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Приводы CD-ROM. Форматы и стандарты

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I?eaiaeu CD-ROM. Oi?iaou e noaiaea?ou.

Eiiiaeo-aeenee (CD-ROM), ecia/aeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua aeey ethaeoaeae

aunieiea/anoaaiiiai cao/aiey, i?ii/ii iainiiaaeenue oaia?ue ia ?uiea
eiiiuethoa?iuo ono?ienoa. Aeaaiaea?y naiei iaeui ?acia?ai, aieueoie
aieinoe, iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe iie n oniaoii i?eiaiythony a
ea/anoaa ono?ienoa aiaoiae iaiyoe. Iiiooii ioiaoei, /oi iaee/ea i?eaiaea
CD-ROM ia aaoai eiiiuethoa?a iicaieyao ia oieueei eniieueciaaoue aeenee
n i?ia?aiiaie, ii e neooaoue iocueo.

Nianoaaiii i?eaiae eiiiaeo-aeeneia ia iioiae ia iau/iua aeeneiaiaeu
oieueei iioiio, /oi ia yoe aeenee iaeuecy caienuaaoue eioi?iaoeeth.
Ieceay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e (ieiei 150 – 300 Eaaeo/n) iaoneaaeeaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiuo ia naiii iioe/aneii
aeenea, eia/a caaea?aeee a ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iiaoo aeinoeaaoue aei 0,75
naeoiaeu, Enoaoe, ia iaeei eiiiaeo-aeene iiaeii

aianoeoue 150000 no?aieoe oaenoa, /oi yeaeaaeaioii 17 Aeaeeyi. Oaia?ue
iaiiiai enoi?ee.

Oi?iaou e noaiaea?ou

Iocueaeueiua iioe/aneea eiiiaeo-aeenee i?eoee ia niaio aeieeiaui
(“a?aiieanoeieai”) a 1982 aiaeo i?eia?ii a oi aea a?aiy, eiaaea
iiyaeeenue ia?aua ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u oe?iu IBM. Yoe ono?ienoaa
yaeeenue ?acoeueoaoii ieiaeioai?iiai nio?oaeie/anoaa aeaoo aeaaioia
yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – yiiineie oe?iu Sony e aieeaiaeneie Philips.
Ethaiiuoii, /oi no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiay aieinoue eiiiaeo-aeeneia naycaia n
eioa?aniie enoi?eae.

Eniieieoaeueiue aee?aeoi? oe?iu Sony Aeei Ii?eoa (enoaoe, eiaiii ii
yaeyaony aaoi?ii ieaa?a Walkman) ?aoee, /oi eiiiaeo-aeenee aeieaeiu
ioaa/aoue cai?inai eneeth/eoaeueii ethaeoaeae eeanne/aneie iocuee ia
aieaa e ia iaiaa. Iinea oiai eae a?oiia ?ac?aaio/eeia i?iaaea ii?in,
auynieeinue, /oi naiui iiioey?iui eeanne/aneei i?iecaaaeaieai a ssiiiee
a oa a?aiaia auea 9-y neioiiey Aaooiaaia, eioi?ay aeeeeanue 72,73
ieioou. Aeaeeii, anee au yiiioeu aieueoa ethaeee ei?ioeea neioiiee
Aaeaeia eee iia?u Aaaia?a (eniieiyaiua ii aeaa aa/a?a), ?acaeoea
eiiiaeo-aeeneia iiaei iieoe nianai ii ae?oaiio iooe. Ii oaeo inoaaony
oaeoii, iiyoiio auei ?aoaii, /oi eiiiaeo-aeene aeieaeai auoue ?ann/eoai
anaai ia 74 ieioou cao/aiey, a oi/iaa ia 74 ieioou e 33 naeoiaeu. Oae
?iaeeeny noaiaea?o, ecaanoiue eae “E?aniay Eieaa” (Red Book). Ia ana
ethaeoaee iocuee iiaee

niaeaneoueny n aua?aiiie aeeeoaeueiinoueth cao/aiey, ii, ii n?aaiaieth n
45

ieiooaie, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie aeieeiauie ieanoeieaie, e eo
iaaeieaiaa/iinoueth yoi auei nouanoaaiiui oaaii aia?aae. Eiaaea 74
ieioou ia?an/eoaee a aaeou, oi iieo/eeinue eae ?ac 640 Iaaeo.

