.

Основы ПЭВМ

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue Eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth
Iineianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay oaenoeeueiay aeaaeaiey eiaie A.I.Einuaeia

eaoaae?a eioi?iaoeee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee

I?aeoe/aneay ?aaioa

ii eo?no

iniiau IYAI

A?oiia ? 46-94

Nooaeaio Aiiaea?aiei TH.I.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue Oeuiaaethe I.ss.

I?iaa?eea Iaeaieia A.I

Iineaa 1995

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Eniieueciaaiea neiaieueiuo ooieoeee

1.1 Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

1.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey

1.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e

1.4. I?ia?aiia

1.5. Eiio?ieueiue i?eia?

2. ?aoaiea iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee

2.1 Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

2.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey

2.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e

2.4. I?ia?aiia

2.5. ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey o?aaiaiey

3. Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo aeey iieo/aiey noaoenoe/aneeo ioeaiie

3.1 Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

3.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey

3.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e

3.4. I?ia?aiia

3.5. Eiio?ieueiue i?eia?

4. ?aaioa n eaoaeiaaie e oaeeaie a MS – DOS

4.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

4.2. Caaeaiea

5. ?aaioa n eaoaeiaaie e oaeeaie

a nenoaia NORTON COMMANDER

5.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

5.2. Caaeaiea

6. Auaiae

1. Eniieueciaaiea neiaieueiuo ooieoeee.

1.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e.

Iaienaoue i?ia?aiio n eniieueciaaieai neiaieueiuo ooieoeee aeey
ia?aaioee oaenoa. N/eoaoue, /oi a caaeaiiii oaenoa neiaa ?acaeaeaiu
iaeiei i?iaaeii. Iiaen/eoaoue eie-ai aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee a
caaeaiiii oaenoa e eie-ai neia a eaaeaeii ec oaeeo i?aaeeiaeaiee.

1.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey.

A$ – eiy neiaieueiie ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene caaeaiiiai oaenoa.

N – ia?aiaiiay aeey caiene eiee/anoaa neiaieia a oaenoa A$.

A$(N) – iannea aeey caiene neiaieia, ec eioi?uo ninoieo oaeno A$.

C(N) – iannea aeey caiene iiia?a iiceoeee, ia eioi?ii a oaenoa
iaoiaeeony neiaie “.”

S(N) – iiia?a iiceoeee, ia eioi?ie a oaenoa A$ iaoiaeeony neiaie “?”.

D(N) – iannea cia/aiee, eiee/anoaa neiaieia a eaaeaeii ec
i?aaeeiaeaiee, ec eioi?uo ninoieo oaeno.

R$(N,N) – iannea aeey caiene neiaieia, ec eioi?uo ninoieo eaaeaeia
i?aaeeiaeaiea.

K – ia?aiaiiay aeey caiene eiee/anoaa “?” a oaenoa A$.

T – ia?aiaiiay aeey caiene eiee/anoaa “.” a oaenoa A$.

F(N) – iannea aeey caiene eiee/anoaa i?iaaeia eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

C$(N) – iannea aeey caiene eaaeaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey a ioaeaeueioth
y/aeeo.

B – ia?aiaiiay aeey iiaen/aoa eiee/anoaa i?iaaeia a eaaeaeii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ioaeaeueii.

1.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e.

ia/aei

A$

N = LEN(A$)

iienaiea ianneaia B$(N), C(N), S(N), D(N), R$(N, N), E(N), C$(N)

I=1, N

B$(I)=MID$(A$, I, 1)

K = 0,T = 0

I = 1, N

B$(I) = “?”

K = K + 1

S(K) = I

B$(I) = “.”

T = T + 1

C(T) = I

C(1) > S(1)

C$(1) = MID$(A$, 1, S(1))

C$(1) = MID$(A$, C(1), S(1) – C(1))

I = 2, K

C(I) > S(I)

C$(I) = MID$(A$, S(I – 1), S(I) – S(I – 1))

C$(I) = MID$(A$, C(I), S(I) – C(I))

I = 1, K

D(I) = LEN(C$(I))

I = 1, K

J = 1, D(I)

R$(I, J) = MID$(C$(I), J, 1)

I = 1, K

B = 0

J = 1, D(I)

R$(I, J) = ” ”

B = B + 1

C(1) > S(1)

E(1) + 1

E(1)

I = 2, K

E(I)

eiiaoe

1.4. I?ia?aiia.

CLS

INPUT “Aaaaeeoa oaeno”; A$

N = LEN(A$)

