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IEIENOA?NOAI NAssCE ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

IINEIANEEE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO NAssCE

E EIOI?IAOEEE

E O ? N I A A ss ? A A I O A

ii oaia

“ I?iaeoe?iaaiea ono?ienoaa nai?a aeaiiuo “

Nooaeaio a?. A19301

?uaaeei N.I.

I A E A A E A I E A :

Iaeaaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

A a a ae a i e a . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .

C A Ae A I E A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

1. I?AAIECAOeEss ICO ( II AINO – RAM ) . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. ?AAEECAOeEss ONAe IA I?EIOeEIAO

NOAIIIE EIAEEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

2.1. Iauay no?oeoo?iay noaia ONAe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

2.2. No?oeoo?iay noaia IO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .

2.3. Neiaaniia iienaiea oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo . . . . . . . . .

2.4. Neioac oi?aaeythuaai ono?ienoaa (OO) . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.1. Yoai aano?aeoiiai neioaca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

2.4.2. Yoai no?oeoo?iiai neioaca OO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5. Iino?iaiea ooieoeeiiaeueii – eiae/aneie noaiu

i?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa ( ONAe ) . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

2.6. Ioeaiea auno?iaeaenoaey ONAe a aa?eaioa ?aaeecaoeee

ia i?eioeeiao noaiiie eiaeee . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

3. ?AAEECAOeEss ONAe A AEAeA IIN IA AACA

IEE?II?IOeANNI?A E?580EE80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

3.1. No?oeoo?iay noaia iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa .

3.2. Aeie – noaia aeai?eoia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IIO. . . .

3.3. I?ia?aiia ia ycuea Annaiaea?a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

3.4. ?aciauaiea i?ia?aiiu a II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

3.5. I?ia?aiia a eiaeiauo eiiaeiaoeeyo . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

3.6. Ioeaiea auno?iaeaenoaey IIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

E e o a ? a o o ? a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

A a a ae a i e a :

Io?aneue nayce yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa n oi/ee c?aiey aiciiaeiinoae i?eiaiaiey n?aaenoa
oeeo?iaie e iee?ii?ioeanni?iie oaoieee. E /eneo iaeanoae aiciiaeiiai
i?eiaiaiey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia (II) ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, o/?aaeaeaieyo e a
nenoaiao nayce ia?yaeo n oaeeie i?eciaiiuie iai?aaeaiey, eae oi?aaeaiea
nenoaiaie eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia e niiauaiee, aaoiiaoecaoeey
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ioiinyony: nicaeaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai
oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie e eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecia?eoaeueiuo
nenoai, iaania/eaathueo aaoiiaoecaoeeth ecia?aiee, eiio?iey eni?aaiinoe
aiia?aoo?u e eeiee, oi?aaeaiea, a oaeaea ?anoe?aiea na?aeniuo oneoa,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aaiiaioai, aiciiaeiinoae ieiia/iuo ono?ienoa nenoaiu
nayce e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecia?eoaeueiua e oi?aaeythuea oeeo?iaua e
iee?ii?ioeanni?iua nenoaiu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ecia?aiey, nai?a,
ia?aaioee, o?aiaiey e ioia?aaeaiey eioi?iaoeee n ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia, a
oaeaea aeey oi?aaeaiey eie. Eae i?aaeei, iee?ii?ioeanni?iua nenoaiu
(IIN) niaea?aeao II eee iee?i-YAI e n?aaenoaa ecia?aiey e ia?ae/iiai
i?aia?aciaaiey eioi?iaoeee (aeao/eee), nai?a (eiiiooaoeee) neaiaeia
aeao/eeia, eo ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee, ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ia ?annoiyiea,
eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu, n?aaenoaa ioia?aaeaiey (aeenieae,
a?aoiiino?ieoaee, yeaeo?e/aneea ia/aoathuea ono?ienoaa e ae?.).

Eoae, i?e i?iaaaeaiee ecia?aiee ia?aiao?ia eaiaeia nayce, eeai i?e
i?e?ia oaeaiao?e/aneie eioi?iaoeee a YAI ca/anooth aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaania/eoue nai? aeaiiuo. Neaaeoao iai?eia?,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ii?aoeaay aiaeiaiaua eaiaeu, i?aia?aciauaaoue
aiaeiaiaua ecia?eoaeueiua eee oaeaiao?e/aneea neaiaeu, iinooiathuea ii
iei, a oeeo?iaoth oi?io e iiiauaoue eo a II (ICO) n oeaeueth
iineaaeothuae eo ia?aaioee e ioia?aaeaiey.

C A Ae A I E A

Ni?iaeoe?iaaoue ono?ienoai nai?a aeaiiuo (ONAe). Eiaaony F aiaeiaiauo
eaiaeia. Iaiaoiaeeii iineaaeiaaoaeueii ii?aoeaay eo iieo/aaiua ec
eaiaeia aiaeiaiaua aaee/eiu n iiiiuueth AOeI i?aia?aciauaaoue a
Oeeo?iaoth oi?io (a aeaie/iua neiaa noaiaea?oiie aeeeiu 1 aaeo – 8 aeo)
e iiiauaoue a iineaaeiaaoaeueiua y/aeee iaeioi?ie iaeanoe iniiaiie
iaiyoe (II), ia/eiay n y/aeee, eiathuae aae?an G.

n oi?iaoii aae?aniiai neiaa 2 aaeoa – 16 aeo.

Neio?iiecaoeey ?aaiou i?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa inouanoaeyaony io
aaia?aoi?a oaeoiauo eiioeuenia (AOE). *anoioa neio?ieiioeuenia f=500
eAoe.

O?aaoaony:

1) Enoiaey ec caaeaiey i?i?aaioaoue aii?in i?aaiecaoeee ICO oeeo?iaie
nenoaiu;

2) ?aaeeciaaoue ONAe a aeaoo aa?eaioao:

a)a aeaea i?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa, iino?iaiiiai ia i?eioeeiao
noaiiie eiaeee, n aeiaaaeaieai aai aei o?iaiy ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneie
noaiu;

a)a aeaea iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa, iino?iaiiiai ia iniiaa
iee?ii?ioeanni?a E?580EE80. I?e ?aaeecaoeee ONAe ia aaca
iee?ii?ioeanni?a neaaeoao oaeouee iiia? (aae?an) aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea
o?aieoue a ?aaeno?a r. Iee?ii?ioeanni?iia ono?ienoai iaiaoiaeeii
aeiaanoe aei o?iaiy no?oeoo?iie noaiu, ninoaaeoue i?ia?aiio aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia ycuea Annaiaea?a, ninoaaeoue oaaeeoeo ?aciauaiey
i?ia?aiiu a II, ia/eiay n y/aeee n aae?anii (, a oaeaea ninoaaeoue
i?ia?aiio a eiaeiauo eiiaeiaoeeyo (ia iaoeiiii ycuea);

3)A aa?eaioa ?aaeecaoeee ONAe ia aaca iee?ii?ioeanni?a i?ia?aiio
oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo n F aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia ioi?ieoue eae i?a?uaathuoth
i?ia?aiio a i?aaeeiaeaiee, /oi a ninoaa IIN aoiaeeo eiio?ieea?
i?a?uaaiee E?580AI69.

4)Ioeaieoue auno?iaeaenoaea ONAe a iaieo aa?eaioao ?aaeecaoeee.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia caaeaiea:

.

1. I ? A A I E C A Oe E ss I C O ( II AINO – RAM )

8 iiaeao auoue iino?iaii ia aaca iee?inoai iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ICO,
auioneaaiuo i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, ?acee/iuie niiniaaie.

Auai? iee?inoai aeey ?aaeecaoeee ICO iiaeao inouanoaeyaony enoiaey ec
?aciuo e?eoa?eaa:

ieieiecaoeee /enea ei?ionia (aiia?aoiuo cao?ao);

– ieieiecaoeee iio?aaeyaiie iiuiinoe;

– iiauoaiey auno?iaeaenoaey IIN;

– niaeaniaaiey iai?yaeaiee ieoaiey iniiaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaeoeae
IIN e ae?.

