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Проблема искусственного интеллекта

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AeIIAOeEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE

?AOA?AO II OEEINIOEE

IA OAIO

“EEAA?IAOEEA E NICIAIEA.

I?IAEAIA ENEONNOAAIIIAI EIOAEEAEOA”

oaeoeueoao: yeieiaee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee

a?oiia: YI-96

nooaeaio: Ii?icia Aaeaioei Aeaaeeie?iae/

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Naoii Aiaoieee Aeaaeeie?iae/

Aeiiaoee, 1998

Niaea?aeaiea

Aiiioaoeey no?. 3

Eeaa?iaoeea no?. 4

Eeaa?iaoeea e niciaiea no?. 5

Eiie?aoecaoeey iiiyoey “eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo” no?. 6

I?iaeaia eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa no?. 9

Caeeth/aiea no?. 14

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u no?. 15

Aiiioaoeey

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo yaeyaony nae/an «ai?y/ae oi/eie» iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee. A yoie oi/ea, eae a oieona, neiioeaio?e?iaaiu iaeaieueoea
oneeey eeaa?iaoeeia, eeiaaenoia, ineoieiaia, oeeinioia, iaoaiaoeeia e
eiaeaia?ia. Eiaiii caeanue ?aoathony iiiaea ei?aiiua aii?inu, naycaiiua
n iooyie ?acaeoey iao/iie iunee, n aicaeaenoaeai aeinoeaeaiee a iaeanoe
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e ?iaioeee ia aeeciue aoaeoueo iieieaiee
ethaeae. Caeanue aicieeatho e iieo/atho i?aaa a?aaeaeainoaa iiaua
iaoiaeu iao/iuo iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Caeanue oi?ie?oaony
iiaue acaeyae ia ?ieue oao eee eiuo iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia e aicieeaao oi,
/oi iiaeii auei au iacaaoue oeeinioneei iniuneaieai yoeo ?acoeueoaoia.
Iiyoiio y iin/eoae aeooaeueiui ?ane?uoue aeaiioth oaio a ?aoa?aoa.

Eeaa?iaoeea

Eeaa?iaoeea aicieeea ia nouea iiiaeo iaeanoae ciaiey: iaoaiaoeee,
eiaeee, naieioeee, aeieiaee e nioeeieiaee.

Iaiauathuee oa?aeoa? eeaa?iaoe/aneeo eaeae e iaoiaeia naeeaeaao iaoeo
ia oi?aaeaiee, eaeiaie yaeyaony eeaa?iaoeea, n oeeinioeae.

Caaea/a iainiiaaiey enoiaeiuo iiiyoee eeaa?iaoeee, iniaaiii oaeeo, eae
eioi?iaoeey, oi?aaeaiea, ia?aoiay naycue e ae?. o?aaotho auoiaea a aieaa
oe?ieoth, oeeinioneoth iaeanoue ciaiee, aaea ?anniao?eaathony ao?eaoou
iaoa?ee – iauea naienoaa aeaeaeaiey, caeiiiia?iinoe iiciaiey.

Naia eeaa?iaoeea eae iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee iiiaia aeaao nia?aiaiiiio
oeeinioneiio iuoeaieth. Iia iicaieyao aieaa aeoaiei ?ane?uoue iaoaieci
naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, iaiaauaao niaea?aeaiea eaoaai?ee naycae,
i?e/eiiinoe, iicaieyao aieaa aeaoaeueii eco/eoue aeeaeaeoeeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e neo/aeiinoe, aiciiaeiinoe e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Ioe?uaathony iooe aeey ?ac?aaioee “eeaa?iaoe/aneie” aiinaieiaee, eioi?ay
ia iiaeiaiyao aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci oai?eae iiciaiey, ii iicaieyao
ooi/ieoue, aeaoaeece?iaaoue e oaeoaeoue a naaoa iaoee ia oi?aaeaiee ?yae
nouanoaaiii aaaeiuo i?iaeai.

Aicieeioa a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey e acaeiiiai noeioee?iaaiey ?yaea, a
iaaeaeaeii i?ioeii neaai naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie, aeenoeeieei
oaoie/aneiai, aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai i?ioeey eeaa?iaoeea
i?iieeea ai iiiaea noa?u aeecie.

Noieue iaiau/iay “aeia?aoey” eeaa?iaoeee iauyniyaony oeaeui ?yaeii
i?e/ei, n?aaee eioi?uo iaaei auaeaeeoue aeaa.

Ai-ia?auo, eeaa?iaoeea eiaao iaiau/aeiue, neioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. A
nayce n yoei aei neo ii? nouanoaotho ?acee/ey a o?aeoiaea iaeioi?uo aa
i?iaeai e iiiyoee.

Ai-aoi?uo, iniiaiiieaaathuea eaeae eeaa?iaoeee i?eoee a iaoo no?aio n
Caiaaea, aaea iie n naiiai ia/aea ieacaeenue iiae aeeyieai eaeaaeecia e
iaoaoeceee, a eiiaaea e eaeaieiaee. Oi aea naiia, eee ii/oe oi aea naiia
i?ienoiaeeei e o ian. Oaeei ia?acii noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee oeeinioneeo iniia eeaa?iaoeee, inaauaiea aa
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee n iiceoeee oeeinioneiai iiciaiey.

Iniuneaiea eeaa?iaoe/aneeo iiiyoee n iiceoeee oeeinioee aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue aieaa oniaoiiio inouanoaeaieth oai?aoe/aneeo e
i?aeoe/aneeo ?aaio a yoie iaeanoe, nicaeano eo/oea oneiaey aeey
yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou e iao/iiai iienea a yoie iaeanoe iiciaiey.

Eeaa?iaoeea eae ia?niaeoeaiay iaeanoue iao/iiai iiciaiey i?eaeaeaao e
naaa ana aieueoaa aieiaiea oeeinioia. Iieiaeaiey e auaiaeu eeaa?iaoeee
aeeth/athony a eo iaeanoe ciaiey, eioi?ua a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeytho ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiie oai?ee iiciaiey. Eae ni?aaaaeeeai
ioia/atho ioa/anoaaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee, eeaa?iaoeea, aeinoeaeaiey
eioi?ie eiaao a?iiaaeiia cia/aiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey iiciaaaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna, ii naiae nouiinoe e niaea?aeaieth aeieaeia aoiaeeoue a
oai?eth iiciaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea iaoiaeieiae/aneiai e aiinaieiae/aneiai aniaeoia
eeaa?iaoeee niinianoaoao ?aoaieth iiiaeo oeeinioneeo i?iaeai. A eo /enea
– i?iaeaiu aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiieiaiey i?inoiai e neiaeiiai, eiee/anoaa e
ea/anoaa, iaiaoiaeeiinoe e neo/aeiinoe, aiciiaeiinoe e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?a?uaiinoe e iai?a?uaiinoe, /anoe e oeaeiai. Aeey
?acaeoey naieo iaoaiaoeee e eeaa?iaoeee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao
i?eiaiaiea e iaoa?eaeo yoeo iaoe ?yaea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo oeeinioneeo
i?eioeeiia e iiiyoee, i?eiaiaiea, iaycaoaeueii o/eouaathuaa niaoeeoeeo
niioaaonoaothueo iaeanoae iao/iiai ciaiey. N?aaee yoeo i?eioeeiia e
iiiyoee neaaeoao iniai auaeaeeoue iieiaeaiea io?aaeaiey, i?eioeei
iaoa?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa ie?a eiie?aoiiai e aano?aeoiiai, eiee/anoaa e
ea/anoaa, ii?iaeueiiai e niaea?aeaoaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e iiciaieth e ae?.

