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Ieienoa?noai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ?O

IAOO

Eaoaae?a NAeI

Naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaioa

Oaia: «I?ioeanni?u»

Auiieiee: nooaeaio a?oiiu NAeIone.-03

2-ai eo?na

Iueyieia AA

I?iaa?ee:

Eu/eei AE

2004

Ieai

no?

1 Iacia/aiea ono?ienoaa
………………………………………………3

2 Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo 32-?ac?yaeiuo
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia……………………………………….4

3 Eiino?oeoeaiia auiieiaiea…………………………………….7

4 Oeaia e ae?oaea
iieacaoaee…………………………………………8

5 ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iieueciaaoaeth i?e auai?a………………..10

6 N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea no?oeoo? e a?oeoaeoo? nia- 12

ianoeiuo 32-?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

6 Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia……………..14

7 Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u…………………………..16

Iacia/aiea ono?ienoaa.

Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey yeaeo?iiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia?aaeeea iaiaei
iio?ynaiee e ?aaiethoeee. Ei?aiiie ia?aeii – nicaeaiea yeaeo?iiiuo
iee?inoai ia e?aiieaauo e?enoaeeao, eioi?ua caiaieee o?aicenoi?u e
eioi?ua iacaaee eioaa?aeueiuie noaiaie. Ni a?aiaie naiaai iiyaeaiey
eioaa?aeueiua noaiu aeaeeeenue ia: iaeua, n?aaeiea, aieueoea e oeueo?a
aieueoea ( IEN, NEN, AEN e OAEN niioaaonoaaiii ). Ana aieueoa e
aieueoa o?aicenoi?ia oaeaaaeinue iiianoeoue ia an? iaiueoeo e iaiueoeo
ii ?acia?ai e?enoaeao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii oeueo?a aieueoay eioaa?aeueiay
noaia ieacuaaeanue ia oaeie oae aieueoie ii ?acia?o e ia?iiiie ii naiei
aiciiaeiinoyi. Iiyoiio i?ioeanni?u nicaeaiu eiaiii ia iniiaa OAEN .
?acaeoea iee?ii?ioeanni?ia a yeaeo?iiiie eiaeono?ee i?ioiaeeei
ianoieueei auno?uie oaiiaie, /oi eaaeaeay iiaeaeue iee?ii?ioeanni?a
noaiiaeeanue iaeiiiuiie n iiiaioa iiyaeaiey iiaie iiaeaee, a au? /a?ac
2-3 aiaea n/eoaeanue onoa?aaoae e nieiaeanue n i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eaaeaeue iee?ii?ioeanni? eiaao ii?aaeae?iiia /enei yeaiaioia iaiyoe,
iacuaaaiuo ?aaeno?aie, a?eoiaoeei-eiae/aneia ono?ienoai ( AEO ) , e
ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey.

?aaeno?u eniieuecothony aeey a?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey auiieiyaiie eiiaiaeu,
aae?ania iaiyoe, ia?aaaouaaaiuo aeaiiuo e ae?oaie aioo?aiiae eioi?iaoeee
iee?ii?ioeanni?a.

A AEO i?iecaiaeeony a?eoiaoe/aneay e eiae/aneay ia?aaioea aeaiiuo.

Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ?aaeecoao a?aiaiioth aeeaa?aiio e au?aaaouaaao
iaiaoiaeeiua oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu aeey aioo?aiiae ?aaiou
iee?ii?ioeanni?a e nayce aai n ae?oaie aiia?aoo?ie /a?ac aiaoiea oeiu
iee?ii?ioeanni?a.

N?aaee ioa/anoaaiiuo AEN eiaaony o?e eeanna iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo AEN,
ioee/athueony no?oeoo?ie, oaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie : naeoeeiie?iaaiiua n ia?aueaaieai
?ac?yaeiinoe e iee?ii?ia?aiiui oi?aaeaieai ; iaeiie?enoaeueiua
iee?ii?ioeanni?u e iaeiie?enoaeueiua iee?iYAI n oeene?iaaiiie
?ac?yaeiinoueth e nenoaiie eiiaiae.

Aianoa n ia?eoa?eeiuie AEN , auiieiythueie ooieoeee o?aiaiey e
aaiaea-auaiaea aeaiiuo , oi?aaeaiey e neio?iiecaoeee, nii?yaeaiey
eioa?oaenia e. o. ae., iee?ii?ioeanni?u ninoaaeytho caeii/aiiua
eiiieaeou AEN.

Naeoeeiie?iaaiiua iee?ii?ioeanni?iua eiiieaeou ( IIE ) aeiioneatho
ia?aueaaiea ia?aiao?ia ( i?aaeaea anaai ?ac?yaeiinoe ia?aaaouaaaiuo
aeaiiuo ) e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae. Naeoeeiie?iaaiiua IIE
i?eaioe?iaaiu a iniiaiii ia i?eiaiaiea a oieaa?naeueiuo e
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo YAI, eiio?ieea?ao e ae?oaeo n?aaenoaao
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

IIE ia iniiaa iaeiie?enoaeueiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia e iaeiie?enoaeueiua
iee?iYAI, iaeaaeathuea iaiueoae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, ii aeaeie
nenoaiie eiiaiae e aieueoeie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie,
i?eaioe?iaaiiu ia oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio nouanoaoao aeaa iai?aaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia. Iie ?acee/athony a i?eioeeiao a?oeoaeoo?u. ia?aia
iai?aaeaiea – yoi i?ioeanni?u RISC a?oeoaeoo?u; aoi?ia – CISC.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u n a?oeoaeoo?ie RISC ( Reduced Instruction Set
Computers ) eniieuecotho n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie (nie?au?iiue ) iaai?
iaeaieaa oiio?aaeiuo eiiaiae, ii?aaeae?iiue a ?acoeueoaoa
noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca aieueoiai /enea i?ia?aii aeey iniiaiuo iaeanoae
i?eiaiaiey CISC – i?ioeanni?ia enoiaeiie a?oeoaeoo?u. Ana eiiaiaeu
?aaioatho n iia?aiaeaie e eiatho iaeeiaeiaue oi?iao. Ia?auaiea e iaiyoe
auiieiyaony n iiiiuuethniaoeeaeueiuo eiiaiae caa?ocee ?aaeno?a e caiene.
I?inoioa no?oeoo?u e iaaieueoie iaai? eiiaiae iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue
iieiinoueth eo aiia?aoiia auiieiaiea e yooaeoeaiue eiiaaea? i?e
iaaieueoii iaue?ia iai?oaeiaaiey. A?eoiaoeeo RISC – i?ioeanni?ia
ioee/aao aunieay noaiaiue ae?iaeaiey eiiaaea?a. Yoio i?eai iicaieyao
oaaee/eoue oaeoiaoth /anoioo ( cia/eo, e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue )
eiiiuethoa?a; /ai aieaa yeaiaioa?iua aeaenoaey auiieiythony a eaaeaeie
oaca ?aaiou eiiaaea?a, oai auoa /anoioa aai ?aaiou. RISC – i?ioeanni?u n
naiiai ia/aea i?eaioe?iaaiiu ia ?aaeecaoeeth anao aiciiaeiinoae
onei?aiey a?eoieoe/aneeo iia?aoeee, iiyoiio eo eiiaaea?u iaeaaeatho
cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieei auno?iaeaenoaeai, /ai a CISC – i?ioeanni?ao.
Iiyoiio RISC – i?ioeanni?u a 2 – 4 ?aca auno?aa eiathueo oo aea
oaeoiaoth /anoioo CISC – i?ioeanni?ia n iau/iie nenoaiie eiiaiae e
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiae, ianiio?y ia aieueoee iaue?i i?ia?aii, ia ( 30
% ). Aeaea Iaooa?nii e Ea?ei Naeoei noi?ioee?iaaee 4 iniiaiuo i?eioeeia
RISC :

Ethaay iia?aoeey aeaeaeia auiieiyoueny ca iaeei oaeo, aia caaeneiinoe
io aa oeia.

