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Представление и использование знаний об объектах

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

ii Aunoaio Ia?aciaaieth

Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue einoeooo ?aaeeioaoieee,

yeaeo?iieee e aaoiiaoeee

(Oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao)

oaeoeueoao: Eeaa?iaoeee

eaoaae?a: EON

Eo?niaie i?iaeo

ii aeenoeeieeia: Eiaeaia?ey Ciaiee

ia oaio: I?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee ia iauaeoao.

I?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iauaeoaie.
I?aaiecaoeey iaiauaiiie eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey
ioeueoeea?a?oe/aneie oaeniiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u.

a?oiia ?ac?aaio/eeia: *anoooei Aeoaeee

?uaeia Ia?eia

THaeaiiaa E?eia

a?oiia: AE-1-93

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Iio?aniaa Aaeeia Aeieo?eaaia

Iineaa 1996

Niaea?aeaiea

Caaeaiea……………………………………………………….
………………………………………3

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
……………………………………..4

Oi?ioee?iaea oeaee
EI?……………………………………………………………
………4

1. Oai?aoe/aneee
?acaeae………………………………………………………..
…………….5

2. I?aeoe/aneee
?acaeae………………………………………………………..
……………24

2.1 Ia?aie/aiey ia eniieueciaaiea

?ac?aaioaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey………………………………….24

2.2 Iaiaoiaeeiua ciaiey aeey ?aaiou a MS ACCESS2.0.

E?aoeee yeneo?n a
Access…………………………………………………………
……..24

2.3 Ieaie?iaaiea
AAe……………………………………………………………
…………..27

2.4 Nicaeaiea oaaeeoe aeey aaoeo
aeaiiuo…………………………………………….29

2.5 Aaiae aeaiiuo a aaoe
oaaeeoeu……………………………………………………..33

2.6 Nayce iaaeaeo
oaaeeoeaie……………………………………………………..
………..33

3. Aa?eaiou caaeaiee ii
e.?……………………………………………………………
….35

4. Niaea?aeaiea io/aoa i
e.?……………………………………………………………
…..36

5. Eiio?ieueiua
aii?inu………………………………………………………..
…………36

6. Auiieiaiea e.?. aeey iaeiiai ec aa?eaioia
caaeaiey………………………..36

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………………………….39

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee
nienie…………………………………………………………
……..40

Caaeaiea ia EI?

ii aeenoeeieeia: Eiaeaia?ey Ciaiee

nooaeaioai: *anoooeio Aeoaeeth, ?uaeiie Ia?eia,

THaeaiiaie E?eia, a?oiia: AE-1-93

ia oaio: I?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee ia iauaeoao.

I?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iauaeoaie.
I?aaiecaoeey iaiauaiiie eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey
ioeueoeea?a?oe/aneie oaeniiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u.

1. Ia?a/aiue ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo aii?inia

1.1 Oi?ioee?iaea oeaee EI?

1.2. Ninoaaeaiea aa?eaioia caaeaiee e ii?aaeaeaiea ii?yaeea auiieiaiey
e.?.

1.3 Ninoaaeaiea aeaeeia?aoe/aneiai nienea ii oaiaoeea EI?

1.4 Iiaeaioiaea oai?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ii oaiaoeea EI?

1.5 Ninoaaeaiea eiio?ieueiuo aii?inia

1.6 ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee auiieiaiey i?aeoe/aneie /anoe ?aaiou

1.7 Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey io/aoia i ?aaioa

1.8 ?ac?aaioea iaiaoiaeeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai e eioi?iaoeeiiiiai

iaania/aiey,iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey auiieiaiey e.?.

1.9 Auiieiaiea e ioi?ieaiea e.?. aeey iaeiiai euc aa?eaioia caaeaiey

2. Eaeaiaea?iue ieai – a?aoee

2.1 Ioieou 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 e 20.02

2.2 Ioieou 1.4, 1.5 e 5.03

2.3 Ioieou 1.6, 1.7 19.03

2.4 Ioieo 1.8 e 9.04

2.5 Ioieo 1.9 e 16.04

3. Caaeaiea auaeaii 13.02.96 a.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:
__________________

Nooaeaiou:__________________

__________________

__________________

Aaaaeaiea

Ca iineaaeiea o?eaeoeaoue eao oai?ey aac aeaiiuo (AAe) noaea iaeiei ec
iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia eioi?iaoeee, ieacuaathuei neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia
?acaeoea a?oeoaeoo?u au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, nia?aiaiioth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth e iaoiaeieiaeth i?iaeoe?iaaiey
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai (AEN), iniaaiii aaieia aeaiiuo
(AiAe). A iineaaeiea aiaeu a oai?ee AAe neiaeeeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, iieo/eaoaa iacaaiea naiaioe/aneiai, eee
eiioeaiooaeueiiai, iiaeaee?iaaiey a AAe. Aai iniiaiay oeaeue –
eioaeeaeooaeecaoeey aaieia aeaiiuo e i?aaiecaoeey eioa?oaena eiia/iiai
iieueciaaoaey n eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiie ia o?iaia i?aaenoaaeaiee i
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, a ia ia o?iaia no?oeoo? aeaiiuo.

Ia?aiia/aeueii a oai?ee AAe iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue n?aaenoaai
yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiuo e iaieioee?iaaiey eie. Oae aicieeee
iieo/eaoea anaiauaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?e “aaeeeeo”, ii au?aaeaieth Aeae.
Oeueiaia, iiaeaee aeaiiuo: ea?a?oe/aneay, ?aeyoeeiiiay e naoaaay.
Iaeiia?aiaiii noaei yniui, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai – aaieia aeaiiuo – caaeneo ia oieueei io oa?aeoa?enoee
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ii e io yooaeoeaiinoe
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaae – iaoeia. Ia?aiin aeoeaioa ia eiia/iiai
iieueciaaoaey e i?eaae a eiia/iii n/aoa e oi?ie?iaaieth iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee a oai?ee AAe, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiiai n
caaea/ae i i?aaenoaaeaiee ciaiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?aaeaeeeny iniiaiie iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth caaea/
naiaioe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey a aacao aeaiiuo. Ii caeeth/aaony a
auaeaeaiee aeaoo o?iaiae iiaeaee?iaaiey: o?iaiy eiioeaiooaeueiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey II (i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe) e o?iaiy iiaeaee?iaaiey
nianoaaiii aacu aeaiiuo. Ia aa?oiai o?iaia inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiae io
iaoi?iaeeciaaiiiai iienaiey II e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae eiia/iiai
iieueciaaoaey e eo oi?iaeueiiio au?aaeaieth n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo
ycueiauo n?aaenoa. Ianoaeaeaieth aiciiaeiuo eiino?oeoeee
eiioeaiooaeueiie iiaeaee II iinayuai oai?aoe/aneee ?acaeae aeaiiiai
eo?niaiai i?iaeoa.

Oi?ioee?iaea oeaee EI

Oeaeueth aeaiiiai eo?niaiai i?iaeoa yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneiai e
i?aeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeey iaania/aiey aeinooiiiai eco/aiey
niioaaonoaothueo ?acaeaeia ii aeenoeeieeia Eiaeaia?ey Ciaiee, a eiaiii:
i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee ia iauaeoao, i?aaenoaaeaiee e eniieueciaaiee
ciaiee ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iauaeoaie, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeee iaiauaiiie
eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ioeueoeea?a?oe/aneie
oaeniiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u. I?aeoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee aeaiiiai EI
(no?oeoo?u aac aeaiiuo a NOAAe Microsoft Access 2.0, a oaeaea
i?eaaaeaiiay iaoiaeeea nicaeaiey yoeo no?oeoo? a Access 2.0) iiaoo
yaeyoueny iaoa?eaeii aeey auiieiaiey eaai?aoi?iuo ?aaio ii aeenoeeieeia
Eiaeaia?ey Ciaiee i?e oneiaee iaee/ey iaiaoiaeeiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

1. Oai?aoe/aneee ?acaeae

Eiaeaia?ey ciaiee – iaeanoue eioi?iaoeee, a eioi?ie enneaaeothony
iaoiaeu i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee, iaieioee?iaaiey eie e iiaeaea?aeaiey eo a
aeooaeueiii ninoiyiee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia – i?aaieciaaiiay niaieoiiinoue oaoie/aneeo e
iaania/eaathueo n?aaenoa, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e eaae?ia,
?aaeecothueo neaaeothuea iniiaiua ooieoeee:

-nai? eioi?iaoeee;

-o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee;

-iiene e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee;

-ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee;

Iiaeaeue II

(iiiyoeeiia ciaiea)

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

aacaie ciaiee

Iaeaou
Aaca aeaiiuo

i?eeeaaeiuo

i?ia?aii

(i?ioeaaeo?iua

ciaiey)
I?aaeiaoiia ciaiea

?en.1

E?aaoaieueiui eaiiai enneaaeiaaiee iineaaeiaai a?aiaie yaeyaony iiiyoea
“i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue aaiea aeaiiuo” (II) (enterprise, universe of
discourse).

Niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia, i eioi?uo iiaeii caaeaaaoue aii?inu, ia?acoao
iauaeoiia yae?i i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Caeanue neiai “iauaeo” oiio?aaeaii
eae neiiiei neiaa “?aaeey”; ia i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi iauaeou iaycaoaeueii
eiatho iaoa?eaeueioth, “aauioth” i?e?iaeo. Oa?iei “iauaeo” oaeaea
yaeyaony ia?ae/iui, iaii?aaeaeyaiui iiiyoeai. (Ni. ?en.2a) Neiiieiaie,
iiieii oiio?aaeaiiiai auoa neiaa “?aaeey”, neoaeao neiaa “nouiinoue”
(entity), “aauue” (thing). I?eia?u iauaeoia – ioaeaeueiue nooaeaio,
a?oiia nooaeaioia, aoaeeoi?ey, a?aiy caiyoee, neiaa, /enea e o.ae.
Iau/ii n/eoaaony, /oi auoue iauaeoii – cia/eo auoue aeene?aoiui e
?acee/eiui. Ii – aeaeeiiio, i?eia?u “iaiauaeoia” – yoi ie?, a?aiy,
iaoa?ey, niune e o.i., oioy iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue EN, a eioi?ie o?aiyony
naaaeaiey ia yoeo eaoaai?eyo.