8 o?aaoaony 16 oaeeo iee?inoai, i?aaieciaaiiuo a 2 eeiaeee (no?aieoeu)
,eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo niaea?aeeo ii 8 iee?inoai (ii /eneo aeo a y/aeea
iaiyoe). Ia?auaiea e y/aeea, ?aniieiaeaiiie a oie eee eiie eeiaeea,
iaania/eaaaony n iiiiuueth oi?aaeythuaai neaiaea AE – auai? e?enoaeea.
Aeey i?inoiou i?eiai, /oi iee?inoaia a ethaie ?aaeecaoeee eiaao anaai
iaeei aoiae AE (ii AINO – CS). Oiaaea i?e AE=1 ia?auaiea e e?enoaeeo
(iee?inoaia) a aeaiiie eeiaeea ICO aoaeao caaeiee?iaaii. I?e AE=0
ia?auaiea ?ac?aoaaony. Aeey aae?anaoeee aeaoo eeiaae o?aaoaony aae?an ec
iaeiiai aeoa (0,1). Oae eae /enei eeiaae a ICO ia aieueoa aeaoo, oi
aeaoeo?aoi? ia o?aaoaony. Aeou aae?ania eeiaae ?aciauathony a noa?oeo
?ac?yaeao caaeaiiiai aae?aniiai neiaa.

Oanoiaaeoeaoe?ac?yaeiia aae?aniia neiai iicaieyao aae?aniaaoue
iaeneiaeueii 216=65536=64e y/aae iaiyoe. Iau/ii yoe aae?ana
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo ICO, ICO e OAA, aoiaeyueie a ninoaa oeeo?iaie
nenoaiu. Anee caaeaiiia /enei y/aae ICO iaiueoa, oi aeey eo aae?anaoeee
iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny aae?aniia neiai n iaiueoei /eneii ?ac?yaeia. A
yoii neo/aa aeey aae?anaoeee y/aae ICO caaeaenoaothony ia ana ?ac?yaeu
aae?aniiai neiaa caaeaiiie aeeeiu (2 aaeoa). Aoaeai n/eoaoue /oi a oaeii
aa?eaioa noa?oea ?ac?yaeu inoathony iacaaeaenoaiaaiiuie, iiyoiio eo
niaea?aeeiia iiaeao auoue i?iecaieueiui, eai iii eaii?e?oaony
aeaoeo?aoi?ii aae?ana ICO. Iaeiaei i?e oeene?iaaiiie ?ac?yaeiinoe
aae?aniiai ?aaeno?a ec iaoiaee/aneeo niia?aaeaiee i?e i?ia?aiie?iaaiee
i?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa oeaeaniia?acii caa?oaeaoue ioee a
iacaaeaenoaiaaiiua ?ac?yaeu aae?aniiai neiaa.

?aaeei ia?auaiea e II ii?aaeaeyaony cia/aieai oi?aaeythuaai neaiaea
*OAIEA/CAIENUe (*O/CI) (ii AINO – RD/WR). I?e *O/CI=1 iaania/eaaaony
?aaeei /oaiey eioi?iaoeee ec II, i?e *O/CI=0 – ?aaeei caiene a II.

Iie?aynue ia auoa neacaiiia iino?iei noaio ICO n ?ieinoueth 2e o 8
(?en.1).

I?aaiecaoeey ICO

?ieinoue ICO: 2e o 8 = 2048 o 8. O?aaoaony i?aaiecaoeey aeaoo eeiaae
ii ainaiue iee?inoai E?565?O2A .

2. ?AAEECAOeEss ONAe IA I?EIOeEIAO NOAIIIE EIAEEE

2.1. Iauay no?oeoo?iay noaia ONAe

Eae e anyeia i?ioeanni?iia ono?ienoai, ONAe ninoieo ec aeaoo
iniiaiuo oceia: iia?aoeeiiiiai ocea (IO) e ocea oi?aaeaiey (OO), eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iee?ii?ia?aiiiue aaoiiao (?en.2.). IO – yoi
ono?ienoai, a eioi?ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii auiieiythony iia?aoeee,
?aaeecoaiua i?ioeanni?ii. Yoio ocae i?aia?acoao eiaeu (iia?aiaeu),
iinooiathuea ia aoiaeu ? a oa eee eiua aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua iiiaiou
a?aiaie, a auoiaeiie eiae (?acoeueoao), nieiaaiue n auoiaeia N. A iaoai
i?eia?a ia aoiaeu IO iinooiatho aeaiiua n auoiaea AOeI, i?aaenoaaeaiiua
a aeaea ia?aeeaeueiiai aeaie/iiai eiaea, a i?aia?aciaaiea,
inouanoaeyaiia a IO ONAe, ninoieo a i?e?ia yoeo aeaiiuo ec oiai eee
eiiai aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea e ia?anueee eo a o?aaoaiua y/aeee iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoe. IO iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay oaeea yeaiaiou, eae ?aaeno?u eee
eiua iiaeoee CO, n/?o/eee, noiiaoi?u, ioeueoeieaeni?u, aeaoeo?aoi?u e
ae?., niaaeei?iiua iaaeaeo niaie eaiaeaie nayce (iau/ii oece/aneeie
eeieyie), ii eioi?ui aeaie/iay eioi?iaoeey ia?aaea?ony, eae i?aaeei, a
ia?aeeaeueiie oi?ia.

OO a ii?aaeae?iiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oi?ie?oao oi?aaeythuea
neaiaeu O1,O2,… e n eo iiiiuueth eii?aeeie?oao ?aaioo yeaiaioia noaiu
IO, iaania/eaay a IO o?aaoaioth ia?aaioeo eioi?iaoeee. Iiae aeaenoaeai
eaaeaeiai ec yoeo neaiaeia a yeaiaioao IO i?iecaiaeyony iaeioi?ua
yeaiaioa?iua aeaenoaey, iacuaaaiua iee?iiia?aoeeyie. E /eneo oaeeo
aeaenoaee ioiinyony: n/eouaaiea niaea?aeeiiai eaeiai-ieaoaeue ?aaeno?a,
naeaea niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a ia iaeei ?ac?yae aeaai eee ai?aai, caienue
a ?aaeno? ?acoeueoaoa noiie?iaaiey iia?aiaeia, onoaiiaea ?aaeno?a eee
n/?o/eea a o?aaoaiia enoiaeiia ninoiyiea, n/?o, oi anoue i?eaaaeaiea eee
au/eoaiea aaeeieoeu e niaea?aeeiiio n/?o/eea e o.i.

A eaaeaeue oaeoiaue ia?eiae neio?ieiioeuenia a IO iiaeao auiieiyony
iaeia eee ianeieueei iacaaeneiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa iee?iiia?aoeee a
?acee/iuo yeaiaioao noaiu. Iaai? iee?iiia?aoeee, auiieiyaiue a IO
iaeiia?aiaiii (a iaeiii oaeoa), iacuaaaony iee?ieiiaiaeie (IE). N?aaee
neaiaeia O iiaoo auoue e oaeea,eioi?ua

ao. (
auo.eiae

eiae (
(a II)

(ec AOeI)(
iae.G

oi?aaeytho ?aaioie ono?ienoa, iaoiaeyueony aia i?ioeanni?a (aiaoieo
ono?ienoa – AO). E /eneo oaeeo ono?ienoa ioiinyony ono?ienoaa
aaiaea/auaiaea eioi?iaoeee (OAA), iiaeoee iaiyoe (ICO, ICO), AOeI, OeAI
e ae?.