Nenoaia eiiaiae aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai iaeaieaa
/anoi eniieuecoaiuo i?inoaeoeo eino?oeoeee iaeeiaeiaie aeeeiu.

Iia?aoeee ia?aaioee aeaiiuo ?aaeecothony oieueei a oi?iaoa “?aaeno? –
?aaeno?“ ( iia?aiaeu auae?athony ec iia?aoeaiuo ?aaeno?ia i?ioeanni?a, e
?acoeueoao iia?aoeee caienuaaaony oaeaea a ?aaeno?; a iaiai iaaeaeo
iia?aoeaiuie ?aaeno?aie e iaiyoueth auiieiyaony oieueei n iiiiuueth
eiiaiae caa?ocee\caiene ).

Ninoaa nenoaiu eiiaiae aeieaeai auoue “ oaeiaai “ aeey eiiieeyoeee
iia?aoi?ia ycueia aunieiai o?iaiy.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u n a?oeoaeoo?ie CISC ( Complex Instruction Set
Computers) – a?oeoaeoo?a au/eneaiee n iieiie nenoaiie eiiaiae.
?aaeecothuea ia o?iaia iaoeiiiai ycuea eiiieaeniua iaai?u eiiaiae
?acee/iie neiaeiinoe ( io i?inouo, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey iee?ii?ioeanni?a
ia?aiai iieieaiey, aei cia/eoaeueiie neiaeiinoe, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
nia?aiaiiuo 32 -?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia oeia 80486, 68040 e ae?. )

Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo 32-?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

Iaci? ia/i?i n i?ioeanni?ia RISC – a?oeoaeoo?u.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u Alpha.

I?iaeo Alpha oe?iu Digital Equipment aue i?eaioe?iaai ia
ia?aaeiaoth oaoiieiaeth ( 0,8 – iee?iiiay oaoiieiaey ) , ia?niaeoeaioth
a?oeoaeoo?o e ia?aaioeo 64 – ?ac?yaeiuo i?eeiaeaiee a n?aaea Unix.
Ianeieueei iicaeiaa ieaooi?ia Alpha AXP auea aeiiieiaia n?aaenoaaie
iiaeaea?aeee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu Microsoft Windows NT.

Ia?aui i?ioeanni?ii naiaenoaa Alpha AXP noae iee?ii?ioeanni? 21064,
auiieiaiiue ii 0,75 – iee?iiiie oaoiieiaee, niaea?aeauei 1,68 iei.
o?aicenoi?ia. Oaeoiaay /anoioa ( aei 200 Iaoe ) e noia?neaey?iay
ia?aaioea iicaieee yoiio i?ioeanni?o iaieoe anao eiieo?aioia ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

A 1994 a Digital Equipment auionoeea iiaeeoeeaoeeth i?ioeanni?a 21064 –
iiaeaeue Alpha 2164A n oaeoiaie /anoioie 275 IAoe.

A 1993 a , ec-ca aunieie oeaiu ( aieaa 2000 usd ) auoaoiiiyioouo
i?ioeanni?ia, yoa ei?ii?aoeey auionoeea i?ioeanni?u Alpha 2166 e 2168 (
200 -350 usd ) n oaeoiaie /anoioie 66-233 IAoe.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u PowerPC.

A 1992 a eiiiaiee IBM, Motorola e Apple i?eiyee ?aoaiea inicaeaiee
naiaenoaa RISC – i?ioeanni?ia oe?ieiai i?ioeey. Ca iniiao i?iaeoa aue
acyo i?ioeanni? POWER ( Performance Optimised With Enchanced RISC ) .

PowerPC 601- yoi 32- ?ac?yaeiue i?ioeanni? oaeoiaie /anoioie 50,66 eee
80 IAoe aue auiieiai ii 0,8 -iee?iiiie oaoiieiaee.

Aeaeueiaeoee oaa – PowerPC 603 n oaeoiaie /anoioie 66 e 80 Iaoe, a
eioi?ii oa aea no?oeoo?a auea ?aaeeciaaia a aieaa ieieaoth?iii
eniieiaiee.

PowerPC 604 auiieiai ii 0,5 – iee?iiiie oaoiieiaee n oaeoiaie /anoioie
100 IAoe.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u ARM oe?iu Acorn.

Ia?aua II oeia ARM (Acorn Risc Machine) ?ac?aaioaiu a 1985 a.
?ac?aaioaiiue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy 32- ?ac?yaeiue II ( ia aaca 30-iei
oaoiaeiaee CMOS ) eiaao neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee: 27 oun.
o?aicenoi?ia, 4-8 Iaoe oaeoiaie /anoiou, 32- ?ac?yaeioth oeio aeaiiuo,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue- 10 iei ii/n.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u CISC – a?oeoae?o?u.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? AI 29000 oe?iu AID.

II i?eaioe?iaai ia oe?ieee niaeo? i?eiaiaiey e eiaao neaaeothuea
oa?aeoa?enoeee: 26 Iaoe -oaeoiaay /anoioa,i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue – 25 iei
ii/n.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oe?iu Intel.

A 1985 a oe?ia Intel auioneaao iee?ii?ioeanni? 80386. E?enoaee ia
eioi?ii ii aue auiieiai noae ?iaeiia/aeueieeii iiaiai iieieaiey
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? i80386.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?iue iaai? 80386 aeeth/aao neaaeothuea noaiu:
80386-auno?iaeaenoaothuee 32-?ac?yaeiue iee?ii?ioeanni? n 32- ?ac?yaeiie
aiaoiae oeiie; 80387 – auno?iaeaenoaothuee 32-?ac?yaeiue
iaoaiaoe/aneee nii?ioeanni?; 82384 – aaia?aoi? oaeoiauo neaiaeia;
82385 – eiio?ieea? eao-iiiyoe, 82307 – a?aeo? iaaeno?aee, 82308 –
eiio?ieea? iaaeno?aee e.o.ae.

II 80386 iioeiece?iaai aeey iiiaicaaea/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e
i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/, aeey eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii aunieia
auno?iaeaenoaea.Aeaaiie aai iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony aiia?aoiay
?aaeecaoeey oae iacuaaaiie iiiainenoaiiie i?ia?aiiie n?aaeu,
iaania/eaathuae aiciiaeiinoue niaianoiie ?aaiou ?acii?iaeiuo i?ia?ai
iieueciaaoaeae, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?aciua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu ( UNIX,
MS DOS, APX 86 ). II 80386 iaania/eaaao i?ia?aiioth niaianoeiinoue nieco
aaa?o ii ioiioaieth e 16- ?ac?yaeiui II. II eiaao neaaeothuea
oa?aeoa?enoeee: 16, 20 , 25, 33 Iaoe -oaeoiaay /anoioa,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 4 iei eiiaiae a naeoiaeo, 32 Ia/n- i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue oeiu.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? i486.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? niaea?aeeo aieaa 1 iei. o?aicenoi?ia.Iee?ii?ioeanni?iue
iaai? aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea iee?inoaiu: 80486 –
auno?iaeaenoaothuee 32- ?ac?yaeiue i?ioeanni?; 82596NA – 32- ?ac?yaeiue
nii?ioeanni? LAN; 82320 – eiio?ieea? iaaeno?aee Micro Channel ( MCA );
82350 – eiio?ieea? iaaeno?aee EISA e.o.ae.