Oeeinioneay iuneue oaea iiiai naeaeaea a aiaeeca aniaeoia e
oai?aoeei-iiciaaaoaeueiie ?iee eeaa?iaoeee. Auei iieacaii, neieue
iiiaiiaauathuei a oeeinioneii ieaia yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea a naaoa
eeaa?iaoeee oaeeo aii?inia e iiiyoee, eae i?e?iaea eioi?iaoeee, oeaeue e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue, niioiioaiea aeaoa?ieiecia e oaieiaee, niioiioaiea
aeene?aoiiai e iai?a?uaiiai, aeaoa?ieienoneiai e aa?iyoiinoiiai
iiaeoiaea e iaoea.

Ioaeii neacaoue e i aieueoii cia/aiee eeaa?iaoeee aeey iino?iaiey
iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a. Nianoaaiii i?aaeiao eeaa?iaoeee – i?ioeannu,
i?ioaeathuea a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey, iauea caeiiiia?iinoe oaeeo
i?ioeannia.

Eeaa?iaoeea e niciaiea

ssaeaiey, eioi?ua ioia?aaeathony a oaeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iiiyoeyo
eeaa?iaoeee, eae eioi?iaoeey e oi?aaeaiea, eiatho ianoi a i?aaie/aneie
i?e?iaea e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Oaeei ia?acii, eeaa?iaoeeo iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae iaoeo ia oi?aaeaiee e nayce n aeeaie i?e?iaeie a
iauanoaa e oaoieea.

Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia, aie?oa eioi?iai eaeoo oeeinioneea
aeeneonnee – yoi aii?in i oii, /oi oaeia eioi?iaoeey, eaeiaa aa
i?e?iaea? Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee i?e?iaeu eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
iaiaoiaeeii e?aoei ?anniio?aoue anoanoaaiioth iniiao anyeie eioi?iaoeee,
a oaeiaie anoanoaaiiie iniiaie eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony i?enouaa iaoa?ee
iauaeoeaiia naienoai io?aaeaiey.

Iieiaeaiea i ia?ac?uaiie nayce eioi?iaoeee e io?aaeaiey noaei iaeiei ec
aaaeiaeoeo a eco/aiee eioi?iaoeee e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e
i?eciaaony aaniethoiui aieueoeinoaii ioa/anoaaiiuo oeeinioia.

Eioi?iaoeey a aeeaie i?e?iaea a ioee/ea io iaaeeaie ea?aao aeoeaioth
?ieue, oae eae o/anoaoao a oi?aaeaiee anaie aeeciaiiuie i?ioeannaie.

Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?ey io?aaeaiey aeaeeo ?aoaiea iiauo i?iaeai iaoee
e, a /anoiinoe, oaeie ea?aeeiaeueiie i?iaeaiu anoanoaiciaiey eae
ia?aoiae io iai?aaie/aneie iaoa?ee e i?aaie/aneie, a eniieueciaaiee
iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiau aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia. I?iaeaia
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi nouanoaoao iaoa?ey, niiniaiay iuouaoue, e
iaoa?ey, nicaeaiiay ec oao aea aoiiia e a oiaea a?aiy ia iaeaaeathuay
yoie niiniaiinoueth. Aii?in, oaeei ia?acii iinoaaeai aiieia eiie?aoii e,
oai naiui, oieeaao i?iaeaio e ?aoaieth. Eeaa?iaoeea aieioioth caiyeanue
enneaaeiaaieai iaoaieciia naii?aaoeyoeee e naiioi?aaeaiey. Aianoa n oai,
inoaaaynue iaoiaee/anee ia?aie/aiiuie, yoe aeinoeaeaiey inoaaeee
ioe?uouie ?yae i?iaeai e ?anniio?aieth eioi?uo i?eaaea aioo?aiiyy eiiea
eeaa?iaoeee.

Niciaiea yaeyaony ia noieueei i?iaeoeoii ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, neieueei
i?iaeoeoii iauanoaaiiie aeecie /aeiaaea, iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea
i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee ethaeae. Iii yaeyaony nouanoaaiiie /anoueth
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie nicaeaaony /aeiaa/aneay
i?e?iaea e ia iiaeao auoue i?eiyoa aia yoie i?e?iaeu.

Anee a iaoeiao e aiiaua a iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaea io?aaeaiea anoue
ianneaiue, ia?oaue oeceei-oeie/aneee, iaoaie/aneee aeo aac iaiauaiey e
i?iieeiiaaiey a nouiinoue iaiauaaiiai yaeaiey, oi io?aaeaiea a oi?ia
niciaiey anoue, oi iiaieth O.Yiaaeuena “iiciaiea aunieii?aaieciaaiiie
iaoa?eae naiie naay, i?iieeiiaaiea a nouiinoue, caeii ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu,
i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee iauaeoeaiiai ie?a”.

A iaoeia aea io?aaeaiea ia iniciaiii, oae eae iii inouanoaeyaony aac
ia?aciaaiey eaeaaeueiuo ia?acia e iiiyoee, a i?ienoiaeeo a aeaea
yeaeo?e/aneeo eiioeuenia, neaiaeia e o.i. Iineieueeo iaoeia ia iuneeo,
yoa ia anoue oa oi?ia io?aaeaiey, eioi?ay eiaao ianoi a i?ioeanna
iiciaiey /aeiaaeii ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna
io?aaeaiey a iaoeia ii?aaeaeythony, i?aaeaea anaai, caeiiiia?iinoyie
io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a niciaiee /aeiaaea, oae eae iaoeio
nicaeaao /aeiaae a oeaeyo aieaa oi/iiai io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e
ia iaoeia naia ii naaa io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a /aeiaae
io?aaeaao aa n iiiiuueth iaoeiu. Iiyoiio io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iaoeiie yaeyaony ninoaaiui yeaiaioii io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaeii. Iiyaeaiea eeaa?iaoe/aneeo ono?ienoa i?eaiaeeo e
aicieeiiaaieth ia iiaie oi?iu io?aaeaiey, a iiaiai caaia,
iiin?aaeothuaai io?aaeaiea i?e?iaeu /aeiaaeii.