OO ?aaioaao iiae aeaenoaeai eiiaiae – aeaie/iuo eiaeia, iiaeaaaaiuo ia
aoiaeu Z1,Z2,… .Ia aoiaeu O1,O2,… OO iinooiatho inaaaeiieoaeueiua
neaiaeu, eia/a iacuaaaiua oneiaeyie eee i?eciaeaie, eioi?ua oi?ie?othony
a IO e aeeytho ia iineaaeothuea cia/aiey oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia O,
ii?aaeaeyy oai naiui iineaaeothuea yoaiu i?aia?aciaaiey iia?aiaeia a
caaeneiinoe io ?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aiiuo a IO i?e auiieiaiee i?aaeuaeouae
iee?ieiiaiaeu.

2.2. No?oeoo?iay noaia IO

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ionoonoaotho neieueei-ieaoaeue iauea oi?iaeueiua
iaoiaeu neioaca iia?aoeeiiiuo ono?ienoa. Ii yoie i?e/eia ninoaaeaiea
no?oeoo?iie noaiu i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa aiaeeca caaeaiey e o?aaoao io
?ac?aaio/eea iaee/ey niioaaonoaothueo iaaueia e iiuoa.

Ioeaiei ninoaa iai?oaeiaaiey IO, iaania/eaathuee auiieiaiea
noi?ioee?iaaiiuo a caaeaiee ooieoeee ONAe.

Aiaoieie ii ioiioaieth e IO yaeythony neaaeothuea yeaiaiou:

( AOeI – aiaeiai-oeeo?iaie i?aia?aciaaoaeue, inouanoaeythuee
i?aia?aciaaiea aiaeiaiaie aaee/eiu (iai?eia? iai?yaeaiey aiaeiaiaiai
neaiaea), aeaenoaothuaai ia aai aoiaea ia aeaiiii io?acea a?aiaie, a
ainueie?ac?yaeiue aeaie/iue eiae ia auoiaea. A iiiaio caaa?oaiey aeoa
i?aia?aciaaiey AOeI au?aaaouaaao neaiae IE=1 ia niioaaonoaothuai
auoiaea. Caione AOeI i?iecaiaeeony ioo?i iiaea/e neaiaea caionea ia
niioaaonoaothuee aoiae;

( eiiiooaoi? eaiaeia – aiaeiaiaue ioeueoeieaeni?-naeaeoi?, eioi?ue a
caaeneiinoe io cia/aiey /aou??o?ac?yaeiiai aeaie/iiai aae?aniiai neiaa,
iinooiathuaai ia aai aae?aniua aoiaeu, iiaeeeth/aao e aaeeinoaaiiiio
auoiaeo oio eee eiie ec o?eiaaeoeaoe aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia;

( iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue (II) – iieoi?iaiaeieeiaia ICO ?ieinoueth 2e o
8, eiathuaa ?anniio?aiioth auoa i?aaiecaoeeth.

E yeaiaioai, aoiaeyuei a ninoaa IO ONAe, ioiinyony:

( n/?o/ee NO21 aae?ana y/aae II – 16-?ac?yaeiue (a niioaaonoaee n
caaeaiiie ?ac?yaeiinoueth aae?aniiai neiaa);

( n/?o/ee NO22 aae?ana aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia – /aou??o?ac?yaeiue (F=14
eaiaeia eiatho iiia?a (aae?ana) io 0000 aei 1101. Anaai o?eiaaeoeaoue
aae?ania);

( o?eaaa? Ooe – oeaa AOeI, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey oeene?iaaiey neaiaea
IE (aneio?iiiue RS-o?eaaa? n eiaa?niuie aoiaeaie OOE. Ooe iaiaoiaeei
aeey au?aaioee neaiaea O1 a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea O a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea neaiae IE AOeI eiioeueniue, o.a. aai aeeeoaeueiinoue ( O).

No?oeoo?iay noaia IO , aeeth/athuay aiaoiea yeaiaiou
i?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa, i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.3. Ia noaia

070116

?en.3

no?aeeaie iieacaiu oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu O, iinooiathuea ec OO, e
neaiaeu-oneiaey X, au?aaaouaaaiua IO e iinooiathuea a OO.

2.3. Neiaaniia iienaiea oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo

y1. Oeeee nai?a aeaiiuo ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi a n/?o/ee NO21
i?iecaiaeeony caienue ia?aie y/aeee iaeanoe iaiyoe II, ioaaae?iiie aeey
o?aiaiey aeaiiuo. I/aaeaeii, /oi a ea/anoaa NO21 oaeiaii eniieueciaaoue
oaeie n/?o/ee, a eioi?ii i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue caiene
eioi?iaoeee, eae a ia?aeeaeueiue ?aaeno?. Oiaaea, iiaeaa ia iaeie aoiaeu
o?eaaa?ia eiae/aneee iieue (iioaioeeae caiee eee ei?iona), a ia ae?oaea
– eiae/aneoth aaeeieoeo (iai?yaeaiea enoi/ieea ieoaiey), iiaeii
iaania/eoue caienue o?aaoaiiai aae?ana a n/?o/ee a iaeiii oaeoa.

y2. N/?o/ee NO22 na?anuaaaony a 0. Oai naiui a i?i oi?ie?oaony aae?an
ia?aiai aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea, eiathuaai ioeaaie iiia?.

y3. I?iecaiaeeony na?in a 0 o?eaaa?a Ooe (aaoaiea oeaaa).

y4. Aae?an aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea ec NO22 auaea?ony ia aae?aniua
aoiaeu eiiiooaoi?a. Eiiiooaoi? iiaeeeth/aao eaiae ?0 ei aoiaeo AOeI.

y5. I?iecaiaeeony caione AOeI e a i?i ia/eiaaony i?ioeann
aiaeiai-oeeo?iaiai i?aia?aciaaiey.

y6. I?iaa?yaony niaea?aeeiia o?eaaa?a Ooe . Ii ieii/aieth aeoa
i?aia?aciaaiey AOeI au?aaaouaaao neaiae IE, onoaiaaeeaathuee Ooe a
ninoiyiea 1. Iiea (Ooe)=0 , ono?ienoai i?aauaaao a ?aaeeia iaeeaeaiey
ieii/aiey aeoa i?aia?aciaaiey a AOeI. Eae oieueei Ooe onoaiaaeeaaaony a
1, inouanoaeyaony caienue aeaiiuo n auoiaea AOeI a o?aaoaioth y/aeeo
iaiyoe (II).

y7. A NO22 iiaeaioaaeeaaaony aae?an neaaeothuae y/aeee II ioo?i
i?eaaaeaiey aaeeieoeu e niaea?aeeiiio n/?o/eea (e aae?ano i?aaeuaeouae
y/aeee).

y8. A NO22 oi?ie?oaony aae?an neaaeothuaai aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea
(?1) ioo?i i?eaaaeaiey aaeeieoeu e niaea?aeeiiio n/?o/eea.

y9. I?iaa?yaony niaea?aeeiia n/?o/eea NO22 . Anee (NO22)=0, oi
iia?aoeee 3(8 iiaoi?ythony. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo caaa?oaiea
oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo (auoiae ec oeeeea), oae eae ana eaiaeu ieacuaathony
ii?ioaiu.

2.4. Neioac oi?aaeythuaai ono?ienoaa (OO)

2.4.1. Yoai aano?aeoiiai neioaca

Yoio yoai oaeaea o?aaoao io ?ac?aaio/eea ii?aaeae?iiuo iaaueia e
iiuoa. Ia yoaia aano?aeoiiai neioaca inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiae io
neiaaniiai iienaiey i?eioeeia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aaoiiaoa
oi?iaeeciaaiiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth a aeaea a?aoa eee oaaeeoe.

Ia iniiaaiee neiaaniiai iienaiey ninoaaei a niioaaonoaothuai
ii?yaeea nienie iee?iiia?aoeee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oi?aaeaiey IO (ni.
?en.2):

O1 – ?ac?aoaiea caiene ia/aeueiiai aae?ana 01AE16 a NO21, (NO21 (
01AE16);

O2 – onoaiiaea a 0 NO22 (na?in), (NO22 ( 0);

O3 – na?in Ooe ,(Ooe ( 0);

O4 – ?ac?aoaiea ia?aaea/e aae?ana aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea ia eiiiooaoi?
[eiii ( (NO22)];

O5 – caione AOeI, (cai. AOeI);

O6 – ?ac?aoaiea caiene aeaiiuo ec AOeI a II, [II ( AOeI];

O7 – oaaee/aiea ia 1 (NO21) – i?e?auaiea n/?o/eea, [eie?eiaio NO21 (
(NO21)+1];

O8 – oaaee/aiea ia 1 (NO22) – i?e?auaiea n/?o/eea, [eie?eiaio NO22 (
(NO22)+1].