Ana i?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa 486 eiatho 32-?ac?yaeioth a?oeoaeoo?o,
aioo?aiithth eyo-iaiyoue 8 EA ni neaiciie caienueth (o DX4 -16 EA).
Iiaeaee SX ia eiatho ano?iaiiiai nii?ioeanni?a. Iiaeaee DX2 ?aaeecotho
iaoaieci aioo?aiiaai oaeaiaiey /anoiou (iai?eia?, i?ioeanni? 486DX2-66
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia 33-iaaaaa?oeiaoth nenoaiioth ieaoo), /oi iicaieyao
iiaeiyoue auno?iaeaenoaea i?aeoe/anee a aeaa ?aca, oae eae
yooaeoeaiinoue eyoe?iaaiey aioo?aiiae eyo-iaiyoe ninoaaeyao ii/oe 90
i?ioeaioia. I?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa DX4 – 486DX4-75 e 486DX4-100
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey onoaiiaee ia 25-oe e 33-iaaaaa?oeiaua ieaou. Ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iie caieiatho ieoo iaaeaeo DX2-66 e Pentium-60/66,
i?e/ai auno?iaeaenoaea eiiiuethoa?ia ia 486DX4-100 aieioioth
i?eaeeaeaaony e iieacaoaeyi Pentium 60. Iai?yaeaiea ieoaiey
ninoaaeyao3,3 aieueoa, oi anoue eo iaeuecy onoaiaaeeaaoue ia iau/iua
nenoaiiua ieaou. 486DX4-100 a ianoieueiuo nenoaiao. E niaeaeaieth,
Intel ia?aie/eaaao iinoaaee i?ioeanni?ia 486DX4-100, a oeaiu ia
ieo onoaiiaee ia nouanoaaiii aieaa aunieii o?iaia, /ai ia Pentium 60,
/oiau ecaaaeaoue eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo nianoaaiiuie i?iaeoeoaie.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oe?iu AID.

Oe?ia AMD i?iecaiaeeo 486DX-40, 486DX2-50, 486DX2-66. Aioiayony e
auioneo i?ioeanni?u 486DX2-80 e 486DX4-120. Iie iaania/eaatho iieioth
niaianoeiinoue ni anaie i?eaioe?iaaiiuie ia ieaooi?io Intel
i?ia?aiiiuie i?iaeoeoaie e oaeoth aea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, eae e
aiaeiae/iua ecaeaeey oe?iu Intel (i?e iaeeiaeiaie oaeoiaie /anoioa).
E?iia oiai, iie i?aaeeaaathony ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai, a i?ioeanni? ia
40 MHz ionoonoaothuee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiia Intel, eiieo?e?oao
n 486DX-33, i?aainoiaey aai ii i?iec- aiaeeoaeueiinoe ia20 i?ioeaioia
i?e iaiueoae noieiinoe.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oe?iu Cyrix.

Oe?ia Cyrix ?ac?aaioaea i?ioeanni?u I6 e I7 (aiaeiae 486SX e 486DX 2)
ia oaeoiaua /anoiou 33 i 40 MHz, a oaeaea n oaeaiaieai /anoiou DX2-50 e
DX2-66. Iie eiatho aieaa auno?iaeaenoaothuoth aioo?aiithth eyo-iaiyoue
8 EA n ia?aoiie caienueth e aieaa auno?ue ano?iaiiue nii?ioeanni?. Ii
iaeioi?ui iia?aoeeyi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue auoa, /ai o i?ioeanni?ia
oe?iu Intel, ii iaeioi?uiianeieueei ieaea. Niioaaonoaaiii, nouanoaaiii
?acee/athony e ?acoeueoaou ia ?aciuo oanoe?othueo i?ia?aiiao. Oeaiu ia
486 i?ioeanni?u Cyrix cia/eoaeueii ieaea, /ai ia Intel e AMD.

Aeey naiuo i?inouo nenoai oe?iie Texas Instruments i?iaeieaeaaony
auione aeaoaauo, ii yooaeoeaiuo i?ioeanni?ia 486DLC, eioi?ua, caieiay
i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo 386 e 486 naiaenoaii (iie auiieiaiu
a eiino?oeoeaa 386 i?ioeanni?a, iaania/eaatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia
o?iaia 486 i?ioeanni?a i?e oeaia 386. Iiaay aa?ney – 486SXL n
oaaee/aiiie aei 8 EA aioo?aiiae eyo-iaiyoueth aua aeeaea i?eaeeaeaaony e
oa?aeoa?enoeeai 486 naiaenoaa.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oe?iu Iitorola na?ee IN680OO.

Yoi naiaenoai niaea?aeeo ?yae 16 -?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia, 32
-?ac?yaeiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u : 68020, 68030, 68040. Iiaeaee
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia na?ee 680OO ia niaianoeiu ii iaueaeoiui eiaeai n 8
-?ac?yaeiuie iee?ii?ioeanni?aie na?ee IN68OO.

A 32 -?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ao ia?yaeo n iaania/aieai niaianoeiinoe
n 16 -?ac?yaeiuie nouanoaaiii ?anoe?aiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe :
?anoe?aiea ?aaeeiia niaianoeiinoe, ianooaae?iaaiea a ?yaea ?aaeeiia (
o.a oiiiaeaiea niaea?aeeiiai eiaeaeniiai ?aaeno?a ia 1, 2, 4 eee 8 ) +
16 iiauo eiiaiae i?ioeanni?a e 7 eiiaiae nii?ioeanni?a. Iniiaiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee : oaeoiaay /anoioa 16, 20, 30, 25, 40 ; ?ac?yaeiinoue AEO
– 32 ; ?ac?yaeiinoue oei aeaiiuo e aae?ana – 32.

Ia e?enoaeeao II ionoonoaoao aeie oi?aaeaiey aiaoiae iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoueth. Oi?aaeaiea iia?aoeaiie iaiyouethni no?aie/iie i?aaiecaoeeae
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth iee?inoaiu IN68851.

Ioa/anoaaiiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u.

32 – ?ac?yaeiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u na?ee “ Yeaeo?iieea ” e NI YAI.

Iniiaiua a?oeoaeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe : ae?ooaeueiia aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai
?ieinoueth 4 Aaaeo; 32 -?ac?yaeiia neiai; 32 o?iaiy i?a?uaaiey ( 16 –
aaeoi?iuo aiia?aoiuo e 16 i?ia?aiiuo ); 21 ?aaeei aae?anaoeee;
eino?oeoeee ia?aiaiiiai oi?iaoa; iiaeaea?aeea niaianoeiinoe n16 –
?ac?yaeiuie iiaeaeyie na?ee “ Yeaeo?iieea “.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oeia o?ainouethoa?ia.

O?ainouethoa?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iee?ii?ioeanni?u, ?an/eoaiiua ia
?aaioo a ioeueoei?ioeanni?iuo nenoaiao n iaeiioeiiuie i?ioeanni?aie e
aiia?aoioth iiaeaea?aeeo au/eneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Iniaaiiinoueth
o?ainouethoa?ia yaeyaony iaee/ea eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo auno?uo eaiaeia
nayce, eaaeaeee ec eioi?uo iiaeao iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaeaaaoue ii iaeiie
iaaeno?aee aeaiiua a i?ioeanni?, a ii ae?oaie – aeaiiua ec iaai. A
ninoaaa eiiaiae o?ainouethoa?ia eiathony eiiaiaeu oi?aaeaiey
i?ioeannaie, iiaeaea?aeee eino?oeoeee ycueia aunieiai o?iaiy.
O?ainiuethoa?u aeaaiui ia?acii i?eiaiythony a ea/anoaa nii?ioeanni?ia
IYAI.