Eiie?aoecaoeey iiiyoey «eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo»

A iiiyoea «eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo» aeeaaeuaaaony ?acee/iue niune – io
i?eciaiey eioaeeaeoa o YAI, ?aoathueo eiae/aneea eee aeaaea ethaua
au/eneeoaeueiua caaea/e, aei ioianaiey e eioaeeaeooaeueiui eeoue oao
nenoai, eioi?ua ?aoatho aanue eiiieaen caaea/, inouanoaeyaiuo /aeiaaeii,
eee aua aieaa oe?ieoth eo niaieoiiinoue. Iu iinoa?aainy au/eaieoue oio
niune iiiyoey «eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo», eioi?ue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
niioaaonoaoao ?aaeueiui enneaaeiaaieyi a yoie iaeanoe.

Eae ioia/aeinue, a enneaaeiaaieyo ii eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo o/aiua
ioaeaeathony io noiaenoaa i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a oaoie/aneie
nenoaia eee a ?aaeecoaiuo ath i?ia?aiiao, n iuoeaieai /aeiaaea. Anee
nenoaia ?aoaao caaea/e, eioi?ua /aeiaae iau/ii ?aoaao iin?aaenoaii
naiaai eioaeeaeoa, oi iu eiaai aeaei n nenoaiie eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa.

Iaeiaei yoi ia?aie/aiea iaaeinoaoi/ii. Nicaeaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
i?ia?aii aeey YAI – ?aaioa i?ia?aiienoa – ia anoue eiino?oe?iaaiea
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa. Eaeea aea caaea/e, ?aoaaiua oaoie/aneeie
nenoaiaie, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eiinoeooe?othuea eneonnoaaiiue
eioaeeaeo?

*oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, iaaei oynieoue i?aaeaea anaai, /oi
oaeia caaea/a. Eae ioia/atho ineoieiae , yoio oa?iei oiaea ia yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiui. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai iiaeii
i?eiyoue iiieiaiea caaea/e eae iuneeoaeueiie caaea/e, nouanoaothuaa a
ineoieiaee. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi caaea/a anoue oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
anoue ?aaioa aeey iuoeaiey, o. a. eiaaea eiaaony iaeioi?ay oeaeue, a
n?aaenoaa e aa aeinoeaeaieth ia yniu; eo iaaei iaeoe iin?aaenoaii
iuoeaiey. Oi?ioi ii yoiio iiaiaeo neacae Ae. Iiea: «…o?oaeiinoue
?aoaiey a eaeie-oi ia?a aoiaeeo a naiiiiiyoea caaea/e: oai, aaea iao
o?oaeiinoe, iao e caaea/e». Anee /aeiaae eiaao i/aaeaeiia n?aaenoai, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai iaaa?iia iiaeii inouanoaeoue aeaeaiea, iiyniyao ii,
oi caaea/e ia aicieeaao. Anee /aeiaae iaeaaeaao aeai?eoiii ?aoaiey
iaeioi?ie caaea/e e eiaao oece/aneoth aiciiaeiinoue aai ?aaeecaoeee, oi
caaea/e a nianoaaiiii niunea oaea ia nouanoaoao.

Oae iiieiaaiay caaea/a a nouiinoe oiaeaeanoaaiia i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee,
e ?aoaaony iia iin?aaenoaii i?aia?aciaaiey iineaaeiae. A aa ?aoaiee
o/anoaotho ia oieueei oneiaey, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeaiu. *aeiaae
eniieuecoao ethaoth iaoiaeyuothny a aai iaiyoe eioi?iaoeeth, «iiaeaeue
ie?a», eiathuothny a aai ineoeea e aeeth/athuoth oeenaoeeth
?aciiia?aciuo caeiiia, naycae, ioiioaiee yoiai ie?a.

Anee caaea/a ia yaeyaony iuneeoaeueiie, oi iia ?aoaaony ia YAI
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie e, cia/eo, ia aoiaeeo a e?oa caaea/
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa. Aa eioaeeaeooaeueiay /anoue auiieiaia
/aeiaaeii. Ia aeieth iaoeiu inoaeanue /anoue ?aaiou, eioi?ay ia o?aaoao
o/anoey iuoeaiey, o. a. «aaciuneaiiay», iaeioaeeaeooaeueiay.

Iiae neiaii «iaoeia» caeanue iiieiaaony iaoeia aianoa n aa niaieoiiui
iaoaiaoe/aneei iaania/aieai, aeeth/athuei ia oieueei i?ia?aiiu, ii e
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ «iiaeaee ie?a». Iaaeinoaoeii oaeiai
iiieiaiey yaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii aai aio?iiiii?oeci. Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua
eneonnoaaiiui eioaeeaeoii, oeaeaniia?acii ii?aaeaeeoue oaeei ia?acii,
/oiau /aeiaae ii e?aeiae ia?a a ii?aaeaeaiee ionoonoaiaae. I?e
oa?aeoa?enoeea iuoeaiey iu ioia/aee, /oi aai iniiaiay ooieoeey
caeeth/aaony a au?aaioea noai oeaeaniia?aciuo aiaoieo aeaenoaee a
aaneiia/ii aa?uee?othueo oneiaeyo. Niaoeeoeea /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey (a
ioee/ea io ?annoaei/iie aeayoaeueiinoe aeeaioiuo) ninoieo a oii, /oi
/aeiaae au?aaaouaaao e iaeaieeaaao ciaiey, o?aiy eo a naiae iaiyoe.
Au?aaioea noai aiaoieo aeaenoaee i?ienoiaeeo ia ii i?eioeeio «noeioe –
?aaeoeey», a ia iniiaa ciaiee, iieo/aaiuo aeiiieieoaeueii ec n?aaeu,
aeey iiaaaeaiey a eioi?ie au?aaaouaaaony noaia aeaenoaey.

Yoio niinia au?aaioee noai aiaoieo aeaenoaee (a ia i?inoi aeaenoaey ii
eiiaiaeai, ionoue aeaaea iaiythueiny eae ooieoeee io a?aiaie eee eae
iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee io ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeoanoaothueo
oaaia), ia iao acaeyae, yaeyaony nouanoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ethaiai
eioaeeaeoa. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi e nenoaiai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa
ioiinyony oa, eioi?ua, eniieuecoy caeiaeaiiua a ieo i?aaeea ia?a?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee, au?aaaouaatho iiaua noaiu oeaeaniia?aciuo aeaenoaee ia
iniiaa aiaeeca iiaeaeae n?aaeu, o?aiyueony a eo iaiyoe. Niiniaiinoue e
ia?ano?ieea naieo yoeo iiaeaeae a niioaaonoaee n aiiaue iinooiathuae
eioi?iaoeeae yaeyaony naeaeaoaeuenoaii aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho iaee/ea nianoaaiiie aioo?aiiae
iiaeaee ie?a o oaoie/aneeo nenoai i?aaeiinueeie eo
«eioaeeaeooaeueiinoe». Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeie iiaeaee, eae iu iieaaeai
ieaea, naycaii n i?aiaeieaieai neioaene/aneie iaeiinoi?iiiinoe nenoaiu,
o.a. n oai, /oi neiaieu eee oa eo /anoue, eioi?ie iia?e?oao nenoaia,
eioa?i?aoe?iaaiu, eiatho naiaioeeo.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy iniaaiiinoe nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, E. O. Eocei
oeacuaaao ia: 1) iaee/ea a ieo nianoaaiiie aioo?aiiae iiaeaee aiaoiaai
ie?a; yoa iiaeaeue iaania/eaaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ioiineoaeueioth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue nenoaiu a ioeaiea neooaoeee, aiciiaeiinoue
naiaioe/aneie e i?aaiaoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee cai?inia e nenoaia; 2)
niiniaiinoue iiiieiaiey eiathueony ciaiee; 3) niiniaiinoue e
aeaaeoeoeaiiio auaiaeo, o.a. e aaia?aoeee eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay a yaiii
aeaea ia niaea?aeeony a nenoaia; yoi ea/anoai iicaieyao nenoaia
eiino?oe?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o n iiaie naiaioeeie e
i?aeoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoueth; 4) oiaiea iia?e?iaaoue a neooaoeeyo,
naycaiiuo n ?acee/iuie aniaeoaie ia/aoeinoe, aeeth/ay «iiieiaiea»
anoanoaaiiiai ycuea; 5) niiniaiinoue e aeeaeiaiaiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth n
/aeiaaeii; 6) niiniaiinoue e aaeaioaoeee.