A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo a IO ONAe au?aaaouaathony
inaaaeiieoaeueiua neaiaeu: neaiae O1=1 – neaiae IE e neaiae O2=1 –
caaa?oaiea oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo. Neaiae O2 au?aaaouaaaony a oii
neo/aa,eiaaea a NO22 niaea?aeeony aae?an 0000,[O2=1, anee (NO22)=0],
aicieeathuee a i?i iinea aae?ana 1101 iineaaeiaai, /aou?iaaeoeaoiai
eaiaea. Neaiae O2 iiaeao auoue noi?ie?iaai ioo?i eiae/aneiai oiiiaeaiey
(ia noaia E) neaiaeia.

Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IO a iee?iiia?aoeeyo

Aeie-noaia (?en.4) ninoaaeyaony ia iniiaa neiaaniiai iienaiey e nienea
iee?iiia?aoeee.

Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IO a iee?ieiiaiaeao.

?aciaoea aeie-noaiu

Aiaeec ?en.4 iieacuaaao, /oi iee?iiia?aoeee O1,O2, a oaeaea O3,O4,O5
e O6,O7,O8 ia caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa e iiaoo

?en.5.

auiieiyoueny a iaeiii oaeoa (eaaeaeay a?oiia a niioaaonoaothuai oaeoa).
Ia iniiaaiee yoiai iiaeii ninoaaeoue aeie-noaio aeai?eoia a
iee?ieiiaiaeao, iaicia/ea eaaeaeoth ec ieo aoeaie Y (?en.5).

I?iecaaae?i ?aciaoeo aeie noaiu ?en. 5. Ia/aei e eiiaoe aeie-

noaiu iaicia/ei a0 , /oi niioaaonoaoao enoiaeiiio ninoiyieth
oi?aaeythuaai aaoiiaoa (OO). Aeaeaa aoiae eaaeaeiai aeiea, neaaeothuaai
ca iia?aoi?iuie aeieaie, eioi?ua eiatho i?yiioaieueioth oi?io, iiia/aai
neiaieaie a1 , a2 ,… , niioaaonoaothueie iineaaeothuei ninoiyieyi OO.

Ninoaaeaiea a?ao – noaiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OO

Iino?iaiea a?aoa inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa i?iecaaae?iiie ?aciaoee
aeie-noaiu aeai?eoia. Eaaeaeiio ec ninoiyiee a0 , a1 ,… oi?aaeythuaai
aaoiiaoa niioaaonoaoao ocae a?aoa (?en.6). Aeoaaie a?aoa ecia?aaeathony
ia?aoiaeu aaoiiaoa ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia. Aicea eaaeaeie aeoae
oeacuaaaony oneiaea (anee iii anoue) ia?aoiaea (O) e auiieiyaiay ia
aeaiiii oaeoiaii eioa?aaea iee?ieiiaiaea Y. Ia?aoiaeu neio?iiiiai
aaoiiaoa ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia i?ienoiaeyo a oaeoiaua iiiaiou
a?aiaie iiae aeaenoaeai neio?ieiioeuenia e aoiaeiuo neaiaeia.

2.4.2. Yoai no?oeoo?iiai neioaca OO

Yoio yoai auiieiyaony ia iniiaa oi?iaeueiuo iaoiaeia e aeeth/aao a
naay:

– ?an/?o o?aaoaiiai iau?ia iaiyoe OO;

– auai? niiniaa eiaee?iaaiey aiciiaeiuo ninoiyiee aaoiiaoa;

– auai? oeia i?eiaiyaiuo eiae/aneeo yeaiaioia e o?eaaa?ia;

– iaoiaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie n oi/ee c?aiey ieieiecaoeee /enea
yeaiaioia e naycae iaaeaeo ieie no?oeoo?u eiiaeiaoeeiiiiai oeeo?iaiai
ono?ienoaa (EOeO), aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa noaiu OO.

Ii?aaeaeaiea o?aaoaiiai /enea o?eaaa?ia CO ono?ienoaa

oi?aaeaiey e eiaee?iaaiea ninoiyiee OO

Ec a?ao-noaiu aeaeii, /oi oi?aaeythuee aaoiiao aeieaeai eiaoue N=4
ninoiyiee ( a0 ( a3 ). O?aaoaiia /enei o?eaaa?ia iaoiaeei eae
ieieiaeueiia k, oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa oneiaeth N ( 2k. Eiaai kiei = 2.
Iineieueeo eaaeaeue ec o?eaaa?ia iaeaaeaao aeaoiy onoie/eauie
ninoiyieyie , niaieoiiinoue aeaoo o?eaaa?ia iicaieyao

caoeene?iaaoue iaeneiaeueii 22 = 4 ?acee/iuo ninoiyiey. A iaoai neo/aa
aaoiiao eae ?ac e aeieaeai eiaoue /aou?a ninoiyiey, aeey oeenaoeee
eioi?uo o?aaoaony aeaa o?eaaa?a. Caaeaaay i?iecaieueii

Ninoiyiea OO Ninoiyiey o?eaaa?ia CO

Aeae ia?aoiaea Aoiaeiua neaiaeu

Q2 Q1

Q(t)( Q(t+1) j(t) k(t)

a0 0 0

0 0 0 —

a1 1 0

1 0 1 —

a2 0 1

0 1 — 1

a3 1 1

1 1 — 0

Oaaeeoea 1 Oaaeeoea 2

?acee/iua /aou?a ninoiyiey aeaoo o?eaaa?ia iiaeii i?iecaanoe
eiaee?iaaiea ninoiyiey aaoiiaoa, eae yoi naeaeaii a oaae.1.

Auai? oeia eiae/aneeo yeaiaioia e o?eaaa?ia aeey ?aaeecaoeee OO

Anee e oeeo?iaiio ono?ienoao, ?aaeecoaiiio ia iee?inoaiao ieceie e
n?aaeiae noaiaie eioaa?aoeee, ia i?aaeuyaeythony ae?noeea o?aaiaaiey a
ioiioaiee auno?iaeaenoaey, iio?aaeyaiie iiuiinoe, aaaa?eoia e oe?eiu
?aai/aai aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo?, oi auai?, eae i?aaeei, aeaeaaony a
iieueco iaeaieaa ?acaeoie na?ee iee?inoai oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey E155,
auiieiaiiua ii oaoiieiaee OOE. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?iaeoe?oaiia ONAe
i?aaeiacia/aii aeey ?aaiou a iiiauaieyo n ninoaaa noaiaea?oiie
aiia?aoo?u. Iiyoiio o?aaiaaiey a ioiioaiee iio?aaeyaiie iiuiinoe, oe?eiu
?aai/aai aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? e aaaa?eoia ia yaeythony ae?noeeie. E?iia
oiai, a niioaaonoaee n caaeaieai /anoioa neio?ieiioeuenia f = 500 eAoe,
/oi niioaaonoaoao aeeeoaeueiinoe oaeoiaiai ia?eiaea O = 1/f = 2 ien. A
naith i/a?aaeue n?aaeiaa a?aiy caaea?aeee eiae/aneiai neaiaea a aaciaii
yeaiaioa E-IA yoie na?ee 20 in, /oi ia aeaa ii?yaeea iaiueoa
aeeeoaeueiinoe oaeoiaiai ia?eiaea O. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aeoe/anee ethaia
oeeo?iaia ono?ienoai na?ee E155 iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iui auno?iaeaenoaeai
aeey eniieueciaaiey aai a noaia ONAe.