Iaiiiiei, /oi a ?aaioa iaae “E?aniie Eieaie” (Red Book) e?iia
niaoeeaeenoia oe?iu Sony i?eiyee o/anoea e niaoeeaeenou oe?iu Philips.
Yoa niaoeeoeeaoeey, a /anoiinoe, ii?aaeaeyea ieieiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e
ea/anoao caiene caoea e

?aaeaiaioe?iaaea, iai?eia?, oaeea oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeeieiiiaeo-aeeneia,
eae eo ?acia?, iaoiae eiaee?iaaiey aeaiiuo e eniieueciaaiea aaeeiie
nie?aeueiie aei?iaeee.

Aeaa auoaiacaaiiua oe?iu nua?aee oaeea aaaeouoth ?ieue i?e?ac?aaioea
ia?aie niaoeeoeeaoeee oeeo?iauo eiiiaeo-aeeneia – oae iacuaaaiie
“AEaeoie Eieae” (Yellow Book). Iia iineoaeeea iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey
eiiiaeo-aeeneia n eiiieaeniui i?aaenoaaeaieai eioi?iaoeee, oi anoue
niiniaiuo o?aieoue ia oieueei caoeiaua, ii oaeaea oaenoiaua e
a?aoe/aneea aeaiiua (CD-Digital Audio, CD-DA). I?e yoii i?eaiae, /eoay
caaieiaie aeenea, nai ii?aaeaeye aai oei (aoaeei- eee oeeo?iaua
aeaiiua). A yoii noaiaea?oa, iaeiaei, ia ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue eiae/aneea
e oaeeiaua oi?iaou eiiiaeo-aeeneia, iineieueeo ?aoaiea yoeo aii?inia
auei iieiinoueth ioaeaii ia ioeoi oe?iai-i?iecaiaeeoaeyi. Yoi, a
/anoiinoe, icia/aei, /oi eiiiaeoaeene, niioaaonoaothuee o?aaiaaieyi
“AEaeoie Eieae”, iia ?aaioaoue oieueei ia eiie?aoiie iiaeaee iaeiieoaey.
Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae, iniaaiii a nayce n aieueoei eiiia?/aneei oniaoii
eiiiaeo-aeeneia, ?acoiaaony, ia iiaei oaeiaeaoai?eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae
iiaeiaiuo ono?ienoa. A iaueo eioa?anao iaiaoiaeeii auei n?i/ii iaeoe
eiii?iienn.

Eiaiii iiyoiio aoi?ui noaiaea?oii “aea-oaeoi” aeey oeeo?iauo
eiiiaeo-aeeneia noaea niaoeeoeeaoeey HSG (High Sierra Group), eee i?inoi
High Sierra. Yoio aeieoiaio iinee, aiiaua aiai?y, ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? e aue i?aaeeiaeai iniiaiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oeeo?iauo
eiiiaeo-aeeneia n oeaeueth iaania/eoue oioy au iaeioi?oth
niaianoeiinoue. Aeaiiay niaoeeoeeaoeey ii?aaeaeyea oaea eae eiae/aneee,
oae e oaeeiaue oi?iaou eiiiaeo-aeeneia.

Ioiaoei, enoaoe, ethaiiuoioth aeaoaeue: iacaaiea niaoeeoeeaoeee
iiaoi?yao

iacaaiea ioaey e eaceii: iaeiiai ec ai?iaeeia a Eaeeoi?iee, aaea
nia?aeenue ianoaeeoue naie aii?inu eeaea?u a i?iecaiaenoaa CD-ROM. E
niaeaeaieth, aeey HSG-niaoeeoeeaoeee iiaeoiaeyuaai oeaaoa eieae oae e ia
iaoeinue.