O?ainiuethoa?u oe?iu INMOS.

Oeie/iuie o?ainiuethoa?aie yaeythony iiaeaee O414 e O800.

Iiaeaeue O414 niaea?aeeo 6 32-?ac?yaeiuo ?aaeno?ia, o?e ?aaeno?a noaea,
n/?o/ee eiiaiae, ?aaeno? aae?ana ?aai/ae ciiu iaiyoe, ?aaeno? iia?aiaea.

Iauaa /enei eiiaiae II ?aaii 111, ?aaeeiia aae?anaoeee – 1,
eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo eaiaeia nayce – 4, nei?inoue ia?aaea/e ii eiaeaeiio
eaiaeo 20 Iaeo/n.

Iiaeaeue O800 niaea?aeeo aeiiieieoaeueii nii?ioeanni? a?eoiaoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee n ieaaathuae oi/eie n auno?iaeaenoaeai aei 2,25 iei. iia?.nae.

Nenoaiu i?ia?aie?iaaiey o?ainiuethoa?ia a iniiaiii aeeth/atho
o?aineyoi?u n ycueia aunieiai o?iaiy Ianeaeue, Ne, Oi?o?ai.

Iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?enoeee o?ainiuethoa?ia oe?iu INMOS : ?ac?yaeiinoue –
32, nei?inoue ia?aaioee aeaiiuo – 40 Iaaeo/n, aae?anoaiia i?ino?ainoai –
4 Aaaeo.

Eiino?oeoeaiia auiieiaiea.

Co?oeoo?u ?acee/iuo oeiia II iiaoo nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoueny, iaeiaei n
oi/ee c?aiey iieueciaaoaey iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ia?aiao?aie yaeythony
a?oeoaeoo?a, aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai iaiyoe, ?ac?yaeiinoue oeiu aeaiiuo,
auno?iaeaenoaea.

A?oeoaeoo?o II ii?aaeaeyao ?ac?yaeiinoue neiaa e aioo?aiiae oeiu aeaiiuo
II. Ia?aua II iniiauaaeenue ia 4-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?a. Ia?aua IYAI
eniieueciaaee II n 8- ?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie, a nia?aiaiiua II
iniiaaiu ia II n 16 e 32- ?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u n 4- e 8-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie eniieueciaaee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue i?eioeei auiieiaiey eiiaiae, i?e eioi?ii i/a?aaeiay
iia?aoeey ia/eiaaony oieueei iinea auiieiaiey i?aaeuaeouae. A iaeioi?uo
II n 16-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie eniieuecothony i?eioeeiu ia?aeeaeueiie
?aaiou, i?e eioi?ie iaeiia?aiaiii n auiieiaieai oaeouae eiiaiaeu
i?iecaiaeyony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay auai?ea e o?aiaiea iineaaeothueo
eiiaiae. A II n 32-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie eniieuecoaony eieaaea?iue
iaoiae auiieiaiey eiiaiae, i?e eioi?ii ianeieueei aioo?aiieo ono?ienoa
II ?aaioatho ia?aeeaeueii, i?iecaiaey iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaioeo
ianeieueeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eiiaiae i?ia?aiiu.

Aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai iaiyoe ii?aaeaeyaony ?ac?yaeiinoueth aae?aniuo
?aaeno?ia e aae?aniie oeiu II. A 8-?ac?yaeiuo II aae?aniua ?aaeno?u
iau/ii ninoaaeythony ec aeaoo 8-?ac?yaeiuo ?aaeno?ia, ia?acoy
16-?ac?yaeioth oeio, aae?anothuoth 68 Eaaeo iaiyoe. A 16-?ac?yaeiua II,
eae i?aaeei, eniieuecothony 20-?ac?yaeiua aae?aniua ?aaeno?u,
aae?anothuea 1 Iaaeo iaiyoe. A 32-?ac?yaeiuo II eniieuecothony 24- e
32-?ac?yaeiua aae?aniua ?aaeno?u, aae?anothuea io 16 Iaaeo aei 4 Aaaeo
iaiyoe.

Aeey auai?ee eiiaiae e iaiaia aeaiiuie n iaiyoueth II eiatho oeio
aeaiiuo, ?ac?yaeiinoue eioi?ie, eae i?aaeei, niaiaaeaao n
?ac?yaeiinoueth aioo?aiiae oeiu aeaiiuo, ii?aaeaeyaiie a?oeoaeoo?ie II.
Iaeiaei aeey oi?iuaiey nayce n aiaoiae aiia?aoo?ie aiaoiyy oeia aeaiiuo
iiaeao eiaoue ?ac?yaeiinoue iaiueooth, /ai aioo?aiiyy oeia e ?aaeno?u
aeaiiuo. Iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua II n 16-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?ie eiatho
8-?ac?yaeioth aiaoithth oeio aeaiiuo. Iie i?aaenoaaeyio niaie
niaoeeaeueiua iiaeeoeeaoeee iau/iuo 16 ?ac?yaeiuo II e iaeaaeatho
i?aeoe/anee oie aea au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoueth.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo ia?aiao?ia II yaeyaony auno?iaeaenoaea ii?aaeaeyaiia
oaeoiaie /anoioie aai ?aaiou, eioi?ay iau/ii caaeaaony aiao ieie
neio?ineaiaeaie. Aeey ?aciuo II yoa /anoioa eiaao i?aaeaeu 0,4…33
IAoe. Auiieiaiea i?inoaeoeo eiiaiae (iai?eia?, neiaeaiea aeaoo
iia?aiaeia ec?aaeno?ia eee ia?anueea iia?aiaeia a?aaeno?ao II ) o?aaoao
ieieiaeueii aeaoo ia?eiaeia oaeoiauo eiioeuenia ( aeey auai?ee eiiaiaeu
e a? auiieiaiey ). Aieaa neiaeiua eiiaiaeu o?aaotho aeey auiieiaiey aei
10 – 20 ia?eiaeia oaeoiauo eiioeuenia. Anee iia?aiaeu iaoiaeyony ia a
?aaeno?ao, a a iaiyoe, aeiiieieoaeueiia a?aiy ?anoiaeoaony ia auai?ee
iia?aiaeia a ?aaeno?u e caiene ?acoeueoaoa a iaiyoue.

Nei?inoue ?aaiou II ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei oaeoiaie /anoioie, ii e
iaai?ii aai eiiaiae, eo aeaeinoueth, ?acaeoie nenoaiie i?a?uaaiee.

Oeaia e ae?oaea iieacaoaee

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u Alpha.

Oaoiieiae/aneia ?aoaiea niinianoaothuaa iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
i?ioeanni?a AO? 21064 , ssaeythony aeaa ?acaeaeueiua eyo – iaiyoe aeey
eiiaiae e aeaiiuo ii 8 Eaaeo eaaeaeay. E?iia oiai, a yoii /eia i?eiai?i
iaoiae i?aaeneacaiey aaoaeaiey ( Branch Prediction ), eioi?ue iicaieyao
i?aaeneacuaaoue aiciiaeiua ?acaaoaeaiey iioieia eiiaaea?iie eeiee.