Ia aii?in, ana ee ia?a/eneaiiua oneiaey iaycaoaeueiu, iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
i?eciaiey nenoaiu eioaeeaeooaeueiie, o/aiua ioaa/atho ii-?aciiio. A
?aaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo, eae i?aaeei, i?eciaaony aaniethoii
iaiaoiaeeiui iaee/ea aioo?aiiae iiaeaee aiaoiaai ie?a, e i?e yoii
n/eoaaony aeinoaoi/iui auiieiaiea oioy au iaeiiai ec ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa
oneiaee.

I. A?ia? auaeaeioe iuneue i «eiioeiooia eioaeeaeoa»: ?acee/iua nenoaiu
iiaoo niiinoaaeyoueny ia oieueei eae eiathuea e ia eiathuea eioaeeaeoa,
ii e ii noaiaie aai ?acaeoey. I?e yoii, n/eoaao ii, aeaeaoaeueii
?ac?aaioaoue oeaeo o?iaiy eioaeeaeoa, o/eouaathuoth noaiaiue ?acaeoey
eaaeaeiai ec aai iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eciaeia. Ecaanoii, /oi a naia a?aiy
A.Oueth?eia i?aaeeiaeee a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey, ii?aaeaeythuaai, iiaeao ee
iaoeia iuneeoue, «ea?o a eieoaoeeth». Niaeanii yoiio e?eoa?eth, iaoeia
iiaeao auoue i?eciaia iuneyuae, anee /aeiaae, aaaey n iae aeeaeia ii
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiio e?oao aii?inia, ia niiaeao ioee/eoue aa ioaaoia io
ioaaoia /aeiaaea.

E?eoa?ee Oueth?eiaa a eeoa?aoo?a aue iiaeaa?aioo e?eoeea n ?acee/iuo
oi/ae c?aiey. Ia iao acaeyae, aeaenoaeoaeueii na?ueaciue a?aoiaio i?ioea
yoiai e?eoa?ey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a iiaeoiaea Oueth?eiaa noaaeony
ciae oiaeaeanoaa iaaeaeo niiniaiinoueth iuneeoue e niiniaiinoueth e
?aoaieth caaea/ ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiith oeia. Oniaoiay
«ea?a a eieoaoeeth» ia iiaeao aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ouaoaeueiiai
aiaeeca iuoeaiey eae oeaeinoiinoe auou i?eciaia e?eoa?eai aa niiniaiinoe
e iuoeaieth.

Iaeiaei yoio a?aoiaio aueao ieii oeaee, anee iu aiai?ei ia i iuneyuae
iaoeia, a ia eneonnoaaiiii eioaeeaeoa, eioi?ue aeieaeai eeoue
i?iaeooee?iaaoue oece/aneea oaea ciaeia, eioa?i?aoe?oaiua /aeiaaeii a
ea/anoaa ?aoaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/. Iiyoiio i?aa A. I. Aeooeia,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi iaeaieaa anoanoaaiii, neaaeoy Oueth?eiao, n/eoaoue, /oi
iaeioi?ia ono?ienoai, nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo, anee, aaaey n iei aeinoaoi/ii aeieaee aeeaeia
ii aieaa eee iaiaa oe?ieiio e?oao aii?inia, /aeiaae ia niiaeao
?acee/eoue, ?acaiaa?eaaao ii n ?acoiiui aeeaui nouanoaii eee n
aaoiiaoe/aneei ono?ienoaii. Anee o/anoue aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioee
i?ia?aii, niaoeeaeueii ?ann/eoaiiuo ia aaaaeaiea a caaeoaeaeaiea
/aeiaaea, oi, aiciiaeii, neaaeoao aiai?eoue ia i?inoi i /aeiaaea, a i
niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiii yenia?oa. Yoio e?eoa?ee, ia iao acaeyae, ia
i?ioeai?a/eo ia?a/eneaiiui auoa iniaaiiinoyi nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai
.eioaeeaeoa.

Ii /oi cia/eo ii «aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiio e?oao aii?inia», i eioi?ii eaeao
?a/ue a e?eoa?ee Oueth?eiaa e a auneacuaaiee A. I. Aeooeiaa? Ia
ia/aeueiuo yoaiao ?ac?aaioee i?iaeaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ?yae
enneaaeiaaoaeae, iniaaiii caieiathueony ya?enoe/aneei i?ia?aiie?iaaieai,
noaaeee caaea/o nicaeaiey eioaeeaeoa, oniaoii ooieoeeiie?othuaai a
ethaie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi iiaeii iacaaoue ?ac?aaioeie «iauaai
eioaeeaeoa». Nae/an aieueoeinoai ?aaio iai?aaeaii ia nicaeaiea
«i?ioanneiiaeueiiai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa», o. a. nenoai, ?aoathueo
eioaeeaeooaeueiua caaea/e ec ioiineoaeueii ia?aie/aiiie iaeanoe
(iai?eia?, oi?aaeaiea ii?oii, eioaa?e?iaaiea ooieoeee, aeieacaoaeuenoai
oai?ai aaiiao?ee e o.i.). A yoeo neo/ayo «aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieee e?oa
aii?inia» aeieaeai iiieiaoueny eae niioaaonoaothuay iaeanoue i?aaeiaoia.