Ai?i/ai, nicaeaiiay niaoeeoeeaoeey ieacaeanue ianoieueei
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie, /oi i?eiyoue ianeieueei iicaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
noaiaea?o ISO 9660 aeey oeeo?iauo eiiiaeo-aeeneia a i?eioeeia niaiaaeae
n iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie HSG. Caiaoei, /oi ana eiiiaeo-aeenee,
niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oa ISO 9660, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao eo
eiae/aneee e oaeeiaue oi?iaou, yaeythony niaianoeiuie ae?oa n ae?oaii. A
/anoiinoe, yoio aeieoiaio ii?aaeaeyao, eaeei ia?acii iaeoe ia
eiiiaeo-aeenea aai niaea?aeaiea (Volume Table Of Contents, VTOC).
Caiaoei, /oi aaciaue oi?iao, i?aaeeiaeaiiue a HSG-niaoeeoeeaoeee, ai –
iiiaii iaiiieiae oi?iao oeiiie-aeenea. Eae ecaanoii, nenoaiiay aei?iaeea
(o?ae 0) ethaie aeeneaou

ia oieueei eaeaioeoeoee?oao nai oeiiie-aeene (aai ieioiinoue, oei
eniieuecoaiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu), ii e o?aieo eioi?iaoeeth i oii,
eae ii i?aaieciaai ii aee?aeoi?eyi, oaeeai e iiaeaee?aeoi?eyi.
Eieoeee?othuay aei?iaeea aeaiiuo ia eiiiaeo-aeenea ia/eiaaony ni
neoaeaaiie iaeanoe, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey neio?iiecaoeee iaaeaeo i?eaiaeii e
aeeneii. Aeaeaa ?aniieiaeaia nenoaiiay iaeanoue, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo
naaaeaiey i no?oeoo?e?iaaiee aeenea. A nenoaiiie iaeanoe iaoiaeyony
oaeaea aee?aeoi?ee aeaiiiai oiia n oeacaoaeyie eee aae?anaie ae?oaeo
iaeanoae aeenea. Nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo no?oeoo?ie eiiiaeo-aeenea
e, iai?eia?,

aeeneaoie caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia CD nenoaiiay iaeanoue niaea?aeeo
i?yiie aae?an oaeeia a iiaeaee?aeoi?eyo, /oi aeieaeii iaeaa/eoue eo
iiene. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue noaiaea?o ISO 9660 iienuaaao oaeeiaoth nenoaio
ia CD-ROM. ISO 9660 ia?aiai o?iaiy iaiiieiaao oaeeiaoth nenoaio MS-DOS:
eiaia oaeeia iiaoo niaea?aeaoue aei ainueie neiaieia, ?anoe?aiea eiaie
oaeea (ninoiyuaa ec o?ao neiaieia) ioaeaeyaony io eiaie oaeea oi/eie.
Eiaia oaeeia ia iiaoo niaea?aeaoue niaoeeaeueiuo neiaieia (“-“, “~”,
“=”, “+”). I?e eiaiiaaiee oaeeia eniieuecothony neiaieu oieueei aa?oiaai
?aaeno?a, oeeo?u e neiaie “_”. Eiaia eaoaeiaia ia ii aoo eiaoue
?anoe?aiee. Eaaeaeue oaee eiaao aa?neth – iiia? aa?nee ioaeaeyaony io
?anoe?aiey neiaieii “;”. Eaoaeiae iiaoeiaoue aeoaeio aeiaeaiiinoe 8.
Noaiaea?o ISO 9660 aoi?iai o?iaiy iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue a eiaiao
oaeeia aei 32 neiaieia,

iaeeaaeuaay iienaiiua auoa ia?aie/aiey. Aeenee, nicaeaiiua n
eniieueciaaieai oaeiai noaiaea?oa, ia iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ?yaea
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai, aeeth/ay e MS-DOS.

