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Основные конфигурации ЭВМ и области их использования

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Oaa?neie Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a YAI

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii i?aaeiaoo “Oai?ey i?iaeoe?iaaiey YAI”

“Iniiaiua eiioeao?aoeee YAI e iaeanoe eo eniieueciaaiey”

Auiieieee: Iaeneiia Ae.A.

Ioioieeia Ae.A.

A?oiia YAI – 44

I?eiye: ?aoaoia A.TH.

1999 Oaa?ue

Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea YAI e ?aciiia?acea

eo eiioeao?aoeee 3

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee PC 3

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee Macintosh 4

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee ae?oaeo

eiiiuethoa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee 4

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee eiio?ieea?ia

(i?iiuoeaiiuo e iai?iiuoeaiiuo) 5

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea 5

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a iaaeeoeeineie i?aeoeea 7

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a aaieianeii aeaea 9

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaii 12

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a noa?a oneoa 14

Ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey YAI a ?acee/iuo

noa?ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe 16

Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea YAI e ?aciiia?acea eo eiioeao?aoeee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy YAI iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai anai ie?a e ai
iiiaeo iaeanoyo aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. I?e/ai a ea/anoaa YAI caeanue
eiaaony aaeaeo ia oieueei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiiiuethoa?u – PC,
ii e ae?oaea ieaooi?iu, a oae aea i?iiuoeaiiua eiio?ieea?u.

A caaeneiinoe io noa?u eniieueciaaiey YAI nouanoaaiii ?acee/athony ii
eiioeao?aoeee. ?aciiia?acea eiioeao?aoeee i/aiue aaeeei (io iaeaieaa
i?inouo e ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ioeniuo eiiiuethoa?ia aei iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo
Internet/Intranet – na?aa?ia).

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee ?N

?N ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeyaony naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ieaooi?iie a
ie?a. A ?innee i?ioeaio iieueciaaoaeae PC io iauaai /enea iieueciaaoaeae
aua aieaa aaeee. Yoi iauyniyaony iaee/eai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e oe?ieie oaoie/aneie iiaeaea?aeeie.

Oae eae PC i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiu, oi nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iaeanoae eo
i?eiaiaiey, a cia/eo e iiiaeanoai eiioeao?aoeee.

Iniiaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey IBM PC niaianoeiuo eiiiuethoa?ia:

ioeniue eiiiuethoa?

eiiiuethoa? aeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa (ooi/iaiea i?aaeuaeouaai)

eiiiuethoa? aeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey

na?aa? eieaeueiie naoe

eiiiuethoa? aeey o?aiaiey e ?aaiou n aacaie aeaiiuo (aa?eaio
i?aaeuaeouaai)

eiiiuethoa? a aaieianeii aeaea

eiiiuethoa? aeey ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea

eiiiuethoa? aeey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ?aaio e aieiaoeee

eiiiuethoa? aeey o?aoia?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e o?aoia?iie aieiaoeee

eiiiuethoa? aeey ?aaiou n aoaeei

eiiiuethoa? aeey ?aaiou n aeaeai

eiiiuethoa? aeey oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie

eiiiuethoa?u, i?eiaiyaiua a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo iaeanoyo
aeayoaeueiinoe (iaaeeoeeia, naeueneia oicyenoai, e o.i.)

aeiiaoiee ioeueoeiaaeeeiue eiiiuethoa?

eiiiuethoa? aaeia?a (ooi/iaiea i?aaeuaeouaai)

Yoi, eiia/ii aea, aeaeaei ia iieiue nienie iaeanoae i?eiaiaiey PC. Ana
iaeanoe i?eiaiaey ia?a/eneeoue i?inoi iaaiciiaeii.

Ii ii/oe a eaaeaeie iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey o?aaoaony PC ni naiae, ia
iioiaeae ia ae?oaea, eiioeao?aoeeae. O eaaeaeie anoue naie
ioee/eoaeueiue iniaaiiinoe. A /anoiinoe yoi iiaeao auoue iaai?
niaoeeoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa eee aea iaai?
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Iaeioi?ua ec eiioeao?aoeee PC e niioaaonoaothuea iaeanoe ec i?eiaiaiey
aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu ieaea.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee Macintosh

Macintosh yaeyaony aoi?ui ii iiioey?iinoe (iinea PC) eiiiuethoa?ii a
ie?a. Iaeanoe aai i?eiaiaiey ia ianoieueei iiiai/eneaiiu.

A iniiaiii Mac eniieuecoaony a iaeioi?uo ec oao iaeanoae, a eioi?uo
eniieuecoaony e PC, ii a oaeeo iaeanoyo i?eiaiaiea Macintosh iaeaieaa
ii?aaaeaii e, /anoi, aieaa yooaeoeaii e i?iecaiaeeoaeueii, /ai PC, oae
eae a yoeo iaeanoyo Macintosh iaeaaeaao i?aeiouanoaii (iai?eia? aieaa
aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, aieueoae i?inoioie a ?aaioa) ia?aae PC.

Ec-ca aieaa oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee o Macintosh iaiueoa auai? i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey e /ooue iaiueoa auai? ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa, /ai o PC.

Iniiaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia Macintosh

eiiiuethoa? aeey iao/aiey

eiiiuethoa? aeey ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea

eiiiuethoa? aeey ?aaiou n aoaeei

eiiiuethoa? aeey ?aaiou n aeaeai

Eae aeaeii, Macintosh i?eiaiyaony a iaiueoai eiee/anoaa iaeanoae, ii a
iaeioi?uo ec yoeo iaeanoae (iai?eia? a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea) aai
i?aeiouanoai iaae PC aannii?ii.

I?eiaiaiea Macintosh a ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeao ?anniio?aii
ieaea.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee ae?oaeo eiiiuethoa?ia e ?aai/eo
noaioeee

Iiieii PC e Macintosh a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue ana
inoaeueiua oeiu eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiaiu cia/eoaeueii
?aaea, a oae aea ?aai/ea noaioeee e na?aa?u eieaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo
naoae.

Iniiaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey inoaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee

eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee aeey ?aaiou n aoaeei (SGI, DEC Alpha)

eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee aeey ?aaiou n aeaeai (SGI, DEC Alpha)

eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee aeey ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
e ieineie aieiaoeee (SGI, DEC Alpha)

eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee aeey o?aoia?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e
o?aoia?iie aieiaoeee aunieiai ea/anoaa (SGI, DEC Alpha)

na?aa?u Internet/Intranet – naoae (DEC Alpha, SUN Enterprise, IBM RS)

Yoe ?aai/ea noaioeee oae aea oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua e i/aiue yooaeoeaiu
(yooaeoeaiaa, /ai PC eee Mac) eiaiii a naiae iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey. Iau/ii
iie eniieuecothony oiaaea, eiaaea oaea iaaiciiaeii eniieueciaaoue PC eee
Macintosh (ec-ca eo iaaeinoaoi/iie iiuiinoe a yoie iaeanoe, eee ec-ca
ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eiioeao?aoeee eiio?ieea?ia (i?iiuoeaiiuo e
iai?iiuoeaiiuo)

I?iiuoeaiiua eiio?ieea?u ioee/athony io eiiiuethoa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee
ionoonoaeai iau/ii noaiaea?oiuo ono?ienoa aaiaea-auaiaea, ICO n
oi?aaeythuae i?ia?aiiie ia ieaoa eee e?enoaeea eiio?ieea?a e, eae
neaaenoaea, i/aiue oceie niaoeeaeecaoeeae.

Aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii auaeaeeoue iniiaiua eiioeao?aoeee yoeo eiio?ieea?ia,
oae eae iie i/aiue iioiaee iaeia ia ae?oaoth (oi?aaeythuay i?ia?aiia,
i?ioeanni?iue aeie, ii?ou aaiaea-auaiaea aeey niyoey neaiaeia n
aeao/eeia e ia?aaea/e neaiaeia oi?aaeaiey). Oai ia iaiaa, ii iaeanoe
i?eiaiaiey eiio?ieea?u iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue.

Iniiaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo e iai?iiuoeaiiuo eiio?ieea?ia

eiio?ieea?u i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia (iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua)

eiio?ieea?u aeey oi?aaeaiey auoiauie i?eai?aie e yeaeo?iieeie

eiio?ieea?u aeey oi?aaeaiey neiaeiuie o?ainii?oiuie n?aaenoaaie
(naiieaou, einie/aneea niooieee e o.i.)

eiio?ieea?u aeey oi?aaeaiey noaiaea?oiuie o?ainii?oiuie n?aaenoaaie
(aaoiiiaeeue)

Yoi, eiia/ii, ia ana iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey eiio?ieea?ia, ii iaeaieaa
iniiaiua.

Iaeaieaa /anoi eiio?ieea?u eniieuecothony aeey oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie niaianoii n, iai?eia?, PC, eee
naiinoiyoaeueii.

Iniiaiay i?e/eia eo eniieueciaaiey – aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiua oi?aaeythuea
aeaenoaey, ia iicaieythuea iaieoenue i?inouie noaiaie, e a oi aea a?aiy,
aeinoaoi/ii i?inoua, /oiau eniieueciaaoue oi?aaeythuee PC (iniaaiii yoi
ioiineony e eiio?ieea?ai a auoiauo i?eai?o).

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec eiioeao?aoeee nia?aiaiiuo YAI. Iao
iniaaiiiai niunea ?anniao?eaaoue iaeaieaa i?inoua eiioeao?aoeee, iiyoiio
?anniio?ei aieaa neiaeiua.

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea

Ianoieueiua ecaeaoaeueneea nenoaiu i?aaeaea anaai aaoiiaoece?otho
iiaeaioiaeo i?eaeiae-iaeaoa, ii eioi?iio oioiniiniaii ecaioaaeeaatho
ionaoioth oi?io (o?aoa?ao, /a?ac eioi?ue iaiineony oeiia?aoneay e?anea
ia eeno aoiaae). Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?ia?aiiu, ecaanoiua eae
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aa?noee no?aieoe, iicaieytho ecaeaoaeyi
?acianoeoue oaeno, ?acaeaeeoaeueiua eeiee, iiia?a noaieoe, eeethno?aoeee
e, iaeiiaoe, iieo/eoue oaa?aeoth eiieth i?eaeiae-iaeaoa n iiiiuueth
eaca?iiai i?eioa?a eee oioiiaai?iiai aaoiiaoa. I?ia?aiiu aa?noee
no?aieoe iiaoo oaeaea ia?aaaouaaoue iieooiiiaua ecia?aaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aa?noa no?aieoe – aeaaiue i?ioeann a ?aaioa
ianoieueiie ecaeaoaeueneie nenoaiu. Ea/anoai iiaeaioiaee
i?eaeiae-iaeaoa a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io aiciiaeiinoae e
oa?aeoa?enoee i?ia?aii aa?noee no?aieoe.

I?ia?aiia, eioi?ay naeaeaea ianoieueiua ecaeaoaeueneea nenoaiu ia
iniiaa IBM-niaianoeiuo eiiiuethoa?ia ii/oe oaeeie aea niaa?oaiiuie, eae
e nenoaiu ia iniiaa eiiiuethoa?ia Macintosh, – yoi Ventura Publisher
oe?iu Xerox Corp. Iaeao i?ia?aii Ventura Publisher eniieuecoao
eioa?oaen, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ai aeey eiiiuethoa?ia Macintosh. Nia?aiaiiua
aa?nee i?ia?aiiu Ventura Publisher ?aaioatho n n?aaea Windows.

I?ia?aiiu eiiiuethoa?iie aa?noee eiatho neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe:

?aaeaeoe?iaaiea e oi?iaoe?iaaiea oaenoa

a?aoe/aneia ioi?ieaiea

?aaioa n ioaeaeueiuie yeaiaioaie aeieoiaioia, auaeaeaiiuie
i?yiioaieueieeaie, niaea?aeaueie oaeno e a?aoeeo. Yeaiaiou iiaeii
ia?aiauaoue ii no?aieoea e ianooaae?iaaoue. Iaeiaei aua aei nicaeaiey
eaeeo-eeai yeaiaioia a?o/ioth i?ia?aiia aaoiiaoe/anee oi?ie?oao aaciaoth
no?aieoeo. Oaeay aaciaay no?aieoea iiaeao niaea?aeaoue iinoiyiiua
yeaiaioa ioi?ieaiey a aeaea oaenoa e a?aoeee, eioi?ua aoaeoo
oi?ie?iaaoueny ia eaaeaeie no?aieoea i?e aa?noea.

Ventura Publisher iicaieyao eiii?oe?iaaoue ?aciiia?acioth a?aoeeo,
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ianooaae?iaaia. Iaeiaei i?ia?aiia eiaao
nouanoaaiiua ia?aie/aiey ia ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea a?aoeee. Iia iiaeao
nicaeaaaoue eeiee, ie?oaeiinoe, i?yiioaieueieee e oae iacuaaaiue “oaeno
a ?aiea”. I?ia?aiia Ventura ca?aeiiaiaeiaaea naay, eae eo/oay i?ia?aiia
aeey nicaeaiey iauaiiuo aeieoiaioia (ecaeaiee). Yoi i?iecioei ec-ca
oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiiuo n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey iiaoi?ythueony yeaiaioia
aeieoiaioa, iai?eia?, iiia?a no?aieoe, eieiioeooeu (iiaoi?ythueeny oaeno
a aa?oiae no?iea eaaeaeie no?aieoeu), nnueee, iiaoi?ythueany a?aoe/aneea
yeaiaiou.

Oe?ia Aldus ?ac?aaioaea i?ia?aiio aa?noee no?aieoe Page Maker aeey
ianoieueiuo ecaeaoaeueneeo nenoai. A ioee/ee io Ventura Publisher
i?ia?aiia Page Maker n?aco noaea auioneaoueny a aeaoo aa?neyo (aeey IBM
PC e aeey Macintosh).

I?ia?aiia Ventura Publisher iaeaaeaao ioee/iuie n?aaenoaaie aeey
iieea?aoe/aneiai ioi?ieaiey, a i?ia?aiia Pagre Maker a?aoe/aneeie.

Aeey nicaeaiey i?eaeiae-iaeaoa a ianoieueiuo ecaeaoaeueneeo nenoaiao
/aua anaai eniieuecoaony eaca?iue i?eioa?. Ecaanoii, /oi eaca?iue
i?eioa? nicaeaao eeiee e neiaieu, iaiiny e?ioa/iua oi/ee ia aoiaao.
Iiuo eniieueciaaiey i?eioa?ia n ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth 300 oi/ae
ia aethei iieacuaaao, /oi ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua eeiee
io?aaaouaathony ioee/ii, ii eiathony ?ac?uau ia iaeeiiiuo e eciaioouo
eeieyo. O?aaeeoeeiiiue a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea oioiiaai? eiaao
?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue ii?yaeea 1200 oi/ae ia aethei. Aieaa
aunieay ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue aei 2400 – 2540 oi/ae ia aethei
aeinoeaiooa a ono?ienoaao Linotronik oe?iu Alied Linotipe.

