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Программа сложной структуры с использованием меню

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IINEIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE AI?IUE OIEAA?NEOAO

eaoaae?a yi

?aoa?ao ia oaio :

“ Oanoe?iaaiea e ioeaaeea i?ia?aiiiuo eiiieaenia .”

AUIIEIEE: NOOAeAIO ANO-2-94

Ai?aeaaaa n. a.

i?eiye: AAEIIOOEEI A. E.

( iINEAA 1995 aiae

IAEAAEAIEA.

1. AEAeU EIIO?IEss I?IA?AII
3

2. OeAEE, I?EIOeEIU E YOAIU OANOE?IAAIEss

3. NO?OEOO?IIA OANOE?IAAIEA

4. NIAIANOIIA OANOE?IAAIEA IIAeOEAE

5. OOIEOeEIIAEUeIIA OANOE?IAAIEA

6. OANOE?IAAIEA I?IA?AIIIIAI EIIIEAENA A OeAEII

7. IOEAAeEA I?IA?AII

AEAeU EIIO?IEss I?IA?AII

I?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?ia?aiiiuo iiaeoeae,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aoaiey iaeiie caaea/e e ninoaaeythueo iaeii
oeaeia.

Iniiaiuie ?aciiaeaeiinoyie eiio?iey i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey yaeythony
aecoaeueiue, noaoe/aneee e aeeiaie/aneee.

Aecoaeueiue eiio?ieue – yoi i?iaa?ea i?ia?aii “ ca noieii “ , aac
eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?a. Ia ia?aii yoaia aecoaeueiiai eiio?iey
inouanoaeyaony /oaiea i?ia?aiiu, i?e/ai iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
neaaeothuei aa yeaiaioai:

eiiiaioa?eyi e eo niioaaonoaeth oaenoo i?ia?aiiu ;

oneiaeyi a iia?aoi?ao oneiaiiai auai?a ( IF, CASE ) e oeeeea;

neiaeiui eiae/aneei au?aaeaieyi;

aiciiaeiinoe iacaaa?oaiey eoa?aoeeiiiuo oeeeeia ( WHILE,
REPEAT, LOOP ).

Aoi?ie yoai aecoaeueiiai eiio?iey – neaiciie eiio?ieue i?ia?aiiu

( aa ?o/iay i?ie?ooea ia ianeieueeeo ca?aiaa iiaeia?aiiuo i?inouo
oanoao). ?ani?ino?aiaiiia iiaiea , /oi aieaa auaiaeiui yaeyaony
ia?aeeaaeuaaiea aieueoae /anoe ?aaiou ii eiio?ieth i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa
ia eiiiuethoa?a, ioeai/ii. Iniiaiie aeiaiae a iieueco yoiai oaeia : i?e
?aaioa ia eiiiuethoa?a aeaaiui ia?acii niaa?oainoaothony iaauee a
eniieueciaaiee eeaaeaoo?u, a oi a?aiy eae i?ia?aiienoneay eaaeeoeeaoeey
i?aia?aoaaony i?aaeaea anaai ca noieii.

Noaoe/aneee eiio?ieue- yoi i?iaa?ea i?ia?aiiu ii aa oaenoo
(aac auiieiaiey) n iiiiuueth eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiie oi?iie noaoe/aneiai eiio?iey yaeyaony neioaene/aneee eiio?ieue
i?ia?aiiu n iiiiuueth eiiieeyoi?a , i?e eioi?ii i?iaa?yaony niioaaonoaea
oaenoa i?ia?aiiu neioaene/aneei i?aaeeai ycuea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

Niiauaiey eiiieeyoi?a iau/ii aeaeyony ia ianeieueei a?oii a caaeneiinoe
io o?iaiy oyaeanoe ia?ooaiey neioaenena ycuea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey :

– eioi?iaoeeiiiua niiauaiey e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey , i?e
iaia?oaeaiee eioi?uo eiiieeyoi?, eae i?aaeei, no?ieo ei??aeoiue
iauaeoiue eiae e aeaeueiaeoay ?aaioa n i?ia?aiiie (eiiiiiiaea,
auiieiaiea) aiciiaeia (oai ia iaiaa niiauaiey yoie a?oiiu oaeaea
aeieaeiu ouaoaeueii aiaeece?iaaoueny, oae eae eo iiyaeaiea oaeaea iiaeao
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia ioeaea a i?ia?aiia – iai?eia?, ec-ca iaaa?iiai
iiieiaiey neioaenena ycuea);

– niiauaiey ia ioeaeao, i?e iaia?oaeaiee eioi?uo
eiiieeyoi? iuoaaony eo eni?aaeoue e no?ieo iauaeoiue eiae, ii aai
ei??aeoiinoue iaeiaa?iyoia e aeaeueiaeoay ?aaioa n iei nei?aa anaai ia
aiciiaeia;

PAGE 3

– niiauaiey i na?ueaciuo ioeaeao , i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo
iino?iaiiue eiiieeyoi?ii iauaeoiue eiae caaaaeiii iaei??aeoai e aai
aeaeueiaeoaa eniieueciaaiea iaaiciiaeii;

– niiauaiey ia ioeaeao , iaia?oaeaiea eioi?uo i?eaaei e
i?ae?auaieth neioaene/aneiai eiio?iey e iino?iaiey iauaeoiiai eiaea .

Iaeiaei, i?aeoe/anee ethaie eiiieeyoi? i?iioneaao iaeioi?ua aeaeu
neioaene/aneeo ioeaie. Ianoi iaia?oaeaiey ioeaee iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny
aeaeaei ii oaenoo i?ia?aiiu io ianoa enoeiiie ioeaee, a oaeno niiauaiey
eiiieeyoi?a iiaeao ia oeacuaaoue ia enoeiioth i?e/eio ioeaee. Iaeia
neioaene/aneay ioeaea iiaeao iiaea/ue ca niaie aaia?aoeeth eiiieeyoi?ii
ianeieueeeo niiauaiee ia ioeaeao (iai?eia?, ioeaea a iienaiee ia?aiaiiie
i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth niiauaiey ia ioeaea a eaaeaeii iia?aoi?a
i?ia?aiiu, eniieuecothuai yoo ia?aiaiioth).

Aoi?ie oi?iie neioaene/aneiai eiio?iey iiaeao auoue eiio?ieue
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoe i?ia?aii, oi anoue i?iaa?ea auiieiaiey niaeaoaiee e
ia?aie/aiee no?oeoo?iiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. I?eia?ii iiaeiaiie i?iaa?ee
iiaeao auoue auyaeaiea a oaenoa i?ia?aiiu neooaoeee, eiaaea oeeee
ia?acoaony n iiiiuueth iia?aoi?a aaconeiaiiai ia?aoiaea (eniieueciaaiey
iia?aoi?a GOTO aeey ia?aoiaea aaa?o ii oaenoo i?ia?aiiu ). Aeey
i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoe iiaoo auoue nicaeaiu
niaoeeaeueiua eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa, a i?e eo ionoonoaee yoa oi?ia
noaoe/aneiai eiio?iey iiaeao niaiauaoueny n aecoaeueiui eiio?ieai .