Iauaeo
I?aaeiao

ia?ae/iia

iaii?aaeaeyaiia
iiaeaeue iauaeoa

iiiyoea

a ea/anoaa iauaeoia

iiaoo auoue

aano?aeoeey

ia oieueei oece/aneea,

ii e iauaeou

iuoeaiey

?en. 2a
?en.2a

*anoi neiai “iauaeo” n/eoaaony aeeceei ii niuneo neiao “i?aaeiao”.
Iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeyaony oaeiaiui neiai “i?aaeiao” eniieueciaaoue a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea iauaeo, nouanoaothuee aia ian, noaiiaeony iineoaeai
ii?aaeaeaiiie niaieoiiinoe naienoa e aoiaeeo a ?acee/iua
acaeiiioiioaiey, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey iio?aaeoaeae
eioi?iaoeee, o?aiyuaeny a AEN. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, i?aaeiao – yoi iauaeo,
noaaoee iauaeoii ?anniio?aiey, iaaethaeaiey, noaaoee iineoaeai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo naienoa. Iaeei e oio aea iauaeo aini?eieiaaony ?aciuie
nenoaiaie eae ?aciua i?aaeiaou. I?aaeiao yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
aano?aeoeee ?aaeueiiai iauaeoa, ?acoeueoaoii ia?oaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?e eioi?ii eaii?e?oaony aaneiia/iia iiiaiia?acea
naienoa e acaeiiaeaenoaee iauaeoa. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiao – yoi
iiaeaeue ?aaeueiiai iauaeoa: anee iauaeo eiaao iioieiae/aneee noaoon, oi
i?aaeiao – aiinaieiae/aneee. (Ni. ?en.2a)

Iauaeou iiaoo auoue i?inouie e neiaeiuie. I?inouie iacuaathony iauaeou,
eioi?ua aeey aeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe n/eoathony aanno?oeoo?iuie.
I?inoua iauaeou i?aaenoaaeythony niaieoiiinoueth oa?aeoa?ecothueo eo
naienoa. Aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a i?inoiai iauaeoa ia ?ane?uaaaony.

Neiaeiua iauaeou eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiue ninoaa e no?oeoo?o. Iai?eia?:

Nooaeaio Eaaiia o/eony a a?oiia AE-2-93

Niiniau eaeaioeoeeaoeee iauaeoia:

1. I?yiay eaeaioeoeeaoeey. Iniiaaia ia eniieueciaaiee eiai iauaeoia.

2. Einaaiiay eaeaioeoeeaoeey. Iniiaaia ia oeacaiee naienoa iauaeoa. A
AAe einaaiiay eaeaioeoeeaoeey iniiauaaaony ia eniieueciaaiee eeth/ae.

Eeth/ – iaai? iieae caiene, cia/aiey eioi?uo iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeytho
caienue oaeea.

A eiie?aoiue iiiaio a?aiaie ninoiyiea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe ii?aaeaeyaony
niaieoiiinoueth iauaeoia e neooaoeee, eiathueo ianoi a aeaiiue iiiaio
a?aiaie.

I?ino?ainoai ninoiyiee i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe – yoi eeann anao aiciiaeiuo
eiia/iuo iiiaeanoa iauaeoiie e nenoaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Aeey iienaiey aeeiaieee i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe ioaeii ?anniio?aoue
o?aaeoi?eth i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe a i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee.

Naiaioeea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe ii?aaeaeyaony eae iauaa naienoai anao
aiciiaeiuo o?aaeoi?ee a i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee.

Ia ?en.3 i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey neooaoeee. Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey
?anniao?eaaao naienoaa eae niaoeeaeueiue neo/ae neooaoeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iia aaiaeeo aua iaeii aaaeiia iiiyoea – iiiyoea a?aiaie, eioi?ia yaii
eee iayaii i?enoonoaoao i?e auaeaeaiee iiaeeeannia oeacaiiie ea?a?oee.
A?aiy aunooiaao eae iiiaeanoai ioaeaeueiuo iiiaioia e eae iiiaeanoai
eioa?aaeia (a?aiaiiia ninoiyiea, iaaiiiaaiiue i?ioeann). A yaiii aeaea
no?oeoo?u yoeo iiiaeanoa ia oeene?iaaiu, oioy ioiioaiea neaaeiaaiey
iaaeaeo iiiaioaie a?aiaie n/eoaaony ecaanoiui.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue ?aaeueiia a?aiy aiaoiaai ie?a e aai io?aaeaiea a EN
e a enoi/ieeao eioi?iaoeee. Aioo?e nenoaiu caaenyuea io a?aiaie
acaeiinayce oieone?othony oieueei iinea eo ?aaeno?aoeee enoi/ieeaie e
ia?aaea/e niiauaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia.

Ae?oaia iiiyoea, oaeaea iayaii o/anoaothuaa a oeacaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee,
– yoi iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaa. “Iinoiyiiuie yaeythony ana naienoaa e
niioiioaiey, auoaeathuea ec i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iauaeoia e oie eee eiie
oaeniiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee…, naienoaa oeiia iauaeoia, a oaeaea
ioiioaiey e?iaiiai ?iaenoaa, iaiouaieaiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe,
ioiineoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea iaiiaeaeaeiuo i?aaeiaoia …, naienoaa e
ioiioaiey aano?aeoiuo iauaeoia, ia eieaeeciaaiiua a i?ino?ainoaa”. A
i?eaaaeaiiii auneacuaaiee oi/aony ia?aoeoue aieiaiea aua ia aeaa
ianoiyoaeuenoaa: aeey eeiaaenoa ianiiiaiii iaee/ea oaeniiiie/aneeo
eaoaai?ee iauaeoia, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho nianoaaiiuie naienoaaie, e
iaee/ea iaueo naienoa o iauaeoia iaeiie oaeniiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee. Yoe
naii niaie ?acoiathueany ianoiyoaeuenoaa oe?iei eniieuecothony a
naiaioe/aneeo iiaeaeyo aac aeaiiuo.

neooaoeee

noaoe/aneea
aeeiaie/aneea

ninoiyiey iinoiyiiua i?ioeannu
niauoey

naienoaa e

ioiioaiey

onoie/eaua a?aiaiiua ?acoeueoaou
i?ienoanoaey

?en.3

Neooaoeee naie yaeythony iauaeoaie, iiyoiio iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ?acee/iuie
naienoaaie.

Aaaaey i?ino?ainoai ninoiyiee, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a iai ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?aaeoi?ee eee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ninoiyiee (0, (1, …, (t, … , a
eioi?uo iaoiaeeony II a iiiaiou a?aiaie 0, 1, …, t, … *eaiu oaeie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ia iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiii i?iecaieueiuie,
iineieueeo ninoiyiea (t iau/ii eae – oi naycaii n i?aaeoanoaothueie
ninoiyieyie (0, (1, …, (t-1. Iiyoiio i?aaeiaoioth iaeanoue iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae eeann anao aeaenoaeoaeueii aiciiaeiuo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae ninoiyiee. Oaeea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iacuaathony
o?aaeoi?eyie II. Niaieoiiinoue anao iaueo naienoa o?aaeoi?ee iacuaaaony
naiaioeeie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Eoia i?iaaaeaiiuo ?anniio?aiee iiaeaaaeai neaaeothuae aeeaa?aiiie,
eeanneoeoee?othuae iauaeou a i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe e aeiiieiythuae ?en.3.

Iauaeou II

iaoa?eaeueiua iaiaoa?eaeueiua

eiaia iiiyoey
neooaoeee

?en.4

Eiioeaiooaeueiua n?aaenoaa iienaiey i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe

Yoe n?aaenoaa iaeaaeatho aano?aeoiinoueth e oieaa?naeueiinoueth. A neeo
naiae aano?aeoiinoe n?aaenoaa iienaiey noaee iacuaaoueny
eiioeaiooaeueiuie. Oieaa?naeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony iauiinoueth nenoai
aaciauo iiiyoee e n?aaenoaaie ii?iaeaeaiey iiauo iiiyoee.

A enneaaeiaaieyo ii eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo i?iaeaia iienaiey
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe o?aeooaony eae i?iaeaia i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee, a
niioaaonoaothuea eiioeaiooaeueiua n?aaenoaa iacuaathony noaiie
i?aaenoaaeaiey.

A oai?ee AAe i?eiyoi aiai?eoue i eiioeaiooaeueiii, eee eioi?iaoeeiiii –
eiae/aneii, iiaeaee?iaaiee II. Oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai yaeyaony iiiyoea
eiioeaiooaeueiie noaiu (iiaeaee) II.

A neeo naienoaa oieaa?naeueiinoe, iienaoue n?aaenoaa iino?iaiey
eiioeaiooaeueiie noaiu – yoi cia/eo iienaoue aiciiaeiua ninoiyiey
aano?aeoiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, eioi?ay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
iiaeaee?iaaiey no?oeoo?u e aeeiaieee i?iecaieueiuo II.

Iiiyoey:

1. Oei iauaeoa – aeieaeai eiaoue oieeaeueiia eiy e ana iauaeou
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e iaeiiio eee ianeieueeei
oeiai.