Aaaeiui iiiaioii nayce iaaeaeo ianoieueiie ecaeaoaeueneie nenoaiie e
oioiiaai?iie onoaiiaeie yaeyaony ycue Post Script, eioi?ue iaeeiaeiai
oi?aaeyao auaiaeii eioi?iaoeee a oioiiaai?iii aiia?aoa e eaca?iii
i?eioa?a. Post Script – yoi ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aeey iienaiey aiaoiaai
aeaea e ?aniieiaeaiey oaenoa e a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia no?aieoea.
Iiyoiio ii iacaai ycueii iienaiey no?aieoeu. sscue i?aaeinoaaeyao
ioee/ioth aiciiaeiinoue ia?aiauaiey yeaiaioia oaenoa e a?aoeee. Neiaieu
iiaoo auoue i?iecaieueii oaaee/aiu e oiaiueoaiu, iiaa?ioou eee
ene?eaeaiu eaeei-oi ia?acii. Ia?aaioea a?aoeee iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny
?acee/iuie niiniaaie. Oae eae Post Script ?aaioaao n aiaeeoe/aneei
aeaeii a?aoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey (oi anoue n aaeoi?iuie iauaeoaie),
eaaeaeue iauaeo auaiaeeony ia ia/aoue n ieieiaeueiie iia?aoiinoueth.

Oaeei ia?acii ianoieueiua ecaeaoaeueneea nenoaiu iicaieytho aa?noaoue
no?aieoeu e nicaeaaaoue ea/anoaaiiue i?eaeiae-iaeao ecaeaiey
i?aeoe/anee ethaie neiaeiinoe.

Nia?aiaiiue eiiiuethoa? aeey ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea yoi nei?aa anaai
Macintosh, eee iiaeao auoue ana oaee PC, aeinoaoi/ii iiuiue, n aieueoei
eiee/anoaii iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e iaiyoe ia aeanoeeo aeeneao. Aeey ?aaiou
iaiaoiaeei auno?ue aeaeaiaaeaioa? n aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeaeaiiaiyoe e
ioee/iui auno?iaeaenoaeai a 2D, a oae aea aiciiaeiinoueth aea?aeaoue
aunieoth eaae?iaoth ?acaa?oeo i?e i/aiue aieueoeo ?ac?aoaieyo. Aeey PC,
iai?eia?, Matrox Millenium/2.

Ioaeaeueii iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue i iiieoi?a. Ii aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?youe
naiui aunieei o?aaiaaieyi: aieueoie ?acia? ye?aia, iaeaiueeia ca?ii,
aunieia ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey, aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue n aunieeie
?ac?aoaieyie e aea?aeaoue i?e yoii aieueooth eaae?iaoth ?acaa?oeo.

Oae aea aunieea o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e ono?ienoaai aaiaea
(/oanoaeoaeueiay iuoue).

Aeiiieiytho eiioeao?aoeeth neaia? e eaca?iue i?eioa?.

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a iaaeeoeeineie i?aeoeea

Ca iineaaeiea 20 eao o?iaaiue i?eiaiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia a iaaeeoeeia
/?acau/aeii iiauneeny. I?aeoe/aneay iaaeeoeeia noaiiaeony ana aieaa e
aieaa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iaaeeei-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo
i?ia?aii aeey eiiiuethoa?ia.

Neiaeiua nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey a iaaeeoeeia iaiuneeiu aac
i?eiaiaiey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. E oaeei enneaaeiaaieyi iiaeii
ioianoe eiiiuethoa?ioth oiiia?aoeth, oiiia?aoeth n eniieueciaaieai
yaeaiey yaea?ii-iaaieoiiai ?aciiaina, oeueo?aniiia?aoeth, enneaaeiaaiey
n i?eiaiaieai ecioiiia. Eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia iieo/aaony i?e
oaeeo enneaaeiaaiey oae ia?iiii, /oi aac eiiiuethoa?a /aeiaae aue au
ianiiniaai aa aini?eiyoue e ia?aaioaoue.

Eae ecaanoii, eiiiuethoa?iay oiiia?aoey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoiae
?aioaaiia?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, iicaieythuee i?e iiiiue
niaoeeaeueiie oaoiieiaee iieo/aoue ?aioaaiia?aiiu /aeiaa/aneiai oaea ii
neiyi e caiiieiaoue yoe nieiee a iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a iinea niaoeeaeueiie
ia?aaioee; aeaao aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue eieaeecaoeeth
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, ioeaieoue ?acoeueoaou ea/aiey, a oii /enea,
eo/aaie oa?aiee, aua?aoue iiaeoiaeu e iauai iia?aoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa.

Aeey yoie oeaee eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua aiia?aou (a oii /enea,
ioa/anoaaiiue ?aioaaiiau/eneeoaeueiue oiiia?ao N?O – 1000) n
a?auathuaeny ?aioaaiianeie o?oaeie, eioi?ay ia?aiauaaony aie?oa
iaiiaeaeaeiiai iauaeoa, “iino?i/ii” ianeaaeoy ana oaei eee aai
/anoue. Oiiia?ao caeanue aunooiaao a ea/anoaa ia?eoa?eeiiai ono?ienoaa,
iiaeeeth/aiiiai /a?ac iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ii?o e PC. Oae eae i?aaiu e
oeaie /aeiaaea iiaeiuatho ?aioaaiianeia eceo/aiea a ia?aaiie
noaiaie, ecia?aaeaiey eo auaeyaeyo a aeaea “oo?eoia” – onoaiiaeaiiiai
YAI eiyooeoeeaioa iiaeiuaiey aeey eaaeaeie oi/ee neaie?oaiiai neiy.
Eiiiuethoa?iua oiiia?aou iicaieytho auaeaeeoue neie io 2 aei 10 ii i?e
nei?inoe neaie?iaaiey iaeiiai neiy 2 – 5 naeoiae n iiiaioaeueiui
aini?iecaaaeaieai ecia?aaeaiey a /a?ii-aaeii eee oeaaoiii aa?eaioa.

Eiiiuethoa?ioth oiiia?aoeth aieiau aeaeatho iinea iieiiai eeeie/aneiai
ianeaaeiaaiey aieueiiai n iiaeic?aieai ia iia?aaeaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Iieacaoaee iiaeiuaiey ?aciuo o/anoeia iicaa ia?aaaouaathony ia YAI e
auaeathony eeai ecia?aaeaieai ?yaea “n?acia” iicaa, eeai aeoaaeoii –
oeeo?iaie eioi?iaoeeae. Iiaeii iieo/eoue aeaiiua i ieioiinoe oeaie ia
o/anoea aei 3 ii , ioaeeooa?aioee?iaaoue iaiei/ee, ninoaeu, na?ia e
aaeia aauanoai, aeaeoaei/ee iicaa, a oaeaea iaoieiae/aneea i/aae
(eioa?eou, e?iaieceeyiey a iica, iiooiee, aanoeannu e ae?.).

Ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey YAI nieiaaiay eioi?iaoeey i iicaa n oiiia?aoa a
aeanyoee ?ac i?aauoaao eioi?iaoeeth iau/iie e?aieia?aiiu. Ii aeaiiui
eiiiuethoa?iie oiiia?oee iiaeii aieaa oi/ii neaaeeoue ca
iaoieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, eo eciaiaieyie ai a?aiaie, a oaeaea
eciaiaieyie iiae aeeyieai i?iaiaeeiiai ea/aiey.

Eiiiuethoa?iay oiiia?aoey aaciiania, ia aeaao ineiaeiaiee. Aeiiieiyy
aeaiiua eeeie/aneiai e ?aioaaiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiee, iicaieyao
iieo/eoue aieaa iieioth eioi?iaoeeth ia i?aaiao.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a aieueieoeao aaaeiui noaiiaeony eniieueciaaiea
eiiiuethoa?ia, iauaaeeiaiiuo a eiiiuethoa?iua naoe. Yoi iicaieyao
iaaeeeai yooaeoeaii iaiaieaaoueny aeaiiuie iaaeaeo oaeaeaiiuie ae?oa
io ae?oaa eiiiuethoa?aie. A ?aieao ?inneeneiai Ieienoa?noaa
Cae?aaiio?aiaiey e iaaeeoeeineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?oao
eiiiuethoa?iay naoue MEDNET, eioi?ay iicaieyao oi?inoeoue nai?
noaoenoe/aneeo iaaeeoeeineeo aeaiiuo ii ?aaeiiai, aeaeaoue
niioaaonoaothuoth ia?aaioeo, aa?aae?iaaiea aeaiiuo e ninoaaeaiea
io/aoiinoe.