O?aouey oi?ia noaoe/aneiai eiio?iey – eiio?ieue i?aaaeiiiaeiaey
i?ia?aiiu, oi anoue auyaeaiea a aa oaenoa eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua oioy e
neioaene/anee ei??aeoiu, ii nei?aa anaai niaea?aeao ioeaeo eee
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iae. Iniiaiua iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiua neooaoeee :

– eniieueciaaiea a i?ia?aiia iaeieoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
ia?aiaiiuo (oi anoue ia?aiaiiuo, ia iieo/eaoeo ia/aeueiiai cia/aiey) ;

– iaee/ea a i?ia?aiia iienaiee yeaiaioia, ia?aiaiiuo,
i?ioeaaeo?, iaoie, oaeeia, a aeaeueiaeoai ia eniieuecoaiuo a aa oaenoa;

– iaee/ea a oaenoa i?ia?aiiu o?aaiaioia, ieeiaaea ia
auiieiythueony;

– iaee/ea a oaenoa i?ia?aiiu ia?aiaiiuo, ie ?aco ia
eniieuecoaiuo aeey /oaiey iinea i?enaaeaay ei cia/aiee;

– iaee/ea a oaenoa i?ia?aiiu caaaaeiii aaneiia/iuo
oeeeeia ;

Aeaaea anee i?enoonoaea a oaenoa i?ia?aiiu iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiuo
eiino?oeoeee ia i?eaiaeeo e aa iai?aaeeueiie ?aaioa, eni?aaeaiea yoiai
o?aaiaioa iiauneo yniinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue i?ia?aiiu, o. a. aeaaioai?ii
neaaeaony ia aa ea/anoaa.

Aeey aiciiaeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey i?aaaeiiiaeiaey a iieiii iauaia
oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua eino?oiaioaeueiua
n?aaenoaa, oioy ?yae aiciiaeiinoae ii eiio?ieth i?aaaeiiiaeiaey eiaaony
a nouanoaothueo ioeaaei/iuo e iau/iuo eiiieeyoi?ao.

PAGE 4

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nicaeaiea eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa eiio?iey
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoe e i?aaaeiiiaeiaey i?ia?aii iiaeao auoue nouanoaaiii

oi?iuaii i?e i?eiaiaiee neaaeothueo i?eioeeiia:

1) i?iaaaeaiea yoeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo oi?i noaoe/aneiai
eiio?iey iinea caaa?oaiey eiiieeyoeee e oieueei aeey neioaene/anee
ei??aeoiuo i?ia?aii ;

2) iaeneiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?acoeueoaoia
eiiieeyoeee i?ia?aiiu e, a /anoiinoe, eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/aaiie a eenoeia
eiiieeyoi?a;

3) aianoi iieiiai neioaene/aneiai ?acai?a oaenoa
i?iaa?yaiie i?ia?aiiu iino?iaiea aeey iaa nienea eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia e
nienea iia?aoi?ia n oeacaieai anao eo iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eciaeia.

I?e ionoonoaee eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa eiio?iey i?aaaeiiiaeiaey yoa
oaca noaoe/aneiai eiio?iey oaeaea iiaeao iauaaeeiyoueny n aecoaeueiui
eiio?ieai.

*aoaa?oie oi?iie noaoe/aneiai eiio?iey i?ia?aii yaeyaony eo
aa?eoeeaoeey, oi anoue aiaeeoe/aneia aeieacaoaeuenoai eo ei??aeoiinoe.

A eiooeoeaiii niunea iiae ei??aeoiinoueth iiieiatho naienoaa i?ia?aiiu,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea ia ionoonoaee a iae ioeaie, aeiiouaiiuo
?ac?aaio/eeii ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao i?iaeoe?iaaiey ( niaoeeoeeaoeee,
i?iaeoe?iaaiea aeai?eoia e no?oeoo? aeaiiuo, eiaee?iaaiea ).
Ei??aeoiinoue naiie i?ia?aiiu ii ioiioaieth e oeaeyi, iinoaaeaiiui
ia?aae aa ?ac?aaioeie ( oi anoue yoi ioiineoaeueiia naienoai ). Ioee/ea
iiiyoey ei??aeoiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe i?ia?aii a neaaeothuai :

iaaeaaeiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao eae i?ia?aiio, oae e aa
“ie?oaeaiea” ( ea/anoai aiia?aoo?u, eaaeeoeeaoeeth iieueciaaoaey e o.i.
);

aiai?y i iaaeaaeiinoe i?ia?aiiu, iau/ii aeiioneatho
ii?aaeaeaiioth, oioy e iaeoth, aeieth ioeaie a iae e ioeaieaatho
aa?iyoiinoue eo iiyaeaiey.

Iaaeaaeiinoue iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue niaieoiiinoueth neaaeothueo
oa?aeoa?enoee :

1) oeaeinoiinoue i?ia?aiiiiai n?aaenoaa (niiniaiinoue
aai e caueoa io ioeacia);

2) aeeao/anoue (niiniaiinoue e aoiaeiiio eiio?ieth
aeaiiuo e eo i?iaa?ee a oiaea ?aaiou) ;

3) caaa?oaiiinoue (aacaeaooaeoiinoue aioiaiai
i?ia?aiiiiai n?aaenoaa, oa?aeoa?enoeea ea/anoaa aai oanoe?iaaiey);

4) ?aaioiniiniaiinoue (niiniaiinoue i?ia?aiiiiai
n?aaenoaa e ainnoaiiaeaieth naieo aiciiaeiinoae iiea naiaa).

I/aaeaeii, /oi ia anyeay neioaene/anee i?aaeeueiay i?ia?aiia yaeyaony
ei??aeoiie a oeacaiiii auoa niunea, o. a. ei??aeoiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao
naiaioe/aneea naienoaa i?ia?aii.

PAGE 5

N o/aoii niaoeeoeee iiyaeaiey ioeaie a i?ia?aiiao iiaeii auaeaeeoue
aeaa noi?iiu iiiyoey ei??aeoiinoe :

1) ei??aeoiinoue eae oi/iia niioaaonoaea oeaeyi
?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiu (eioi?ua io?aaeaiu a niaoeeoeeaoeee) i?e oneiaee aa
caaa?oaiey eee /anoe/iay ei??aeoiinoue ;

2) caaa?oaiea i?ia?aiiu , oi anoue aeinoeaeaiea
i?ia?aiiie a i?ioeanna aa auiieiaiey naiae eiia/iie oi/ee.