Eae aeaeii ec a?ao-noaiu oi?aaeythuaai aaoiiaoa, eaaeaeia aai iiaia
ninoiyiea a(t+1) caaeneo io i?aaeuaeouaai a(t). Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi
aeey CO aaoiiaoa oaeiaii i?eiaiyoue oaeea o?eaaa?u, eioi?ua a i?ioeanna
ia?aoiaea aaoiiaoa a iiaia ninoiyiea a(t+1) ia eciaiytho naiaai
ninoiyiey a(t), oi anoue neaiaeu Q e Q ia auoiaeao o?eaaa?ia CO
eciaiythony eeoue ia caaa?oathuae noaaeee ia?aoiaea aaoiiaoa a iiaia
ninoiyiea. Ec o?eaaa?ia, aoiaeyueo a na?eth E155,oaeei naienoaii
iaeaaeaao aeaoonooiai/aoue JK-o?eaaa?, eioi?ue neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeao
auoue aua?ai aeey ?aaeecaoeee OO.

Oaia?ue iiaeii ecia?aceoue oe?oii?iioth noaio OO aeey i?iaeoe?oaiiai
ONAe (?en.7). Eoae noaia OO niaea?aeeo EOeO e CO, ninoiyuaa ec aeaoo
JK-o?eaaa?ia. Ecia?acei oa?aeoa?enoe/aneoth oaaeeoeo JK-o?eaaa?a,
iieacuaathuoth, eaeea neaiaeu aicaoaeaeaiey o?eaaa?a neaaeoao iiaeaaaoue
ia auoiaeu J e K, /oiau iaania/eoue

ia?aoiae aai ec ninoiyiey Q(t) a iiaia ninoiyiea Q(t+1) (oaae.2). A
oaaeeoea 2 i?i/a?e a eieiieao J(t) e K(t) icia/aao aac?acee/iia cia/aiea
neaiaea (0 eee 1).

a IO

Ninoaaeaiea oaaeeoeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OO

Ia iniiaaiee eiathueony aeaiiuo (a?aoa, oaae.1 e oaae.2) iiaeii
iino?ieoue iieioth oaaeeoeo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OO (oaae.3).

Ia?aua ainaiue eieiiie oaae.3 iieo/aiu ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca a?aoa
(?en.6) e oaae.1. Naycue iaaeaeo eieiieaie 3(12 ii?aaeaeythony ec
oaae.2, a naycue iaaeaeo eieiieaie 3(8 e 13(15 iieo/aiu ia iniiaa
aiaeeca a?aoa.

Neioac EOeO

Eae aeaeii ec ?en.7, aoiaeiuie ia?aiaiiuie EOeO yaeythony O1,
O2,Q1(t) e Q2(t), i?aaenoaaeaiiua a ia?auo eieiieao oaaeeoeu 3.
Ooieoeeyie, oi?ie?oaiuie ia auoiaeao EOeO, yaeythony neaiaeu
aicaoaeaeaiey o?eaaa?ia (J e K)e auoiaeiua neaiaeu Y, niioaaonoaothuea
iee?ieiiaiaeai Y. Yoe ooieoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu a 9(15 eieiieao. Oaeei
ia?acii /anoue oaae.3 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaaeeoeo enoeiiinoe
iaiieiinoueth caaeaiiuo OAE, oi?ie?oaiuo ia auoiaeao EOeO. Oaaeeoeu
enoeiiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiu a nie?au?iiie oi?ia. Caeanue o/oaii oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia?aiaiiua O1 e O2 iinooiatho ia aoiaeo EOeO a
?aciua oaeoiaua iiiaiou a?aiaie e e?iia oiai ie iaeia ec ooieoeee ia
caaeneo n?aco io iaaeo yoeo ia?aiaiiuo. Yoi iicaieeei iauaaeeieoue a
ia?auo /aou??o no?ieao oaae.3 iaai?u a?aoiaioia, a eioi?uo O1 E O2, aaea
iie anoue, i?eieiatho cia/aiey 0, a a no?ieao 5(8 iaai?u, a eioi?uo O1 e
O2 ?aaiu 1. Ia?aua aeaa, iyoue e oanoie iaai?u a oaae.3 ia niaea?aeao
ia?aiaiiuo O1 e O2, oi anoue cia/aiey ooieoeee ia yoeo iaai?ao ia
caaenyo io cia/aiee O1 e O2, iiyoiio niioaaonoaothuea cia/aiey auoiaeiuo
ooieoeee iiaoi?ythony aeaaaeaeu: a a?oiia iaai?ia, ioiinyueony e
cia/aieyi O1 e O2, ?aaiui 0 (no?iee 1(2), a caoai a a?oiia iaai?ia, a
eioi?uo O1 e O2 ?aaiu 1 (no?iee 5(6).

?

i/i Oneiaea

ia?a-oiaea I?aaeuaeo-uaa ninoiyiea

ai(t) , Q i(t) Neaaeothuaa ninoiyiea

ai(t+1),

O2 O1 a i Q2 Q1 ai Q2 Q 1 J2K2J1 K1 Y1Y2 Y3

1 — — a0 0 0 a1 0 1 0 – 1 – 1 0
0

2 — — a1 0 1 a2 1 0 1 – – 1 0 1 0

3 — 0 a2 1 0 a2 1 0 – 0 0 – 0 0 0

4 0 — a3 1 1 a1 0 1 – 1 – 0 0 0 0

5 — — a0 0 0 a1 0 1 0 – 1 – 1 0
0

6 — — a1 0 1 a2 1 0 1 – – 1 0 1 0

7 — 1 a2 1 0 a3 1 1 – 0 1 – 0 0 1

8 1 — a3 1 1 a0 0 0 – 1 – 1 0 0 0

?

eieiiee

1 2

3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12

13 14 15

Oaaeeoea 3

Ec aiaeeca oaae.3 neaaeoao, /oi cia/aiey ia?aiaiiie O2 ia aeeytho ia
cia/aiey ooieoeee J1 e Y3 (i?e eciaiaiee cia/aiey ia?aiaiiie cia/aiey
ooieoeee inoathony iaeciaiiuie) a ia?aiaiiay O1 ia aeeyao ia cia/aiey
ooieoeee E1, oi anoue iie yaeythony ooieoeeyie ia /aou??o, a anaai o??o
a?aoiaioia. A naith i/a?aaeue inoaaoeany /aou?a ooieoeee ia caaenyo io
iaaeo ia?aiaiiuo O1 e O2, a cia/eo, iie yaeythony ooieoeeyie aeaoo
a?aoiaioia. O/?o yoeo iniaaiiinoae oaae.3 iicaieyao oi?inoeoue
iieo/aiiua IAeIO auoiaeiuo ooieoeee EOeO n eniieueciaaieai ?o/iiai
iaoiaea ea?o Aae/a.

J1 = X1 ( Q2 K1 = Q2 ( X2 J2 = Q1

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo au?aaeaiee no?iei noaio EOeO a aacana E,
EEE, IA (?en.8).

2.5. Iino?iaiea ooieoeeiiaeueii – eiae/aneie noaiu i?ioeanni?iiai
ono?ienoaa ( ONAe )

Ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneay noaia ONAe no?ieony ia iniiaaiee
i?eaaae?iiuo auoa iauae no?oeoo?iie noaiu ONAe, no?oeoo?iie noaiu OO ,
ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneie noaiu EOeO e no?oeoo?iie noaiu IO.
Iineieueeo i?iaeoe?oaiia i?ioeanni?iia ono?ienoai yaeyaony
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui, ?aaeecothuei anaai iaeio iee?ii?ia?aiio nai?a
aeaiiuo, iii ia ioaeaeaaony a eiiaiaeiii (i?ia?aiiiii) oi?aaeaiee.
Iiyoiio aoiaeu Z1(Zk , iieacaiiua ia iauae no?oeoo?iie noaia ONAe
(ni.?en.1), a aeaiiii neo/aa ia ioaeiu. Aeey iino?iaiey noaiu a
ni?aai/ieea ii eioaa?aeueiui iee?inoaiai neaaeoao iouneaoue iiaeoiaeyuea
yeaiaiou anao ia?a/eneaiiuo noai n o/?oii eceiaeaiiuo auoa niia?aaeaiee,
ioiinyueony e iaeioi?ui o?aaoaiui naienoaai yoeo yeaiaioia. Oneiaiua
iaicia/aiey yoeo yeaiaioia ioaeii iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii ?acianoeoue ia
eenoa aoiaae e niaaeeieoue iaaeaeo niaie a niioaaonoaee n eiaeeie ?aaiou
ono?ienoaa e oaaeeoeaie oi?aaeythueo neaiaeia.

Ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneay noaia ioee/aaony io i?eioeeieaeueiie oai,
/oi ia iae ia i?aaenoaaeaii ?aciauaiea yeaiaioia a ei?ionao iee?inoai.
Niioaaonoaaiii ia Ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneie noaia ionoonoaoao
ioia?aoeey auaiaeia ei?iona.

Ia Ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneie noaia ONAe neaaeoao i?aaenoaaeoue
niinia i?aaiecaoeee II, eniieuecoy oneiaiia iaicia/aiea aua?aiiie
iee?inoaiu ICO e aua?aiiue niinia niaaeeiaiey yoeo iee?inoai (ei?ionia,
iiaeoeae, eee e?enoaeeia, eae eo i?eiyoi au? iacuaaoue). Inoaeueiua
aiaoiea ono?ienoaa ONAe (AOeI e eiiiooaoi? aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia)
aeinoaoi/ii ecia?aceoue a iaiau?iiie oi?ia, eae ia no?oeoo?iie noaia IO,
iineieueeo iie ia yaeythony i?aaeiaoii i?iaeoe?iaaiey.
Ooieoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneay noaia ONAe i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.9.

2.6. Ioeaiea auno?iaeaenoaey ONAe a aa?eaioa ?aaeecaoeee

ia i?eioeeiao noaiiie eiaeee

I?e ioeaiea auno?iaeaenoaey ONAe aeey i?inoiou aoaeai n/eoaoue,
/oi iaeaieueoay aeeeoaeueiinoue aeoa i?aia?aciaaiey AOeI iaiueoa
oaeoiaiai ia?eiaea neio?ieiioeuenia (O = 2 ien). A yoii neo/aa i?e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ONAe ?aaeei iaeeaeaiey (i?ioiaeaeaiea iee?ii?ia?aiiu
ii iaeiio oeeeeo (ni.?en.5) aoaeao ionoonoaiaaoue.

*enei oaeoia, o?aaoaiuo aeey auiieiaiey iee?ii?ia?aiiu nai?a aeaiiuo,
?aaii noiia aeoa, niaea?aeaueony a iooe iaaeaeo oceaie a?aoa n o/?oii
oeeeee/aneiai iiaoi?aiey ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia iooe. Oaeei ia?acii oeeee
nai?a aeaiiuo aoaeao neeaaeuaaoueny ec iaeiiai oaeoa ia auiieiaiea
iee?ieiiaiaeu Y1 e F (a aeaiiii neo/aa aeaayoe) i?ioiaeaeaiee ii
aieueoiio oeeeeo (io a1 aei a1 , ni. ?en.6). Eaaeaeia i?ioiaeaeaiea ii
aieueoiio oeeeeo o?aaoao o??o oaeoia. Eoiai aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea nai?a
aeaiiuo ninoaaeo S = (1+F.3).T = (1+13 .3).T = 40.2 ien = 80 ien.

3. ?AAEECAOeEss ONAe A AEAeA IIN IA AACA IEE?II?IOeANNI?A
E?580EE80

3.1. No?oeoo?iay noaia iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai ono?ienoaa

No?oeoo?iay noaia ONAe,iino?iaiiiai a aeaea iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai
ono?ienoaa (IIO), i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.10. E?iia iee?ii?ioeanni?a e
ecaanoiuo oaea iiaeoeae AOeI, II e eiiiooaoi?a aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia, noaia
IIO niaea?aeeo aeaa ono?ienoaa aaiaea e iaeii ono?ienoai auaiaea
aeaiiuo, ?ieue eioi?uo iiaoo auiieiyoue i?ia?aiiii-oi?aaeyaiua
?aaeno?u-ii?ou, iai?eia? IA? E5889E?12. A oaeii aa?eaioa IIO oeia
oi?aaeaiey iiaeao ninoiyoue anaai ec aeaoo eeiee CAIENUe e *OAIEA. Ia
?en.10 aeey i?inoiou ia iieacaiu: aeaoeo?aoi? neaiaeia auai?ee iiaeoey
II (AE) e o?eaaa?-oeaa AOeI (Ooe).

3.2. Aeie – noaia aeai?eoia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey IIO

Ia/aeueiue aae?an 070116 y/aeee iaiyoe iaeanoe II, ioaaae?iiie aeey
nai?a aeaiiuo, aoaeai o?aieoue a ia?a ?aaeno?ia HL. Oaeouee iiia?
(aae?an) aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea a niioaaonoaee n caaeaieai aoaeai iiiauaoue
a ?aaeno? D.

I?eiai, /oi o?aaoaony niaethaeaoue oio aea ii?yaeie ii?ina aiaeiaiauo
eaiaeia, /oi e i?e ?aaeecaoeee ONAe ia i?eioeeiao noaiiie eiaeee, oi
anoue ia/eiay n eaiaea, eiathuaai iiia? (aae?an) 0. *oiau iaania/eoue
oi?ie?iaaiea i?eciaea caaa?oaiey oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo, a ?aaeno?a B
iiianoei /enei F=1410 (/enei aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia). Oiaaea aeie-noaia
aeai?eoia nai?a aeaiiuo aoaeao eiaoue aeae (?en.11). Aeaaeei e?aoeia
iiyniaiea e aeie-noaia. Oae eae ii caaeaieth i?ia?aiia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?a?uaathuoth i?ia?aiio a i?aaeeiaeaiee, /oi a ninoaa IIN aoiaeeo
eiio?ieea? i?a?uaaiee E?580AI69, oi iaiaoiaeeii nia/aea nio?aieoue
niaea?aeeiia anao ?aaeno?ia. Yoi iieacaii a aeieao 1(4. A aeiea 5 a ia?o
?aaeno?ia HL caa?oaeaaony ia/aeueiue aae?an G (070116). A aeiea 6 a
?aaeno? B caa?oaeaaony /enei 1410 (0D16). ?aaeno? D neoaeeo n/?o/eeii
aae?ania aiaeiaiauo eaiaeia. A aeiea 7 a iaai caa?oaeaaony aae?an
ia?aiai eaiaea 0016. Caoai yoio aae?an /a?ac aeeoioeyoi? e ono?ienoaa
auaiaea ? 1 (aeiee 9 e 8) iinooiaao ia aae?aniue aoiae eiiiooaoi?a
(ni.?en.10).

Eiiiooaoi? iiaeeeth/aao ia?aue eaiae ei aoiaeo AOeI e caioneaao
iineaaeiee. IIO ia?aoiaeeo a ?aaeei iaeeaeaiey ieii/aiey aeoa
i?aia?aciaaiey AOeI (aeiee 10, 11 e 12). Neaiae n auoiaea IE AOeI
caiineo ieaaeoee ?ac?yae ?aaeno?a ii?oa aaiaea ? 2. Iiea IE=0, aeo
i?aia?aciaaiey a AOeI ia ieii/ai. A yoii neo/aa aeiee 10(12
iaania/eaatho caienue a o?eaaa?-oeaa On ioey e oai naiui i?ioiaeaeaiea
i?ia?aiiu ii iaeiio oeeeeo. Aeaiiue ?aaeei auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu
i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea neaiae IE ia auoiaea AOeI ia noaiao
?aaiui 1. Oae iaania/eaaaony ?aaeei iaeeaeaiey. Eae oieueei IE noaiao
?aaiui 1, oi iinea auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu aeiea 12 On=1 e inouanoaeyaony
caienue aeaiiuo n auoiaea AOeI a II /a?ac ono?ienoai aaiaea ? 1 e
aeeoioeyoi? (aeiee 13 e 14).