Enoiaeiui ioieoii iaoeo ?annoaeaeaiee ia eneonnoaaiiii eioaeeaeoa auei
ii?aaeaeaiea oaeie nenoaiu eae ?aoathuae iuneeoaeueiua caaea/e. Ii
ia?aae iath noaayony e caaea/e, eioi?ua ethaee iau/ii ia n/eoatho
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie, iineieueeo i?e eo ?aoaiee /aeiaae niciaoaeueii ia
i?eaaaaao e ia?ano?ieea i?iaeaiiuo neooaoeee. E eo /eneo ioiineony,
iai?eia?, caaea/a ?aniiciaiey c?eoaeueiuo ia?acia. *aeiaae ociaao
/aeiaaea, eioi?iai aeaeae iaeei-aeaa ?aca, iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?ioeanna
/oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Enoiaey ec yoiai eaaeaony, /oi yoa caaea/a ia
yaeyaony eioaeeaeooaeueiie. Ii a i?ioeanna ociaaaiey /aeiaae ia ?aoaao
iuneeoaeueiuo caaea/ eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo i?ia?aiia ?aniiciaiey
ia iaoiaeeony a noa?a iniciaiiiai. Ii oae eae a ?aoaiee oaeeo caaea/ ia
iainiciaiiii o?iaia o/anoaoao iiaeaeue n?aaeu, o?aiyuayny a iaiyoe, oi
yoe caaea/e a nouiinoe yaeythony eioaeeaeooaeueiuie. Niioaaonoaaiii e
nenoaia, eioi?ay aa ?aoaao, iiaeao n/eoaoueny eioaeeaeooaeueiie. Oai
aieaa yoi ioiineony e «iiieiaieth» iaoeiie o?ac ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea,
oioy /aeiaae a yoii ia oniao?eaaao iau/ii i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee.

Oai?ey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa i?e ?aoaiee iiiaeo caaea/ noaeeeaaaony
n aiinaieiae/aneeie i?iaeaiaie.

Iaeia ec oaeeo i?iaeai ninoieo a auyniaiee aii?ina, aeieacoaia ee
oai?aoe/anee (iaoaiaoe/anee) aiciiaeiinoue eee iaaiciiaeiinoue
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa. Ia yoio n/ao nouanoaotho aeaa oi/ee c?aiey.
Iaeie n/eoatho iaoaiaoe/anee aeieacaiiui, /oi YAI a i?eioeeia iiaeao
auiieieoue ethaoth ooieoeeth, inouanoaeyaioth anoanoaaiiui eioaeeaeoii.
Ae?oaea iieaaatho a oaeie aea ia?a aeieacaiiui iaoaiaoe/anee, /oi anoue
i?iaeaiu, ?aoaaiua /aeiaa/aneei eioaeeaeoii, eioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueii
iaaeinooiiu YAI. Yoe acaeyaeu auneacuaathony eae eeaa?iaoeeaie, oae e
oeeinioaie.

I?iaeaia eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa

Aiinaieiae/aneee aiaeec i?iaeaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ane?uaaao
?ieue oaeeo iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?oaeee, eae eaoaai?ee, niaoeeoe/aneay
naieioe/aneay nenoaia, eiae/aneea no?oeoo?u, ?aiaa iaeiieaiiia ciaiea.
Iie iaia?oaeeaathony ia iin?aaenoaii enneaaeiaaiey oeceieiae/aneeo eee
ineoieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, a auyaeythony a
ciaiee, a aai ycueiaii au?aaeaiee. I?oaeey iiciaiey, oi?ie?othueany a
eiia/iii n/aoa ia iniiaa i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
ethaie nenoaiu, auiieiythuae ooieoeee aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey, iacaaeneii
io aa eiie?aoiiai iaoa?eaeueiiai noano?aoa e no?oeoo?u. Iiyoiio, /oiau
nicaeaoue nenoaio, auiieiythuoth ooieoeee aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey, o. a. a
eiia/iii n/aoa oi?ie?othuoth aaeaeaaoiua noaiu aiaoieo aeaenoaee a
nouanoaaiii iaiythueony n?aaeao, iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaeeoue oaeoth nenoaio
yoeie i?oaeeyie.

?acaeoea nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
eaeao ii yoiio iooe. Iaeiaei noaiaiue i?iaeaeaeaiey a aeaiiii
iai?aaeaiee a ioiioaiee eaaeaeiai ec oeacaiiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?oaeee
iaiaeeiaeiaa e a oeaeii iiea iacia/eoaeueia.

1. A iaeaieueoae ia?a nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa eniieuecotho
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneea no?oeoo?u, /oi iaoneiaeaii eo ianiaoeeoe/iinoueth
aeey iuoeaiey e a nouiinoe aeai?eoie/aneei oa?aeoa?ii. Yoi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ioiineoaeueii eaaeie eo oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee. Iaeiaei
aeaaea caeanue eeaa?iaoeea i?aaenoieo i?ieoe aieueoie iooue. A nenoaiao
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa aua neaai eniieuecothony iiaeaeueiay,
eiia?aoeaiay, aii?iniay e eiua eiaeee, eioi?ua ooieoeeiie?otho a
/aeiaa/aneii eioaeeaeoa e ia iaiaa iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oniaoiuo
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, /ai aeaaii inaiaiiua eiaeeie, a caoai e
eeaa?iaoeeie oi?iu auaiaea. Iiauoaiea «eioaeeaeooaeueiiai» o?iaiy
oaoie/aneeo nenoai, aaconeiaii, naycaii ia oieueei n ?anoe?aieai
i?eiaiyaiuo eiae/aneeo n?aaenoa, ii e n aieaa eioaineaiui eo
eniieueciaaieai (aeey i?iaa?ee eioi?iaoeee ia iai?ioeai?a/eainoue,
eiino?oe?iaaiey ieaiia au/eneaiee e o. ae.).

2. Iaiiiai neiaeiaa ianoieo aeaei n naieioe/aneeie nenoaiaie, aac
eioi?uo eioaeeaeo iaaiciiaeai. sscuee, eniieuecoaiua a YAI, aua aeaeaee
io naieioe/aneeo no?oeoo?, eioi?uie iia?e?oao iuoeaiea.

I?aaeaea anaai aeey ?aoaiey ?yaea caaea/ iaiaoiaeeii iineaaeiaaoaeueiia
i?eaeeaeaiea naieioe/aneeo nenoai, eioi?uie iaaeaeyaony YAI, e
anoanoaaiiiio ycueo, oi/iaa, e eniieueciaaieth aai ia?aie/aiiuo
o?aaiaioia. A yoii ieaia i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee iaaeaeeoue aoiaeiua
ycuee YAI oieaa?naeeyie ycuea, iai?eia? iieenaieae (eioi?ay
yeeieie?oaony i?e ia?aaioea a eeiaaenoe/aneii i?ioeanni?a). ?ac?aaioaiu
i?iaeaiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua o?aaiaiou anoanoaaiiuo ycueia, aeinoaoi/iua
aeey ?aoaiey nenoaiie ?yaea i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/. Iaeaieaa aaaeiui eoiaii
yoie ?aaiou yaeyaony nicaeaiea naiaioe/aneeo ycueia (e eo
oi?iaeecaoeey), a eioi?uo neiaa-neiaieu eiatho eioa?i?aoaoeeth.