A caaeneiinoe io auiieiaiey eee iaauiieiaiey eaaeaeiai ec aeaoo
iacaaiiuo naienoa i?ia?aiiu ?acee/atho oanoue caaea/ aiaeeca
ei??aeoiinoe :

1) aeieacaoaeuenoai /anoe/iie ei??aeoiinoe ;

2) aeieacaoaeuenoai /anoe/iie iaei??aeoiinoe ;

3) aeieacaoaeuenoai caaa?oaiey i?ia?aiiu ;

4) aeieacaoaeuenoai iacaaa?oaiey i?ia?aiiu ;

5) aeieacaoaeuenoai oioaeueiie (iieiie ) ei??aeoiinoe (oi
anoue iaeiia?aiaiiia ?aoaiea ia?aie e o?aoueae caaea/);

6) aeieacaoaeuenoai iaei??aeoiinoe (?aoaiea aoi?ie eee
/aoaa?oie caaea/e).

Iaoiaeu aeieacaoaeuenoaa /anoe/iie ei??aeoiinoe i?ia?aii eae i?aaeei
iie?athony ia aeneiiaoe/aneee iiaeoiae e oi?iaeecaoeee naiaioeee ycueia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoiu aeneiiaoe/aneea naiaioeee
Ianeaey, iiaeiiiaeanoaa IE/1 e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ycueia.

Aeneiiaoe/aneay naiaioeea ycuea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaieoiiinoue aeneii e i?aaee auaiaea. N iiiiuueth aeneii caaeaaony
naiaioeea i?inouo iia?aoi?ia ycuea (i?enaaeaaiey, aaiaea – auaiaea,
auciaa i?ioeaaeo?). N iiiiuueth i?aaee auaiaea iienuaaaony naiaioeea
ninoaaiuo iia?aoi?ia eee oi?aaeythueo no?oeoo? (iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe,
oneiaiiai auai?a, oeeeeia). N?aaee yoeo i?aaee auaiaea iaaei ioiaoeoue
i?aaeei auaiaea aeey iia?aoi?ia oeeeea oae eae iii o?aaoao ciaiey
eiaa?eaioa oeeeea (oi?ioeu, enoeiiinoe eioi?ie ia eciaiyaony i?e ethaii
i?ioiaeaeaiee oeeeea).

Iino?iaiea eiaa?eaioa aeey iia?aoi?a oeeeea ii aai oaenoo yaeyaony
aeai?eoie/anee ia ?ac?aoeiie caaea/e, iiyoiio aeey iienaiey naiaioeee
oeeeeia o?aaoaony naiaai ?iaea ”iiaeneacea” io ?ac?aaio/eea i?ia?aiiu.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiui ec iaoiaeia aeieacaoaeuenoaa /anoe/iie ei??aeoiinoe
i?ia?aii yaeyaony iaoiae eiaeoeoeaiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiiue
Oeieaeii e oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue Oia?ii. Iaoiae ninoieo ec o?ao yoaiia.

Ia?aue yoai – iieo/aiea aiiioe?iaaiiie i?ia?aiiu. Ia yoii yoaia aeey
neioaene/anee i?aaeeueiie i?ia?aiiu aeieaeiu auoue caaeaiu ooaa?aeaeaiey
ia ycuea eiaeee i?aaeeeaoia ia?aiai ii?yaeea :

PAGE 6

aoiaeiie i?aaeeeao ;

auoiaeiie i?aaeeeao ;

ii iaeiiio ooaa?aeaeaieth aeey eaaeaeiai oeeeea (yoe
ooaa?aeaeaiey caaeathony aeey aoiaeiie oi/ee oeeeea e aeieaeiu
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue naiaioeeo au/eneaiee a oeeeea).

Aeieacaoaeuenoai iaenoeiiinoe oneiaee ei??aeoiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iai?aaeeueiinoe i?ia?aiiu, eee aa niaoeeoeeaoeee, eee i?ia?aiiu e
niaoeeoeeaoeee.

Ianiio?y ia aeinoaoi/ioth neiaeiinoue i?ioeanna aa?eoeeaoeee i?ia?aiiu e
ia oi, /oi aeaaea oniaoii caaa?oaiiay aa?eoeeaoeey ia aeaao aa?aioee
ea/anoaa i?ia?aiiu ( o.e. ioeaea iiaeao niaea?aeaoueny e a aa?eoeeaoeee
), i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia aiaeeoe/aneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?aaeeueiinoe
i/aiue iieacii aeey ooi/iaiey niunea ?ac?aaaouaaaiie i?ia?aiiu, a ciaiea
yoeo iaoiaeia aeaaioai?ii neacuaaaony ia eaaeeoeeaoeee i?ia?aiienoa.

Iaeiiaoe, aeeiaie/aneee eiio?ieue i?ia?aiiu – yoi i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe
i?ia?aiiu i?e aa auiieiaiee ia eiiiuethoa?a, o.a. oanoe?iaaiea.

OeAEE , I?EIOeEIU E YOAIU OANOE?IAAIEss .

Eaaeaeiio i?ia?aiienoo ecaanoii, neieueei a?aiaie e nee ooiaeeo ia
ioeaaeeo e oanoe?iaaiea i?ia?aii. Ia yoio yoai i?eoiaeeony ieiei 50%
iauae noieiinoe ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Ii ia eaaeaeue ec ?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao aa?ii
ii?aaeaeeoue oeaeue oanoe?iaaiey. Ia?aaeei iiaeii oneuoaoue, /oi
oanoe?iaaiea – yoi i?ioeann auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu n oeaeueth iaia?oaeaiey
a iae ioeaie. Ii yoa oeaeue iaaeinoeaeeia : ie eaeia naiia ouaoaeueiia
oanoe?iaaiea ia aeaao aa?aioee, /oi i?ia?aiia ia niaea?aeeo ioeaie.

Ae?oaia ii?aaeaeaiea oanoe?iaaiey ( o A. Iaea?na ) oanoe?iaaiea – yoi
i?ioeann auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu n oeaeueth iaia?oaeaiey a iae ioeaie.
Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee noeioee?oao iiene ioeaie a i?ia?aiiao. Ionthaea
oaeaea ynii, /oi “oaea/iui” oanoii yaeyaony oaeie, ia eioi?ii auiieiaiea
i?ia?aiiu caaa?oeeinue n ioeaeie. Iai?ioea, “iaoaea/iui iiaeii iacaaoue
oano, ia iicaieeaoee auyaeoue ioeaeo a i?ia?aiia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea A. Iaea?na oeacuaaao ia iauaeoeaioth o?oaeiinoue
oanoe?iaaiey : yoi aeano?oeoeaiue ( o.a. ia?aoiue niceaeaoaeueiiio )
i?ioeann. Iineieueeo i?ia?aiie?iaaiea – i?ioeann eiino?oeoeaiue, ynii,
/oi aieueoeinoao ?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa neiaeii
“ia?aeeth/eoueny” i?e oanoe?iaaiee nicaeaiiie eie i?iaeoeoeee.