(0 – oei iauaeoa;

(0t – iiiaeanoai iauaeoia oeia ( a iiiaio a?aiaie t;

Yoe iiiaeanoaa iiaoo ia?anaeaoueny, anee iauaeo eiaao ianeieueei oeiia.

Oei iauaeoa iiaeao niiauaoueny nenoaia i?e ia?aii oiiieiaiee yoiai
iauaeoa.

Oei iauaeoa iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny nenoaiie ia iniiaaiee naienoa iauaeoa
n iiiiuueth eeanneoeoee?othueo i?ioeaaeo?.

Oei iauaeoa iiaeao auoue aaoiiaoe/anee eciaiai i?e eciaiaiee ninoiyiey
iauaeoa.

2. Eiioeaiooaeueiay noaia i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe – iiiaeanoai oeiia,
niaaaeaiiia iaeioi?ie no?oeoo?ie. No?oeoo?a ia iiiaeanoaa oeiia
caaeaaony iiiaeanoaii ioiioaiee e iia?aoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiuie ia
iiiaeanoaa oeiia.

Iaicia/ei ( eiia/iua iiiaeanoaa iauaeoia i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Aeey iaeioi?iai iiiaioa a?aiaie t iiaeii auaeaeeoue iiiaeanoai iauaeoia
oeia ((1)obt e ((2)obt, eiathueo ii?aaeaeaiiua niioiioaiey, iai?eia?:

((1)obt ( ((2)obt

((1)obt ( ((2)obt = 0

Anee oaeea niioiioaiey yaeythony onoie/eauie (ia iaiythony ai a?aiaie),
oi yoe naienoaa ninoiyiey naiaioe/aneie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.

Niioiioaiey:

1. ?iaeiaeaeiaia ioiioaiea SUP

(1 sup (2 – (1 yaeyaony iiaeoeiii (2 ((aeae) yaeyaony iiaeoeiii (?iae))

Yoi niioiioaiea caaeaaony iaaeaeo oeiaie iauaeoia. Iii aa?ii, anee

( t ((1)obt ( ((2)obt

Yoe ioiioaiey i?eiyoi caaeaaaoue a?aoe/anee. Oeiu iauaeoia
i?aaenoaaeythony aa?oeiaie, a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie – ?aa?aie.

Iai?eia?:

sup Iiiauaiea sup

O/aaiia Neoaeaaiia

iiiauaiea iiiauaiea

sup sup
sup

aoaeeoi?ey eaai?aoi?ey iiiauaiea
iiiauaiea

eaoaae?u
aeaeaiaoa

?en.5

Neaaeothuay aeeaa?aiia iienuaaao iaai? aaciauo oeiia iauaeoia aeey
ethaie eiioeaiooaeueiie iiaeaee (Ni. ?en. 6).

Iauaeo

sup sup

Iaii?aaeaeaiiue Ii?aaeaeaiiue

iauaeo sup iauaeo

sup

Iaoa?eaeueiue Iaiaoa?eaeueiue

iauaeo iauaeo

sup sup sup sup
sup

eiy a?aiy iiiyoea neooaoeey
i?ino?ainoai

sup
sup

noaoe/aneay
aeeiaie/aneay

iino. neo. nino.

sup
sup

?en.6 ono. nino.
a?ai. nino.

Oei iauaeoa yaeyaony iauei aeey anao i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae.

2. Ioiioaiea /anoe/iiai ii?yaeea PART OF. Iiaeaeue a?aiaie no?ieony ia
iniiaaiee eiia/iiai iiiaeanoaa oeiia a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia, ia eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeaii ioiioaiea PART OF.

(i PART OF (j

yae. /anoueth

Eaaeaeue eioa?aae oeia (i yaeyaony /anoueth iaeiacia/ii ii?aaeaeaiiiai
eioa?aaea (j.

A?aiy

sup sup

aiae iaaeaey

ianyoe

nooee

PART OF

/an

ieiooa

PART OF

naeoiaea

?en. 7

Iiaeaeue i?ino?ainoaa no?ieony ia eiie?aoiii iiiaeanoaa, oae aea, eae e
a?aiaie, ii ii ioiioaieth e /anoe ie?anoiinoe.

(Ni. ?en.8)

i?ino?ainoai

sup
sup

no?aia
eiioeiaio

PART OF
PART OF

iaeanoue ?aaeii

PART OF PART OF

ianaeaiiue

ioieo

PART OF PART OF

ai?iae aea?aaiy

?en.8

3. Ioiioaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ISA

Eaaiia A.E. ISA nooaeaio

naycuaaao eiy iauaeoa n aai oeiii

4. Ioiioaiea INSTANCE OF (INS)

Eaaiia INS AE-1-93

ioiioaiea iiaeao auoue caaeaii eae ia

iiiaeanoaa eiai, oae e oeiia

name (O1) INS name (O2)

Anee (1 INS (,

(2 INS (,

……….

(n INS (, oi iauaeo oeia ( iiaeao ninoiyoue ec iauaeoia

oeiia (1,(2…(n, i?e/ai iauaeo oeia ( iiaeao
aeeth/aoue

ianeieueei iauaeoia aeaiiuo oeiia.

Yoi ioiioaiea (INS) i?eiaiyaony aeey iiiaeanoaa aeene?aoiuo iauaeoia,

PART OF – iai?a?uaiuo.

nooaeaio INS a?oiia nooaeaioia

eaai?aoi?ey

INS
INS

INS

nio?oaeieee iiiauaiea
iai?oaeiaaiea

eaai?aoi?ee eaai?aoi?ee
eaai?aoi?ee

?en.9

Naienoaa yoeo ioiioaiee

1. PART OF e SUP iaeaaeatho naienoaii o?aiceoeaiinoe:

(1 SUP (2 ; (2 SUP (3

(1 SUP (3

aeioeaio SUP SUP nio?oaeiee

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

?en.10

aeioeaio SUP i?aiiaeaaaoaeue ; i?aiiaeaaaoaeue SUP nio?oaeiee

aeioeaio SUP nio?oaeiee

Aeey ioiioaiey INS yoi naienoai ia auiieiyaony:

2. (1 INS (2 ; (2 INS (3 ; (n-1 INS (n A a?aoa ioiioaiey INS
iao

iaaa?ii, /oi (n INS (1
oeeeeia

3. (1 SUP (2 ; (2 INS (3

(1 INS (3

eaai?aio SUP nio?oaeiee eaai?aoi?ee ; nio?oaeiee eaai?aoi?ee INS
eaai?aoi?ey

eaai?aio INS eaai?aoi?ey

eaai?aoi?ey

INS

nio?oaeiee INS

SUP

eaai?aio

?en.11

4. name (O) ISA (1 ; (1 SUP (2

name (O) ISA (2

Iineaa ISA ai?iae ; ai?iae SUP ianaeaiiue ioieo

Iineaa ISA ianaeaiiue ioieo

I?aaenoaaeaiea oeiia iauaeoia

Eiia/iia iiiaeanoai o?iae aeaea ((, ni, (i);

aaea (, (i – oeiu iauaeoia,

ni – eiy ao?eaooa,

(Ao?eaoou – oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoia eee ?iee, eioi?ua iie ea?atho a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo) i=1,…, e,

ni(nj, anee i(j, iacuaaaony i?aaenoaaeaieai oeia (, anee a
eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie ni: (iat ( ((i)iat,

(ni – ioia?aae. ii-ai iauaeoia oeia ( ia ii-ai iauaeoia oeia (1)

i?e/ai ?aciui iauaeoai I1 e I2 oeia ( niioaaonoaotho ?aciua ea?oaaee
cia/aiee ooieoeee ni

{n1t(O1), n2t (O1,…, nkt(O1)}

{n1t(O2), n2t(O2,…,nkt(O2)},

iineaaeiaa oneiaea iacuaaaony oneiaeai ?acee/eiinoe iauaeoia.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?anniio?ei iauaeo oeia aaoiiiaeeue:

( ni (i

(aaoiiiaeeue, ia?ea, ia?ea aaoiiiaeey)

(aaoiiiaeeue, iiia?, iiia? aaoiiiaeey)

(aaoiiiaeeue, oeaao, oeaao aaoiiiaeey)

aaoiiiaeeue(iineae/, IEA-21-17, aaeue)

aaoiiiaeeue(aeeaoee, IAA-11-25, e?aniue)

Eiiiiceoeeiiiue oei iauaeoia

(ni , (i) COMPONENT OF (

COMPONENT OF icia/aao, /oi iauaeo oeia (i yaeyaony eiiiiiaioie iauaeoa
oeia (.

aeaoa

COMPONENT OF

COMPONENT OF COMPONENT OF

aiae n1 /enei n3
ianyoe n2

aiae (1 /enei (3
ianyoe (2

?en.12

I?eia? eiiiiceoeeiiiiai iauaeoa:

Neooaoeey “iaoiaeeony” (iao. /aeiaae a ii?aae. iiiauaiee ii?aae. a?aiy)

ins ins /enei

neo. ianyoe

neo. aiae

neo. /an

neooaoeee ieiooa

neooaoeee

iai?oaeiaaiea /enei ianyoe aiae /an ieiooa

Oaaeiiiua auneacuaaiey

/aeiaae . . . iaoiaeeony a iiiauaiee . . . ai a?aiy . . .

nio?oaeiee . . . iaoiaeeony a aoaeeoi?ee . . . a . . . /ania . . . ieioo
. . .

. . . /enei . . . ianyoe . . . aiae

A oaaeiiiua auneacuaaiey iiaoo auoue iinoaaeaiu eiaia eiie?aoiuo
iauaeoia.

Ieieiaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea

I?aaenoaaeaiea {((, ni, (i)| i=1…k} iacuaatho ieieiaeueiui, anee
i?e oaeaeaiee ( ec yoeo o?iae, inoaaoaany iiiaeanoai o?iae ia?anoaao
auoue i?aaenoaaeaieai aeaiiiai oeia iauaeoia.