Iaeiaei iiiaea oieaa?naeee anoanoaaiiuo ycueia, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
auiieiaiey eie iiciaaaoaeueiuo ooieoeee, a ycueao eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa iiea ?aaeeciaaiu neaai (iai?eia?, ioe?uoinoue) eee
eniieuecothony ia?aie/aiii (iai?eia?, iieenaiey). Ana aieueoaa
aiieiuaiea a naieioe/aneeo nenoaiao oieaa?naeee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea,
iaoneiaeaiiuo aai iiciaaaoaeueiie ooieoeeae, aunooiaao iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo eeiee niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa,
iniaaiii oao, a eioi?uo i?iaeaiiay iaeanoue ca?aiaa aeanoei ia
ii?aaeaeaia.

Nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa niiniaiu inouanoaeyoue
ia?aaiae n iaeiiia?iuo ycueia ia iiiaiia?iua. A /anoiinoe, iie iiaoo
no?ieoue aeeaa?aiiu, noaiu, /a?oaaee, a?aou, aunaa/eaaoue ia ye?aiao
e?eaua e o. ae. YAI i?iecaiaeyo e ia?aoiue ia?aaiae (iienuaatho a?aoeee
e oiio iiaeiaiia n iiiiuueth neiaieia). Oaeiai ?iaea ia?aaiae yaeyaony
nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii nia?aiaiiua
nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa iiea ia niiniaiu e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
(aac ia?aaiaea ia neiaiee/aneee ycue) eniieueciaaieth ecia?aaeaiee eee
aini?eieiaaiuo noeai aeey «eioaeeaeooaeueiuo» aeaenoaee. Iiene iooae
aeiaaeueiiai (a ia eieaeueiiai) iia?e?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeae ninoaaeyao
iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo ia?niaeoeaiuo caaea/ oai?ee eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa.

3. Aiieiuaiea a eioi?iaoeeiiiua ianneau e i?ia?aiiu nenoai
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa aiaeiaia eaoaai?ee iaoiaeeony iiea a
ia/aeueiie noaaeee. Aiaeiae iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee (iai?eia?, «oeaeia»,
«/anoue», «iauaa», «aaeeie/iia») eniieuecothony a ?yaea nenoai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee, a /anoiinoe a ea/anoaa «aaciauo ioiioaiee», a oie
ia?a, a eaeie yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey oao eee eiuo eiie?aoiuo i?aaeiaoiuo
eee i?iaeaiiuo iaeanoae, n eioi?uie acaeiiaeaenoaotho nenoaiu.

A oi?iaeeciaaiiii iiiyoeeiii aiia?aoa iaeioi?uo nenoai i?aaenoaaeaiey
ciaiee i?aaei?eiyou ioaeaeueiua (oai?aoe/anee nouanoaaiiua e i?aeoe/anee
aaaeiua) iiiuoee au?aaeaiey iaeioi?uo iiiaioia niaea?aeaiey e ae?oaeo
eaoaai?ee (iai?eia?, «i?e/eia», «neaaenoaea»). Iaeiaei ?yae eaoaai?ee
(iai?eia?, «nouiinoue», «yaeaiea») a ycueao nenoai i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee
ionoonoaoao. I?iaeaia a oeaeii ?ac?aaio/eeaie nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa a iieiie ia?a aua ia iniuneaia, e i?aaenoieo aieueoay ?aaioa
oeeinioia, eiaeeia e eeaa?iaoeeia ii aiaae?aieth aiaeiaia eaoaai?ee a
nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee e ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
nenoai. Yoi iaeii ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee a ?acaeoee oai?ee e
i?aeoeee eeaa?iaoeee.

4. Nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ii/oe ia eieoe?otho
neiaeioth ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o ia?aca, /oi ia iicaieyao ei
ia?ano?aeaaoue i?iaeaiiua neooaoeee, eiiaeie?iaaoue eieaeueiua /anoe
naoae ciaiee a aeiee, ia?ano?aeaaoue yoe aeiee e o. ae.

Ia yaeyaony niaa?oaiiui e acaeiiaeaenoaea aiiaue iinooiathuae
eioi?iaoeee n niaieoiiui ciaieai, oeene?iaaiiui a nenoaiao. A
naiaioe/aneeo naoyo e o?aeiao iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eniieuecothony iaoiaeu,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui eioaeeaeo /aeiaaea eaaei iiiieiyaony iiaie
eioi?iaoeeae, iaoiaeeo ioaeiua aeaiiua, ia?ano?aeaaao naith nenoaio
ciaiee e o. ae.

5. Aua a iaiueoae ia?a nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa
niiniaiu aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia aiaoithth n?aaeo, aac /aai ia
iiaeao; inouanoaeyoueny naiiiao/aiea e aiiaua niaa?oainoaiaaiea
«eioaeeaeooaeueiie» aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, oioy ii?aaeaeaiiua oaae e aiieiuaieth aiinaieiae/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iuoeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo nenoaiao eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa
naeaeaiu, ii a oeaeii yoe nenoaiu aua aeaeaei ia aeaaeatho eiiieaenii
aiinaieiae/aneeo i?oaeee, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao /aeiaae e eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey auiieiaiey niaieoiiinoe ooieoeee aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey.
*ai aieueoa oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa aoaeoo
i?eaeeaeaiu e aiinaieiae/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iuoeaiey /aeiaaea, oai
aeeaea aoaeao eo «eioaeeaeo» e eioaeeaeoo /aeiaaea, oi/iaa, oai auoa
aoaeao eo niiniaiinoue e eiiaeie?iaaieth ciaeiauo eiino?oeoeee,
aini?eieiaaiuo e eioa?i?aoe?oaiuo /aeiaaeii a ea/anoaa ?aoaiey caaea/ e
aiiaua aiieiuaiey iuneae.

A nayce n yoei aicieeaao neiaeiue aii?in. I?e aiaeeca iiciaaaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna aiinaieiaey aano?aae?oaony io ineoioeceieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ?aaeecoaony yoio i?ioeann. Ii ec yoiai ia neaaeoao,
/oi aeey iino?iaiey nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa yoe iaoaieciu ia
eiatho cia/aiey. Aiiaua aiai?y, ia eneeth/aii, /oi iaoaieciu,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aiieiuaiey iaiouaieaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nenoaiu, ia iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu a oeeo?iauo
iaoeiao eee aeaaea a ethaie oaoie/aneie nenoaia, aeeth/athuae a naay
oieueei eiiiiiaiou iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu. Eia/a aiai?y, a i?eioeeia ia
eneeth/aii, /oi oioy iu iiaeai iiciaoue ana aiinaieiae/aneea
caeiiiia?iinoe, iaania/eaathuea auiieiaiea /aeiaaeii aai iiciaaaoaeueiie
ooieoeee, ii eo niaieoiiinoue ?aaeecoaia eeoue a nenoaia, noano?aoii
oiaeaeanoaaiiie /aeiaaeo.

