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Оперативное запоминающее устройство

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Ana ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u eniieuecotho o?e aeaea iaiyoe:
iia?aoeaioth, iinoiyiioth e aiaoithth (?acee/iua iaeiieoaee). Iaiyoue
ioaeia eae aeey enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo oae e aeey o?aiaiey ?acoeueoaoia. Iia
iaiaoiaeeia aeey acaeiiaeaenoaey n ia?eoa?eae eiiiuethoa?a e aeaaea
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ia?aca, aeaeeiiai ia ye?aia. Any iaiyoue
eiiiuethoa?a aeaeeony ia aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth. A eiiiuethoa?iuo
nenoaiao ?aaioa n iaiyoueth iniiauaaaony ia i/aiue i?inouo eiioeaioeeyo.
A i?eioeeia, an?, /oi o?aaoaony io eiiiuethoa?iie iaiyoe, – yoi
nio?aiyoue iaeei aeo eioi?iaoeee oae, /oiau iioii ii iia auoue ecaea/?i
ioooaea.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey o?aiaiey ia?aiaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, oae eae iia aeiioneaao eciaiaiea naiaai niaea?aeeiiai a
oiaea auiieiaiey iee?ii?ioeanni?ii niioaaonoaothueo iia?aoeee A
eiiiuethoa?ao n a?oeoaeoo?ie oii Iaeiaia (e yoiio eeanno ioiinyony
i?aeoe/anee ana YAI, a oii /enea e ?N)iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ea?aao i/aiue
aaaeioth ?ieue. Eiaiii a iae o?aiyony ana auiieiyaiua i?ia?aiiu e eo
aeaiiua. ?aaioa inouanoaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii e iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoueth, inoaeueiua aea eiiiiiaiou ethaie au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu
iai?yioth a i?ioeanna au/eneaiey ia o/anoaotho.

ICO i?aaeiacia/aii aeey o?aiaiey ia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeee, iii aeiioneaao
eciaiaiea naiaai niaea?aeeiiai a oiaea auiieiaiey i?ioeanni?ii
au/eneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee n aeaiiuie. Yoi cia/eo, /oi i?ioeanni? iiaeao
aua?aoue (?aaeei n/eouaaiey) ec ICO eiae eiiaiaeu e aeaiiua e iinea
ia?aaioee iiianoeoue a ICO (?aaeei caiene) iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao. I?e/?i
aiciiaeii ?aciauaiea a ICO iiauo aeaiiuo ia ianoa i?aaeieo, eioi?ua a
yoii neo/aa ia?anoatho nouanoaiaaoue. oaeei ia?acii, ICO iiaeao
?aaioaoue a ?aaeeiao caiene n/eouaaiey e o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. Ana
i?ia?aiiu, a oii /enea e ea?iaua, auiieiythony eiaiii a iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoe.

Iee?inoaiu iaiyoe ecaioaaeeaatho ii iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie oaoiieiaee ia
iniiaa e?aiiey n aunieie noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee ia e?enoaeea, /oi
ii?aaeaeyao eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e AEN. Aeey naiie iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee
AEN iaiyoe i?eieiatho a ?an/?o, i?aaeaea anaai, eo eioi?iaoeeiiioth
?ieinoue, auno?iaeaenoaea, yia?aiiio?aaeaiea. Iniiaiie ninoaaiie
/anoueth iee?inoai ICO yaeyaony iannea yeaiaioia iaiyoe, iauaaeeiaiiuo a
iao?eoeo iaeiieoaey (?en.1). Yeaiaio iaiyoe (YI) iiaeao o?aieoue 1 Aeo
(0 Aeo) eioi?iaoeee. Eaaeaeue YI eiaao naie aae?an. Aeey ia?auaiey e YI
iaiaoiaeeii aai aua?aoue n iiiiuueth eiaea aae?ana. ICO eioi?ia
aeiioneaao ia?auaiey ii aae?ano e ethaiio YI a i?iecaieueiii ii?yaeea,
iacuaaaony ICO n i?iecaieueiui aeinooiii. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aeinooi
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?auaiea e ioaeaeueiui YI oieueei a ii?yaeea
aic?anoaiey eee oauaaiey eo aae?ania.