Aeaeaa i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea aae?ania neaaeothuae y/aeee iaiyoe
(aeie 15) e neaaeothuaai aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea (aeie 16). Iiaue aae?an
eaiaea caienuaaaony a aeeoioeyoi? (aeie 17). A aeiea 18 auiieiyaony
iia?aoeey n?aaiaiey niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?ia A e B. Anee (A)=(B), oi ana
eaiaeu ii?ioaiu, ?acoeueoao iia?aoeee n?aaiaiey aea?o 0 (Z=1) e oeeee
nai?a aeaiiuo caaa?o?i. Anee aea Z=0, oi inouanoaeyaony ii?in
neaaeothuaai eaiaea, oae eae i?e auiieiaiee iia?aoeee n?aaiaiey
niaea?aeeiia aeeoioeyoi?a inoa?ony iaeciaiiui, oi anoue a i?i
ii-i?aaeiaio niaea?aeeony aae?an neaaeothuaai eaiaea, caa?oaeaaiue a
aeiea 17. Oaeei ia?acii, iiea aae?an i/a?aaeiiai aiaeiaiaiai eaiaea,
noi?ie?iaaiiue a ?aaeno?a D a aeiea 16, inoa?ony iaiueoa 0D16
iaania/eaaaony i?ioiaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiu ii aieueoiio oeeeeo. Ii
caaa?oaieth i?ia?aiiu i?ienoiaeeo /oaiea aeaiiuo ec noaea e aica?ao ec
iiaei?ia?aiiu (aeiee 20(23 e 24).

3.3. I?ia?aiia ia ycuea Annaiaea?a

I?ia?aiia, caienaiiay ia ycuea Annaiaea?a iee?ii?ioeanni?a
E?580EE80, i?aaenoaaeaia a oaae.4.

Aeaaeei e?aoeia iiyniaiea e oaaeeoea 4. Eiiaiaeu 1(4 nio?aiytho
niaea?aeeiia anao ?aaeno?ia a noaea. Eiiaiaeu 5,6 e 7 a a?aoa
“Iia?aiaeu” niaea?aeao eiaeu /enae, caa?oaeaaiuo niioaaonoaaiii a
?aaeno?u HL, B e D. Caa?oaeaaiua /enea i?aaenoaaeaiu a
oanoiaaeoeaoe?e/iie nenoaia. I?eciaeii oanoiaaeoeaoe?e/iie nenoaiu

?

ei

iaiaeu

Iao

ea

Iia?aoeey

Iia?ai

aeu

Eiiiaioa

?ee

Aae

ou

Oeeeeu

Oae

ou

1

PUSH B ;noae (( AN ) 1 3 11

2

PUSH D ;noae (( DE ) 1 3 11

3

PUSH H ;noae (( HL ) 1 3 11

4

PUSH PSW ;coae ( PSW 1 3 11

5

LXI H,0701 H ;HL ( 070116 3 3 10

6

MVI B , 0D H ;B ( 0D16 2 2 7

7

MVI D , 00 H ;D ( 0016 2 2 7

8

MOV A , D ; A ( ( D ) 1 1 5

9 K2: OUT 1 ;Ono?.aua.?1((A) 2 3 11

10 K1: IN 2 ; A((ono?.aa. ?2) 2 3 11

11

RRC

; A ( Naea.I ( A ) 1 1 4

12

JNC K1 ;Aeie 2 OI 3 3 10

13

IN 1 ; A((ono?.aa. ?1) 2 3 11

14

MOV M , A ; M ( ( A ) 1 2 7

15

INX H ;HL ( ( HL ) + 1 1 1 5

16

INR D ;D ( ( D ) + 1 1 1 5

17

MOV A , D ; A ( ( D ) 1 1 5

18

CMP B ; ( A ) — ( B ) 1 1 4

19

JNE K2 ;Aeie 19 OI 3 3 10

20

POP PSW ;PSW((noae) 1 3 11

21

POP H ;HL ( (noae ) 1 3 11

22

POP D ;DE ( (noae ) 1 3 11

23

POP B ;BC ( (noae ) 1 3 11

24

RET

;Aica?ao ec II? 1 3 11

Oaaeeoea 4

yaeyaony neiaie I, noiyuee iinea /enea. Iiia? ono?ienoaa aaiaea e
auaiaea (2 e 1), i?eaaae?iiua a a?aoa “Iia?aiaeu” eiiaiae 10 e 9,
i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeanyoe/iie nenoaia. Eae ecaanoii, i?eciaeii aeanyoe/iie
nenoaiu iiaeao auoue eeai neiaie D, neaaeothuee ca /eneii, eeai
ionoonoaea eaeiai-eeai neiaiea. A aeaiiii neo/aa eniieueciaai aoi?ie ec
i?eciaeia. A eiiiaioa?ee eniieueciaaiu neaaeothuea nie?auaiey:

Naea.I(A)- naeaea i?aaue niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a A (aeeoioeyoi?a);

OI – oneiaiue ia?aoiae.

3.4. ?aciauaiea i?ia?aiiu a II

A niioaaonoaee n caaeaieai i?ia?aiia aeieaeia auoue ?aciauaia a
iaeanoe iaiyoe, ia/eiay n y/aeee n aae?anii (=03B616. ?aciauaiea
i?ia?aiiu i?aaenoaaeaii a oaae.5.

*enei y/aae II, ioaiaeeiuo iiae eiiaiaeo, ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii
aaeoia a eiiaiaea. A oaae.5 no?aeeaie iieacaia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
auiieiaiey eiiaiae. A eiiaiaeao oneiaiiai ia?aoiaea, aaea iineaaeothuaa
auiieiaiea oie eee eiie eiiaiaeu caaeneo io oneiaey (i?eciaea), oeacaiu
ia?u no?aeie, ?yaeii n eioi?uie i?eaaaeaiu cia/aiey neaiaeia-oneiaee.

24 03D8

Oaaeeoea 5

3.5. I?ia?aiia a eiaeiauo eiiaeiaoeeyo

Ia iniiaaiee oaae.4 e 5, a oaeaea nenoaiu iee?ii?ioeanni?a E?580EE80
iiaeii ninoaaeoue i?ia?aiio oeeeea nai?a aeaiiuo a eiaeiauo eiiaeiaoeeyo
(ia iaoeiiii ycuea), i?eaaae?iioth a oaae.6.

3.6. Ioeaiea auno?iaeaenoaey IIO

Eae e i?aaeaea aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi iaeneiaeueiay aeeeoaeueiinoue
aeoa i?aia?aciaaiey AOeI iaiueoa aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea
neio?ieiioeuenia O=2ien. Oiaaea a niioaaonoaee n oaae.4 iieo/ei:

Ia auiieiaiea eiiaiae 1(8 e 20(24 o?aaoaony 11+11+11+11+10+
7+7+5+11+11+11+11+11=128 oaeoia.