I?eia?:

( – a?aiaea

(1 – iauaeo a?aiaeu

(2 – a?aiaeaoi?

(3 – a?aiaeiaeaoaeue

(4 – n?ie a?aiaeu

(5 – noieiinoue a?aiaeu

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue

I?aaeiieiaeei, caaeaii i?aaenoaaeaiea

{((, ni, (i)| i=1…k}

X={(i1, …, (ip}

Y={(j1, …, (js}

Aiai?yo, /oi eiiiiiaiou Y ooieoeeiiaeueii caaenyo io eiiiiiaio X, anee a
ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie t aeey ethauo aeaoo iauaeoia I1, I2 ( (iat ec
?aaainoa: ni1t(O1) = ni1t(O2)

. . .

nipt(O1) = nipt(O2),

neaaeotho ?aaainoaa:

nj1t(O1) = nj1t(O2)

. . .

njst(O1) = njst(O2)

I?eia?: X={(4, (5, (6} Y={(1, (2,(3}

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue a?oiia i?aaeiao aoaeeoi?ey aeaoa

(1 (2 (3
(4 (5 (6

min i?aaenoaaeaiea

Iia?aoeee iaae oeiaie iauaeoia

Iicaieytho iieo/aoue ec nouanoaothueo oeiia iiaua oeiu.

1. Iiaoo auoue caaeaiu iia?aoeee iauaaeeiaiey ((1((2), ia?ana/aiey

((1((2), ?acaeaiey e ae?.

Anee { (i INS ( | i=1,…,k}, oi oei ( (i ninoieo ec oao e oieueei
iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue yeaiaioaie iauaeoia oeia (.

Anee {((i SUP ()| i=1,…,k}, oi ?aaainoai (=((i icia/aao, /oi nienie
iiaeoeiia (i yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei aeey iauaeoia oeia (.

I?eia?a :

iauaeo = /aeiaae ( iiiauaiea ( iai?oaeiaaiea

/aeiaae(iiiauaiea = /aeiaae(iai?oaeiaaiea=

= iiiauaiea(iai?oaeiaaiea = 0

2. Iia?aoeey ?acaeaiey oeiia iauaeoia ia eeannu yeaeaaeaioiuo iauaeoia.

(/aeiaae, iie /aeiaaea, iie)

( n1 (1

iie = {ioae, aeai}

(2 = ioae

(3 = aeai

Oeiu (2 e (3 yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii ?acaeaiey oeia /aeiaae ii oeio iie
((/(1)

( Ciaiea eiino?aiiiai ycuea

n1 ciathuee n2 i?aaeiao ciaiey

(1 /aeiaae (2 eiino?aiiue ycue

Iiaua iauaeou – a?oiiu ethaeae, ciathueo iaeioi?ue ycue ii?aaeaeythony
a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeaiey (1/((2,()

I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo oeiaie

ER – iiaeaee

ER – aeeaa?aiiu

(Entity Relationship Diagram)

I. *ai – 1983 aiae.

1. nouiinoe (oeiu iauaeoia)

2. nayce (oeiu ioiioaiee)

3. naienoaa nouiinoae e naycae

(ao?eaoo (oa?aeoa?enoeee, ?iee))

1) A1, A2, …, An

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

2) R1, R2, …,Rn

caiyoea

eaoaae?a ?aaioaao i?aiiaeaaaoaeue
iaa?ocea

a?oiia caiyoea
i?aaeiao

iao/aiea oaeoeueoao
eco/aiea

eo?n niaoeeaeueiinoue

?en.13

3. Naienoaa (ao?eaoou)

Ei, Ri – niioaaonoaothuea iaeanoe ciaiee

eiy – eiy iaeanoe ciaiee

Ia aeoaa iiaeienuaathony niioaaonoaothuea naienoaa.

eiy

iacaaiea

eaoaae?a

eiy eiy eiy

oaieeey eiy io/anoai

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

?en.14

eiae

eiy a?oiia

a?oiiu

?en.15

iacaaiea eiy

i?aaeiao

iauai

iaoo?aeueiia /enei

?en. 16

iaoo?aeueiia

eaeoeey /enei

iaa?ocea

eaai?aoi?iay iaoo?aeueiia

/enei

?en. 17

oeo? niaoeeaeueiinoue

eiae

?en.18

*anoi a aeaea nayce aunooiaao i?yiia aeiiieiaiea.

A aeaea naienoa iau/ii i?aaenoaaeythony a?aiy e ianoi neooaoeee.

caiyoea

ianoi
ia/aei

iiiauaiea aeaiue iaaeaee a?aiy

?en.19

*anoi naienoaa aaiaeyony n iiiiuueth neiaa “eiaoue”

eiae

a?oiia eiae

a?oiiu

?en.20

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

iao/aiea o/aai. nooaeaio

i?ioeann

?en. 21

o/aaiue

i?ioeann

eiio?ieue

aaeieieno?aoeaiue

ia?niiae

?en. 22

“O/aaiue i?ioeann” – yaeyaony e nouiinoueth e naycueth.

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

eo?n iao/aiea o/aaiue
nooaeaio

i?ioeann

oaeoeueoao niaoeeaeueiinoue eiio?ieue

aaeieieno?aoeaiue

ia?niiae

?en. 23

*anoue i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay yaeythony i?eaeaoi/iui, ?anniao?eaaaony
eae nouiinoue aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy aano?aeoeee.

?ani?aaeaeaiea

caaaaeothu. ?aoaao
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

eaoaae?ie

a?oiia
caiyoea

i?aaeiao

?en. 24

Eiioeaiooaeueiay noaia iicaieyao i?aaenoaaeoue ?acee/iua ea?a?oe/aneea
nayce iaaeaeo iauaeoaie. Eeanne/aneee i?eia? – eeanneoeeaoeey aeeaioiuo.

(Ni. ieaea ?en. 25)

aeeaioiua

i?inoaeoea . . . aoaee . . . oi?aeiaua

. . . . . .

iaiei/ieee . . . aan/a?aiiua . . .
iicaiii/iua

. . . . .
. . . . . . .

?en. 25. Ea?a?oe/aneay oaeniiiie/aneay
no?oeoo?a

Oaenii – a?oiia aeene?aoiuo iauaeoia, naycaiiuo iaeioi?ie noaiaiueth
iauiinoe naienoa. Iaai? naienoa aeieaeai auoue iaiaoiaeeiui e
aeinoaoi/iui aeey oiai, /oiau oaenii caieiae aaeeinoaaiiia ianoi a
no?oeoo?a e ia ia?anaeaeny n ae?oaeie oaeniiaie.

I?e aeaeea?aoeee oaeniia oeacuaaaony oaenii aa?oiaai o?iaiy e naienoaa,
eioi?ua ioee/atho aeaiiue oaenii io ae?oaeo oaeniiia.

Oaeniiiie/aneea eaoaai?ee –

{oei – iiaeoei – eeann – io?yae – ?iae – aeae}

Iau/ii n oeiii iauaeoa ieaeiaai o?iaiy naycuaatho eiie?aoiua oaeou.

eioee ?iae

sup sup

aeiiaoiyy eaniay aeae

isa

aa?nee

?en. 26

Naienoaa, oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaeioi?iai oeia iauaeoa, ianeaaeothony anaie
oeiaie iauaeoa ieaeiaai o?iaiy. A AAe iiaoo auoue iienaiu oieueei iaeei
?ac.

2. I?aeoe/aneee ?acaeae

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, oeaeueth aeaiiiai EI? yaeyaony iiaeaioiaea
oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeey iaania/aiey aeinooiiiai
eco/aiey niioaaonoaothueo ?acaeaeia ii aeenoeeieeia Eiaeaia?ey Ciaiee.
Iiaeaioiaeaiiue oai?aoe/aneee iaoa?eae iiaeii iaeoe a “Oai?aoe/aneii
?acaeaea” aeaiiiai EI?. Ii niaea?aeeo a naaa ana iiiyoey e
ii?aaeaeaiey, a oaeaea i?eia?u, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oniaoiiai
eniieueciaaiey (i?eiaiaiey) yoeo ciaiee e eco/aiey niioaaonoaothueo oai.

Aeey iaeaieaa eo/oaai inaiaiey e cae?aieaiey iieo/aiiuo ciaiee iu
i?aaeeaaaai i?iaiaeeoue i?aeoe/aneea caiyoey ii aeaiiiio ?acaeaeo. A
ea/anoaa iaoa?eaeia aeey i?iaaaeaiey i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee i?aaeeaaaaony
eniieueciaaoue ?ac?aaioee aeaiiiai EI?, i?eaaaeaiiua ieaea.

2.1 Ia?aie/aiey ia eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey

Aeey oiai, /oiau a aeaeueiaeoai ia aicieeaei iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo i?iaeai n
i?eiaiaieai ?ac?aaioaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ieaea i?eaiaeyony
iaiaoiaeeiua aiia?aoiua o?aaiaaiey aeey oniaoiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?ia?aii:

HARD (ieieiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey):

th : ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? oe?iu IBM eee niaianoeiue n iei;

th : 486 SX-33Mhz, RAM 4Mb, VideoRAM 512Mb, 45 Mb naiaiae.

ianoa ia HDD, VGA, iaieioeyoi? oeia “iuoue”;

SOFT:

th = iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia MS-DOS 5.0 e auoa,

eeai y MS Windows – 95;

th = a?aoe/aneay iaiei/ea y MS Windows 3.xx

(aeaiiue ioieo iioneaaony, anee eniieuecoaony y MS Windows -95)

th = iieiinoueth onoaiiaeaiiue ia aeanoeee aeene MS ACCESS2.0,

anee eniieuecoaony y MS Windows 3.xx,

eeai MS ACCESS7.0 for y MS Windows -95;

2.2 Iaiaoiaeeiua ciaiey aeey ?aaiou a MS ACCESS2.0

E?aoeee yeneo?n a Access

MS ACCESS2.0 – yoi i/a?aaeiay ?ac?aaioea oe?iu Microsoft(. Ii nooe aeaea
– yoi NOAAe n i/aiue ae?oaeanoaaiiui e iaaeyaeiui eioa?oaenii, eae
nianoaaiii e ana i?ia?aiiu, ?ac?aaioaiiua oe?iie Microsoft( aeey aa aea
a?aoe/aneie iaiei/ee y MS Windows 3.xx eee aeey iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu y
MS Windows -95.