DIM B$(N), C(N), S(N), D(N), R$(N, N), E(N), C$(N)

FOR I = 1 TO N

B$(I) = MID$(A$, I, 1)

NEXT I

FOR I = 1 TO N

IF B$(I) = “?” THEN

K = K + 1

S(K) = I

END IF

IF B$(I) = “.” THEN

T = T + 1

C(T) = I

END IF

NEXT I

IF C(1) > S(1) THEN

C$(1) = MID$(A$, 1, S(1))

ELSE

C$(1) = MID$(A$, C(1), S(1) – C(1))

END IF

FOR I = 2 TO K

IF C(I) > S(I) THEN

C$(I) = MID$(A$, S(I – 1), S(I) – S(I – 1))

ELSE

C$(I) = MID$(A$, C(I), S(I) – C(I))

END IF

NEXT I

FOR I = 1 TO K

D(I) = LEN(C$(I))

NEXT I

FOR I = 1 TO K

FOR J = 1 TO D(I)

R$(I, J) = MID$(C$(I), J, 1)

NEXT J

NEXT I

FOR I = 1 TO K

B = 0

FOR J = 1 TO D(I)

IF R$(I, J) = ” ” THEN

B = B + 1

END IF

NEXT J

E(I) = B

NEXT I

PRINT “Eiee/anoai aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii”; K

IF C(1) > S(1) THEN

PRINT “Eiee/anoai ceia a 1-i aii?ineoaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii”; E(1)
+ 1

ELSE

PRINT “Eiee/anoai neia a 1-i aii?ineoaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii”; E(1)

END IF

FOR I = 2 TO K

PRINT “Eiee/anoai ceia a “; I; “-i aii?ineoaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii”;
E(I)

NEXT I

END

1.5. Eiio?ieueiue i?eia?.

Au aeaeeoa aunieiai /aeiaaea o ieia? Yoi ecaanoiue aeoa?. Au oioeoa
iiciaeiieoueny n iei? ss aai iiiiao a yoii.

Eiee/anoai aii?ineoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii 2.

Eiee/anoai neia a 1-i aii?ineoaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii 6.

Eiee/anoai neia a 2-i aii?ineoaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee ?aaii 5.

2. ?aoaiea iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee.

2.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e.

Ninoaaeoue i?ia?aiio aeey iaoiaeaeaiey ei?iy o?aaiaiey ia io?acea [0;
0,8] iaoiaeii iieiaeiiiai aeaeaiey n oi/iinoueth 0.1, 0.01, 0.001,
0.0001.

tg x – 1/3 tg 3 x + 1/5 tg 5 x – 1/3 = 0

?acoeueoaou i?aaenoaaeoue a oaaeeoea neaaeothuaai aeaea:

Iaoiae

O?aaiaiea

Io?acie

Oi/iinoue ?aoaiea (ei?aiue o?aaiaiey)

. . .

2.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey.

N – ?acia?iinoue ianneaa cia/aiee oi/iinoe ?aoaiey.

E(N) – iannea cia/aiee oi/iinoe ?aoaiey.

X(N) – iannea cia/aiee ei?iae o?aaiaiey n i-ie oi/iinoueth.

A – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene eaaie a?aieoeu io?acea.

A – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene i?aaie a?aieoeu io?acea.

2.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e.

ia/aei

A, B, N

iienaiea ianneaia X(N), E(N)

I=1, N

E(I)

I=1, N

A1 = A

B1 = B

Y = TAN(A1) – 1 / 3 * TAN(A1) ^ 3 + 1 / 5 * TAN(A1) ^ 5 – 1/ 3

X(I) = (A1 + B1) / 2

Z = TAN(X(I)) – 1/ 3*TAN(X(I)) ^3 + 1/ 5 * TAN(X(I)) ^ 5 – 1/ 3

Y * Z > 0

A1 = X(I)

B1 = X(I)

ABS(A1 – B1) > E(I)

I=1, N

X(I) < A OR X(I) > B

E(I); “?aoaiey ia yoii eioa?aaea iao”

E(I); X(I)

eiiaoe

2.4. I?ia?aiia.

CLS

INPUT “Aaaaeeoa eaaoth a?aieoeo io?acea”; A

INPUT “Aaaaeeoa i?aaoth a?aieoeo io?acea”; B

INPUT “Aaaaeeoa /enei cia/aiee oi/iinoe”; N

DIM E(N), X(N)

FOR I = 1 TO N

PRINT “Aaaaeeoa”; I; “cia/aiea oi/iinoe”

INPUT E(I)