Oaeie acaeyae iainiiauaaaony X. Ae?aeoonii. «Oaeaniay i?aaiecaoeey
/aeiaaea, – ieoao ii, – iicaieyao aio auiieiyoue… ooieoeee, aeey
eioi?uo iao iaoeiiuo i?ia?aii – oaeiaua ia oieueei aua ia nicaeaiu, ii
aeaaea ia nouanoaotho a i?iaeoa… Yoe ooieoeee aeeth/athony a iauoth
niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea e i?eia?aoaieth oaeaniuo oiaiee e iaaueia.
Aeaaiaea?y yoie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie niiniaiinoe iaaeaeaiiue oaeii noauaeo
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a ie?oaeathuai aai ie?a, ia iuoaynue ?aoeoue
iaauiieieioth caaea/o oi?iaeecaoeee anaai e any».

Eae ioia/aao A. A. Ae?theia, iiae/a?eeaaiea cia/aiey «oaeaniie
i?aaiecaoeee» aeey iiieiaiey iniaaiiinoae ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, a
/anoiinoe aiciiaeiinoe aini?eyoey, caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey. Ea/anoaaiiua
?acee/ey a niiniaiinoe eiie?aoiuo nenoai io?aaeaoue ie? oanii naycaiu n
eo no?oeoo?ie, eioi?ay oioy e iaeaaeaao ioiineoaeueiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, ii ia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue iaeioi?uo ?aiie,
caaeaiiuo noano?aoii. A i?ioeanna aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee
niaa?oainoaiaaiea naienoaa io?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeei ia iniiaa oneiaeiaiey
ia?aiie nenoaiu, o. a. noano?aoa io?aaeaiey. Ia eneeth/aaony oaeaea, /oi
?acee/ea noano?aoia YAI e /aeiaaea iiaeao iaoneiaeoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
?acee/ey a eo niiniaiinoe e io?aaeaieth, /oi ?yae ooieoeee /aeiaa/aneiai
eioaeeaeoa a i?eioeeia iaaeinooiai oaeei iaoeiai.

Eiiaaea a oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?a ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aeiiouaiea
aiciiaeiinoe auiieiaiey oaoie/aneie nenoaiie eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ooieoeee
/aeiaaea icia/aao naaaeaiea aunoaai (aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai) e
iecoaio (e nenoaiai ec iai?aaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia) e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?ioeai?a/eo iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeea. Iaeiaei a yoii
?annoaeaeaiee ia o/eouaaaony, /oi iooe oneiaeiaiey iaoa?ee iaeiicia/ii
ia i?aaeia/a?oaiu e ia eneeth/aii, /oi iauanoai eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
nicaeaoue ec iai?aaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia (aano?aeoii aiai?y, ieioy
oeie/aneoth oi?io aeaeaeaiey) nenoaiu ia iaiaa neiaeiua e ia iaiaa
niiniaiua e io?aaeaieth, /ai aeieiae/aneea. Nicaeaiiua oaeei ia?acii
nenoaiu yaeyeenue au eiiiiiaioaie iauanoaa, nioeeaeueiie oi?iie
aeaeaeaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ooieoeee oaoie/aneei nenoaiai, e a /anoiinoe i
aiciiaeiinoe iaaeaeaiey eo ?anniio?aiiuie a ?aaioa aiinaieiae/aneeie
i?oaeeyie, ia iiaeao auoue ?aoai oieueei enoiaey ec oeeinioneeo
niia?aaeaiee. Ii aeieaeai auoue iiaeaa?aioo aiaeeco ia aaca eiie?aoiuo
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

X. Ae?aeoon iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi YAI iia?e?oao eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?ay ia
eiaao cia/aiey, niunea. Iiyoiio aeey YAI iaiaoiaeei ia?aai? ia?iiiiai
/enea aa?eaioia. Oaeaniay i?aaiecaoeey /aeiaaea, aai i?aaiecia iicaieyao
ioee/aoue cia/eiia io iacia/eiiai aeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e aanoe
iiene oieueei a noa?a ia?aiai. Aeey «iaoaeaniie» YAI, ooaa?aeaeaao
Ae?aeoon, yoi iaaeinooiii. Eiia/ii, eiie?aoiue oei i?aaiecaoeee oaea
iicaieyao /aeiaaeo ia?aie/eaaoue i?ino?ainoai aiciiaeiiai iienea. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo oaea ia o?iaia aiaeecaoi?iie nenoaiu. Nianai eia/a ianoieo
aeaei a YAI. Eiaaea a eeaa?iaoeea noaaeony iauay caaea/a, iai?eia?
?aniiciaiey ia?acia, oi yoa caaea/a ia?aaiaeeony n
/oanoaaiii-iaaeyaeiiai o?iaiy ia aano?aeoiue. Oai naiui nieiathony
ia?aie/aiey, ia iniciaaaaiua /aeiaaeii, ii niaea?aeaueany a aai «oaea»,
a no?oeoo?a i?aaiia /oanoa e i?aaiecia a oeaeii. Iie eaii?e?othony YAI.
Iiyoiio i?ino?ainoai iienea ?acei oaaee/eaaaony. Yoi cia/eo, /oi e
«eioaeeaeoo» YAI i?aaeuyaeythony aieaa aunieea o?aaiaaiey (iienea a
aieaa iaoe?iii i?ino?ainoaa), /ai e eioaeeaeoo /aeiaaea, e eioi?iio
i?eoie eioi?iaoeee ia?aie/ai oeceieiae/aneie no?oeoo?ie aai oaea.

Nenoaiu, iaeaaeathuea ineoeeie, ioee/athony io YAI i?aaeaea anaai oai,
/oi ei i?enoue aeieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe, iaoneiaeaiiua eo
iaoa?eaeueiui, aeioeie/aneei noano?aoii. Io?aaeaiea aiaoiaai ie?a
i?ienoiaeeo neaicue i?ecio yoeo iio?aaiinoae, a /ai au?aaeaaony
aeoeaiinoue ineoe/aneie nenoaiu. YAI ia eiaao iio?aaiinoae, i?aaie/anee
naycaiiuo n aa noano?aoii, aeey iaa eae oaeiaie eioi?iaoeey iacia/eia,
aac?acee/ia. Cia/eiinoue, aaiaoe/anee caaeaiiay /aeiaaeo, eiaao aeaa
oeia iineaaenoaee. Ia?aue-e?oa iienea nie?auaaony, e oai naiui
iaeaa/aaony ?aoaiea caaea/e. Aoi?ie-ianoe?aaiua ec iaiyoe
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe i?aaiecia iaoneiaeeaatho iaeiinoi?iiiinoue
ineoe/aneie nenoaiu. Ae?aeoon ieoao a nayce n yoei: «Anee au o ian ia
Caiea i/ooeeny ia?neaiei, aio, iaaa?iia, i?eoeinue au aeaenoaiaaoue a
aaniethoii iaciaeiiie ianoaiiaea; caaea/a ni?oe?iaee ?aeaaaioiiai e
ia?aeaaaioiiai, nouanoaaiiiai e ianouanoaaiiiai, eioi?ay au ia?aae iei
aicieeea, ieacaeanue au aeey iaai noieue aea ia?ac?aoeiie, eae e aeey
oeeo?iaie iaoeiu, anee, eiia/ii, ii ia noiaao i?eiyoue a ?an/ao ieeaeeo
/aeiaa/aneeo ono?aieaiee». N yoei iaeuecy niaeaneoueny. Anee «ia?neaiei»
eiaao eioth aeieiaeth, /ai /aeiaae, oi ii eiaao e eiie ooiaeaiaioaeueiue
neie iaiouaieaiuo iio?aaiinoae, e i?eiyoue aio «/aeiaa/aneea
ono?aieaiey» cia/eoaeueii o?oaeiaa, /ai YAI, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
cai?ia?aiie?iaaia ia ethaoth oeaeue.