A aeaiiii EI? ia i?eaiaeeony iienaiea ?aaiou y MS Windows, oae eae
n/eoaaony, /oi iieueciaaoaeue oaea ciaeii n iae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny e niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a.

Anee Access einoaeee?iaai ia eiiiuethoa?a, aai caione i?ienoiaeeo
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Caionoeoue y MS Windows;

2. Ioe?uoue ieii Access-a?oiiu Aeeniao/a?a I?ia?aii (Program Manager) e
aeaaaeaeu uaeeiooue iuoueth ia ieeoia?aiia, niioaaonoaothuae Access (ia
iae ecia?aaeai eeth/ e eiaaony iaaeienue “Microsoft Access”;

*oaiea ye?aia Access

Iinea caa?ocee Access a aa?oiae no?iea aeaaiiai ieia (no?iea caaieiaea)
iiyaeyaony eiy i?ia?aiiu – Access. Ieaea ?aniieiaeaia no?iea iaith. Iiae
iae ?aniieiaeaia no?iea eino?oiaioia. ?acee/iua eiiiee yoie iaiaee
iiyaeythony a caaeneiinoe io oiai, a eaeie /anoe i?ia?aiiu au
iaoiaeeoanue. A ieaeiae /anoe ye?aia ?aniieiaeaia no?iea ninoiyiey,
eioi?ay niaea?aeeo iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth i oiaea ?aaiou n Access.

Ioe?uoea iaith

Ii/oe anyeay ?aaioa a Access ia/eiaaony n ioe?uoey AAe n iiiiuueth iaith
File (Oaee). Aeey yoiai uaeeieoa ia yeaiaioa File (Oaee) a no?iea iaith,
e ia ye?aia ?ane?iaony iaith, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai Access iicaieyao
nicaeaaaoue iiaua eee ioe?uaaoue nouanoaothuea AAe, a oaeaea auiieiyoue
ae?oaea iia?aoeee.

Iieo/aiea iiiiue (Iaith iiaeneacee a Access)

Ni?aai/iay nenoaia Access noiaea n ae?oaeie aiaeiae/iuie nenoaiaie,
eioi?ua eiathony a i?eeiaeaieyo Windows.

Aeey yoiai uaeeieoa ia yeaiaioa Help (Ni?aaea) no?iee iaith e auaa?eoa
niioaaonoaothuee ?acaeae aeaiiiai iaith.

Ae?oaia aaaeiia n?aaenoai, eiathuaany a ieia ni?aai/iie nenoaiu – Cue
Cards (Ea?oi/ee iiaeneacee) – niaoeeaeueiue aeae ye?aiiie iiaeneacee,
eioi?ue i?iaaaeao aan oaa ca oaaii i?e auiieiaiee neiaeiuo i?ioeaaeo? a
Access.

Wizards (Ianoa?a) oaeaea i?iaaaeoo aan oaa ca oaaii, ii, a ioee/ea io
Cue Cards naeaeatho ca aan aieueooth /anoue ?aaiou. A ieia ni?aai/iie
nenoaiu iao ieeaeie eioi?iaoeee i Wizards, ii eae oieueei au ia/iaoa
/oi-ieaoaeue nicaeaaaoue, Access n?aco aea iaeeaao e ni?ineo, oioeoa ee
au, /oiau ianoa? naeaeae yoi ca aan.

Auoiae ec ni?aai/iie nenoaiu – ALT+F4 (eee aeaaaeaeu uaeeioa ia eiiiea
nenoaiiiai iaith a aai eaaii aa?oiai oaeo).

Auoiae ec Access

Aueoe ec Access iiaeii n iiiiuueth iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo niiniaia:

– I?e ioe?uoii ieia Access iaeiia?aiaiii iaaeaoue ALT+F4.

– Aeaaaeaeu uaeeiooue ia eiiiea nenoaiiiai iaith a aa?oiai eaaii oaeo
ieia Access.

– Uaeeiooue ia eiiiea nenoaiiiai iaith ieia e caoai ia aee?aeoeaa Close
(Cae?uoue).

Oaaeeoeu aeey o?aiaiey aaoeo aeaiiuo

Oaaeeoea – iniiaiie no?oeoo?iue iauaeo ai aioo?aiiai no?iaiee AAe. Iia
niaea?aeeo ana caiene ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea. Eaaeaeay caienue oaaeeoeu
niaea?aeeo anth iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth i eaeii-oi ioaeaeueiii
yeaiaioa AAe.

I?aaeaea, /ai ni?iaeoe?iaaoue AAe, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea
oaaeeoeu iai iio?aaothony (ni. ieaea). Ia?aoeeiiaeueii aaiaeeoue ana
aeaiiua a iaeio oaaeeoeo, iiyoiio Access i?aaeeaaaao aaiaeeoue ?acee/iua
aeaeu aeaiiuo a ?aciua oaaeeoeu. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iao?oaeii
iauaaeeieoue aeaiiua ec ?acee/iuo oaaeeoe.

No?iee e noieaoeu

Iauaeo, auaaaeaiiue a oaaee/iii aeaea, iacuaaaony a Access oaaee/iui
(datasheet).

Iacaaiey noieaoeia (eieiiie) iiyaeythony a aa?oiae /anoe aeaaiiai ieia
Access. Eieiiee iacuaathony iieyie. Eaaeaeia iiea niaea?aeeo
ii?aaeaeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth. No?iee iacuaathony caienyie. Eaaeaeay
caienue eiaao iaeeiaeiaua iiey, eioi?ua eiatho iaeeiaeiaue ?acia? a
eaaeaeie caiene.

Cai?inu

Iinea aaiaea aeaiiuo a AAe aai iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny iaeoe eaeoth-oi eo
/anoue. Yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue ianeieueeeie niiniaaie, ii eo/oei niiniaii
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea i?inoiai cai?ina aeey iienea iaiaoiaeeiie
caiene. Cai?in – yoi aii?in e AAe.

Iinea oi?ioee?iaee cai?ina niiaueoa Access, eaeia iiea au oioaee au
i?iniio?aoue e /oi oioaee au a iai iaeoe. Caoai i?inoi uaeeieoa ia
niioaaonoaothuae eiiiea, e Access ooo aea auaaaeao ia ye?ai
iaiaoiaeeioth caienue.

Oi?iu

Ae?oaei aeaeii i?aaenoaaeaiey oaaeeoeu yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay oi?ia.
Oi?iu – aua iaeii aaaeiia n?aaenoai Access. I?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee oi?iu
o/eouaatho, /oi ath aoaeao iieueciaaoueny /aeiaae, eioi?ue ie/aai ia
ciaao ie i aeaiiuo, ie i AAe aiiaua. Eniieuecoy Access, iiaeii
aeeth/eoue a oi?io ethaua oaenoiaua eiiiaioa?ee, eioi?ua iauyniytho,
eaeea aeaiiua e a eaeea iiey aaiaeeoue.

Io/aou

N iiiiuueth Access iiaeii oi?ie?iaaoue io/aou aeey ?ania/aoee aaoeo
aeaiiuo a ?acee/iuo aeaeao.

2.3 Ieaie?iaaiea AAe

Iinea oiai, eae noaei ecaanoii, eaeea n?aaenoaa iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue
Access, iaiaoiaeeii ni?iaeoe?iaaoue AAe a niioaaonoaee n oaiaoeeie
aeaiiiai EI?.

Oaeei ia?acii, iai iaiaoiaeeiu neaaeothuea aacu aeaiiuo:

1. Eeannu. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae eeanna,

Iacaaiea
eeanna,

Iienaiea
eeanna.

2. Ao?eaoou. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae ao?eaooa,

Iacaaiea ao?eaooa,

Iienaiea ao?eaooa.

3. Ao?eaoou eeanna. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae eeanna,

Eiae ao?eaooa,

Cia/aiea ao?eaooa.

4. ?iae-aeae. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae eeanna,

Eiae
iiaeeeanna.

5. No?oeoo?a. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae eeanna,

Eiae
eiiiiiaiou.

6. Nayce eeannia. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae nayce,

Eiae
eeanna,

?ieue
eeanna (i?e/eia, neaaenoaea).

7. Oeiu naycae. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae oeia naycae,

Iacaaiea oeia naycae,

Iienaiea oeia naycae.

8. Eiaeu naycae. Iiey aeaiiie AAe: Eiae oeia nayce,

Eiae nayce.

I?aaeeiaeaiiua aacu aeaiiuo iinea eo nicaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii naycaoue, oai
naiui iaania/ea ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o. Ieaea aoaeao iienaii, eae yoi
naeaeaoue.