? eiiaiaeu

Aae?an

II16

Eiiaiaea2

Eiiaiaea16

Eiiiaioa?ee

1 03B6 11 000 101 C5 ;noae ( ( AN )

2 03B7 11 010 101 D5 ;noae ( ( DE )

3 03B8 11 100 101 E5 ;noae ( ( HL )

4 03B9 11 110 101 F5 ; noae ( PSW

5 03B9 00 100 001 21 ;HL ( 070116

03BA 0000 0001 01

03BB 0000 0111 07

6 03BC 00 000 110 06 ; B ( 0D16

03BD 0000 1110 0D

7 03BE 00 010 110 16 ;D ( 0016

03BF 0000 0000 00

8 03C0 01 111 010 7A ; A ( ( D )

9 03C1 11 010 011 D3 ;Ono?.aua.?1((A)

03C2 0000 0001 01

10 03C3 11 010 011 D3 ; A((ono?.aa. ?2)

03C4 0000 0010 02

11 03C5 00 001 111 0F ;A(Naea.I( A )

12 03C6 11 010 010 D2 ;OI I?e N = 0

03C7 1100 0011 C3 e y/aeea 03C3

03C8 0001 0110 03

13 03C9 11 011 011 DB ;A((ono?.aa. ?1)

03CA 0000 0001 01

14 03CB 01 110 111 77 ; M ( ( A )

15 03CC 00 100 011 23 ;HL(( HL ) + 1

16 03CD 00 010 100 14 ; D ( ( D ) + 1

17 03CE 01 111 010 7A ; A ( ( D )

18 03CF 10 111 000 B8 ; ( A ) — ( B )

19 03D0 11 000 010 C2 ;OI I?e Z = 0

03D1 1100 0001 C1 e y/aeea 03C1

03D2 0000 0011 03

20 03D3 11 110 001 F1 ;PSW ((noae )

21 03D4 11 100 001 E1 ; HL (( noae )

22 03D5 11 010 001 D1 ; DE( ( noae )

23 03D6 11 000 001 C1 ;BC ( ( noae )

24 03D7 11 001 001 C9 ; Aica?ao ec II?

Oaaeeoea 6

Ia iaeei i?ioiae ii aieueoiio oeeeeo (ia auiieiaiea eiiaiae 9(19)
ioaeii 11+11+4+10+11+7+5+5+5+4+10=83 oaeoa. Anaai oaeeo i?ioiaeia
F=1410, /oi o?aaoao 83.14=1162 oaeoia. Eoiai aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea
nai?a aeaiiuo ninoaaeo S=(128+1162).2 ien=2580 ien. Oi anoue
auno?iaeaenoaea IIO i?eia?ii a 31 ?ac ieaea auno?iaeaenoaey ONAe ia
noaiiie eiaeea. Oaeiaa oeaia oieaa?naeueiinoe IIN.

E e o a ? a o o ? a:

1. A.A.Eaeaaaeia “II e eo i?eiaiaiea a nenoaiao ia?aaea/e e ia?aaioee
neaiaeia”

2. A.I.Oeueyiia “Ooieoeeiiaeueiua oceu oeeo?iauo ono?ienoa e
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia”

3. A.A.Eaiaeei, A.I.Oocia “Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaeoee iee?ii?i-
oeanni?iuo nenoai”

4. A.I.Aaeaoia, Ae.A.Iocaieia “Iee?ii?ioeanni?u e iee?ii?i- oeanni?iua
nenoaiu”

5. A.I.Eaaai, A.A.Noaoei “Iee?ii?ioeanni?u a oeeo?iauo nenoa-iao”

PAGE

PAGE 18

PAGE

PAGE 25

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

IINEAA

1996 a.

Iineaa

1996 a.

___

___

. . .

. . .

io OO

(

. . .

(

(

. . .

. . .

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

1

1 (

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

8

1

1

___

___

___

___

10

10

A

0 (

1

2

.

. RAM

.

9 D0

DI

WR

/

RD

CS

OAe 8

OA 16

A

0 (

1

2

.

. RAM

.

9 D0

DI

WR

/

RD

CS

A

0 (

1

2

.

. RAM

.

9 D0

DI

WR

/

RD

CS

A

0 (

1

2

.

. RAM

.

9 D0

DI

WR

/

RD

CS

(

(

?en.1

inaaaeiieoaeueiua neaiaeu (i?eciaee)

O1

O2

:

On

OO

O1

O2

:

Om

IO

N1

N2

:

NL

:

.

?1

?2

:

?g

Z1

Z2

:

Zk

?en.2.

__

O6

___

O5

RD / WR

A CS

cai

AOeI

IE

13 11 … 1 0

eiiiooaoi? eaiaeia

ID RAM OD

(8)

(8)

/ 1

(10)

O4

(4)

O3

Ooe

NO22

NO21

O2

O8

(+1)

O1

X1

(16)

O2

O7 (+1)

aea (1)

(0) iao

(NO22)=0

O8 NO22 ((NO22)+1

O7 NO21 ((NO21)+1

aea (1)

O6 II ( (AOeI)

(0) iao

(Ooe )=1

O2 CO22 ( 0

O5 cai. AOeI

O4 eiii ( (NO22)

O3 Ooe ( 0

O1 CO21 ( 070116

?en.4.

a0

Y1 O1,O2

a1

Y2 O3,O4,O5

a2

0

X1

1

Y3 O6,O7,O8

a3

0

X2

1

a0

— ; Y1

a1

a0

— ; Y2

X2 ; —

X2 ; —

X1 ; —

a2

a3

X1 ; Y3

?en.6

___

O1 (

O2 (

: (

O8 (

O1 EOeO

O2

Q2

Q1

(

(

(

J2

K2

J1

K1

j TT1

c

k

i

Q2

j TT2

c

k

Q1

i

i io AOE

?en.7

J2

Q2

____

________

________

K1

Q2

J1

Q2

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

X1

X2

Y3

Y2

Y1

K2

Q2

Q2

Q2

Q2

____

________

____

____

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

________

X1

___

___

___ ___

K2 = Q1 Y1 = Q1.Q2 Y2 = Q1.Q2 Y3 = Q1.Q2.X1

Q1

Q2

Q1

Q2

X1

X2

J2 , K2

Y3

Y2

Y1

J1

K1

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

1

(

?en.8

__

Y6

___

Y5

RD / WR

A CS

cai

AOeI

IE

13 12 … 1 0

eiiiooaoi? eaiaeia

ID RAM OD

(8)

(8)

1

O4

12

(

O1

R P2

C

D0 NO21 1

D1 2

D2 4

D3 8

R1

(

(

(

D0

+1

NO22 1

2

R0 4

8

(

1

O2

(

(

2

O2

3

O8

(

(

4

O7

Q1

R P2

C

D0 NO21 1

D1 2

D2 4

D3 8

R1

O1

Y1

(

(

(

O2

Q2

(

(

“1”

(

5

O3

Y2

Q1

(

6

O4

Q2

(

7

O5

(

(

i

1

8

(

X1

O6

Y3

Q1

O7

(

O8

Q2

(

(

R P2

C

D0 NO21 1

D1 2

D2 4

D3 8

R1

(

(

(

Q2

“1”

9

(

j TT2

c

k

1

X1

(

(

10

(

Q2

i

(

Q2

11

(

12

1

Q1

j TT1

c

k

X2

Q1

(

Q1

(

i

(

R P2

C

D0 NO21 1

D1 2

D2 4

D3 8

R1

i io AOE

“1”

(

(

?en.9

X1

O3

OK

i

i

1

(

(

+5 V

R Ooe

D

S

(

(

16

15

14

13

E?580EE80

caienue

/oaiea

O A ( 16 )

AOOA?

ono?ienoai

aaiaea ?2

ono?ienoai

aaiaea ?1

(

II

O Ae ( 8 )

AOOA?

eiiiooaoi?

eaiaeia

ono?ienoai

auaiaea ?1

IE

AOeI

. . .

e a i a e u

?en.10

13 ( A ) ( ( Ono?.aua ?1 )

1 noae ( ( AN )

14 I ( ( A )

2 noae ( ( DE )

15 HL ( ( HL ) + 1

3 noae ( ( HL )

16 D ( ( D ) + 1

4 noae ( PSW

17 A ( ( D )

5 HL ( 070116

18 ( A ) — (B)

6 B ( 0D16

7 D ( 0016

0

Z

19

8 A ( ( D )

9 Ono?.aua ?1 ( ( A )

1

10 ( A ) ( ( Ono?.aua ?2 )

20 PSW ( ( noae )

11 A ( Naea. I ( A )

21 HL ( ( noae )

22 DE ( ( noae )

0

12

N

23 BC ( ( noae )

24 Aica?ao ec II?

1

?en.11

C=0

C=1

Z=0

Z=1

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