Iniiaiui i?eiouanoaii yoiai i?ioeanni?a yaeyaony aai aunieay oaeoiaay
/anoioa, iaania/eaaaiay iniaie no?oeoo?ie i?ioeanni?a.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u ARM.

II niaea?aeeo AEO, naeaeaaoaeue, oiiiaeeoaeue, aeaaaeoeaoue naiue 32-
?ac?yaeiuo ?aaeno?ia.

A II ?aaeeciaai o?aonooiai/aoue eiiaaea? (iaeia eino?oeoeey auiieiyaony,
aoi?ay -aeaeiaee?oaony o?aouey – n/eouaaaony a iaiyoe).

Ia?auaiea e iaiyoe inouanoaeyaony oieueei eiiaiaeaie ca?ocee e
caiiieiaiey ?aaeno?ia, iaania/eaathueie aae?anaoeeth aaeoa eee
32-?ac?yaeiiai neiaa.

II iiaeao ?aaioaoue a /aou?ao ?aaeeiao (I – iieueciaaoaey, 1 –
i?a?uaaiey. 2 – auno?iai i?a?uaaiey. 3 – noia?aeci?a), eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo iiaeao eniieueciaaoue naie nianoaaiiua 32-?ac?yaeiua ?aaeno?u.

?aaeei Iiia?a ?aaeno?ia

0 0 – 15

1 10 – 14

2 13 , 14

3 13 , 14

Ana eiiaiaeu II eiatho aeeeio 32 ?ac?yaea.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? AI 29000 oe?iu AID.

II niaea?aeeo o?e ono?ienoaa : i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie auai?ee,
eniieieoaeueiia, oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth.

Eniieieoaeueiia ono?ienoai aeeth/aao a naay ?aaeno?iaue oaee,
niaea?aeauee 64 ?aaeno?an oeene?iaaiiui aae?anii ( aeiaaeueiua ?aaeno?u
) e 128 ?aaeno?ia n ia?aiaiiui aae?anii ( eieaeueiua ?aaeno?u).

Aeiaaeueiua ?aaeno?u iacia/athony noaoe/anee eiiieeyoi?ii eee
i?ia?aiienoii. Iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ?aciauaiey aeaiiuo IN,
oaeeo, eae aaciauo aae?ania no?aieoe.

Eieaeueiua ?aaeno?u auiieiytho ooieoeee ?aaeno?ia noaea aeey
o?aiaiey ia?aiao?ia i?ioeaaeo?u ia?auaiey e iiaei?ia?aiia. Ana eiiaiaeu
eiatho oeene?iaaiiue 32-?ac?yaeiue oi?iao,iaania/eaathuee oi?iuaiea
i?aaiecaoeee eiiaaea?a, noaiu auai?ee e ia?aaioee eiiaiaeu e ae?.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u oe?iu Intel.

A i?ioeanni?ao i?eiaiythony ?anoe?aiiua iee?ieaiaeu, oa?aeoa?ecothueany
neaaeothueie iaeiouanoaaie : iiaeaea?aeea ia?aeeaeueiie
iiiaii?ioeanni?iie iiiaicaaea/iie ?aaiou; aei 15 eaiaeia i?yiiai
aeinooia; iaeiia?aiaiiay ia?aaioea e auai?ea aeaiiuo;
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue aeinooi e aeaiiui; oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay aeeaaiinoeea
e eieaeecaoeey ioeaie; oi?aaeaiea eiioeeeoaie i?e i?a?uaaieyo aaiaea –
auaiaea; aaoiiaoe/aneia ?anoe?aiea; eaeaioeoeeaoeey e eioaa?aoeey.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? i80386.

A 80386 eiaaony 32 ?aaeno?a, ?acaeaeyaiuo ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu :
?aaeno?u iauaai iacia/aiey, naaiaioiua, oeacaoaeue eiiaiae e oeaae,
oi?aaeaiey.

Oanoue i?ia?aiii aeinooiiuo ?aaeno?ia ioeaaeee ?aaeecotho iiaeaea?aeeo
i?ioeanna ioeaaeee i?ia?aii : /aou?a oeacuaatho /aou?a oi/ee inoaiiaa,
oi?aaeythuee eniieuecoaony aeey onoaiiaee eiio?ieueiuo oi/ae , a
noaooniue iieacuaaao oaeouaa ninoiyiea oi/ae inoaiiaa. Yoe ?aaeno?u
iaania/eaatho caaeaiea eiio?ieueiuo oi/ae inoaiiaa ii eiiaiaeai e
aeaiiui, a oaeaea iioaaiaue ?aaeei auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? 80386 niaea?aeeo oanoue aeieia, iaania/eaathueo
oi?aaeaiea auiieiaieai eiiaiae, naaiaioaoeeth, no?aie/ioth ?aaiecaoeeth
iaiyoe, nii?yaeaiea n oeiaie, aeaeiaee?iaaiea e oi?aaeaeathuoth auai?eo
eiiaiae. Ana yoe ono?ienoaa ?aaioatho a aeaea eiiaaea?a, i?e/ai eaaeaeia
ec ieo iiaeao auiieiyoue naith

eiie?aoioth ooieoeeth ia?aeeaeueii n ae?oaeie. Oaeei ia?acii, ai a?aiy
auiieiaiey iaeiie eiiaiaeu i?iecaiaeeony aeaeiaee?iaaiea aoi?ie, a
o?aouey auae?aaony ec iaiyoe. Aeiiieieoaeueiui n?aaenoaii iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe neoaeeo niaoeeaeueiue aeie auno?iai oiiiaeaiey
(aeaeaiey). Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth niaea?aeeo aeie naaiaioaoeee
e aeie no?aie/iie i?aaiecaoeee. Naaiaioaoeey iicaieyao oi?aaeyoue
eiae/aneei aae?aniui i?ino?ainoaii, iaania/eaay ia?aianoeiinoue
i?ia?aii e aeaiiuo e yooaeoeaiia ?acaeaeaiea iaiyoe iaaeaeo caaea/aie.
No?aie/iue iaoaieci ?aaioaao ia aieaa ieceii o?iaia y i?ic?a/ai aeey
naaiaioaoeee, iicaieyy oi?aaeyoue oece/aneei aae?aniui i?ino?ainoaii.
Eaaeaeue naaiaio ?acaeaeyaony ia iaeio eee ianeieueei no?aieoe ?acia?ii
4 Eaaeoa.

Iaiyoue i?aaieciaaia a aeaea iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo naaiaioia
ia?aiaiiie aeeeiu. Iaeneiaeueiay aeeeia naaiaioa 4 Aaaeoa. Eaaeaeay
iaeanoue aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa iiaeao eiaoue naycaiiua n iae ao?eaoou,
ii?aaeaeythuea aa ?aniieiaeaiea, ?acia?, oei (noae, i?ia?aiia eee
aeaiiua) oa?aeoa?enoeee caoeou.

Ono?ienoai naaiaioaoeee iaania/eaaao /aou?aoo?iaiaaoth caueoo aeey
ecieyoeee i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ e iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Iee?ii?ioeanni? i486.

Ii n?aaiaieth n 80386 i?ioeanni?ii, ii/oe ana oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
naeaeaiu ia aiia?aoiii o?iaia, e o iiaiai i?ioeanni?a ai?acaei aieueoa.
Ia e?enoaeea, e?iia oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a, auee ?aciauaiu :
iaoaiaoe/aneee nii?ioeanni?, eyo e ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey iaiyiueth,
eioi?ia iicaieyei oece/anee aae?aniaaoue aei 4 Aaaeo ICO.
Iee?ii?ioeanni? 80486 ia /anoioa 25 – Iaoe ?aaioae a 3 – 4 ?aca auno?aa
/ai iee?ii?ioeanni? 80386, ?an/eoaiiue ia oaeoth aea /anoioo.