PAGE 7

O Iaea?na noi?ioee?iaaiu oaeaea iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee
oanoe?iaaiey :

1) iaiaoiaeeiie /anoueth eaaeaeiai oanoa aeieaeii yaeyoueny
iienaiea iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou i?ia?aiiu, /oiau iiaeii auei
auno?i auynieoue iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea ioeaee a iae ;

2) neaaeoao ii aiciiaeiinoe ecaaaaoue oanoe?iaaiey
i?ia?aiiu aa aaoi?ii, o.e. e?iia oaea oeacaiiie iauaeoeaiie neiaeiinoe
oanoe?iaaiey aeey i?ia?aiienoia caeanue i?enoonoaoao e oio oaeoi?, /oi
iaia?oaeaiea iaaeinoaoeia a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioeai?a/eo
/aeiaa/aneie ineoieiaee ( iaeiaei ioeaaeea i?ia?aiiu yooaeoeaiaa anaai
auiieiyaony eiaiii aaoi?ii i?ia?aiiu ) ;

3) ii oai aea niia?aaeaieyi i?aaiecaoeey –
?ac?aaio/ee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia aeieaeia “aaeeiiee/ii ” aai
oanoe?iaaoue ( aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue i?aaiecaoeee, niaoeeaeece?othueany
ia oanoe?iaaiee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa ) ;

4) aeieaeiu yaeyoueny i?aaeeii aeineiiaeueiia eco/aiea
?acoeueoaoia eaaeaeiai oanoa, /oiau ia i?iionoeoue iaeicaiaoioth ia
iiaa?oiinoiue acaeyae ioeaeo a i?ia?aiia ;

5) iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii iiaeae?aoue oano ia
oieueei aeey i?aaeeueiuo ( i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ) aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, ii e
aeey iai?aaeeueiuo (iai?aaeoniio?aiiuo) ;

6) i?e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia eiaeaeiai oanoa
iaiaoiaeeii i?iaa?youe, ia aeaeaao ee i?ia?aiia oiai, /oi iia ia
aeieaeia aeaeaoue ;

7) neaaeoao nio?aiyoue eniieueciaaiiua oanou (aeey
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iiaoi?iiai oanoe?iaaiey i?ia?aiiu iinea aa
iiaeeoeeaoeee eee onoaiiaee o caeac/eea) ;

8) oanoe?iaaiey ia aeieaeii ieaie?iaaoueny
enoiaey ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi a i?ia?aiia ia aoaeoo iaia?oaeaiu ioeaee
(a /anoiinoe, neaaeoao auaeaeyoue aeey oanoe?iaaiey aeinoaoi/iua
a?aiaiiua e iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu) ;

9) neaaeoao o/eouaaoue oae iacuaaaiue “i?eioeei
neiieaiey ioeaie” : aa?iyoiinoue iaee/ey ia iaia?oaeaiiuo ioeaie a
iaeioi?ie /anoe i?ia?aiiu i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia /eneo ioeaie, oaea
iaia?oaeaiiuo a yoie /anoe ;

10) neaaeoao anaaaea iiiieoue , /oi
oanoe?iaaiea – oai?/aneee i?ioeann, a ia ioiineoueny e iaio eae e
?ooeiiiio caiyoeth.

Nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea oanoe?iaaiey : ooieoeeiiaeueiia e
no?oeoo?iia. I?e ooieoeeiiaeueiii oanoe?iaaiee i?ia?aiia ?anniao?eaaaony
eae “/a?iue yuee” (oi anoue aa oaeno ia eniieuecoaony). I?ienoiaeeo
i?iaa?ea niioaaonoaey iiaaaeaiey i?ia?aiiu aa aiaoiae niaoeeoeeaoeee.
Aiciiaeii ee i?e yoii iieiia oanoe?iaaiea i?ia?aiiu ? I/aaeaeii , /oi
e?eoa?eai iieiiou oanoe?iaaiey a yoii neo/aa yaeyeny au ia?aai? anao
aiciiaeiuo cia/aiee aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, /oi iaauiieieii .

PAGE 8

Iineieueeo en/a?iuaathuaa ooieoeeiiaeueiia oanoe?iaaiea iaaiciiaeii,
?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe i ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeia, iicaieythueo iiaeae?aoue oanou
ia “aneaioth”, a n aieueoie aa?iyoiinoueth iaia?oaeaiey ioeaie a
i?ia?aiia.

I?e no?oeoo?iii oanoe?iaaiee i?ia?aiia ?anniao?eaaaony eae “aaeue yuee”
(o.a. aa oaeno ioe?uo aeey iieueciaaiey ). I?ienoiaeeo i?iaa?ea eiaeee
i?ia?aiiu. Iieiui oanoe?iaaieai a yoii neo/aa aoaeao oaeia, eioi?ia
i?eaaaeao e ia?aai?o anao aiciiaeiuo iooae ia a?aoa ia?aaea/ oi?aaeaiey
i?ia?aiiu (aa oi?aaeythuai a?aoa). Aeaaea aeey n?aaeieo ii neiaeiinoe
i?ia?aii /eneii oaeeo iooae iiaeao aeinoeaaoue aeanyoeia ouny/. Anee
ia?aie/eoueny ia?aai?ii oieueei eeiaeiuo ia caaeneiuo iooae, oi e a yoii
neo/aa en/a?iuaathuaa no?oeoo?iia oanoe?iaaiea i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii,
o. e. iaynii, eae iiaeae?aoue oanou , /oiau iaania/eoue “iie?uoea” anao
oaeeo iooae. Iiyoiio i?e no?oeoo?iii oanoe?iaaiee iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea e?eoa?ee aai iieiiou, iicaieythuea aeinoaoi/ii
i?inoi eiio?iee?iaaoue eo auiieiaiea, ii ia aeathuea aa?aioee iieiie
i?iaa?ee eiaeee i?ia?aiiu.

Ii aeaaea anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeaeinue aeinoe/ue iieiiai
no?oeoo?iiai oanoe?iaaiey iaeioi?ie i?ia?aiiu, a iae oai ia iaiaa iiaoo
niaea?aeaoueny ioeaee, o.e.

1) i?ia?aiia iiaeao ia niioaaonoaiaaoue naiae aiaoiae niaoeeoeeaoeee,
/oi a /anoiinoe, iiaeao i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi a aa oi?aaeythuai a?aoa
ieaaeoony i?iiouaiiuie iaeioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiua iooe ;

2) ia aoaeoo iaia?oaeaiu ioeaee, iiyaeaiea eioi?uo
caaeneo io ia?aaaouaaaiuo aeaiiuo (o.a. ia iaeieo enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo
i?ia?aiia ?aaioaao i?aaeeueii, a ia ae?oaeo – n ioeaeie).

Oaeei ia?acii, ie no?oeoo?iia, ie ooieoeeiiaeueiia oanoe?iaaiea ia
iiaeao auoue en/a?iuaathuei. ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa iniiaiua yoaiu
oanoe?iaaiey i?ia?aiiiuo eiiieaenia.