E?iia oiai, yoa naoue iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue ethaua aeaiiua iaaeaeo
iaaeeoeeineeie o/?aaeaeaieyie.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oaeaea iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaaeeoeeineea Web –
na?aa?a, eioi?ua naeaeaeae iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iaaeeoeeineeie
o/?aaeaeaieyie aua aieaa oaeiaiui. Eae ia ethaii Web – na?aa?a, aeaiiua
ia ieo i?aaieciaaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oi iie noaiiaeony eaaei aeinooiiuie
aeaaea aeey ethaeae, ia yaeythueony niaoeeaeenoaie a eiiiuethoa?iii
aeaea.

Aeaaiaea?y nia?aiaiiui oaoiieiaeyi Internet, na?aa?a niaea?aeao oa
oieueei oaenoiaoth, ii e caoeiaoth e a?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, a oii
/enea aieiaoeeth e aeaeai, eioi?ua oae aea i/aiue iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
?aaiou iaaeeeai.

Ana yoi iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, inouanoaeythuea
eioi?iaoeeiiioth iiaeaea?aeeo iaaeeeia a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eo
eaaeeoeeaoeee eee iiuoa iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i
eiiieaena ea/aaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iai?eia?, ia aeiainieoaeueiii yoaia. Yoe
aea nenoaiu, iniauaiiua iiaenenoaiie aii?inia e ioeaiee ioaaoia, iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aeey iao/aiey.

Nia?aiaiiue eiiiuethoa?, eniieuecoaiue a iaaeeoeeia – yoi PC, ia
ianoieueei iiuiue, eae aeey ?aaiou n ecaeaoaeueneeie nenoaiaie, ii
aeinoaoi/ii nia?aiaiiue, n aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei iauaiii aeeneiaie iaiyoe
(aaeaeo o?aiaiey aieueoeo iaaeeoeeineeo aac aeaiiuo). Iaiaoiaeeii
aeinoioi/iia eiee/anoai eioa?oaeniuo ii?oia aeey iiaeeeth/aiey
noaiaea?oiiai iaaeeoeeineiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Oae aea iaiaoiaeeiu
n?aaenoaa ?aaiou a naoe (Eithernet-ea?ou, iiaeaiu) a caaeneiinoe io
oiai, iaaeaeo eaeeie eiiiuethoa?aie aeieaeai i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae.

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a aaieianeii aeaea

O?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aieaa aeaaiaeaoioth ii/ao aeey aiaae?aiey
iiauo eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee, /ai aaieianeay aeayoaeueiinoue. A
i?eioeeia ii/oe ana caaea/e, eioi?ua aicieeatho a oiaea ?aaiou aaiea
aeinoaoi/ii eaaei iiaeaeathony aaoiiaoecaoeee. Auno?ay e aania?aaieiay
ia?aaioea cia/eoaeueiuo iioieia eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony iaeiie ec aeaaiuo
caaea/ ethaie e?oiiie oeiainiaie i?aaiecaoeee. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
i/aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeaaeaiey au/eneeoaeueiie naoueth,
iicaieythuae ia?aaaouaaoue ana aic?anoathuea eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee.
E?iia oiai, eiaiii aaiee iaeaaeatho aeinoaoi/iuie oeiainiauie
aiciiaeiinoyie aeey eniieueciaaiey naiie nia?aiaiiie oaoieee. Iaeiaei ia
neaaeoao n/eoaoue, /oi n?aaeiee aaie aioia o?aoeoue ia?iiiua noiiu ia
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeeth. Aaie yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai oeiainiaie
i?aaiecaoeeae, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey iieo/aiey i?eauee, iiyoiio cao?aou
ia iiaea?iecaoeeth aeieaeiu auoue niiinoaaeiu n i?aaeiieaaaaiie iieuecie
io aa i?iaaaeaiey. A niioaaonoaee n iauaie?iaie i?aeoeeie a n?aaeiai
aaiea ?anoiaeu ia eiiiuethoa?ecaoeeth ninoaaeytho ia iaiaa 17% io iauae
niaou aiaeiauo ?anoiaeia.

Eioa?an e ?acaeoeth eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaiiuo aaieianeeo nenoai
ii?aaeaeyaony ia aeaeaieai ecaea/ue nethieiooioth auaiaeo, a, aeaaiui
ia?acii, no?aoaae/aneeie eioa?anaie. Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea,
eiaanoeoeee a oaeea i?iaeou ia/eiatho i?eiineoue i?eaueue eeoue /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iao/aiey ia?niiaea e
aaeaioaoeee nenoaiu e eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi. Aeeaaeuaay n?aaenoaa a
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, eiiiuethoa?iia e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiia
iai?oaeiaaiea e nicaeaiea aacu aeey ia?aoiaea e iiaui au/eneeoaeueiui
ieaooi?iai, aaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, no?aiyony e oaeaoaaeaieth e
onei?aieth naiae ?ooeiiie ?aaiou e iiaaaea a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

Iiaua oaoiieiaee iiiiaatho aaieai, eiaanoeoeeiiiui oe?iai e no?aoiaui
eiiiaieyi eciaieoue acaeiiioiioaiey n eeeaioaie e iaeoe iiaua n?aaenoaa
aeey ecaea/aiey i?eauee. Aiaeeoeee noiaeyony ai iiaiee, /oi iiaua
oaoiieiaee iaeaieaa aeoeaii aiaae?ytho eiaanoeoeeiiiua oe?iu, caoai
neaaeotho aaiee, a naiuie iineaaeieie eo i?eieiatho ia aii?oaeaiea
no?aoiaua eiiiaiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a aaieao ?anoao ni?in ia ethaeae, iaeaaeathueo
aeinoaoi/iuie ciaieyie eiiiuethoa?a e eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae. I?e
ono?ienoaa ia ?aaioo a aaie i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony
niaoeeaeenoo-naoaaeeo e i?ia?aiienoo, a ia eanne?o.