A iee?ii?ioeanni?a eniieuecothony ?acaeaeueiua 32 – ?ac?yaeiua oeiu
aae?ana e aeaiiuo, iaania/eaathuea a iiiiiieueiii ?aaeeia nei?inoue
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aei 106 I aaeo\n ( i?e oaeoiaie /anoioa 33 Iaoe ), a
oaeaea 8 Eaaeo ano?iaiie eyo – iaiyoe, ea?athuae ?ieue aooa?a iaaeaeo
ioiineoaeueii iaaeeaiiie iniiaiie iaiyoueth e aunieinei?inoiui
i?ioeanni?ii. I?ioeanni? i80486 a nai? a?aiy yaeyeny iacaiaieiui i?e
?aaioa a oaeie iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneie nenoaia eae UNIX.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee iieueciaaoaeth i?e auai?a.

Ia?aue iieacaoaeue – a?oeoaeoo?a naiiai iee?ii?ioeanni?a, eaeay iia RISC
eee CISC.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oeoaeoo? oeiiauo MI i?eaaaeaiu ia neaaeothuae
no?aieoea:

Oa?aeoa?enoeea

CISC RISC

Oi?iao eiiaiae Ia?aiaiiue Noaiaea?oiue

No?oeoo?a eiiaiae Neiaeiay I?inoay

Auiieiaiea anao eiiaiae Aiia?aoii – i?ia?aiiia Aiia?aoiia

*enei eiiaiae Aieueoia Iaaieueoia

*enei ?aaeno?ia Iaaieueoia Aieueoia

A?aiy ia?aaioee i?a?uaaiey N?aaeiaa I/aiue iaeia

Oaeoiaay /anoioa, IAoe 25 ; 33 ; 40 12 ; 16,7 ; 20

N?aaeiaa /enei oaeoia ca eino?oeoeeth 4 – 6 1,2 – 2

N?aaeiaa /enei o?aicenoi?ia, oun. 300 – 400 aei 50

Auno?iaeaenoaea iei. ii\n. 4 – 6 10 – 12

Ioiioaiea oun o?aicenoi?ia\iei. ii\n 70 5

Iinoaiaiiia oneiaeiaiea CISC-i?ioeanni?ia i?ienoiaeeo a iai?aaeaiee
aieaa niaa?oaiiiai oi?aaeaiey iaoeiiuie ?ano?naie, a oaeaea a
iai?aaeaiee naeeaeaiey iaoeiiuo ycueia n ycueaie aunieiai o?iaiy.

A oi aea a?aiy neiaeiay nenoaia eiiaiae e ia?aiaiiue oi?iao eiiaiaeu
i?ioeanni?ii n CISC a?oeoaeoo?ie i?eaaee e auno?iio ?inoo neiaeiinoe
noai (80386 niaea?aeeo 270 oun., a 80486 – 1 iei. o?aicenoi?ia) e, eae
neaaenoaea, e i?aaeaeo aiciiaeiinoae CISC- a?oeoaeoo?u a ?aieao
nouanoaothuae e?aiieaaie oaoiieiaee.

Oneiaeiaiea RISN i?ioeanni?ia oaeoe/anee i?eaeeaeaao eo a?oeoaeoo?o e
NISC-a?oeoaeoo?a.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /enei MI n RISC-a?oeoaeoo?ie nouanoaaiii aic?inei e
ana aaaeouea oe?iu NOA eo i?iecaiaeyo, a oii /enea oe?iu Intel, Motorola
– i?iecaiaeeoaee iniiaiuo naiaenoa II n NISC-a?oioaeoo?ie.

I?ioeanni?u n RISC – a?oeoaeoo?ie oe?iei i?eiaiythony a ieaoao –
onei?eoaeyo ( aenaea?aoi?ao ) aeey i?aia?aciaaiey noaiaea?oiuo 16 –
?ac?yaeiuo IYAI a 32 – ?ac?yaeiua ia?niiaeueiua nenoaiu aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Aoi?ie iieacaoaeue – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. ?acee/atho ianeieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoae, a aeaiiii neo/aa y ?anniio?th 2 aeaea : ieeiaoth
eee i?aaeaeueioth ( i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanni?a aac o/aoa a?aiaie
ia?auaiey e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ca iia?aiaeaie ) e iiieiaeueioth
(i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanni?a n iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth ).

Ieeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eae n?aaeiaa /enei eiiaiae
oeia «?aaeno? – ?aaeno?», auiieiyaiuo a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie aac o/aoa eo
noaoenoe/aneiai aana a aua?aiiii eeanna caaea/. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ca
?oaaaeii ieeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeue iinoue i?ioeanni?a ecia?yaony aeey
eiiaiaeu oeia «iao iia?aoeee» a ieeeeiiao iia?aoeee a nae.

Iiiiaeueiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?aaeeoeeiiii ii?aaeaeyaony eae
n?aaeiaa /enei eiiaiae, auiieiyaiuo iienenoaiie «i?ioeanni? – iaiyoue» n
o/aoii eo noaoenoe/aneiai aana a aua?aiiii eeanna caaea/. Iia
?ann/eouaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ii oi?ioeai e niaoeeaeueiui iaoiaeeeai,
i?aaeeiaeaiiui i?ioeann?ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oeoaeoo?, e ecia?yaony
?acaioaiiuie aeey ieo ecia?eoaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie, ?aaeecothueie
niioaaonoaothuoth yoaeiiioth iaa?oceo.

O?aoee iieacaoaeue – auno?iaeaenoaea, ecia?yaiia ieeeeiiaie oaeoia
anaeoiaeo eee Iaaa Aa?oeaie. *ai aieueoa Iaoe oai eo/oa, oioy auai?
iaeaieaa auno?iai i?ioeanni?a a yoii ieaia caaeneo io oieueiu eioaeueea.

N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea no?oeoo? e a?oeoaeoo?

niaianoeiuo 32-?ac?yaeiuo iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

A iee?ii?ioeanni?iie eiaeono?ee oieueei oe?ia Intel “ ecia?aea
aaeineiaae “ inoaeueiua oe?iu e ei?ii?aoeee “ ieynaee io enoiaeiiai “
i?eia?aoay iaoaiou eee aei?aaaouaay e oniaa?oainoaoy, ia neieueei
iicaieye i?ia?ann a yoie iaeanoe, aeaoeua oe?iu Intel. Iiyoiio y
iii?iaoth n?aaieoue i?iaeoeou yoie oe?iu, n/eoay ana inoaeueiua
i?ioeanni?u eeiiaie n aei?aaioeaie eee aac.

Iaa i?ioeanni?a 80386 e 80486 eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth a?oeoaeoo?o – CISC.
Oe?ia Intel caiyea ieoo CISC i?ioeanni?ia, i?ioeanni?ia aieaa iauaai
i?eiaiaiey ii nouanoaaiii ieceei oeaiai.