A oanoe?iaaiea iiiaiiiaeoeueiuo i?ia?aiiiuo eiiieaenia iiaeii auaeaeeoue
/aou?a yoaia :

1) oanoe?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeae ;

2) niaianoiia oanoe?iaaiea iiaeoeae ;

3) oanoe?iaaiea ooieoeee i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena (o.a.
iiene ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ?ac?aaioaiiie i?ia?aiiie e aa aiaoiae
niaoeeoeeaoeeae ) ;

4) oanoe?iaaiea anaai eiiieaena a oeaeii (o.a. iiene
ianiioaaonoaey nicaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa noi?ioee?iaaiiui ?aiaa
oeaeyi i?iaeoe?iaaiey, io?aaeaiiui iau/ii a oaoie/aneii caaeaiee).

Ia ia?auo aeaoo yoaiao eniieuecothony i?aaeaea anaai iaoiaeu
no?oeoo?iiai oanoe?iaaiey, o.e.

ia iineaaeothueo yoaiao oanoe?iaaiey yoe iaoiaeu
eniieueciaaoue neiaeiaa ec-ca aieueoeo ?acia?ia i?iaa?yaiiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ;

iineaaeothuea yoaiu oanoe?iaaiey i?eaioe?iaaiu ia
iaia?oaeaiea ioeaie ?acee/iiai oeia, eioi?ua ia iaycaoaeueii naycaiu n
eiaeeie i?ia?aiiu.

I?e oanoe?iaaiee eae ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeae, oae e eo eiiieaenia aeieaeiu
auoue ?aoaiu aeaa caaea/e :

1) iino?iaiea yooaeoeaiiai iiiaeanoaa oanoia ;

2) auai? niiniaa eiiaeie?iaaiey (nai?ee) iiaeoeae
i?e nicaeaiee o?anoe?oaiiai aa?eaioa i?ia?aiiu .

NO?OEOO?IIA OANOE?IAAIEA .

Iineieueeo en/a?iuaathuaa no?oeoo?iia oanoe?iaaiea iaaiciiaeii,
iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue oaeea e?eoa?ee aai iieiiou, eioi?ua aeiioneaee au
eo i?inooth i?iaa?eo e iaeaa/aee au oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue iiaeai? oanoia.

Iaeaieaa neaaui ec e?eoa?eaa iieiiou no?oeoo?iiai oanoe?iaaiey yaeyaony
o?aaiaaiea oioy au iaeiie?aoiiai auiieiaiey (iie?uoey) eaaeaeiai
iia?aoi?a i?ia?aiiu.

Aieaa neeueiui e?eoa?eai yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue e?eoa?ee N1 : eaaeaeay
aaoaue aeai?eoia (eaaeaeue ia?aoiae) aeieaeia auoue i?ieaeaia
(auiieiaia) oioy au iaeei ?ac. Aeey aieueoeinoaa ycueia i?ia?aiie?iaaiey
iie?uoea ia?aoiaeia iaania/eaaao e iie?uoea iia?aoi?ia, ii , iai?eia?,
aeey i?ia?aii ia ycuea IE/1 aeiiieieoaeueii e iie?uoeth anao aaoaae
o?aaoaony anao aeiiieieoaeueiuo oi/ae aoiaea a i?ioeaaeo?o (caaeaaaaiuo
iia?aoi?aie ENTRY) e anao ON – aaeeieoe.

Eniieueciaaiea e?eoa?ey iie?uoey oneiaee iiaeao aucaaoue iiaeai? oanoia,
iaania/eaathueo ia?aoiae a i?ia?aiia, eioi?ue i?iioneaaony i?e
eniieueciaaiee e?eoa?ey N1 (iai?eia?, a i?ia?aiia ia ycuea Ianeaeue,
eniieuecothuae eiino?oeoeeth oeeeea WHILE o AND y DO… , i?eiaiaiea
e?eoa?ey iie?uoey oneiaee o?aaoao i?iaa?ee iaieo aa?eaioia auoiaea ec
oeeeea : NOT x e NOT y ).

N ae?oaie noi?iiu iie?uoea oneiaee iiaeao ia iaania/eaaoue iie?uoey
anao ia?aoiaeia. Iai?eia?, eiino?oeoeey IF A AND B THEN… o?aaoao ii
e?eoa?eth iie?uoey oneiaee aeaoo oanoia (iai?eia?, A=true, B=false e
A=false, B=true ), i?e eioi?uo iiaeao ia auiieiyoueny iia?aoi?,
?aniieiaeaiiue a then – aaoae iia?aoi?a if.

I?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii, i?aaeinoaaeyaiui nia?aiaiiuie
nenoaiaie i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey /anoiou
auiieiaiey ?acee/iuo iia?aoi?ia i?ia?aiiu (aa i?ioeeecaoeee). Ii n
iiiiuueth yoiai eino?oiaioa iiaeaea?aeee oanoe?iaaiey iiaeii i?iaa?eoue
auiieiaiea oieueei neaaaeoaai ec e?eoa?eaa iieiiou – iie?uoea anao
iia?aoi?ia.

I?aaaea, n iiiiuueth yoiai aea eino?oiaioa iiaeii i?iaa?eoue e
auiieiaiea e?eoa?ey N1. Ii aeey yoiai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii oaeno i?ia?aiiu
aeieaeai auoue i?aia?aciaai oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ana eiino?oeoeee
oneiaiiai auai?a (IF e CASE

PAGE
10

eee SWITCH ) niaea?aeaee aaoae ELSE eee DEFAULT, oioy au e ionoua. A
yoii neo/aa ana aaoae aeai?eoia , ia auiieiyaoeany ia aeaiiii oanoa
aoaeoo “aeaeeiu” ec oaaeeoeu /anoiou auiieiaiey iia?aoi?ia
i?aia?aciaaiiie i?ia?aiiu.

Aeooaeueiie inoaaony caaea/a nicaeaiey eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa,
iicaieythueo :

1) iaeaieeaaoue eioi?iaoeee i iie?uouo e iaiie?uouo
aaoayo aeey anao eniieueciaaiiuo oanoia ;

2) auaeaeyoue ?ac?aaio/eeo aua ia iie?uoua i?e
oanoe?iaaiee o/anoee i?ia?aiiu, iaeaa/ay auai? neaaeothueo oanoia ;

3) iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aieaa iiuiua e?eoa?ee iieiiou
no?oeoo?iiai oanoe?iaaiey.

Niaianoiia oanoe?iaaiea iiaeoeae.

Ecaanoiu aeaa iiaeoiaea e niaianoiiio oanoe?iaaieth iiaeoeae : iioaaiaia
e iiiieeoiia oanoe?iaaiea.

I?e iiiieeoiii oanoe?iaaiee nia/aea ii ioaeaeueiinoe oanoe?othony ana
iiaeoee i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena, a caoai ana iie iauaaeeiythony a
?aai/oth i?ia?aiio aeey eiiieaeniiai oanoe?iaaiey.

I?e iioaaiaii oanoe?iaaiee eaaeaeue iiaeoeue aeey naiaai oanoe?iaaiey
iiaeeeth/aaony e iaai?o oaea i?iaa?aiiuo iiaeoeae.