NEXT I

FOR I = 1 TO N

A1 = A

B1 = B

M1: Y = TAN(A1) – 1 / 3 * TAN(A1) ^ 3 + 1 / 5 * TAN(A1) ^ 5 – 1 / 3

X(I) = (A1 + B1) / 2

Z = TAN(X(I)) – 1 / 3 * TAN(X(I)) ^ 3 + 1 / 5 * TAN(X(I)) ^ 5 – 1
/ 3

IF Y * Z > 0 THEN

A1 = X(I)

ELSE B1 = X(I)

END IF

IF ABS(A1 – B1) > E(I) THEN GOTO M1

NEXT I

CLS

PRINT TAB(15); “Iaoiae”; TAB(30); “iieiaeiiiai aeaeaiey”

PRINT TAB(15); “O?aaiaiea”; TAB(30); “tg x – 1/3 tg ( x )^3 + 1/5 tg ( x
)^5 – 1/3 = 0”

PRINT TAB(15); “Io?acie”; TAB(30); “[“; A; “;”; B; “]”

PRINT

PRINT TAB(10); “Oi/iinoue”; TAB(35); “?aoaiea (ei?aiue o?aaiaiey)”

PRINT

FOR I = 1 TO N

IF X(I) < A OR X(I) > B THEN

PRINT TAB(12); E(I); TAB(40); “?aoaiey ia yoii eioa?aaea iao”

ELSE

PRINT TAB(12); E(I); TAB(40); X(I)

END IF

NEXT I

END

2.5. ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey o?aaiaiey.

Iaoiae iaoiaeii iieiaeiiiai aeaeaiey

O?aaiaiea tg x – 1/3 tg 3 x + 1/5 tg 5 x – 1/3 = 0

Io?acie [0 ; 0,8]

Oi/iinoue ?aoaiea (ei?aiue o?aaiaiey)

0.1 3.437500

0.01 3.476563

0.001 3.475586

0.0001 3.474792

3. Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo aeey iieo/aiey noaoenoe/aneeo ioeaiie.

3.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e.

Iaienaoue i?ia?aiio aaiaea e ia?aaioee aeaiiuo. ?ac?aaioaoue
eiio?ieueiue i?eia?, niaea?aeauee ia iaiaa 5 cia/aiee. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua
e ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoa i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea oaaeeoeu

Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo ia?aiene ianaeaiey

Iaeanoue, e?ae Eie-ai aeeoaeae

. . .

iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea

aeenia?ney

eaaae?aoe/aneia ioeeiiaiea

eiyooeoeeaio aa?eaoeee

3.2. Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey.

N -eie-ai .

A$(N) – iannea iaeanoae, e?aaa.

O(N) – iannea cia/aiee eie-aa aeeoaeae i-ie iaeanoe.

M – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaeeaeaiey eie-aa
aeeoaeae.

D – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene aeenia?nee eie-aa aeeoaeae.

S – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene eaaae?aoe/aneiai ioeeiiaiey eie-aa
aeeoaeae.

K – eiy ia?aiaiiie aeey caiene eiyooeoeeaioa aa?eaoeee.

3.3. Aeie-noaia aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e.

ia/aei

N

iienaiea ianneaia A$(N), O(N)

I=1, N

A$(I), O(I)

M=0

I=1, N

M=M+O(I)

M=M/N

D = 0

I=1, N

D = D +(O(I) -M) ^ 2

D=D/(N-1)

S=SQR(D)

K=S/M

M,D,S,K

eiiaoe

3.4. I?ia?aiia.

NLS

INPUT “Aaaaeeoa eiee/anoai iaeanoae, e?aaa”; N

DIM A$(N), O(N)

FOR I = 1 TO N

PRINT “Aaaaeeoa iaeanoue, e?ae”; I; “-o aeeoaeae”

INPUT A$(I)

PRINT “Aaaaeeoa eiee/anoai aeeoaeae aeey “;I;”-ai e?ay ”

INPUT O(I)

NEXT I

M = 0

FOR I = 1 TO N

M = M + O(I)

NEXT I

M = M / N

D = 0

FOR I = 1 TO N

D = D + (O(I) – M) ^ 2

NEXT I

D = D / (N – 1)

S = SQR(D)

K = S / M

CLS

PRINT TAB(15); “Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo ia?aiene ianaeaiey ”

PRINT

PRINT TAB(8); “Iaeanoue, e?ae “; TAB(40); “Eiee/anoai aeeoaeae ”

PRINT

FOR I = 1 TO N

PRINT TAB(5); A$(I); TAB(45); O(I)