Oe?ia Intel aeey ioeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe naieo i?ioeanni?ia
i?aaeeiaeeea niaoeeaeueiue eiaeaen – iCOMP (Intel COmparative
Microprocessor Performance), eioi?ue, ii aa iiaieth,aieaa oi/ii
io?aaeaao aic?anoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?e ia?aoiaea e iiaiio
iieieaieth i?ioeanni?ia (iaeioi?ua ec auiouaiiuo oaea iiaeaeae
eiiiuethoa?ia ia iniiaa Pentium i?e auiieiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ia?aii
aeaiiino?e?otho aeaaea iaiueoaa auno?iaeaenoaea, /ai eiiiuethoa?u ia
iniiaa 486DX2-66, yoi naycaii eae n iaaeinoaoeaie eiie?aoiuo nenoaiiuo
ieao, oae e n iaiioeiece?iaaiiinoueth i?ia?aiiiuo eiaeia).
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanni?a 486SX-25 i?eieiaaony ca 100.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ae?oaeo i?i- oeanni?ia, eioi?ua inoaioony a
aeeaeaeoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiia oe?iu Intel, i?aaenoaaeaia a
neaaeothuae oaaeeoea:

IIAeAEUe EIAeAEN iCOMP

486SX2-50 180

486DX2-50 231

486DX2-66 297

486DX4-75 319

486DX4-100 435

Pentium-60 510

Pentium-66 567

Pentium-90 735

Eiiaaea iauay nei?inoue ?aaiou eiiiuethoa?a iacuaaaony
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. Eiaaony ianeieueei niiniaia ecia?aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, e iia caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia, iai?eia? ?acia?a
e auno?iaeaenoaey aeeneia, iaee/ey nii?ioeanni?a e auno?iaeaenoaey
iee?inoai iaiyoe. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony
auno?iaeaenoaea i?ioeanni?a.

Eae i?aaeei i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iiauo i?ioeanni?ia auoa noa?uo.
Iai?eia?, i?ioeanni?u 386 e 486 auno?aa i?ioeanni?a 8086. Eiia/ii
i?ioeanni?u 386 e 486 ia oieueei ii nei?inoe – ai?acaei aaaeiaa eo
?anoe?aiiua aiciiaeiinoe. Iiiaea caauaatho, /oi aaaeia ia oieueei
nei?inoue i?ioeanni?a, ii e oi, /oi ii iiaeao aeaeaoue.

Iau/ii eaaeaeue /eai i?ioeanni?iiai naiaenoaa aeeth/aao ianeieueei
iiaeaeae, aaeeinoaaiiia ?acee/ea eioi?uo caeeth/aaony a ?aai/ae /anoioa.
Aeaenoaeyie i?ioeanni?a oi?aaeytho yeaeo?e/aneea eiioeuenu,
iiyaeythueany ieeeeiiu ?ac a naeoiaeo. Eaaeaeue eiioeuen aucuaaao
iaeioi?ia aeaenoaea i?ioeanni?a, e a?aiy auiieiaiey eiie?aoiie iia?aoeee
ecia?yaony /eneii eiioeuenia (/anoi iacuaaaiuo oaeoaie). Iai?eia?, aeey
oiiiaeaiey aeaoo /enae o?aaoaony aieueoa oaeoia, /ai aeey neiaeaiey.

*enei oaeoia a naeoiaeo ecia?yaony ieeeeiiaie aeaaea aeey iaaeeaiiuo
i?ioeanni?ia e au?aaeaaony a iaaaaa?oeao (IAoe). Iai?eia?, 10 IAoe
icia/atho 10 ieeeeiiia oaeoia a naeoiaeo.

I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo ia?aiao?ao eiiiuethoa? n aieaa auno?ui i?ioeanni?ii
?aaioaao auno?aa eiiiuethoa?a n oai aea i?ioeanni?ii, eiathuei iaiueooth
/anoioo. Iai?eia?, ia?aue eiiiuethoa? PC AT eiae i?ioeanni? 286,
?aaioathuee ia /anoioa 6 IAoe. *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iiyaeeny aieaa
auno?ue eiiiuethoa? PC AT n oai aea i?ioeanni?ii 286, ii ?aaioathuei ia
/anoioa 8 IAoe.

I?e n?aaiaiee auno?iaeaenoaey i?ioeanni?ia iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi iiaua i?ioeanni?u ?aaioatho yooaeoeaiaa noa?uo. Iai?eia?, i?ioeanni?
486 n /anoioie 25 IAoe ?aaioaao auno?aa i?ioeanni?a 386 n oie aea
/anoioie 25 IAoe. A neo/aa niiiaiee auae?aeoa naiue auno?ue eiiiuethoa?,
eioi?ue iiaeoiaeeo ii noieiinoe. A iiaeaeyo iaeiiai e oiai aea
eiiiuethoa?a i?eiaiythony i?ioeanni?u n ?ace/iui auno?iaeaenoaeai.
Iai?eia?, iiaeaeue 70 naiaenoaa PS/2 auioneaaony n i?ioeanni?ii 386,
?aaioathuei ia /anoioao 16, 20 eee 25 IAoe. E?iia oiai, a iaeioi?uo
eiiiuethoa?ao iiaeaee 70 i?eiaiyaony i?ioeanni? 486. A oaaeeoea
i?eaaaeaiu i?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa 86 n eo ?aai/eie /anoioaie. Iieacaiu
ana ?aai/ea /anoiou, iauyaeaiiua oe?iie Intel. Iaeiaei ia eioi?ua
i?ioeanni?u n ieceie ?aai/ae /anoioie niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa. Io iaoei,
/oi oe?ia Intel ii eeoeaiceyi ?ac?aoaea ae?oaei oe?iai auioneaoue
i?ioeanni? 286 e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea; yoe oe?iu i?aaeeaaaee i?ioeanni?u n
ioee/athueieny ?aai/eie /anoioaie. A oaaeeoea i?eaaaeaiu oieueei
/anoiou, ioeoeeaeueii iauyaeaiiua oe?iie Intel.

Oaaeeoea I?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa 86 oe?iu Intel.

I?ioeanni?

*anoiou ( IAoe )

8088 4,77 ; 8

8086 4,77 ; 8 ; 10

188 8 ; 10 ; 12,5 ; 16

186 8 ; 10 ; 12,5 ; 16

286 8 ; 10 ; 12,5

386SX 16 ; 20

386SL 20 ; 25

386DX 16 ; 20 ; 25 ; 33

486SX 16 ; 20 ; 25 ; 33

486DX 25 ; 33 ; 50

486DX2 50 ; 66

486SL 20 ; 25

Pentium 60 ; 66

Ioiaoei, /oi a ?aeeaiiuo iaueyaeaieyo ano?a/athony eiiiuethoa?u n
i?ioeanni?aie 486, ?aaioathueie ia /anoioa 66 Iaoe. Oaeoe/anee ?a/ue
eae?o i i?ioeanni?ao DX2, eioi?ua aioo?e aeaenoaotho ia /anoioa 66 Iaoe,
a n inoaeueiuie ono?ienoaaie acaeiiaeaenoaotho ia /anoioa 33 Iaoe.
Naiue auno?iaeaenoaothuei i?ioeanni?ii 486 ( e naiay auno?ay oeia
eiiiuethoa?a ) eiaao ?aai/oth /anoioo 50 Iaoe. Iaeiaei ieacaeinue, /oi
iau/iua oeiu PC ?aaioatho ia oaeie /anoioa iaiaae?aeii. A iaeaieaa
iaae?aeiuo eiiiuethoa?ao i?eiaiyaony oeia ia 33 Iaoe, a ?acoeueoaou
oanoe?iaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi i?ioeanni?u DX2 n /anoioie 66 Iaoe i?e
iaeioi?uo oneiaeyo i?aainoiaeyo iiaeaee n ?aai/ae /anoioie 50 Iaoe.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

Ii?aciuoeyoue i aoaeouai PC aanueia eioa?anii. Oaoiieiaey
niaa?oainoaoaony noieue auno?i, /oi aa iinoiyiiua iiaeiee noaiiayony
ii?iie. Inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia aoaeouai i?ioeanni?ia naiaenoaa 86.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy RISC – i?ioeanni?u yaeythony oaeaea aacie aeey
iino?iaiey nii?ioeanni?ia e niaoei?ioeanni?ia, eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
eiio?ieea?ia e ae?oaeo ono?ienoa.