Ia?aae oai eae i?iaeieaeeoue iao?anneac, aaaaeai aeey eiiiaeoaeeneia
iiiyoea naaina. A neaaeothuai ?acaeaea iu iiyniei 6oeee iiae?iaii, eae
caienuaathony aeaiiua ia CD, a nae/an eeoue ioiaoei, /oi aeey
aieueoeinoaa eiiiaeo-aeeneia any o?aieiay aiineaaenoaee ia ieo
eioi?iaoeey caiineony ca iaeei oaoiiei-, ae/aneee oeeee, eee naain
(single session). Eae oaea aiai?eeinue iaeaaeaiea aeenea, oi anoue
oeacaoaeue oiai, aaea e eae ia iai o?aieony eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeeony a
VTOC. Iaeiaei iinea oiai eae iiyaeeanue oaoiieiaey iicaieythuay
aeiienuaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ia niaoeeaeueiua (aeiienuaaaiua) CD-ROM, ?a/ue
iioea oaea i iiiainaainiauo eiiiaeo-aeeneao e

niioaaonoaothueo i?eaiaeao (multi session). Oae, iiiainaainiaua caiene
ii?aaeaeaiu a oi?iaoao Kodak PhotoCD e CD-ROM OA (eXtended
Architecture).

A /anoiinoe, oaoiieiaey oe?iu Eastman Kodak PhotoCD i?aaeeaaaaony a
ea/anoaa iaaei?iaiai n?aaenoaa aeey nicaeaiey e aeinooia e oeeo?iaui
oioia?aoeyi. Iai?eia?, ii yoie oaoiieiaee ia niaoeeaeueiue
(aeiienuaaaiue) eiiiaeo-aeene iiaeii caienaoue ethaua 35-ii neaeaeu e
iaaaoeau, i?e/ai eae /a?ii-aaeua, oae e oeaaoiua Oaaeeoea 3.1 iua. Aeey
oiai /oiau i?iniao?eaaoue oioia?aoee ia ce?aia iiieoi?a, iaiaoiaeei,
?acoiaaony, PhotoCD-ni aianoeiue i?eaiae. Oaeea i?eaiaeu iaeaaeao
niiniaiinoueth ?aaioaoue n iiiainaainiauie caienyie, oi anoue caienyie,
naeaeaiiuie eiaiii a ianeieueei i?eaiia (naainia). Iau/iue i?eaiae
CD-ROM niiaeao i?i/anoue (oau !) oieueei ia?aoth caienue (naain). Ii
iaeia caienue iiaeao, ?acoiaaony, niaea?aeaoue ianeieueei oioia?aoee.

A oaaeeoea iieacaiu iniiaiua oeiu ?ac?aoaiee, n eioi?uie iiaoo
o?aieoueny ecia?aaeaiey ia PhotoCD.

?ac?aoaiea

(a eeieyo) I?eiaiaiea

256 o 384 Auoiaua oaeaaeci?u e VGA-aaeaioa?u ieceiai ?ac?aoaiey

512 o 768 Oaeaaeci?u S-VHS e VGA-aaeaioa?u n 1 e aieaa aaeo iaiyoe

1024 o 1536 A ianoiyuee iiiaio ia aini?iecaiaeeii

2048 o 3072 A ianoiyuee iiiaio ia aini?iecaiaeeii

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey

Iau/iue i?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey eiiiaeo-aeenea ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo
yoaiia. Eae i?aaeei, iie aeeth/atho a naay neaaeothuea iia?aoeee:
iiaeaioiaeo eioi?iaoeee aeey caiene ia ianoa?-aeene (ia?aue ia?acaoe),
ecaioiaeaiea naiiai ianoa?aeenea e iao?eoe (iaaaoea ianoa?-aeenea),
oe?aaee?iaaiea eiiiaeo-aeeneia. Caeiaee?iaaiiay eioi?iaoeey iaiineony ia
ianoa?-aeene eaca?iui eo/ii, eioi?ue nicaeaao ia aai iiaa?oiinoe
iee?ineiie/aneea aiaaeeiu, ?acaeaeyaiua ieineeie o/anoeaie. Oeeo?iaay
eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony caeanue /a?aaeiaaieai aiaaeei
(iaio?aaeathueo iyoai) e io?aaeathueo naao ino?iaeia. Eiiee iaaaoeaa
ianoa?-aeenea (iao?eoeu) eniieuecothony aeey i?anniaaiey naieo
eiiiaeo-aeeneia. Ioiaoei,