NEXT I

PRINT

PRINT TAB(5); “Iao. iaeeaeaiea”; TAB(45); M

PRINT TAB(5); “Aeenia?ney”; TAB(45); D

PRINT TAB(5); “Ea. ioeeiiaiea”; TAB(45); S

PRINT TAB(5); “Eiyo. aa?eaoeee”; TAB(45); K

END

3.5. Eiio?ieueiue i?eia?.

Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo ia?aiene ianaeaiey

Iaeanoue, e?ae Eie-ai aeeoaeae

Aeaaeeie?neay 2300

Iaaaaeaineay 1000

Othiaineay 900

Iineianeay 11000

Eaaiianeay 3400

iaoaiaoe/aneia iaeeaeaiea 3720

aeenia?ney 1.7617E+07

eaaae?aoe/aneia ioeeiiaiea 4197.261

eiyooeoeeaio aa?eaoeee 1.128296

4. ?aaioa n eaoaeiaaie e oaeeaie a MS-DOS.

4.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e.

( ZOO

\(( ( HOME ( CLASS1

( SNOOL ((( ( CLASS2

( UNIVER ( CLASS3

4.2. Caaeaiea .

1) nicaeaiea oeacaiiiai aea?aaa eaoaeiaia.

A:\ > md ZOO

A:\ > md HOME

A:\ > md SNOOL

A:\ > md UNIVER

A:\ > cd SNOOL

A:\ SCOOL > md CLASS1

A:\ SCOOL > md CLASS2

A:\ SCOOL > md CLASS3

2) ia?aeoe a eaoaeia naiiai ieaeiaai o?iaiy, i?iniio?aoue aai
niaea?aeeiia.

A:\ > cd SCOOL\ CLASS1

A:\ SCOOL\ CLASS1> dir \

?acoeueoao:

Volume in drive A is DIANA

Volume Serial Number is 1406-2E61

Directory of A:\SCOOL\CLASS1

.

12/05/95 23:16

..

12/05/95 23:16

2 file(s) 0 bytes

4 202 496 bytes free

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

3)nicaeaoue aeaa oaenoiauo oaeea.

A:\ SCOOL\CLASS1> copy con t1.txt

A:\ SCOOL\CLASS1> copy con t2.txt

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>copy con t1.txt

iu eaeai

^Z

1 file(s) copied

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>copy con t2.txt

iie i?eoee

^Z

1 file(s) copied

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

4) auaanoe niaea?aeeiia oaeeia ia ye?ai.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T1.TXT

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T2.TXT

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T1.TXT

iu eaeai

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T2.TXT

iie i?eoee

5)iauaaeeieoue aeaa oaenoiauo oaeea a iaeei.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>COPY T1.TXT + T2.TXT T3.TXT

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>COPY T1.TXT + T2.TXT T3.TXT

T1.TXT

T2.TXT

1 file(s) copied

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

6) auaanoe niaea?aeeiia ia ye?ai.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T3.TXT

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>TYPE T3.TXT

iu eaeai

iie i?eoee

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

7)ia?aeiaiiaaoue iauaaeeiaiiue oaee.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>REN T3.TXT T4.TXT

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>REN T3.TXT T4.TXT

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

8) i?iniio?aoue iaeaaeaiea eaoaeiaa.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>DIR

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>DIR

Volume in drive A is DIANA

Volume Serial Number is 1406-2E61

Directory of A:\SCOOL\CLASS1

.

12/05/95 23:16

..

12/05/95 23:16

T1 TXT 9 12/05/95 23:54

T2 TXT 12 12/05/95 23:55

T4 TXT 22 13/05/95 0:19

5 file(s) 43 bytes

4 202 496 bytes free

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

9) oaeaeeoue oaee.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>DEL *.*

?acoeueoao:

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>DEL *.*

All files in directory will be deleted!

Are you sure (Y/N)?Y

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>

10) iineaaeiaaoaeueii oaeaeeoue eaoaeiae.

A:\SCOOL\CLASS1>CD. .

A:\SCOOL\>RD CLASS1

A:\SCOOL\> RD CLASS2

A:\SCOOL\> RD CLASS3

A:\ SCOOL\ > cd . .

A:\ >RD ZOO

A:\ >RD HOME

A:\ >RD SCOOL

A:\ >RD UNIVER

5. ?aaioa n eaoaeiaaie e oaeeaie a nenoaia NORTON COMMANDER.

5.1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e.