Iieaaatho, /oi eiaiii eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo Power PC e Pentium yaeyaony
naiui nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii aeey ?acaeoey ?uiea i?ioeanni?ia e
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Power PC 601 i?eia?ii a aeaa ?aca
aeaoaaea, /ai Pentium, iio?aaeyao a aeaa ?aca iaiueooth iiuiinoue e
i?aainoiaeeo Pentium ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii ii iia?aoeeyi n
ieaaathuae oi/eie. Nia/aea ia i?ioeanni?a 601 auea ?aaeeciaaia oieueei
nenoaia 6000 oe?iu IBM e PowerMac oe?iu Apple. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aieueoeinoai i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiiiuethoa?ia eiatho naie aa?eaiou nenoai
ia aaca Power PC, iaeiaei ?aoaiea ia eo i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny i?aaeaea anaai neeaaeuaathuaeny eiiuthieoo?ie.

Ia/iai n i?ioeanni?a Pentium, naiiai niaa?oaiiiai oai?aiey oe?iu Intel.
A iai eiaaony ianeieueei iiaeiie, iai?eia?, 64-aeoiaay oeia,
i?aaeneacaiea ia?aoiaea, ioaeaeueiua eyoe aeey aeaiiuo e eiiaiae.
I?ioeanni? Pentium ?aaioaao ieieioi aaeaia auno?aa i?ioeanni?a 486DX n
/anoioie 66 IAoe, auiieiyy 100 ieeeeiiia iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo i?e
/anoioa neio?iiecaoeee 60 IAoe. N?aaieoa yoe iieacaoaee n i?ioeanni?ii
8088 ia?aiai IBI PC, ?aaioaaoei ia /anoioa 4,77 IAoe. Aieaa oiai,
Pentium iaiiiai yooaeoeaiaa i?ioeanni?a 8088; oaeoe/aneay
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue a ianeieueei ?ac auoa, /ai i?inoi i?e n?aaia iee
/anoio neio?iiecaoeee.

Iaeiaei, niaeanii niiauaieyi oe?iu, iaaeaeae auione aua aieaa auno?i
aeaenoaothueo i?ioeanni?ia. A na?aaeeia 90o aiaeia iaeeaeaaony iiyaeaiea
i?ioeanni?a 686 (aiciiaeii, ii aoaeao iacuaaoueny ii-ae?oaiio), a a
eiioea aaea iiyaeony i?ioeanni? 786.

Anee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua naaaeaiey oi/iu (ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi e anoue),
i?ioeanni? 786 aoaeao ?aaioaoue ia /anoioa 250 Iaoe, eiaoue 5 iei
o?aicenoi?ia /aou?a ioaeaeueiuo i?ioeanni?iuo iiaeoey, a oaeaea aeaa
aaeoi?iuo i?ioeanni?a aeey ia?aaioee nieneia /enae, ?aciauaynue ia /eia
ieiuaaeueth 1 ea aethei . E?iia oiai, cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
naiioanoe?iaaieth e a?aoe/aneiio eioa?oaeno n i/aiue aunieie
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth, aeeth/ay aeaeaeoueany ecia?aaeaiey a
?aaeueiii a?aiaie. Aianoa n oai a i?ioeanni?a 786 nio?aieony
niaianoeiinoue ni anai eiathueiny i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai oe?ia Intel
yoio aoaeouee i?ioeanni? iacuaaaony Micro 2000 (ii, aiciiaeii, ii
iiyaeony iiae ae?oaei iacaaieai).

Nae/an naiei auno?iaeaenoaothuei i?ioeanni?ii yaeyaony Pentium n
/anoioie neio?iieaaoeee 66 IAoe. A oaa?aea 1991 a. oe?ia Intel
i?aaenoaaeea aa?eaio i?ioeanni?a 486 n /anoioie 100 IAoe, ii aai
eiiia?/aneeo iinoaaie ia auei, iineieueeo Pentium iaania/eaaao aieaa
aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e iaiueoae /anoioa. Iaeiaei aiciiaeii
iiyaeaiea i?ioeanni?a Pentium n ?aai/ae /anoioie 100 IAoe aei auionea
i?ioeanni?a 786.

Iiieii ana aieaa auno?iaeaenoaothueo i?ioeanni?ia iiyaeythony ana iiaua
i?eniiniaeaiey. Eioa?aniui, i?eia?ii neoaeeo ?acuai eee aiacaei aeey ii
auoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (overdrive socket), eiathuaany a iaeioi?uo
a?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ao. ?aiueoa ethaee ia ciaee, aeey /aai
i?aaeiacia/aiii yoi aiacaei, a nae/an iie ciatho, /oi a iaai iiaeii
anoaaeoue iaoaiaoe/aneee nii?ioeanni? eee aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue
i?ioeanni?. N iiyaeaieai i?ioeanni?a Pentium iaeeaeaaony iiyaeaiea
ioeueoei?ioeanni?iuo PC c i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth iiuiuo
ieieeiiiuethoa?ia e noieiinoueth a ianeieueei ?ac ieaea.

Ia?aoeiny e oaaeeoea , iieacuaathuae i?eaeeceoaeueiia eiee/anoai
o?aicenoi?ia a eiaeaeii i?ioeanni?a, iicaieythuaa i?eaeeae?iii ioeaieoue
eo neiaeiinoue. *oiau iieacaoue no?aieoaeueiue i?ia?ann eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoiieiaee, a oaaeeoeo aeeth/aiu i?aaeoanoaaiieee naiaenoaa 86.

Oaaeeoea . I?aaeoanoaaiieee, /eaiu e aoaeouea /eaiu i?ioeanni?iiai
naiaenoaa 86 oe?iu Intel.

I?ioeanni? *enei o?aicenoi?ia Aiae auionea

4004 2300 1971

8008 3500 1972

8080 6000 1974

8080A 6000 1976

8085 6500 1976

8085A 6500 1978

8086 29000 1978

8088 29000 1979

188 100000 1982

186 100000 1982

286 134000 1982

386 275000 1985

386SX 275000 1988

386SL 855000 1990

486SX 1185000 1991

486 1200000 1989

Pentium 3100000 1993

686 22000000 1994-1996

786 100000000 1999-2001

Ioiaoei cia/eoaeueiia i?aainoiaenoai i?ioeanni?a 786 iaae anaie
i?aaeieie i?ioeanni?aie.

Aeyaey ia i?eaaaeaiiua a oaaeeoea /enea, iao?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
ie? ia noieue ioaeaeaiiiai aoaeouaai, a eioi?ii ethaee aoaeoo iaeaaeaoue
iaaieueoeie, ii?oaoeaiuie eiiiuethoa?aie iaaiia?aceiie iiuiinoe.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1 A.A Iy/aa, A.I. Noaiaioeia IYAI e iee?iYAI.-I.: ?aaeei e

naycue,1991.

2 Au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu, nenoaiu e naoe. O/aaiee iiae ?aaeaeoeeae

A.I. Iyoea?aoia.-:Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,1991.

3 A.Y. Oeao?iia: IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaey.

4 ?. Aaaaa?: Eiioeao?e?iaaiea IE ia i?ioeanni?ao 386/486.

5 I. Ii?oii: Ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? ecioo?e.

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