/oi noi?ie?iaaiiua eaca?iui eo/ii aiaaeeiu i/aiue iaeu ii ?acia?o.
I?eia?ii 30-40 aiaaeei niioaaonoaotho oieueia /aeiaa/aneiai aieina, a
yoi i?eia?ii

50 iei.

A i?eaiaea eiiiaeo-aeeneia iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei aaciauo
yeaiaioia: eaca?iue aeeiae, na?aiiioi?, iioe/aneoth nenoaio
(aeeth/athuoth a naay ?anuaieythuoth i?ecio) e oioiaeaoaeoi? (ni
?enoiie).

Eoae, n/eouaaiea eioi?iaoeee n eiiiaeo-aeenea, oae aea eae e caienue,
i?ienoiaeeo i?e iiiiue eaca?iiai eo/a, ii, ?acoiaaony, iaiueoae
iiuiinoe. Na?aiiioi? ii eiiaiaea io aioo?aiiaai iee?ii?ioeanni?a
i?eaiaea ia?aiauaao io?aaeathuaa ca?eaei. Yoi iicaieyao oi/ii
iiceoeeiie?iaaoue eaca?iue eo/ ia eiie?aoioth aei?iaeeo. Oaeie eo/,
iiiaaeay ia io?aaeathuee naao ino?iaie, /a?ac ?anuaieythuoth eeico
ioeeiiyaony ia oioiaeaoaeoi?, eioi?ue eioa?i?aoe?oao yoi eae aeaie/ioth
aaeeieoeo. Eo/ eaca?a, iiiaaeathuee ai aiaaeeio, ?annaeaaaony e
iiaeiuaaony – oioiaeaoaeoi? oeene?oao aeaie/iue iieue. A ea/anoaa
io?aaeathuae iiaa?oiinoe eiiiaeo-aeeneia iau/ii eniieuecoaony aethieiee.
?acoiaaony, any iiaa?oiinoue eiiiaeoaeenea iie?uoa i?ic?a/iui caueoiui
neiai.

A ioee/ea, iai?eia?, io aei/anoa?ia, aei?iaeee eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeytho
eiioeaio?e/aneea ie?oaeiinoe, eiiiaeo-aeene eiaao anaai iaeio
oece/aneoth aei?iaeeo a oi?ia iai?a?uaiie nie?aee, eaeouae io ia?oaeiiai
aeeaiao?a aeenea e aioo?aiiaio. Oai ia iaiaa iaeia oece/aneay aei?iaeea
iiaeao auoue ?acaeoa ia ianeieueei eiae/aneeo.

A oi a?aiy eae ana iaaieoiua aeenee a?auathony n iinoiyiiui /eneii
iai?ioia a ieiooo, oi anoue n iaeciaiiie oaeiaie nei?inoueth (CAV,
Constant Angular Velocity), eiiiaeo-aeene a?auaaony iau/ii n ia?aiaiiie
oaeiaie nei?inoueth, /oiau iaania/eoue iinoiyiioth eeiaeioth nei?inoue
i?e /oaiee (CLV, Constant Linear Velocity). Oaeei ia?acii, /oaiea
aioo?aiieo noi?ia inouanoaeyaony n oaaee/aiiui, a ia?oaeiuo – n
oiaiueoaiiui /eneii iai?ioia. Eiaiii yoei iaoneaaeeaaaony aeinoaoi/ii
ieceay nei?inoue aeinooia e aeaiiui aeey eiiiaeo-aeeneia ii n?aaiaieth,
iai?eia?, n aei/anoa?aie.