( ZOO

\(( ( HOME ( CLASS1

( SNOOL ((( ( CLASS2

( UNIVER ( CLASS3

5.2. Caaeaiea.

1) nicaeaoue oeacaiiia aea?aai eaoaeiaia.

a) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai ZOO, iaaeeiaai Enter.

a) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai HOME, iaaeeiaai Enter.

a) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai SNOOL, iaaeeiaai Enter.

a) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai UNIVER, iaaeeiaai Enter.

ae) iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e SNOOL, iaaeeiaai Enter, iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai
CLASS1 e iaaeeiaai Enter.

a) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai CLASS2, iaaeeiaai Enter.

ae) iaaeeiaai F7, iaae?aai CLASS3, iaaeeiaai Enter.

2) ia?aeoe a eaoaeia naiiai ieaeiaai o?iaiy, iiniio?aoue aai iaeaaeaiea.

Iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e CLASS1, iaaeeiaai Enter, iaae?aai a eiiaiaeiie
no?iea dir e iaaeeiaai Enter.

3) nicaeaoue aeaa oaenoiauo oaeea.

a) iaae?aai a eiiaiaeiie no?iea copy con t1.txt, iaaeeiaai Enter,
aaiaeei Ira, iaaeeiaai F6 e Enter.

?acoeueoao: 1 file(s) copied

a) iaae?aai a eiiaiaeiie no?iea copy con t2.txt, iaaeeiaai Enter,
aaiaeei Natasha, iaaeeiaai F6 e Enter.

?acoeueoao: 1 file(s) copied

4) auaanoe ia ye?ai niaea?aeeiia oaeeia.

a) iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e t1.txt e iaaeeiaai F3.

?acoeueoao: Ira

a) iaaeeiaai Esc, iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e t2.txt e iaaeeiaai F3.

?acoeueoao: Natasha

5) iauaaeeieoue aeaa oaeea a iaeei.

Iaaeeiaai Esc, iaae?aai a eiiaiaeiie no?iea nopy t1.txt + t2.txt t3.txt
e iaaeeiaai Enter.

?acoeueoao: t1.txt

t2.txt

1 file(s) copied

6) auaanoe ia ye?ai niaea?aeeiia yoiai oaeea.

Iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e t3.txt e iaaeeiaai F3.

?acoeueoao: Ira Natasha

7) ia?aeiaiiaaoue iauaaeeiaiiue oaee.

Iaaeeiaai Esc, F6 e iaae?aai t4.txt, iaaeeiaai Enter.

8) iiniio?aoue aai niaea?aeeiia.

Iiaeaiaeei eo?ni? e t4.txt e iaaeeiaai F3.

?acoeueoao: Ira Natasha

9) oaeaeeoue nicaeaiiua oaeeu.

a) iaaeeiaai Esc, ioia/aai eeaaeoae INS t1.txt, t2.txt e t4.txt e
iaaeeiaai F8.

10) oaeaeeoue eaoaeiae.

a) ioia/aai eeaaeoae INS ZOO, HOME, SNOOL, UNIVER, iaaeeiaai Enter,
oaeaeyai aea?aai eaoaeiaia.

6. Auaiae.

Aeaaiaea?y eaeoeeiiiie /anoe eo?na auee iieo/aiu iaauee, eioi?ua caoai
auee i?eiaiaiu i?e ?aaioa iaae i?aeoeeie, oaeea, eae: ?aaioa n
eaoaeiaaie e oaeeaie a nenoaiao MS-DOS e Norton Commander; ninoaaeaiea
aeie-noai aeai?eoiia ?aoaiey ?acee/iuo caaea/; iaienaiea i?ia?aii ia
ycuea QBASIC n eniieueciaaieai ianneaia, oeeeeia, iia?aoi?ia oneiaiiai e
aaconeiaiiai ia?aoiaea.

Caaeaiey i?aeoeee iicaieeee ?aaeeciaaoue e oniaa?oainoaiaaoue iieo/aiiua
oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey, i?eiaieoue eo e ?aoaieth eiie?aoiuo caaea/:
eniieueciaaiea neiaieueiuo ooieoeee aeey ia?aaioee oaenoa; ?aaioa n
nenoaiaie MS-DOS e Norton Commander; ?aoaiea iaeeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee
?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie n ?acee/iui ia/aeueiui i?eaeeaeaieai e ?acee/iuie
noaiaiyie oi/iinoe; ia?aaioea oaaeeoe e aeaiiuo aeey iieo/aiey
noaoenoe/aneeo ioeaiie.

I?aeoe/aneay /anoue eo?na iicaieeea a iniiaiii iaeaaeaoue oeacaiiuie
iaaueaie.

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