iuo nenoai. Iau/ii yoi /enei ia i?aauoaao
/aou?ao-ainueie. Anee a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa en/a?iaiu aiciiaeiinoe ocea
eiiiooaoeee ii iiaeeeth/aieth ieiia/iuo nenoai, oi onoaiiaea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai ocea eiiiooaoeee iicaieyao iiaeeeth/eoue e naoe iiaua
ieiia/iua nenoaiu.

*oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaieyi i?eeeaaeiie iaeanoe e caaea?aeea
niiauaiee, oceu eiiiooaoeee /anoi niaaeeiythony eaiaeaie nayce n oaeei
?an/aoii, /oiau ia iooyo ia?aaea/e niiauaiee iaaeaeo ieiia/iuie
nenoaiaie auei ia aieaa aeaoo o?aiceoiuo oceia eiiiooaoeee. A neeo yoiai
iiaeeeth/aiea iiauo ieiia/iuo nenoai iiaeao eiiaaea iiaea/ue ca niaie
ia?aniio? naycae iaaeaeo oceaie eiiiooaoeee.

I?e iaeii /enea ieiia/iuo nenoai eiiaaea aeiioneaaony iieiay
naycaiiinoue oceia eiiiooaoeee.

Iieacaoaee nei?inoe ia?aaea/e niiauaiee ii EN y/aenoie naoe e a?aiy
caaea?aeee niiauaiey a naoe ooaea, /ai o naoae ae?oaeo oeiia.

Eiiaeie?iaaiiua oiiieiaee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /anoi eniieuecothony oiiieiaee, eioi?ua eiiaeie?otho
eiiiiiiaeo naoe ii i?eioeeio oeiu, caacaeu e eieueoea.

Caacaea-oeia

Caacaea-oeia (star-bus) — yoi eiiaeiaoeey oiiieiaee «oeia» e «caacaea».
*aua anaai yoi auaeyaeeo oae: ianeieueei naoae n oiiieiaeae «caacaea»
iauaaeeiythony i?e iiiiue iaaeno?aeueiie eeiaeiie oeiu.

A yoii neo/aa auoiae ec no?iy iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia ieacuaaao ieeaeiai
aeeyiey ia naoue — inoaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u ii-i?aaeiaio
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii. A auoiae ec no?iy eiioeaio?aoi?a
iiaea/ao ca niaie inoaiiaeo iiaeeeth/aiiuo e iaio eiiiuethoa?ia e
eiioeaio?aoi?ia.

?en. Naoue n oiiieiaeae «caacaea-oeia»

Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea eiiaeiaoeee oiiieiaee.

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