Eae iu oaea ioia/aee, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeenue oae iacuaaaiua
ia?acaienuaaaiua eiiiaeo-aeenee CD-R (CD-Recordable). Iineoaee oeia CD-R
iiaoo auoue caienaiu naiei iieueciaaoaeai ia niaoeeaeueiii
CD-R-i?eaiaea. A iniiaiii caeanue i?eiaiythony oaoiieiaee, iniiaaiiua ia
eciaiaiee io?aaeathueo naienoa aauanoaa iiaeeiaeee eiiiaeo-aeenea iiae
aeaenoaeai eo/a eaca?a. Enoaoe, caiaoei, /oi ia?acaienuaaaiua
eiiiaeo-aeenee a ianeieueei ?ac aei?iaea iau/iuo. Aeaei a oii, /oi a
ea/anoaa naaoiio?aaeathuaai neiy a ieo eniieuecoaony oaea ia

aethieiee, a cieioi. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, iiaeiaiua eiiiaeo-aeenee iau/ii
neoaeao

eae ianoa?iua aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oe?aaee?iaaiey. Oai ia iaiaa a ?yaea
neo/aaa CD-R-aeenee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e aeey aeieaia?aiaiiiai
a?oeae?iaaiey eaeie-eeai oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Caiaoei, /oi /eoaoue
CD-R-aeene iiaeii e ia iau/iii i?eaiaea, ii, ?acoiaaony, oieueei ia?aue
naain caiene. Eiaaea niio?eoue ia ia iieiinoueth caienaiiue CD-R,
iaeanoue n eioi?iaoeeae auaeyaeeo aieaa oaiiie e iia eaaei ?acee/eia.
Ienaoue eioi?iaoeeth i?eaiae ia/eiaao io aioo?aiieo eiae/aneeo aei?iaeae
e aiaoiei (io iaiueoeo ii aeeaiao?o e aieueoei).

Noieo ioiaoeoue iniiaioth ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aoaeeieiiiaeoaeeneaie e
eiiiaeo-aeeneaie n oeeo?iauie aeaiiuie. Iiiyoii, /oi i?iione
(iai?aaeeueiia /oaiea) ethaie aiaaeeiu ia iiaa?oiinoe aeenea iiaeao
i?eaanoe e iioa?a oeaeinoiinoe caienaiiuo aeaiiuo. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue
aaaeao e aini?iecaaaeaieth iaaa?iie eioi?iaoeee eee iaaiciiaeiinoe
caionoeoue eniieiyaiua iiaeoee caienaiiuo i?ia?aii.

Ae?oaia aeaei aoaeeieiiiaeo-aeenee. Caeanue i?iione ianeieueeeo aiaaeei
ia aeenea i?aeoe/anee ia neacuaaaony ia ea/anoaa cao/aiey. Aeaei a oii,
/oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ia iiiiuue i?eoiaeeo i?eioeei eioa?iieyoeee. Eae
ecaanoii, eioa?iieyoeey iicaieyao iouneeaaoue cia/aiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo
aaee/ei ii oaea ecaanoiui cia/aieyi. Iai?eia?, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ia
aoaeeiaeenea auei caienaii o?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo cia/aiey 10, 13 e 20.
Aeiionoei, /oi aoi?ia /enei ii iaeioi?ui i?e/eiai ia i?i/eoaeinue
(iai?eia?, ec-ca caa?yciaiey eee iia?aaeaeaiey iiaa?oiinoe aeenea).
Eeiaeiay eioa?iieyoeey aeey /enae 10 e 20 aeaao 15 [(10+20)/2].
?acoiaaony, iieo/aiiia cia/aiea ia niaiaaeaao n enoiaeiui, /oi, iaeiaei,
a aeaiiii neo/aa aeey eiaee?iaaiey aiaeiaiaiai neaiaea (iocuee) ia eiaao
Iniaiai cia/aiey, iineieueeo neooathuee iocueo ia iuooeo yoi ia neoo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoii, /oi i?eaiae aeey CD-ROM n oeeo?iaie
eioi?iaoeeae – ono?ienoai aieaa i?aoeeceiiiia, iaaeaee ieaa?,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue oieueei aeey aoaeeiaeeneia.

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