Aaieianeea eiiiuethoa?iua nenoaiu ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeythony
iaeiie ec naiuo auno?i ?acaeaathueony iaeanoae i?eeeaaeiiai naoaaiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aaieianeea nenoaiu
i?aaenoaaeytho ec naay “eaeiiue eoni/ae” aeey ethaiai i?iecaiaeeoaey
eiiiuethoa?ia e II. Iiyoiio ii/oe ana e?oiiua eiiiaiee ?ac?aaio/eee
eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee i?aaeeaaatho ia yoii ?uiea nenoaiu ia aaca naieo
ieaooi?i.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee, eniieuecoaiuo a aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaeii iacaaoue aacu aeaiiuo ia iniiaa iiaeaee
“eeeaio-na?aa?” (oa?aeoa?ii eniieueciaaiea IN Unix, aacu aeaiiuo –
?acee/iuo oeiia, iai?eia? Oracle); n?aaenoaa iaaenaoaaiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeey iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia; neoaeau ?an/aoia, oeaeeeii
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia Internet, eee, oae iacuaaaiua, ae?ooaeueiua aaiee;
aaieianeea yenia?oii-aiaeeoe/aneea nenoaiu, eniieuecothuea i?eioeeiu
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa e iiiaia ae?oaia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaieianeea nenoaiu iicaieytho aaoiiaoece?iaaoue
i?aeoe/anee ana noi?iiu aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe. N?aaee iniiaiuo
aiciiaeiinoae nia?aiaiiie aaieianeie nenoaiu, iniiaaiiuo ia
eniieueciaaiee naaiaeiyoieo naoaauo oaoiieiaee, neaaeoao oiiiyiooue:
nenoaiu yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, aacu aeaiiuo ia iniiaa iiaeaee
“eeeaio-na?aa?”, II iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aeey i?aaiecaoeee
iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia, n?aaenoaa oaeaeaiiiai aeinooia e naoaaui
?ano?nai aeey ?aaiou n naoyie aaieiiaoia e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Ia ie?iaii ?uiea nouanoaoao ianna aioiauo aaieianeeo nenoai. Iniiaiie
caaea/ae, noiyuae ia?aae neoaeaie aaoiiaoecaoeee caiaaeiiai aaiea,
yaeyaony auai? iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey e iiaeaea?aeea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe
aua?aiiie nenoaiu. A iaoae no?aia neooaoeey ianeieueei eiay. A oneiaeyo
no?aieoaeueiiai aicieeiiaaiey iiaie aeey ?innee aaieianeie noa?u
aii?inai aaoiiaoecaoeee iiia/aeo oaeaeyeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii aieiaiey.
Aieueoeinoai aaieia iioei ii iooe nicaeaiey nianoaaiiuo nenoai. Oaeie
iiaeoiae eiaao naie aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee. E ia?aui neaaeoao
ioianoe: ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe a aieueoeo oeiainiauo aeiaeaieyo a
iieoieo aaieianeie nenoaiu, i?eniiniaeaiiinoue aaieianeie nenoaiu e
oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee (a /anoiinoe e nouanoaothuei eeieyi nayce),
aiciiaeiinoue iai?a?uaiie iiaea?iecaoeee nenoaiu. Iaaeinoaoee oaeiai
iiaeoiaea i/aaeaeiu: iaiaoiaeeiinoue a niaea?aeaiee oeaeiai
eiiiuethoa?iiai ooaoa, ianiaianoeiinoue ?acee/iuo nenoai, iaecaaaeiia
ionoaaaiea io nia?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeee e iiiaia ae?oaia. Iaeiaei anoue
i?eia?u i?eia?aoaiey e oniaoiie yenieoaoaoeee ?inneeneeie aaieaie
aei?iainoiyueo aaieianeeo nenoai. Iaeaieaa iiioey?iu naaiaeiy niaoaiiua
?aoaiey, i?e eioi?uo /anoue iiaeoeae aaieianeie nenoaiu ?ac?aaaouaaaony
eiiiuethoa?iui ioaeaeii aaiea, a /anoue iieoiaaony o iacaaeneiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Iniiaiuie ieaooi?iaie aeey aaieianeeo nenoai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
n/eoathony:

1. EAN ia aaca na?aa?a PC (10,7%);

2. ?acee/iua iiaeaee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aecian-eiiiuethoa?ia oe?iu IBM
oeia AS/400 (11,1%);

3. Oieaa?naeueiua eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae (IBM, DEC
e ae?. – 57,8%) e ae?.

Oa?aeoa?ai ia?aoiae ia eiiiuethoa?iua ieaooi?iu, eioi?ua ?aaioatho ii
iiaeaee “eeeaio-na?aa?” e eniieuecotho a iniiaiii IN UNIX.

Ooieoeee aaieianeeo nenoai.

Aaieianeea nenoaiu iau/ii ?aaeecothony ii iiaeoeueiiio i?eioeeio. Oe?iei
eniieuecothony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iiuiua eee oieaa?naeueiua
eiiiuethoa?u, iauaaeeiythuea ianeieueei EAN. I?eiaiyaony iaaenaoaaie
iaiai e oaeaeaiiue aeinooi e ?ano?nai oeaio?aeueiiai ioena aaiea aeey
auiieiaiey iia?aoeee “yeaeo?iiiuo ieaoaaeae”. Aaieianeea nenoaiu
aeieaeiu eiaoue n?aaenoaa aaeaioaoeee e eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi
yenieoaoaoeee. Aeey iiaeaea?aeee iia?aoeaiie ?aaiou aaiea nenoaia
aeieaeia ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee aaieianeeo nenoai (iau/ii iie ?aaeecothony a aeaea
iacaaeneiuo iiaeoeae aaeeiie nenoaiu):

Aaoiiaoecaoeey anao aaeaaeiaaiuo aioo?eaaieianeeo iia?aoeee, aaaeaiea
aooaaeoa?ee e ninoaaeaiea naiaeiuo io/aoia.

Nenoaiu eiiioieeaoeee n oeeeaeaie e eiiai?iaeieie ioaeaeaieyie.

Nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n eeeaioaie (oae
iacuaaaiua nenoaiu “aaie-eeeaio”).

Aiaeeoe/aneea nenoaiu. Aiaeec anae aeayoaeueiinoe aaiea e nenoaiu
auai?a iioeiaeueiuo a aeaiiie neooaoeee ?aoaiee.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey ?icie/iuo iia?aoeee – i?eiaiaiea aaieiiaoia e
e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae.

Nenoaiu iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia.

Nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aaiou aaiea ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. Aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai iieo/aiey
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, aeeythuae ia oeiainiaoth neooaoeeth.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi ethaay aaieianeay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao ec
naay neiaeiue eiiieaen, iauaaeeiythuee nioie ioaeaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia,
eieaeueiua naoe e iaiaoiaeeiia iiaeeeth/aiea e aeiaaeueiui naoyi.

Ioaeaeueii iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue i ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoyo aaieia, oae eae
yoi iaeei ec iniiaiuo yeaiaioia aaieianeeo nenoai.

Ei?ii?aoeaiay naoue aaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoiue neo/ae
ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe e?oiiie eiiiaiee. I/aaeaeii, /oi niaoeeoeea
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeuyaeyao aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey e nenoaiai
caueou eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo aaiea. Ia iaiaa aaaeioth ?ieue
i?e iino?iaiee ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe ea?aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaania/aiey
aacioeaciie e aania?aaieiie ?aaiou, iineieueeo aeaaea e?aoeia?aiaiiue
naie a aa ?aaioa iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaaioneei oauoeai. E, iaeiiaoe,
o?aaoaony iaania/eoue auno?oth e iaaeaaeioth ia?aaea/o aieueoiai iauaia
aeaiiuo, iineieueeo iiiaea i?eeeaaeiua aaieianeea i?ia?aiiu aeieaeiu
?aaioaoue a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe
aaiea:

Naoue iauaaeeiyao a no?oeoo?e?iaaiioth e oi?aaeyaioth caieioooth
nenoaio ana i?eiaaeeaaeauea eiiiaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiua ono?ienoaa:
ioaeaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u e eieaeueiua au/eneeoaeueiua naoe (LAN),
oino-na?aa?u, ?aai/ea noaioeee, oaeaoiiu, oaenu, ioeniua AON, naoe
aaieiiaoia, iieaeiiaua oa?ieiaeu.

A naoe iaania/eaaaony iaaeaaeiinoue aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e iiuiua
nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee. Oi anoue, aa?aioe?oaony aacioeaciay ?aaioa
nenoaiu eae i?e ioeaeao ia?niiaea, oae e a neo/aa iiiuoee
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi i/aiue
aeooaeueii).

Nouanoaoao ioeaaeaiiay nenoaia nayce iaaeaeo aaieianeeie ioaeaeaieyie
?aciiai o?iaiy (eae n ai?iaeneeie ioaeaeaieyie, oae e n eiiai?iaeieie
oeeeaeaie).

A nayce n nia?aiaiiuie oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey aaieianeeo oneoa
(iai?eia?, ianeoaeeaaiea ii oaeaoiio, e?oaeinooi/iue aeinooi e
aaieiiaoai e ii-eaeiiaui oa?ieiaeai, ?acaeoea naoae auno?iaeaenoaothueo
ieaoaaeiuo oa?ieiaeia a oi?aiauo oi/eao, e?oaeinooi/iua iia?aoeee n
aeoeeyie eeeaioia) iiyaeyaony iio?aaiinoue a niaoeeoe/iuo aeey aaieia
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo ?aoaieyo. Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue i?eia?aoaao
i?aaiecaoeey iia?aoeaiiai, iaaeaaeiiai e aaciianiiai aeinooia
oaeaeaiiiai eeeaioa e nia?aiaiiui aaieianeei oneoaai.