Nicaeaiea AAe

Iinea caa?ocee Access aeoeaece?oeoa iaith OAEE a eaaie aa?oiae /anoe
Access e a iiyaeaoainy iaith uae/eii auaa?eoa aee?aeoeao New Database
(Nicaeaoue). Aeey nicaeaiey ia?aie AAe a iiea FileName aaaaeeoa eiy
oaeea, a eioi?ii aoaeao o?aieoueny ia?aay AAe, iai?eia?, “Klasses” e
uaeeieoa ia eiiaiaeiie eiiiea IE a i?aaie aa?oiae /anoe iiyaeaoaainy
ieia. Access nicaeano aeey aan iiaoth AAe. Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea, /oi a
eaaie /anoe ieia AAe Klasses eiaaony ?yae oae iacuaaaiuo ei?aoeia,
eaaeaeiio ec eioi?uo niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue iauaeo Access: oaaeeoeu
(Table), cai?inu (Query), oi?iu (Forms), io/aou (Report), a oaeaea
iae?in (Macro), iiaeoeue (Module). Eae eniieueciaaoue eo, iienaii ieaea.
Iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue AAe aeey eaaeaeiai ec 8 ioieoia, iienaiiuo auoa, a
?acaeaea Ieaie?iaaiea AAe. Oi anoue oeacaiiua aeaenoaey auiieiythony
ainaiue ?ac aeey iaoeo AAe. I?aaeeaaaai eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea eiaia
aeey yoeo aac:

1. Klasses (aa nicaeaiea iienaii a aeaiiii ?acaeaea)

2. Atribute – ao?eaoou

3. Atr_klass – ao?eaoou eeanna

4. Rod_vid – ?iae-aeae

5. Structur – no?oeoo?a

6. Sv_klass – nayce eeannia

7. Type_sv – oeiu naycae

8. Code_sv – eiaeu naycae

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienaiey AAe eiaiii yoeie eiaiaie naycaia n oai, /oi a
aeaiiie iiynieoaeueiie caienea eniieuecothony eiaiii yoe eiaia i?e
iienaiee iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou.

2.4 Nicaeaiea oaaeeoe aeey aaoeo aeaiiuo

Ieaie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u oaaeeoeu

?a/ue eaeao i ia?a/ia iieae, ec eioi?uo iia ninoieo. I?e nicaeaiee
oaaeeoeu ia ia?aii yoaia iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea iiey aai
ioaeiu, eaeiai iie aeieaeiu auoue oeia e ?acia?a.

Iiea – no?oeoo?iue yeaiaio oaaeeoeu, niaea?aeauee naaaeaiey i eii-oi eee
i /ai-oi a AAe.

Aeey AAe Klasses iaiaoiaeeiu iiey, oeacaiiua auoa, a ?acaeaea
“Ieaie?iaaiea AAe”. ?anniio?ei i?eia? nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u oaaeeoeu aeey
AAe Klasses.

Iaiaoiaeeiua iiey aeey aeaiiie oaaeeoeu, yoi:

Eiae
eeanna,

Iacaaiea
eeanna,

Iienaiea
eeanna.

Nicaeaiea oaaeeoeu

Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo iieae, i?enooiei e nicaeaieth nianoaaiii
oaaeeoeu a Access.

1. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea iiey iaiaoiaeeiu (ni. auoa)

2. Ioe?uoue ieii eiino?oeoi?a oaaeeoe. Eaaeaeia iiea oaaeeoeu – yoi
iaeia no?iea aa?oiae /anoe yoiai ieia. A oi?iuaiiii aa?eaioa aeinoaoi/ii
eniieueciaaoue oieueei aa?oithth /anoue ieia.

3. A aa?oithth /anoue ieia eiino?oeoi?a oaaeeoeu aaanoe eiy eaaeaeiai
iiey, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e ieaeithth /anoue ieia
aeey caaeaiey aeeeiu iiey, aai oi?iaoa e o.ae.

4. I?e aeaeaiee iiaeii nicaeaoue iiea, eioi?ia aoaeao aunooiaoue a
ea/anoaa oieeaeueiiai eaeaioeoeeaoi?a eaaeaeie caiene. Yoi oae
iacuaaaiue eeth/ oaaeeoeu, a niioaaonoaothuaa aio iiea iacuaaaony
eeth/aaui.

5. Nio?aieoue nicaeaiioth oaaeeoeo e aueoe ec ieia eiino?oeoi?a oaaeeoe.

Caa?ocea AAe

*oiau caa?oceoue AAe, nicaeaiiua a ?acaeaea “Nicaeaiea AAe”,
iaiaoiaeeii:

1. Caa?oceoue Access.

2. A Access aeoeaece?iaaoue iaith OAEE. Ia?aae aaie ioe?iaony nienie
eiai oaeeia. Auaa?eoa ioaeiue e uaeeieoa ia iai (klasses.mbd).

Ooieoeee eiiiie

Ieii AAe eiaao aeaa a?oiiu eiiiie.

– Neaaa a ieia ?aniieiaeaiu eiiiee ?aaeeia (ei?aoee) n eiaiaie ?acee/iuo
no?oeoo?iuo iauaeoia AAe – oaaeeoeu (Table), cai?inu (Query), oi?iu
(Forms), io/aou (Report). Eaaeaeue ?ac uae/eii iiaeii aua?aoue oieueei
iaeei ei?aoie ec yoiai ?yaea.

– A aa?oiae /anoe ieia ?aniieiaeaiu eiiaiaeiua eiiiee New (Nicaeaoue),
Open (Ioe?uoue), Design (Eiino?oeoi?). Uaeeioa ia eiiiea New, au
niiauaaoa Access, noi oioeoa nicaeaoue iiaoth oaaeeoeo. (Eiiiea Table
aeieaeia auoue i?e yoii iaaeaoa, i /ai neaiaeece?oao aieaa y?eay
iaaeienue).

Uaeeioa ia eiiiea New, – ia ye?aia iiyaeony aeeaeiaiaia ieii. Iii
niaea?aeeo eiiiee aeey auiieiaiey ?acee/iuo ooieoeee. A ?anniao?eaaaiii
i?eia?a neaaeoao uaeeiooue ia eiiiea New Table (Iiaay oaaeeoea). Uaeeioa
ia yoie eiiiea, aeoeaece?oaony ?aaeei TABLE-DESIGN (?aaeei eiino?oeoi?a
oaaeeoe).

Oi?ie?iaaiea iieae oaaeeoeu

Eaaeaeiio iieth oaaeeoeu neaaeoao i?enaieoue oieeaeueiia eiy,
ii?aaeaeeoue oei aeaiiuo, eioi?ua aoaeoo a iaai aaiaeeoueny, e iienaoue
niaea?aeeiia iiey, o.a. aaanoe oaenoiaua eiiiaioa?ee, a eioi?uo oeacaii
iacia/aiea aeaiiiai iiey. A ioee/ea io eiaie AAe, eioi?ia ia iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue aieaa 8 neiaieia, eiy iiea iiaeao eiaoue aei 64 neiaieia.

Ieii eiino?oeoi?a oaaeeoe aeaeeony ia aeaa iniiaiua /anoe. A aa?oiae
/anoe au iiaeaoa oeacaoue eiy. oei e iienaiea eaaeaeiai iiey. A ieaeiae
/anoe ieia oeacuaathony ?acee/iua ia?aiao?u eaaeaeiai iiey. Aeey oiai,
/oiau ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aia iiea, aaaaeeoa n eeaaeaoo?u a ia?aii noieaoea
ia?aie no?iee neiai “Eiae eeanna” e iaaeieoa Tab. Access nicaeano iiea
“Eiae eeanna”. Iinea iaaeaoey eeaaeoe oaaoeyoeee “iaeeaaao” aoi?ie
noieaaoe Data Type (Oei aeaiiuo) ia?aie no?iee. A iae iiyaeyaony neiai
Text (Oaenoiaue), ni?aaa io eioi?iai aoaeao iaoiaeeony iaeaiueeay eiiiea
– iaieioeyoi?. Nicaeaiiia iiea aeieaeii auoue n/ao/eeii ii?yaeeiauo
iiia?ia caienae. A ieia-nienea oeiia aeaiiuo uaeeieoa ia neiaa “Counter”
(N/ao/ee).

Iinea yoiai iaaeieoa Tab aua ?ac. Eo?ni? ia?aianoeony a noieaaoe
iienaiey iiey. Iaaa?eoa ia eeaaeaoo?a iienaiea iiey: Eiae eeanna.

Auai? eeth/a oaaeeoe

Iineaaeiaa, /oi inoaeinue naeaeaoue n iieai “Eiae eeanna”, – yoi aeaoue
aio noaoon eeth/a oaaeeoeu. Iiea n oaeei noaoonii iiiiaaao Access
oii?yaei/eaaoue aeaiiua a oaaeeoea, auno?aa eo iaoiaeeoue e naycuaaoue
oaaeeoeo n ae?oaeie oaaeeoeaie.

1. Oaaaeeoanue, /oi eo?ni? iuoe iaoiaeeony a iaeiie no?iea n iacaaieai
“Eiae eeanna”.

2. Uaeeieoa ia iaeaiueeie eiiiea, iaicia/aiiie eeth/ii e ?aniieiaeaiiie
a oeaio?a ye?aia ia iaiaee eino?oiaioia eiino?oeoi?a oaaeeoe.

Auai? i?aaeeueiiai oeia aeaiiuo

A Access iiaeii aua?aoue iaeei ec neaaeothueo oeiia aeaiiuo:

TEXT (Oaenoiaue). Eniieuecoaony aeey oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee.

MEMO (Eiiiaioa?ee). Eniieuecoaony aeey o?aiaiey i?iecaieueiiai oaenoa.
Aei 32 000 neiaieia.

NUMBER (*eneiaie). Eniieuecoaony aeey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee.

CURRENCY (Aaethoiue). Aeey iia?aoeee n aaethoie.

DATE/TIME (Aeaoa/A?aiy). Eioi?iaoeey aeey o?aiaiey aeaou e a?aiaie.

COUNTER (N/ao/ee). Ii?yaeeiaue iiia?.

YES/NO. (Eiae/aneia).

OLE object (Iiea iauaeoa OLE). ?enoiee, a?aoeee e oaaeeoeu a oi?iaoa
Windows.