AEeaioiia a i?eioeeia ia iiaeao auoue ii ioiioaieth e yoiio
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio neith ia?ai?ia?aiie?iaaii, oioy aeey iaeioi?uo oeaeae
iii iiaeao auoue cai?ia?aiie?iaaii aiiaue iin?aaenoaii ae?anne?iaee. A
yoii (ii oieueei a yoii) niunea iioaioeeaeueiua eioaeeaeooaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe iaoeiu oe?a oaeeo aiciiaeiinoae aeeaioiuo. O /aeiaaea iaae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui neiai aeieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae iaaeno?aeaathony
nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, e eioi?iaoeey aeey iaai ia oieueei
aeieiae/anee, ii e nioeeaeueii cia/eia. *aeiaae oieaa?naeai e n oi/ee
c?aiey iio?aaiinoae e n oi/ee c?aiey aiciiaeiinoae eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey.
Iaeiaei yoa oieaa?naeueiinoue i?enoua aio eae nioeeaeueiiio nouanoao,
i?iecaiaeyuaio n?aaenoaa oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea e
nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaeaniay i?aaiecaoeey ia oieueei aeaao aeiiieieoaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe, ii e nicaeaao aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe. Iiyoiio
eioaeeaeoo /aeiaaea aaaeii eiaoue ia aii?oaeaiee nenoaiu, naiaiaeiua io
aai nianoaaiiuo oaeaniuo e eiuo iio?aaiinoae, i?eno?anoee. Eiia/ii, io
oaeeo nenoai ia?acoiii o?aaiaaoue, /oiau iie naiinoiyoaeueii
?aniiciaaaee ia?acu, eeanneoeoee?iaaee eo ii i?eciaeai, ii eioi?ui yoi
aeaeaao /aeiaae. Ei oeaee iaiaoiaeeii caaeaaaoue a yaiie oi?ia.

Aianoa n oai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaoie/aneea nenoaiu iiaoo eiaoue
aiaeia oaeaniie i?aaiecaoeee. ?acaeoay eeaa?iaoe/aneay nenoaia iaeaaeaao
?aoeaioi?iu-ie e yooaeoi?iuie i?eaeaoeaie. Ia/aei ?acaeoeth oaeeo nenoai
iieiaeeee eioaa?aeueiua i?iiuoeaiiua ?iaiou, a eioi?uo YAI a iniiaiii
auiieiyao ooieoeeth iaiyoe. A ?iaioao o?aoueaai iieieaiey YAI auiieiyao
e «eioaeeaeooaeueiua» ooieoeee. Eo acaeiiaeaenoaea n ie?ii i?ecaaii
niaa?oainoaiaaoue eo «eioaeeaeo». Oaeiai ?iaea ?iaiou eiatho «oaeanioth
i?aaiecaoeeth», eiino?oeoeey eo ?aoeaioi?ia e yooaeoi?ia niaea?aeeo
ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey, nie?auathuea i?ino?ainoai, a eioi?ii,
aano?aeoii aiai?y, iiaea au niaa?oaoue iiene oeeo?iaay iaoeia.

Oai ia iaiaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ia aaca
oeeo?iauo iaoei iiaeao eiaoue a?aieoeu, ec-ca eioi?uo ia?aoiae e
?aoaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiuo caaea/ aieaa aunieiai ii?yaeea, o?aaothueo
o/aoa aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e ?yaea ae?oaeo
aiinaieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iuoeaiey, iaaiciiaeai ia aeene?aoiuo
iaoeiao i?e neieue oaiaeii niaa?oaiiie i?ia?aiia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi
oaoie/aneay (a ia oieueei aeieiae/aneay) yaiethoeey io?aaeathueo nenoai
ieacuaaaony naycaiiie n eciaiaieai iaoa?eaeueiiai noano?aoa e
eiino?oeoeee yoeo nenoai. Oaeay yaiethoeey, o. a. aiia?aoo?iia
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, iai?eia?, /a?ac
aieaa eioaineaiia eniieueciaaiea aiaeiaiauo eiiiiiaioia, aea?eaeiuo
nenoai, aieia?aoee e ?yaea ae?oaeo eaeae, aoaeao eiaoue ianoi. I?e yoii
ia eneeth/aaony eniieueciaaiea oece/aneeo i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo a
iicao, e oaeeo, eioi?ua ineoeea a ea/anoaa naieo iaoaieciia ia
eniieuecoao. Ia?yaeo n yoei aua aeaeaei ia en/a?iaiu aiciiaeiinoe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa iooai eniieueciaaiey
a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oeeo?iauo iaoei aiinaieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
iuoeaiey, i eioi?uo ?a/ue oea auoa.

Caeeth/aiea

?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee iicaieeei eiiiaine?iaaoue /aeiaaeo
ineoioeceieiae/aneoth ia?aie/aiiinoue naiaai i?aaiecia a ?yaea
iai?aaeaiee. «Aiaoiyy ia?aiay nenoaia», nicaeaaaaiay e ?anoe?yaiay
/aeiaaeii, oaea aeaea aio aiciiaeiinoue au?aaaouaaoue oai?ee, ioe?uaaoue
eiee/anoaaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe, ?acaeaeaaoue i?aaeaeu iiciaiey neiaeiuo
nenoai. Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo e aai niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aa?auatho
a?aieoeu neiaeiinoe, aeinooiiua /aeiaaeo, a nenoaiaoe/anee
?acaeaeaaaiua. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii a nia?aiaiioth yiioo, eiaaea iauanoai
ia iiaeao oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny aac ?aoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey neiaeiuie
e naa?oneiaeiuie nenoaiaie. ?ac?aaioea i?iaeai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa
yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui aeeaaeii a iniciaiea /aeiaaeii caeiiiia?iinoae
aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai ie?a, a eo eniieueciaaiea a eioa?anao iauanoaa e
oai naiui a ?acaeoea naiaiaeu /aeiaaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

N. I. Oaethoei “Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo”, I.: Iuneue, 1985

A. Yiae?th “Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo”, I.: Ie?, 1985

I. Aeia? “Eeaa?iaoeea”, I.: Iaoea, 1983

A. Eeaon “Eeaa?iaoeea e oeeinioey”, I.: Eiino?aiiay eeoa?aoo?a, 1963

Eeaa?iaoeea e niciaiea. I?iaeaia eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa

YI96, Ii?icia A.A.

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