Eanaynue aii?ina i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie a?oeoaeoo?u aaieianeie naoe, iiaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao e
aeooaeueiie ia naaiaeiy aeey ?inneeneeo aaieia yaeyaony oiiieiaey
“caacaea”, i?inoay eee iiiaio?iaiaaay, n aeaaiui ioenii a oeaio?a,
niaaeeiaiiui n ?aaeiiaeueiuie ioaeaeaieyie. I?aiaeaaeaiea yoie oiiieiaee
ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie oaeoi?aie:

I?aaeaea anaai, naiie no?oeoo?ie aaieianeeo i?aaiecaoeee. (Iaee/eai
?aaeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeaiee e aieueoei iauaiii ia?aaeaaaaiie iaaeaeo ieie
eioi?iaoeee.)

Aunieie noieiinoueth a?aiaeu eaiaeia nayce. Ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi iau/ii i?e i?aaiecaoeee nayce n oaeaeaiiuie ioaeaeaieyie i?aeoe/anee
ia eniieuecothony eiiiooe?oaiua oaeaoiiiua eaiaeu. Caeanue iaiaoiaeeiu
aunieinei?inoiua e iaaeaaeiua eeiee nayce.

A no?aiao Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e NIA a iieueco i?eiaiaiey oiiieiaee
“caacaea” aeaenoaoao aeiiieieoaeueiue oaeoi? – iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoay
eio?ano?oeoo?a oaeaeiiioieeaoeee e naycaiiua n yoei o?oaeiinoe a
iieo/aiee aaieii aieueoiai /enea eaiaeia nayce. A yoeo oneiaeyo iniaaiii
aaaeiui noaiiaeony aiaae?aiea yeiiiie/iuo ?aoaiee, nouanoaothueo ia
ie?iaii ?uiea, a eiiaaea e niaoeeaeueii aei?aaioaiiuo aeey niioaaonoaey
oneiaeyi ?acaeaathueony no?ai.

A iauai neo/aa, eiaaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue naycuaaoue
?aaeiiaeueiua ioenu ae?oa n ae?oaii iai?yioth, i?eia?aoaao
aeooaeueiinoue oiiieiaey “eaaeaeue n eaaeaeui”. Ii naiae nooe yoa
oiiieiaey ioee/aaony iiauoaiiie iaaeaaeiinoueth e ionoonoaeai
ia?aa?ocie. I?aeoe/anee iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu iiiai/eneaiiua niaoaiiua
aa?eaiou oiiieiaee, eae a neo/aa “aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aeaaiiai ioena”,
eiaaea ?acee/iua ioaeaeu oeaio?aeueiiai ioena aaiea — ?an/aoiue,
e?aaeeoiue, aiaeeoe/aneee, oaoie/aneee eee ethaie ae?oaie — iaoiaeyony a
?aciuo caeaieyo.

A iaeioi?uo aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao nouanoaotho iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua
eiioeao?aoeee, eiaaea ei?ii?aoeaiua naoe ioaeaeueiuo aaieia ia?acotho
“noia?caacaeo” n iaaeaaieianeei ?an/aoiui oeaio?ii a ea/anoaa aa?oeiu
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie aaieianeie ea?a?oee. Yoio aii?in iai?yioth naycai
n auai?ii nenoaiu iaaeaaieianeeo acaeii?an/aoia e aoaeao ?anniio?ai
ieaea.

Eoae, a aaieianeii aeaea YAI eniieuecothony i/aiue oe?iei. Iie
iaycaoaeueii niaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie naoueth. Eniieuecoaony oaoiieiaey
eeeaio-na?aa?. A ea/anoaa na?aa?ia iau/ii aunooiatho iaoeiu SUN, IBM,
DEC iiae oi?aaeaieai IN Unix. Eeeaioneea iaoeiu – iau/ii PC. Aeey ?aaiou
n aeiaaeueiuie naoyie eniieuecothony auaeaeaiiua iioiaieieiiiua eaiaeu
eee a e?aeiai neo/aa ISDN (iiaeaiiay naycue i?aeoe/anee ia
eniieuecoaony).

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaii

YAI i?i/ii aoiaeyo a iaoo i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeieacuaaoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eniieueciaaiey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey
oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie

I?e yoii iineaaeiea aiaeu eae ca ?oaaaeii, oae e a iaoae no?aia
oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aceei oaaee/aieai i?iecaiaenoaa ieie- e iee?i-YAI, a
oae aea ia?niiaeueiuo YAI.

Ia iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieie e ia?niiaeueiuo YAI iiaeii no?ieoue
eieaeueiua naoe YAI, /oi iicaieyao ?aoaoue neiaeiua caaea/e ii
oi?aaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaii.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi ec anae eioi?iaoeee, ia?acothuaeny a
i?aaiecaoeee, 60-80% eniieuecoaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a yoie aea
i?aaiecaoeee, oee?eoee?oy iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e nio?oaeieeaie, e
oieueei inoaaoayny /anoue a iaiauaiiii aeaea iinooiaao a
ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa.

Yoi cia/eo, /oi n?aaenoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, ?ann?aaeioi/aiiua ii
iiae?acaeaeaieyi e ?aai/ei ianoai, aeieaeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a
aaeeiii i?ioeanna, a nio?oaeieeai i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia auoue iinoaaeaia
aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey n iiiiuueth aaiiaioneeo n?aaenoa iaaeaeo
niaie, n aaeeiui eee ?ani?aaeaeaiiui aaieii aeaiiuo. Iaeiia?aiaiii
aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee.

?aoaieth yoie caaea/e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaiea
iee?iyeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa n?aaeiae e aieueoie noaiaie eioaa?aoeee,
ia?niiaeueiuo YAI, iai?oaeiaaiey ni ano?iaiiuie iee?ii?ioeanni?aie. A
?acoeueoaoa, a oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaii iaoiaeyo ana aieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea eieaeueiua au/eneeoaeueiua naoe.

EAN iicaieyao iaaieueoei i?aaei?eyoeyi ainiieueciaaoueny aiciiaeiinoueth
iauaaeeiaiey ia?niiaeueiuo, iee?i- e ieie- YAI a aaeeioth
au/eneeoaeueioth naoue, a e?oiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi – inaiaiaeeoue
au/eneeoaeueiue oeaio? io iaeioi?uo ooieoeee ii ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee
“oeaoiaiai cia/aiey” e iaania/eoue eo ?aoaiea a oeaoa, ioaeaea.
E?iia oiai, yenieoaoaoeey naoe iaeiei caeac/eeii iicaieeo oi?inoeoue
?aoaiea aii?ina i cae?uoee eioi?iaoeee.

Anaai ia i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a a?oiiu EAN:

1) i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ianniaiai iio?aaeoaey e no?iyueany, a iniiaiii,
ia aaca ia?niiaeueiuo YAI;

2) aeeth/athuea, e?iia ia?niiaeueiuo YAI, iee?i-YAI e iee?ii?ioeanni?u,
ano?iaiiua a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiio?ieea?u e iee?ieiio?ieea?u

3) iino?iaiiua ia aaca iee?ii?ioeanni?iuo n?aaenoa, iee?i e ieie-YAI e
YAI n?aaeiae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe;

4) nicaeaaaaiua ia aaca anao oeiia YAI, aeeth/ay
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo naoae io anao inoaeueiuo
yaeythony oi?aaeythuea eiio?ieea?u, iauaaeeiaiiua naoueth iaaeaeo niaie
e n ia?niiaeueiuie YAI a aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey (ANO).

Naaiaeiy oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu iinoiyiii oneiaeiythony, a aa?aaaou,
?aaeecothuea eo, aeaeathony ana aieaa iiuiuie.