Ioi?ieaiea inoaaoeony iieae

Niiaa iaaeieoa eeaaeoo Tab. Eo?ni? ia?aianoeony a ia?aue noieaaoe
neaaeothuae no?iee. Access aioia e aaiaeo eioi?iaoeee i neaaeothuai
iiea. Niaoeeoeoee?oeoa inoaeueiua iiey aaoae AAe neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Iacaaiea eeanna oaenoiaue 15 iacaaiea eeanna

Iienaiea eeanna oaenoiaue 15 iienaiea eeanna

Nio?aiaiea iienaiey oaaeeoeu

Iinea oiai, eae au ioi?ieee iiey, inoaeinue naeaeaoue oieueei iaeio, ii
i/aiue aaaeioth i?ioeaaeo?o – nio?aieoue eo.

Aeey yoiai uaeeieoa ia yeaiaioa File a no?iea iaith e auaa?eoa
aee?aeoeao Save. Iiyaeony aeeaeiaiaia ieii Save As (Nio?aiaiea).

Access i?aaeeiaeeo naie aa?eaio – Table1 (Oaaeeoea1). Iu niaaooai aeey
oaeianoaa aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey eciaieoue eiy ia “Eeannu”.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi nicaeaoue oaaeeoeo iiaeii aua iaeiei
niiniaii, – eniieuecoy ianoa? ii ?ac?aaioea oaaeeoe. Caeanue ia
i?eaiaeeony iienaiea ?aaiou yoiai ianoa?a, oae eae i?e aai
eniieueciaaiee ia aeieaeii aicieeaoue o?oaeiinoae, iioiio /oi ii
?aaioaao a iioaaiai-aeeaeiaiaii ?aaeeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu nicaeaee ia?aoth oaaeeoeo. Ii iaiaoiaeeii oi aea naiia
i?iaeaeaoue n inoaeueiuie. Ieaea i?eaiaeei ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
niaoeeoeeaoeee inoaeueiuo oaaeeoe aeey inoaaoeony AAe.

– AAe Atribute

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae ao?eaooa Counter ii oiie/aieth Eiae ao?eaooa

Iacaaiea ao?eaooa oaenoiaue 15 Iacaaiea

ao?eaooa

Iienaiea ao?eaooa oaenoiaue 15 Iienaiea

ao?eaooa

– AAe Atr_klass

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae eeanna Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae eeanna

Eiae ao?eaooa Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae ao?eaooa

Cia/aiea ao?eaooa oaenoiaue 15 Cia/aiea

ao?eaooa

– AAe Rod_vid

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae eeanna Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae eeanna

Eiae iiaeeeanna Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae iiaeeeanna

– AAe Structur

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae eeanna Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae eeanna

Eiae eiiiiiaiou Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae eiiiiiaiou

– AAe Sv_klass

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae nayce Counter ii oiie/aieth Eiae ao?eaooa

Eiae eeanna Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae eeanna

?ieue eeanna oaenoiaue 20 ?ieue eeanna

– AAe Type_sv

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae oeia naycae Counter ii oiie/aieth Eiae oeia naycae

Iacaaiea oeia naycae oaenoiaue 15 Iacaaiea oeia naycae

Iienaiea oeia naycae oaenoiaue 20 Iienaiea oeia naycae

– AAe Code_sv

Eiy iiey Oei aeaiiuo ?acia? Iienaiea

Eiae oeia nayce Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae oeia nayce

Eiae nayce Number ii oiie/aieth Eiae nayce

2.5 Aaiae aeaiiuo a aaoe oaaeeoeu

Ioe?uoea ieia oaaeeoeu

Caa?oceoa Access e ioe?ieoa oaee “Klasses.mdb”. A ieia AAe aeieaeia
auoue i?aaenoaaeaia oaaeeoea “Eeannu”. (Anee aa iao, oi uaeeieoa ia
ei?aoea Table). Aeaaaeaeu uaeeieoa ia iacaaiee oaaeeoeu e ieii
ioe?iaony.

Aaeieue aa?oiaai e?ay ?aniieiaeaiu eiaia iieae oaaeeoeu. Eaaeaeia iiea
niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiiio noieaoeo a oaaeeoea. A eaaie /anoe ia?aie
no?iee au aeaeeoa iaeaiueeee o?aoaieueiee, oeacuaathuee ia oi, /oi
Access aioia i?eieiaoue ethaoth eioi?iaoeeth a ia?aoth no?ieo.

Oaia?ue iiaeii caiieieoue AAe a niioaaonoaee n caaeaieai i?aiiaeaaaoaey
(eniieuecoy naith i?aaeiaoioth iaeanoue).

Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaiaeeoue n eeaaeaoo?u aeaiiua a iiea oeia “Counter”,
oae eae iii caiieiyaony Access aaoiiaoe/anee.

Ia?aiauaoueny ii oaaeeoea iiaeii eniieuecoy eeaaeoe oi?aaeaiey eo?ni?ii
eeai n iiiiuueth iuoe.

Iinea aaiaea eaaeaeie no?iee Access aaoiiaoe/anee nio?aiyao caienue.

Access iicaieyao ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue aaaaeaiiua aeaiiua.

2.6 Nayce iaaeaeo oaaeeoeaie

A Access iiaeii onoaiiaeoue aeaa aeaea nayce iaaeaeo oaaeeoeaie:
iaeia-n-iaeiie e iaeia-ni-iiiaeie.

Aeey iauaaeeiaiey oaaeeoe iaiaoiaeeii iauaa iiea. Yoi iiea iaycaoaeueii
aeieaeii auoue iaeiiai oeia. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao iiea n/ao/ee. Anee a
naycaiiie oaaeeoea iauaa iiea aoaeao oaeiai aea oeia, oi naycue
iaeei-ni-iiiaeie aoaeao iaaiciiaeia. Iiyoiio, anee iauaa iiea yaeyaony
n/ao/eeii a oaaeeoea, oi a naycaiiie oaaeeoea iii aeieaeii auoue
/eneiaui, a aai ?acia? aeieaeai auoue onoaiiaeai eae Aeeeiiia oeaeia.

Onoaiiaeaiea naycae

Ioe?ieoa iaith I?aaea (Edit) e auaa?eoa a iai aee?aeoeao Relationships
(Noaia aeaiiuo).

?anniio?ei i?eia? aeey nayce aeaoo oaaeeoe – “ao?eaoou” e “ao?eaoou
eeanna”:

1. A nienea iieae oaaeeoeu “ao?eaoou” uaeeieoa ia iiea “Eiae ao?eaooa”
aeey oiai, /oiau auaeaeeoue aai.

2. Onoaiiaea eo?ni? iuoe ia yoii iiea, iaaeieoa aa eaaoth eiiieo.

3. Ia?aianoeoa yoi iiea n iiiiuueth iuoe ia iiea “Eiae ao?eaooa” a
oaaeeoea “ao?eaoou eeanna”.

4. Ioionoeoa eaaoth eiiieo iuoe.

I?e yoii iiyaeony aeeaeiaiaia ieii onoaiiaeaiey naycae, anee a iai
ana auaeyaeeo eae iaaei, uaeeieoa ia “Nicaeaoue”.

5. Iiaeiaiua nayce iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue aeey anao oaaeeoe a
niioaaonoaee ni noaiie, i?aaenoaaeaiiie ia ?en. 27.

6. Cae?ieoa ieii Relationships. Eiaaea Access ni?ineo, aeaeaaoa ee au
nio?aieoue eciaiaiey a noaia aeaiiuo, ioaaoueoa “Aea”.

Aeey oaeaeaiey ioeai/iie nayce auaeaeeoa /a?ioth eeieth, niaaeeiythuoth
aeaa iiey e iaaeieoa Del (a ieia Relationships).

Eoae, iu nicaeaee nayce oaaeeoe – o.a. ea?a?oeth. Iiae yoo ea?a?oeth
iiaeii iiaeaanoe iiiaeanoai i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae. Ii iaiaoiaeeii
niaethaeaoue oi/iinoue e aieiaoaeueiinoue i?e caiieiaiee naieo oaaeeoe
?aaeueiuie aeaiiuie. Aaiaeeoue aeaiiua ai ana nicaeaiiua AAe
iaiaoiaeeii n o/aoii yoeo naycae.

Iienaa II n iiiiuueth aeaiiie no?oeoo?u, iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao
i?iecaiaeeoue ?acee/iua aeaenoaey. Nooue iaieioeyoeee caeeth/aaony a
eco/aiee ea?a?oee, ianeaaeiaaiey i?eciaeia e o.ae.

Access iicaieyao auno?i iaoiaeeoue ioaeiua aeaiiua n eniieueciaaieai
aee?aeoeau Find (Iaeoe) eee Query (Cai?inia), nicaeaaaoue oi?iu aeey
auaiaea ioaeiuo aeaiiuo, oaeiaiua aeey aini?eyoey eeai a niioaaonoaee n
eaeeie-eeai o?aaiaaieyie (iai?eia? – AINO).

Ana yoe aiciiaeiinoe iiaeii ?aaeeciauaaoue i?e i?iaaaeaiee i?aeoe/aneeo
caiyoee. Aeey iiae?iaiiai iciaeiieaiey n oaeeie aiciiaeiinoyie, eae
Cai?inu, Oi?iu iieueciaaoaeth aoaeao iaiaoiaeeia eeai niaoeeaeueiay
eeoa?aoo?a ii Access, eeai iieiinoueth onoaiiaeaiiay aa?ney Access ia
aeanoeee aeene eiiiuethoa?a, i /ai oaea oiiieiaeinue ?aiaa, /oiau auea
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue ni?aai/ioth nenoaio Access.