A ia?aii neo/aa aeey aaoiiiiiiai oanoe?iaaiey eaaeaeiai iiaeoey
o?aaoaony iiaeoeue – ae?aeaa? ( oi anoue aniiiiaaoaeueiue iiaeoeue,
eieoe?othuee aucia oanoe?oaiiai iiaeoey) e iaeei eee ianeieueei iiaeoeae
– caaeooae ( oi anoue aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iiaeoeae, eieoe?othueo ?aaioo
iiaeoeae, aucuaaaiuo ec oanoe?oaiiai). I?e iioaaiaii oanoe?iaaiee
iiaeoee i?iaa?ythony ia eciee?iaaiii ae?oa io ae?oaa, iiyoiio o?aaothony
eeai oieueei ae?aeaa?u, eeai oieueei caaeooee.

A

B C D

E F

?en. 1

PAGE 12

I?e n?aaiaiee iioaaiaiai e iiiieeoiiai oanoe?iaaiey iiaeii ioiaoeoue
neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa ia?aiai iiaeoiaea :

1) iaiueoay o?oaeiaieinoue (aeey i?eia?a ia ?en.1 i?e
iiiieeoiii oanoe?iaaiee o?aaothony 5 ae?aeaa?ia e 5 caaeooae ; i?e
iioaaiaii oanoe?iaaiee o?aaothony eee oieueei 5 ae?aeaa?ia – anee
iiaeoee iiaeeeth/athony “nieco aaa?o ”, – eee oieueei 5 caaeooae – anee
iiaeoee iiaeeeth/athony “naa?oo aiec”) ;

2) aieaa ?aiiaa iaia?oaeaiea ioeaie a eioa?oaenao
iaaeaeo iiaeoeyie (eo nai?ea ia/eiaaony ?aiueoa, /ai i?e iiiieeoiii
oanoe?iaaiee ) ;

3) eaa/a ioeaaeea, oi anoue eieaeecaoeey ioeaie (iie
a iniiaiii naycaiu n iineaaeiei ec iiaeeeth/aiiuo iiaeoeae ) ;

4) aieaa niaa?oaiiu ?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey (aieaa
ouaoaeueiay i?iaa?ea niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey iiaeoeae).

Anoue i?eaiouanoaa e o iiiieeoiiai oanoe?iaaiey :

1) iaiueoa ?anoiae iaoeiiiai a?aiaie (oioy ec-ca
aieueoae neiaeiinoe ioeaaeee iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny aeiiieieoaeueiay
i?iaa?ea i?ia?aiiu e yoi i?eaiouanoai aoaeao naaaeaii ia iao) ;

2) i?aaeinoaaeyaony aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ia?aeeaeueiie ?aaiou ia ia/aeueiii yoaia oanoe?iaaiey.

A oeaeii aieaa oeaeaniia?aciui yaeyaony auai? iioaaiaiai oanoe?iaaiey.
I?e aai eniieueciaaiee aiciiaeiu aeaa no?aoaaee iiaeeeth/aiey iiaeoeae :
ienoiaeyuay e ainoiaeyuay.

Ienoiaeyuaa oanoe?iaaiea ia/eiaaony n aeaaiiai (eee aa?oiaai) iiaeoey
i?ia?aiiu, a auai? neaaeothuaai iiaeeeth/aaiiai iiaeoey i?ienoiaeeo ec
/enea iiaeoeae, aucuaaaiuo ec oaea i?ioanoe?iaaiiuo. Iaeia ec iniiaiuo
i?iaeai , aicieeathueo i?e ienoiaeyuai oanoe?iaaiee, – nicaeaiea
caaeooae. Yoi o?eaeaeueiay caaea/a, o. e. eae i?aaeei iaaeinoaoi/ii,
/oiau a caaeooea auiieiyeny auaiae niioaaonoaothuaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
niiauaieye e aica?ao anaaaea iaeieo e oao aea cia/aiee auoiaeiuo
aeaiiuo.

Ae?oaay i?aeaia , eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue i?e ienoiaeyuai
oanoe?iaaiee, – oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey oanoia a i?ia?aiia, oae eae, eae
i?aaeei, aeaaiue iiaeoeue iieo/aao aoiaeiua aeaiiua ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii,
a /a?ac niaoeeaeueiua iiaeoee aaiaea, eioi?ua i?e oanoe?iaaiee a ia/aea
caiaiythony caaeooeaie. Aeey ia?aaea/e a aeaaiue iiaeoeue ?aciuo oanoia
ioaeii eee eiaoue ianeieueei ?aciuo caaeooae, eee caienaoue yoe oanou a
oaee ai aiaoiae iaiyoe e n iiiiuueth caaeooee n/eouaaoue eo.

Iineieueeo iinea oanoe?iaaiey aeaaiiai iiaeoey i?ioeann i?iaa?ee iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny ii-?aciiio, neaaeoao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny neaaeothueo
i?aaee :

a) iiaeoee, niaea?aeauea iia?aoeee aaiaea-auaiaea,
aeieaeiu iiaeeeth/aoueny e oanoe?iaaieth eae iiaeii ?aiueoa ;

a) e?eoe/aneea (o.a. iaeaieaa aaaeiua ) aeey
i?ia?aiiu a oeaeii iiaeoee oaeaea aeieaeiu oanoe?iaaoueny a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue.

PAGE 12

Iniiaiua aeinoieinoaa ienoiaeyuaai oanoe?iaaiey :

oaea ia ?aiiae noaaeee oanoe?iaaiey anoue
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue ?aaioathuee aa?eaio ?ac?aaaouaaaiie i?ia?aiiu ;

auno?i iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu ioeaee, naycaiiua n
i?aaiecaoeeae acaeiiaeaenoaea n iieueciaaoaeai.

Iaaeinoaoee ienoiaeyuae no?aoaaee i?iaeaiiino?e?othony n iiiiuueth
?en.2.

Aeiionoei , /oi ia neaaeothuai oaaa oanoe?iaaiey caaeooea iiaeoey H
caiaiyaony aai ?aaeueiui oaenoii. Oiaaea

1) iiaeao ieacaoueny o?oaeiui eee aeaaea
iaaiciiaeiui iino?ieoue oaeie oano ia aoiaea iiaeoey J, eioi?ue
niioaauenoaiaae au ethaie caaeaiiie iaia?aae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
cia/aiee aeaiiuo ia aoiaea iiaeoey I ;

2) ia anaaaea ieaaeaony aiciiaeiui eaaei
ioeaieoue niioaaonoaea cia/aiee aeaiiuo ia aoiaea iiaeoey J o?aaoaiui
oanoai aeey i?iaa?ee iiaeoey I;

3) o. e. ?acoeueoaou auiieiaiey i?a?aiiu ia
iino?iaiiii aeey i?iaa?ee iiaeoey I oanoa auaiaeyony ia ei, a iiaeoeai I
, iiaeao ieacaoueny o?oaeiui ainnoaiiaeaiee aeaenaeoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou iiaeoey I.