*aeiaae ia iiaeao oneaaeeoue ca ?aaioie oaeeo aa?aaaoia e
oaoiieiae/aneeo eiiieaenia e oiaaea ia iiiiuue aio i?eoiaeeo ANO. A
ANO ca ?aaioie oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena neaaeyo iiiai/eneaiiua
aeao/eee-i?eai?u, eciaiythuea ia?aiao?u oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
(iai?eia?, oaiia?aoo?o e oieueio i?ieaouaaaiiai iaoaeee/aneiai eenoa),
eiio?iee?othuea ninoiyiea iai?oaeiaaiey (oaiia?aoo?o iiaeoeiieeia
oo?aeiu) eee ii?aaeaeythuea ninoaa enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia e aioiaiai
i?iaeoeoa. Oaeeo i?eai?ia a iaeiie nenoaia iiaeao auoue io ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeia aei ianeieueeeo ouny/.

Aeao/eee iinoiyiii auaeatho neaiaeu, iaiythueany a niioaaonoaee n
ecia?yaiui ia?aiao?ai (aiaeiaiaua neaiaeu), a ono?ienoai nayce n
iauaeoii YAI. A ono?ienoaa nayce neaiaeu i?aia?acothony a oeeo?iaoth
oi?io e caoai ii ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiia ia?aaaouaathony
au/eneeoaeueiie iaoeiie.

YAI (ia?niiaeueiay YAI eee nai iee?ieiio?ieea?) n?aaieaaao iieo/aiioth
io aeao/eeia eioi?iaoeeth n caaeaiiuie ?acoeueoaoaie ?aaiou aa?aaaoa
e au?aaaouaaao oi?aaeythuea neaiaeu, eioi?oth /a?ac ae?oaoth /anoue
ono?ienoaa nayce n iauaeoii iinooiatho ia ?aaoee?othuea i?aaiu aa?aaaoa.
Iai?eia?, anee aeao/eee iiaeaee neaiae, /oi eeno i?ieaoiiai noaia
auoiaeeo oieua, /ai i?aaeienaii, oi YAI au/eneeo, ia eaeia ?annoiyiea
ioaeii naeaeiooue aaeee i?ieaoiiai noaia e iiaeano niioaaonoaothuee
neaiae ia eniieieoaeueiue iaoaieci, eioi?ue ia?aianoeo aaeee ia
o?aaoaiia ?annoiyiea.

Nenoaiu, a eioi?uo oi?aaeaiea oiaeii i?ioeanna inouanoaeyaony iiaeiaii
neacaiiiio auoa aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa /aeiaaea, iacuaathony
aaoiiaoe/aneeie. Iaeiaei, eiaaea iaecaanoiu oi/iua caeiiu oi?aaeaiey
/aeiaae auioaeaeai a?aoue oi?aaeaiea (ii?aaeaeaiea oi?aaeythueo
neaiaeia) ia naay (oaeea nenoaiu iacuaathony aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie). A
yoii neo/aa YAI i?aaenoaaeyao iia?aoi?o anth iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth
aeey oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii i?e iiiiue aeenieaaa, ia
eioi?uo aeaiiua iiaoo aunaa/eaaoueny a oeeo?iaii aeaea eee a aeaea
aeeaa?aii, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oiae i?ioeanna, iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu
e oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu iauaeoa n oeacaieai ninoiyiey aai /anoae. YAI
iiaeao oaeaea “iiaeneacaoue” iia?aoi?o iaeioi?ua aiciiaeiua ?aoaiey.

*ai neiaeiaa iauaeo oi?aaeaiey, oai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiaa, iaaeaaeiaa,
o?aaoaony aeey ANO au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia eee oi?aaeythuee eiio?ieea?.
*oiau ecaaaeaoue ana ana oaaee/eaathuaainy ia?aueaaiey iiuiinoe YAI
neiaeiua nenoaiu noaee no?ieoue ii ea?a?oe/aneiio i?eioeeio. Eae
i?aaeei, a neiaeiue oaoiieiae/aneee eiiieaen aoiaeeo ianeieueei
ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo aa?aaaoia, iai?eia?, a yia?aiaeie oaieiaie
yeaeo?inoaioeee aoiaeeo ia?iaaia?aoi? (eioae), oo?aeia e
yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?. A ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaia aeey eaaeaeie ninoaaiie /anoe
nicaeaaony naiy eieaeueiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, eae i?aaeei,
aaoiiaoe/aneay ia aaca iaeiie?enoaeueiuo iee?ieiio?ieea?ia. Oaia?ue,
/oiau ana /anoe ?aaioaee eae aaeeiue yia?aiaeie, iaiaoiaeeii
neii?aeeie?iaaoue ?aaioo eieaeueiuo nenoai. Yoi inouanoaeyaony
ia?niiaeueiie YAI, onoaiaaeeaaaiie ia ioeueoa oi?aaeaiey aeieii.

Ia?niaeoeaiua ANO eiatho ?yae oa?aeoa?iuo i?eciaeia. I?aaeaea anaai yoi
aaoiiaoe/aneea nenoaiu, inouanoaeythuea aaoiiaoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea
?aai/ei ?aaeeiii, a oaeaea ioneii e inoaiiaii iai?oaeiaaiey (?aaeeiaie,
ia eioi?ua i?e ?o/iii oi?aaeaiee i?eoiaeeony iaeaieueoaa /enei
aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee ec-ca ioeaie iia?aoi?ia).

A nenoaiao i?aaeoniao?eaaaony iioeiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey oiaeii i?ioeanna
ii aua?aiiui e?eoa?eyi. Iai?eia?, iiaeii iiaeii caaeaoue oaeea ia?aiao?u
i?ioeanna, i?e eioi?uo noieiinoue e naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao
ieieiaeueiie, eee, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, iano?ieoue aa?aaao ia iaeneioi
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ia n/eoaynue n iaeioi?ui oaaee/aieai ?anoiaea
nu?uey e yia?ai?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.

Nenoaiu aeieaeiu auoue aaeaioeaiuie, o.a. eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
eciaiyoue oiae i?ioeanna i?e eciaiaiee oa?aeoa?enoee enoiaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia eee ninoiyiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo naienoa ANO yaeyaony iaania/aiea aacaaa?eeiie
?aaiou neiaeiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena. Aeey yoiai a ANO
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Ia iniiaa iieacaiee aeao/eeia nenoaia ii?aaeaeyao
oaeouaa ninoiyiea aa?aaaoia e oaiaeaioeee e aaa?eeiui neooaoeeyi e
iiaeao aeaoue eiiaiaeo ia aaaeaiea iaeaa/aiiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou eee
inoaiiaeo aiiaua. I?e yoii iia?aoi?o i?aaenoaaeytho aeaiiua i
oa?aeoa?a e ianoiiieiaeaiee aaa?eeiuo o/anoeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ANO iaania/eaatho eo/oaa eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia
i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, yeiiiieth nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia e yia?ai?ano?nia, eneeth/aiea oyaeaeuo aaa?eeiuo neooaoeee,
oaaee/aiea iaae?aiiioiuo ia?eiaeia ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey.

Eoae, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua YAI – yoi PC, iauaaeeiaiiua iaaeaeo niaie a
eieaeueioth au/eneeoaeueioth naoue, a oae aea niaaeeiaiiua n
oi?aaeythueie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie eiio?ieea?aie, e iaania/eaathuea iieiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea e iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n ieie.

Eniieueciaaiea YAI a noa?a oneoa

Eiiiuethoa? a ainoeie/iii oicyenoaa.

Ia/iai n oiai, /oi i?eaua a ainoeieoeo, eeeaio ioaeaeaaony a ioaeaeueiii
iiia?a. Anee iiia? aue caeacai ca?aiaa, oi a aaca aeaiiuo
caa?iie?iaaiiuo iiia?ia eaeao iiene iiia?a, caeacaiiiai eeeaioii; a
neo/aa, anee ca eeeaioii ia caa?iie?iaai iiia?, oi a oie aea aaca
aeaiiuo eaeao iiene naiaiaeiiai iiia?a.