Oiiiyiooua aiciiaeiinoe Access ia aoiaeyo a oaiu EI?, iiyoiio iu
aeiioneaai nnueee ia niaoeeaeueioth eeoa?aoo?o.

3. Aa?eaiou caaeaiee ii e.?.

1. I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee ia iauaeoao i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe:

a) Auaeaeeoue iniiaiua oeiu iauaeoia

a) Auaeaeeoue iniiaiua ao?eaoou

a) Caaeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee i eiie?aoiuo iauaeoao a aeaea AAe

2. I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iauaeoaie:

a) Iino?ieoue ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o ia iniiaa ioiioaiey SUP

a) N oeiaie iauaeoia ieaeiaai o?iaiy naycaoue eiaia eiie?aoiuo

iauaeoia

3. Onoaiiaeaiea naycae iaaeaeo oeiaie iauaeoia:

a) Auaeaeeoue iniiaiua oeiu naycae

a) Auaeaeeoue eiaeu naycae

a) Onoaiiaeoue nayce iaaeaeo oeiaie

Ia?a/aiue i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae:

1. Oaaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

2. Oaenoeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

3. Iaoaiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

4. Aaoiiiaeeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

5. Eeea?i-aiaei/iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

6. Ei?aaeano?ieoaeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

7. Ia?othia?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

8. Oeaai-iaea?iia i?iecaiaenoai

9. Eiiaeeoa?neia i?iecaiaenoai

10. I?iecaiaenoai oaeaaeci?ia

11. Noaieino?ieoaeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

12. Aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue

13. I?iecaiaenoai eaioeoiaa?ia

14. I?iecaiaenoai iaoiauo ecaeaeee

15. I?iecaiaenoai eieaaniuo ecaeaeee

16. I?iecaiaenoai iiei/iuo ecaeaeee

4. Niaea?aeaiea io/aoa

Io/ao i e.?. aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue:

1. Oaio e.?.

2. Oeaeue e.?.

3. Oai?aoe/aneia anooieaiea (e?aoei)

4. Aiaeec i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe – eiioeaiooaeueiay noaia

5. Auaiae i i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa

6. Caeeth/aiea

5. Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu

1. I?aaeiao Eiaeaia?ee Ciaiee

2. Iiiyoea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe (II)

3. Niiniau eaeaioeoeeaoeee iauaeoia

4. Eiioeaiooaeueiua n?aaenoaa iienaiey II

5. Aaciaua oeiu iauaeoia

6. I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee i i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iauaeoaie

7. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oeiaie iauaeoia

8. Eiiiiceoeeiiiue oei iauaeoia

9. Iia?aoeee iaae oeiaie iauaeoia

10. Iia?aoeey ?acaeaiey oeiia iauaeoia ia eeannu yeaeaaeaioiuo iauaeoia

11. Iiiyoey “i?aaeiao”, “iauaeo” a ?aieao EC

12. Oaaeiiiua iienaiey ninoiyiee i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe

13. I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee iaaeaeo oeiaie

14. Oaenii e oaeniiiie/aneea eaoaai?ee

6. Auiieiaiea e.?. aeey iaeiiai ec aa?eaioia caaeaiee

II – aaoiiiaeee

oaia: I?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee ia iauaeoao e ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieie.

oeaeue: Iienaoue i?aaeiaoioth iaeanoue ia iniiaa ciaiee i i?aaenoaaeaiee
ciaiee ia ioiioaiee iaaeo iauaeoaie e i naieo iauaeoao. Eniieueciaaoue
yeaeo?iiioth iiaeaeue a ACCESS2.0.

oai?aoe/aneia anooieaiea (Ni. Oai?aoe/aneee ?acaeae aeaiiiai EI?)

aiaeec II: eiioeaiooaeueiay noaia (nie?auaia):

aaoiiiaeeue

SUP SUP
SUP

aaoiaon eaaeiaie_aaoiiiaeeue
a?ociaie_aaoiiiaeeue

SUP SUP SUP SUP
SUP

iee?iaaoiaon ?aeniaue iaaeaeoai?iaeiue “naaeai”
“ieeai”

ISA ISA ISA ISA

“?ao” “oieioa” “eueaia” “eeac”

Aeey oaeianoaa aini?eyoey ieaea i?eaiaeei i?aaenoaeaiea II ia ycuea
i?aaeeeaoia a PROLOGa:

sup(“aaoiaon”,”aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“eaaeiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”,”aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“a?ociaie_aaoiiiaeeue”,”aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“iee?iaaoiaon”,”aaoiaon”)

sup(“?aeniaue_aaoiaon”,”aaoiaon”)

sup(“iaaeaeoai?iaeiue_aaoiaon”,”aaoiaon”)

sup(“naaeai_aaoiiiaeeue”,”eaaeiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“ieeai_aaoiiiaeeue”,”eaaeiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“oo?aii”,”a?ociaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“ai?oiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”,”a?ociaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

sup(“naiinaae”,”a?ociaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“?ao”,”iee?iaaoiaon”)

isa(“oieioa”,”iee?iaaoiaon”)

isa(“eueaia”,”?aeniaue_aaoiaon”)

isa(“eeac”,”?aeniaue_aaoiaon”)

isa(“eea?on”,”iaaeaeoai?iaeiue_aaoiaon”)

isa(“ia?naaean”,”iaaeaeoai?iaeiue_aaoiaon”)

isa(“aac”,”naaeai_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“aac_aieaa”,”naaeai_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“iineae/_eae”,”ieeai_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“iineae/_acee”,”ieeai_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“aac”,”oo?aii”)

isa(“neaiea”,”oo?aii”)

isa(“cee”,”ai?oiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“eac”,”ai?oiaie_aaoiiiaeeue”)

isa(“eaiac”,”naiinaae”)

isa(“oao?a”,”naiinaae”)

isa(“aaeac”,”naiinaae”)

isa(“iac”,”naiinaae”)

I?eia? caiieiaiey AAe a ACCESS:

1. Eeannu

Eiae eeanna Iacaaiea eeanna Iienaiea eeanna

1 aaoiiiaeeue *Eiiiaioa?ee*

2 aaoiaon *Eiiiaioa?ee*

3 eaaeiaie aaoiiiaeeue *Eiiiaioa?ee*

4 naaeai-aaoiiiaeeue *Eiiiaioa?ee*

5 aac-aieaa *Eiiiaioa?ee*

2. Ao?eaoou

Eiae ao?eaooa iacaaiea ao?eaooa Iienaiea ao?eaooa

1 ia?ea *Eiiiaioa?ee*

2 oeaao *Eiiiaioa?ee*

3 iiia? eociaa *Eiiiaioa?ee*

3. Ao?eaoou eeanna

Eiae eeanna Eiae ao?eaooa Cia/aiea ao?eaooa

1 1 iineae/

1 2 neiee

1 3

4. ?iae-Aeae (SUP)

Eiae eeanna Eiae iiaeeeanna

1 2

1 3

5. No?oeoo?a (ISA)

Eiae eeanna Eiae eiiiiiaou

4 5

6. Nayce eeannia

eiae nayce eiae eeanna ?ieue eeanna

1 2 *Eiiiaioa?ee*

2 3 *Eiiiaioa?ee*

3 4 *Eiiiaioa?ee*

4 5 *Eiiiaioa?ee*

7. Oeiu naycae

Eiae oeia nayce Iacaaiea oeia nayce iienaiea oeia nayce

1 SUP *Eiiiaioa?ee*

2 ISA *Eiiiaioa?ee*

8. Eiaeu naycae

Eiae oeia nayce Eiae nayce

1 1

1 2

1 3

2 4

Caeeth/aiea

?acoeueoaoii aeaiiiai EI? ii oaia “i?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea
ciaiee ia iauaeoao; i?aaenoaaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee ia ioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo iauaeoaie; i?aaiecaoeey iaiauaiiie eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey ioeueoeea?a?oe/aneie oaeniiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u” yaeyaony
iiaeai?ea oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeey i?iaaaeaiey
i?aeoe/aneeo ?aaio ii niioaaonoaothuei ?acaeaeai aeenoeeieeiu Eiaeaia?ey
Ciaiee. A ?acoeueoaoa a?oiia ?ac?aaio/eeia oaeaeinue nicaeaoue
yeaeo?iiioth iiaeaeue, ii nooe yaeythuaeny oieaa?naeueiie no?oeoo?ie,
i?eaiaeiie aeey iienaiey i?aeoe/anee ethaie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, /oi
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue aa aieueoei eiee/anoaii
iieueciaaoaeae. Aeaiiay iiaeaeue nicaeaia a NOAAe MS ACCESS 2.0.

A ?aaioa oaeaea i?eaiaeeony iaoiaeeea nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u a MS
ACCESS, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao yaeyoueny caaeaieai ia
i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo.

Oaeno iiynieoaeueiie caienee iaa?ai a n?aaea MS WORD 6.0 for
Windows. Ioia/aoaii ia i?eioa?a Epson LX-100.

Ana oiiiyiooua a oaenoa ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua oiaa?iua ciaee e
oi?aiaua ia?ee yaeythony nianoaaiiinoueth eiiiaiee, eioi?ui iie
i?eiaaeeaaeao.

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie

1. Oeaeaiei I.O. Iiaeaee?iaaiea naiaioeee a aacao aeaiiuo., Iineaa,
Iaoea, 1989a., – 286 n.

2. *aeiaaei – iaoeiiua nenoaiu e aiaeec aeaiiuo, ?AI, Einoeooo i?iaeai
ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia, Iineaa, Iaoea, 1992a., –
174n.

3. Iaeia? Neioo, ACCESS 2 for DUMMIES, Eeaa, 1996a., – 249 n.

4. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii aeenoeeieeia Eiaeaia?ey ciaiee ca V naiano?.

Eiaeaia?ey ciaiee_____________________________________________________

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