Ae?oaea i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeaoue i?e ienoiaeyuai oanoe?iaaiee
:

iiyaeyaony niaeaci niaiauaiey ienoiaeyuaai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey n oanoe?iaaieai, /oi, eae i?aaeei, ia?acoiii, o.e.
i?iaeoe?iaaiea – i?ioeann eoa?aoeaiue e a iai iaecaaaeai aica?ao ia
aa?oiea o?iaie e eni?aaeaiea i?eiyouo ?aiaa ?aoaiee, /oi iaanoeaieaaao
?acoeueoaou oaea i?iaaaeaiiiai oanoe?iaaiey ;

iiaeao aicieeiooue aeaeaiea ia?aeoe e
oanoe?iaaieth iiaeoey neaaeothuaai o?iaiy aei caaa?oaiey oanoe?iaaiey
i?aaeuaeouaai ii iauaeoeaiui i?e/eiai (iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey
ianeieueeeo aa?nee caaeooae, eniieueciaaiey iiaeoeyie aa?oiaai o?iaiy
?ano?nia iiaeoeae ieaeieo o?iaiae).

I?e ainoiaeyuai oanoe?iaaiee i?aa?ea i?ia?aiiu ia/iiaaony n
oa?ieiaeueiuo iiaeoeae (o.a. oao, eioi?ua ia aucuaatho ia eaeeo ae?oaeo
iiaeoeae i?ia?aiiu). Yoa no?aoaaey ai iiiaii i?ioeaiiieiaeia
ienoiaeyuaio oanoe?iaaieth (a /anoiinoe, i?aeiouanoaa noaiiayony
iaaeinoaoeaie e iaiai?io).

Iao i?iaeaiu auai?a neaaeothuaai iiaeeeth/aaiiai iiaeoey – o/eouaaaony
eeoue oi , /oiau ii aucuaae oieueei oaea i?ioanoe?iaaiua iiaeoee. A
ioee/ea io caaeooae ae?aeaa?u ia aeieaeiu eiaoue ianeieueei aa?nee,
iiyoiio eo ?ac?aaioea a aieueoainoaa neo/aaa i?iua (e?iia oiai,
eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee e ioeaaeee iaeaa/aao nicaeaiea
eae ?ac ae?aeaa?ia, a ia caaeooae).

Ae?oaea aeinoieinoaa ainoiaeyuaai oanoe?iaaiey :

iineieueeo iao i?iiaaeooi/iuo iiaeoeae
(oanoe?oaiue iiaeoeue yaeyaony aeey ?aai/aai aa?eaioa i?ia?aiiu iiaeoeai
naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy), iao i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n aiciiaeiinoueth eee
o?oaeiinoueth caaeaiey oanoia ;

iao aiciiaeiinoe niaiauaiey i?iaeoe?iaaiey n
oanoe?iaaieai ;

iao o?oaeiinoae, aucuaathueo aeaeaiea ia?aeoe e
oanoe?iaaieth neaaeothuaai iiaeoey , ia caaa?oea i?iaa?ee i?aaeuaeouaai.

Iniiaiuie iaaeinoaoeii ainoiaeyuaai oanoe?iaaiey yaeyaony oi , /oi
i?iaa?ea anae no?oeoo?u ?ac?aaaouaaaiiai i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena
aiciiaeia oieueei ia caaa?oathuae noaaeee oanoe?iaaiey.

Oioy iaeiicia/iiai auaiaea i i?aeiouanoaa oie eee eiie no?aoaaee
iioaaiaaiai oanoe?iaaiey naeaeaoue iaeuecy (ioaeii o/eouaaoue eiie?aoiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee oanoe?oaiie i?ia?aiiu), a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui yaeyaony ainoiaeyuaa oanoe?iaaiea.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia oanoe?iaaiey i?ia?aiiiuo eiiieaenia (oanoe?iaaiee
ooieoeee) eiieuecothony i?aaeaea anaai iaoiaeu ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
oanoe?iaaiey.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia oanoe?iaaiea.

Iaci? iaoiaeia i?iaeoe?iaaiey oanoia i?e ooieoeeiiaeueaii oanoe?iaaiee
ia/iai n iaoiaea ceaeaaeaioiiai ?acaeaiey.

O.e. iaoae oeaeueth yaeyaony iino?iaiey iiiaeanoaa oanoia,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaainy iaeaunoae aa?iyoiinoueth iaia?oaeaiey aieueoeinouaa
ioeaie a oanoe?oaiie i?ia?aiia, oi oano ec yoiai iiiaeanoaa aeieaeai :

1) oiaiueoaoue (aieaa /ai ia aaeeieoeo) /enei ae?oaeo oanoia, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auoue ?ac?aaioaiiu aeey aeinoeaeaiey ca?aiaa iinoaaeaiiie oeaee
“oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai” oanoe?iaaiey ;

2) iie?uaaoue niaie cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ae?oaeo
aiciiaeiuo oanoia .

Ae?oaeie neiaaie :

1) eaaeaeue oano aeieaeai caeeth/aoue a naaa
i?iaa?eo iaeaieueoaai /enea caaeaaaaiuo aiaoiae niaoeeoeeaoeeae aoiaeiuo
oneiaee (ia?aie/aiee ia aoiaeiua aeaiiua) aeey oiai, /oiau
ieieiece?iaaoue iauaa /enei iaiaoiaeeiuo oanoia ;

2) iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeoue iaeanoue cia/aiee
aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo ia eiia/iia /enei iiaeiaeanoae (eioi?ua aoaeoo
iacuaaoueny eeannaie yeaeaaeaioiinoe), /oiau iiaeii auei iieaaaoue
eaaeaeue oano, yaeythueeny i?aaenoaaeoaeai iaeioi?iai eeanna,
yeaeaaeaioiui ethaiio ae?oa?iio oanoo yoiai eeanna (o.a.
iaia?oaeeaathuei iaeie e oa aea ioeaee).

A iauai neo/aa eniieueciaaiea oa?ieia “eeann yeaeaaeaioiinoe” yaeyaony
caeanue ia aiieia oi/iui, o.e. auaeaeaiiua iiaeiaeanoe iiaoo
ia?anaeaoueny.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea oanoia ii iaoiaeo yeaeaaeaioiiai ?acaeaiey i?iaiaeeony a
aeaa yoaia :

auaeaeaiea ii aiauiae niaoeeoeeaoeee eeannia
yeaeaaeaioiinoe;

iino?iaiea iiiaeanoaa oanoia.

Ia ia?aii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo auai? ec niaoeeoeeaoeee eaaeaeiai aoiaeiiai
oneiaey e ?acaeaiea aai ia aeaa eee aieaa a?oiiu, niioaaonoaothuea oae
iacuaaaiui “i?aaeeueiui” (IEY) e “iai?aaeeueiui” eeannii yeaeaaeaioiinoe
(IEY), o.a. iaeaoyi aeiionouo aeey i?ia?aiiu e iaaeiionoeiuo cia/aiee
aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. Yoio i?ioeann caaeneo io aeaea aoiaeiiai oneiaey. Anee
aoiaeiia oneiaea iienuaaao iaeanoue (iai?eia?, o 0.5 eee ?acia? A iaiueoa 50 ; ?acia? A aieueoa
50).