E?iia oiai, ?acee/iua neoaeau ainoeieoeu oaeaea eniieuecotho a naiae
?aaioa eiiiuethoa?ioth oaoieeo.

Ia/iai ni neoaeau aaciianiinoe. Ia?aay caaea/a neoaeau aaciianiinoe –
yoi iaania/aiea i?aaiii?yaeea a ainoeieoea, iniaaiii a no?aoaae/aneeo
ianoao (yia?aioceu, ianoiua AON, aiaeii?iaiae e o.ae.) e a i?eeaaathueo
(ioiinyueony e iae) oa??eoi?eyo. Oaoie/aneie iniiaie aeey yoiai neoaeao
oaeaeaia?u ?acee/iuo oeiia, aeaoaeoi?u iaoaeea e ae?oaay
aniiiiaaoaeueiay aiia?aoo?a. Eii?aeeiaoeey ?aaiou oaeaeaia? iaaethaeaiey
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eae ni naiaia?aciiai ieeoa?neiai ioeueoa, oae e n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a, i?e/ai ?ac?aaio/eee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
i?eaioe?othony ia /aeiaaea, eiathuaai ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
eiiiuethoa?a, a ia ia niaoeeaeenoa ii au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea (aaaeue
o?aaiaaiea e io?aiieeo auoue niaoeeaeenoii a iaeanoe au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieea noieo aeaeaei ia ia ia?aii ianoa, anee aiiaua noieo).

N iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee aaaeaony oaeaea o/ao oaeaoiiiuo
?acaiai?ia (ianoiuo, iaaeaeoai?iaeiuo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo), o/eouaaaony
a?aiy i?iniio?a ieaoiuo oaeaaeceiiiuo eaiaeia e o.ae.

Ia nae?ao, /oi ethaay oaaaeathuay naay ca?oaaaeiay ainoeieoea eiaao ia
naiae oa??eoi?ee aecian-oeaio?, i?ecaaiiue iiii/ue aeaeiaui ethaeyi,
i?iaeeaathuei a ainoeieoea, eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue naiei
aecianii, iaoiaeynue aeaaea a ae?oaii iieooa?ee e ia oa?youe nayce n
ie?ii. Yoiio niinianoaoao ?aciiia?aciay ioeniay i?aoaoieea e eiia/ii,
eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea, eioaa?e?iaaiiay n ianoiie eieaeueiie naoueth e n
Internet.

Eiiiuethoa? a nenoaia o?ainii?oiuo oneoa

A ?innee nicaeaia e aeinoaoi/ii oniaoii aeaenoaoao eiiiuethoa?iay
nenoaia caeaca aeeaoia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie iiaeii a aeeaoiie eanna
ethaiai ai?iaea ?innee caeacaoue aeeaou ia iiacae, eioi?ui, iai?eia?,
/aeiaae ainiieuecoaony /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, aeia?aaoenue aei oi/ee
ioi?aaeaiey ae?oaeie iooyie, e naiia aeaaiia, /oi a yoie nenoaia
“aeaieieee” eneeth/aiu, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a oai?ee, o.a. aeaa /aeiaaea
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iaeii ianoi oaea ia aoaeoo.

Eiiiuethoa?u Ieienoa?noaa iooae niiauaiey iauaaeeiaiu naoueth
“O?aineioi?i”, /a?ac eioi?oth, enoaoe, iiaeii aueoe e a Internet.

Iiaeiaiay nenoaia aeaenoaoao e ia aaeaeeieyo, a yoii neo/aa iia aieaa
aeiaaeueia, oae eae eioaa?e?iaaia n ie?iaie nenoaiie caeaca aeeaoia. E
enoaoe, naiinoiyoaeueii caeacaoue aaeaaeeao i?aeoe/anee ia ethaie ?aen
iiaeii iin?aaenoaii ana Internet, aoeaaeueii, ia auoiaey ec-ca
eiiiuethoa?a.

Ia caaoaeai e aua ia iaeiie noa?a i?eiaiaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee –
iaaeaaoeey. N iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie oaoieee, naycaaoenue ni niooieeii
ia i?aeoa, oo?enoe/aneay a?oiia (a oaeaea aaieiae, a?oaieiae e o.ae.) a
ethaii, aeaaea naiii aeooii oaieea caiiiai oa?a, iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue
naia ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea e aua?aoue aeaeueiaeoee ia?o?oo n oi/iinoue aei
aeanyoea iao?ia.

Ae?ooaeueiue oo?eci

Ae?ooaeueiue oo?eci aiieia aeinooiai oaea a iaoa a?aiy – yoi, e i?eia?o,
iooaaiaeeoaee ii iocayi ie?a ia oeeo?iauo iineoaeyo (eiiiaeo-aeenee, a
oii /enea eioa?aeoeaiua) eee iooaoanoaey ii oai aea iocayi eee
iaiyoieeai a?oeoaeoo?u n iiiiuueth Internet.

Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue iiauaaoue i?aeoe/anee
“aaeeaoth” ai iiiaeo oaieeao caiiiai oa?a – ii iaiei iieooa?eyi
?aca?inaiu nioie oaeaaeceiiiuo eaia?, n ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoueth
(io ianeieueeeo ieioo aei ianeieueeeo /ania) o?ainee?othueo a Naoue
iieo/aiioth eie ea?oeieo. Eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue naiay ?aciiia?aciay – io
/anoiuo eeoe e i?aaiecaoeee aei “eiiiaoaioiuo i?aaiia”. Enoaoe, oaeea
eaia?u ia c?y iacuaatho “oieiineeie”.

Iiaeii aua?aoue eaia?u aeey iaaethaeaiey ca aei?iaeiui aeaeaeaieai e
noaoe/aneea eaia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia eaeoth-eeai i?e?iaeioth eee eioth
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoue eee i?inoi ia?aaeathuea iaii?aio
eaeiai-ieaoaeue ai?iaea.

Iiiaea na?aa?u, o?ainee?othuea ea?oeiee n eaia?, i?aaeeaaatho aua e
ei?ioeea “oeeueiu” a oi?iaoa Video MPEG, AVI, Quick Time eee Animated
GIF, ninoiyuea ec eaae?ia, ioniyouo a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai /ana.

Ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey YAI a ?acee/iuo noa?ao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe

YAI ianoieueei i?i/ii aioee a iaoo aeeciue, /oi aac ieo oaea iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue i?aeoe/anee ie iaeio noa?o aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea.

A aeaeueiaeoai YAI aoaeoo aua aieaa /anoi eniieueciaaoueny anayce n oai,
/oi iie iicaieytho iiauneoue oaeianoai ?aaiou, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea e oiaiueoeoue o?oaeicao?aou.

N ?anoe?aieai iaeanoae aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea aeey ieo aoaeoo
?ac?aaaouaaoueny naie eiioeao?aoeee YAI, iaeaieaa oaeiaiua e
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yoie iaeanoe, iiyoiio ?aciiia?acea eiioeao?aoeee,
ionoue aeaaea a ?aieao eaeiai-oi noaiaea?oa, aoaeao iinoiyiii ?anoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Eaie A., Aa??ao Aeae., Ianoieueiua ecaeaoaeueneea nenoaiu, I., 1993
a

2. Naaaeueaa A.ss. e ae?., Iiaeaioiaea e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea aeieoiaioia,
I., 1990 a

3. Aeaenae Naiue, TH?ee THoeia. Oaeaeiiioieeaoeee a aaieianeeo nenoaiao.
AEo?iae “Aaieianeea oaoiieiaee”, aaaono 1996 a.

4. Eaea Ni?eei, Ieoayeue Noeiiiee. Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee a nia?aiaiiuo
aaieianeeo naoyo. AEo?iae “Aaieianeea oaoiieiaee”, aaaono 1996 a.

5. A.O. Aeaenaiae?iaa, A.N.A?iaeia. Aeaeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua nenoaiu
yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee.

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