Anee aoiaeiia oneiaea iienuaaao aeene?aoiia iiiaeanoai aeiionoeiuo
cia/aiee aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo (iai?eia?, A iiaeao ?aaii -1, 0 eee 1) , oi
ii?aaeaeythony IEY aeey eaaeaeiai cia/aiey ec iiiaeanoaa (a aeaiiii
i?eia?a 3) e iaeei IEY (A-1 & A0 & A1).

Anee aoiaeiia oneiaea iienuaaao neooaoeeth “eiaeii auoue ” (iai?eia?,
N>0), oi ii?aaeaeythony iaeei IEY (N>0) e iaeei IEY (N= aianoi >. I?e
i?iaeoe?iaaiee oanoia ii iaoiaeo yeaeaaeaioiiai ?acaeaiey aoaeoo
iino?iaiu oanou aeey neo/aaa aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey o?aoaieueieea
(iai?eia?, 3, 4, 5) e iaaiciiaeiinoe aai iino?iaiey (iai?eia?, 1, 2, 4),
o.a. ioeaea a i?ia?aiia ia aoaeao iaia?oaeaia (ia aoiaeiua aeaiiua 1, 2,
3 aoaeao auaaaeaii niiauaiea “?aciinoi?iiiee o?aoaieueiee”). Ii
iiaeiaiue oano aoaeao iieo/ai i?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea aiaeeca
a?aie/iuo oneiaee.

Aiaeec a?aie/iuo oeiaee – iaeei ec iaeaieaa iieaciuo iaoiaeia
i?iaeoe?iaaiey oanoia. Ii ii /anoi ieacuaaaony iayooaeoeaiui ec-ca oiai
, /oi a?aie/iua oneiaey eiiaaea aaeaa oeiaeiu, a eo auyaeaiea aanueia
o?oaeii.

Iauei iaaeinoaoeii aeaoo ?anniio?aiiuo auoa iaoiaeia ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
oanoe?iaaiey yaeyaony oi, /oi i?e eo i?eiaiaieia enneaaeothony
enneaaeothony aiciiaeiua eiiaeiaoeee aoiaeiuo oneiaee. Neaaeoao,
i?aaaea, caiaoeoue, /oi ec-ca aanueia aieueoiai /enea oaeeo eiiaeiaoeee,
eo aiaeec aucuaaao nouanoaaiiua cao?oaeiaiey. Ii nouanoaoao iaoiae
(iaoiae ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeeaa?aii), iicaieythuee a yoii neo/aa
nenoaiaoe/aneei ia?acii aua?aoue auniei yooaeoeaiua oanou. Iieaciui
iiai/iui yooaeoii yoiai iaoiaea yaeyaony iaia?oaeaiea iaiieiiou e
i?ioeai?a/eainoe ai aiaoieo niaoeeoeeaoeeyo.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeeaa?aiia – yoi oaeno ia iaeioi?ii oi?iaeueiii ycuea,
ia eioi?ue o?ainee?oaony niaoeeoeeaoeey, ninoaaeaiiay ia anoanoaaiiii
eee iieooi?iaeueiii ycueao. Aeaeaa aoaeao iacuaaoueny i?e/eiie
ioaeaeueiia aoiaeiia oneiaea e neaaenoaeai – auoiaeiia oneiaea eee
i?aia?aciaaiea nenoaiu (o.a. inoaoi/iia aeaenoaea i?ia?aiiu, aucaaiiia
ii?aaeaeaiiui aoiaeiui oneiaeai eee eo eiiaeiaoeeae). Iai?eia?, aeey
i?ia?aiiu iaiiaeaiey oaeea eciaiaiea a iai yaeyaony i?aia?aciaaieai
nenoaiu, a iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaa yoi eciaiaiea niiauaiea – auoiaeiui
oneiaeai.

Iaoiae ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeeaa?aii ninoieo ec oanoe iniiaiuo yoaiia. Ia
ia?aii ec ieo (iaiaycaoaeueiii) aiaoiyy niaoeeoeeaoeey aieueoiai ?acia?a
?acaeaaaony ia ioaeaeueiua o/anoee (iai?eia?, niaoeeoeeaoeey eiiieeyoi?a
ycuea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey ?acaeaaaony ia o/anoee, ii?aaeaeythuea
neioaene/aneee eiio?ieue ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoi?ia ycuea).

Ia aoi?ii yoaia a niaoeeoeeaoeee auaeaeythony i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey, a ia
o?aoueai – aiaeece?oaony naiaioe/aneia niaea?aeaiea niaoeeoeeaoeee e iia
i?aia?acoaony a aoeaaneee a?ao, naycuaathuee i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey e
iacuaathueeny ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeeaa?aiiie. Ia ?en.3 i?eaaaeaiu aaciaua
neiaieu aeey caiene ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeeaa?aii (eaaeaeue ocae
ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeeaa?aiiu iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a ninoiyiee 1 –
“nouanoaoao” – eee 0 – “ia nouanoaoao”).

a) Oiaeaeanoai : (a(1(>b(1) & (a(0(>b(0)

a b

a) Io?eoeaiea : (a(1(>b(0) & (a(0(>b(1)

~

a b

a) Aeecuthieoeey : (a(1(b(1(>c(1) & (a(0&b(>0 >c(0)

a

( c

b

a) Eiiuthieoeey : (a(1&b(1(>c(1) & (a(0(b(0(>c(0)

a

& c

b

?en.3

Ia /aoaa?oii yoaia ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeeaa?aiia niaaaeaaony
eiiiaioa?eyie, eioi?ua caaeatho ia?aie/aiey ia eiiaeiaoeee i?e/ei e
neaaenoaee. Ia ?en.4 i?eaaaeaiu ciaee eiiiaioa?eaa, caaeathueo yoe
ia?aie/aiey.

a) Eneeth/aiea iaeiie ec i?e/ei :

a

E ((a(1(b(1)^~(a(1&b(1)) ( (a(0&b(0)

b

a) Aeeth/aiea oioy au iaeiie i?e/eiu :

a

I (a(1(b(1)&~(a(0&b(0)

b

a) Nouanoaoaoiaeia e oieueei iaeia i?e/eia :

a

O (a(1(b(1)&~(a(1&b(1)&~(a(0&b(0)

b

a) Iaeia i?e/eia aea/ao ca niaie e?oaoth :

a

R ~(a(1&b(0)

b

ae) Iaeii neaaenoaea ne?uaaao a naaa ae?oaia :

a

M (a(1&b(0)&(a(1&b(1)

b

?en.4

Iyoue yoai – ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeeaa?aiia i?aia?acoaony a oaaeeoeo
?aoaiee :

auae?aaony neaaenoaea, eioi?ia onoaiaaeeaaaony a 1 ;

iaoiaeyony ana eiiaeiaoeee i?e/ei (n o/aoii ia?aie/aiee),

eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaatho aua?aiiia neaaenoaea a 1

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