?en.1.

?ac?yaeiinoue eiaea aae?ana o, ?aaia /eneo aeaie/iuo aaeeieoe a i?i,
ii?aaeaeyao eioi?iaoeeiiioth ?ieinoue iee?inoaiu ICO, o. a. /enei YI a
iao?eoea iaeiieoaey, eioi?ia iiaeii aae?aniaaoue (2o). Aeey aaiaea
auaiaea eioi?iaoeee neoaeeo aoiae e auoiae iee?inoaiu. Aeey oi?aaeaiey
?aaeeiii iee?inoaiu iaiyoe iaiaoiaeei neaiae «Caienue /n/eouaaiea»,
cia/aiea 1 ii?aaeaeyao ?aaeei caiene aeoa eioi?iaoeee a YI , a 0 –
?aaeei n/eouaaiey. Oaeoth i?aaiecaoeeth iao?eoeu iaeiieoaey, eiaaea
iaeiia?aiaiii aaaeaony caienue e n/eouaaiea, iacuaatho iaeii?ac?yaeiie.
Nouanoaotho e iao?eoeu n iiiai?ac?yaeiie i?aaiecaoeeae, eia/a iacuaaaiie
«neiaa?iie». O oaeeo iee?inoai ianeieueei eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aoiaeia e
noieueei aea auoiaeia, e iiyoiio iie aeiioneatho iaeiia?aiaiioth caienue
(n/eouaaiea) iiiai?ac?yaeiiai eiaea, eioi?ue i?eiyoi iacuaaoue neiaii.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey n?aaieoaeueii e?aoeia?aiaiiiai
o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee e a? i?eiyoi iacuaaoue RAM (Random Access Memory).

Iinoiyiiay iaiyoue iau/ii niaea?aeeo oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay ia
aeieaeia iaiyoueny a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie. Iinoiyiiay iaiyoue
eiaao nianoaaiiia iacaaiea – ROM (Read Only Memory), eioi?ia oeacuaaao
ia oi, /oi ath iaania/eaathony oieueei ?aaeeiu n/eouaaiey e o?aiaiey.
Aeieaia a?aiy iiaenenoaia ICO ia ?acaeaaeanue: oaaee/eaaeny iau?i
iaiyoe, a ?N e aieueoeo YAI i?eo?e eyo, ianeieueei aic?inei
auno?iaeaenoaea iee?inoai.

Eyo-iaiyoue

Eyo-iaiyoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey niaeaniaaiey nei?inoe ?aaiou
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeeaiiuo ono?ienoa, oaeeo iai?eia?, eae aeeiaie/aneay
iaiyoue n auno?ui iee?ii?ioeanni?ii. Iau/ii i?ia?aiia eniieuecoao
iaiyoue eaeie eeai ia?aie/aiiie iaeanoe. O?aiy ioaeioth eioi?iaoeeth a
eyo-iaiyoe i?ia?aiia iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue oeeeeia iaeeaeaiey a aai
?aaioa, eioi?ua nieaeatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue anae nenoaiu. Ia anyeay
eyo-iaiyoue ?aaiicia/ia. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oio oaeo, eae
iiiai eioi?iaoeee iiaeao niaea?aeaoue eyo-iaiyoue. *ai aieueoa
eyo-iaiyoue, oai aieueoa eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue a iae ?aciauaii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oai aieueoa aa?iyoiinoue, /oi ioaeiue aaeo aoaeao
niaea?aeaoueny a yoie auno?ie iaiyoe. I/aaeaeii, /oi naiue eo/oee
aa?eaio – yoi eiaaea iau?i eyo-iaiyoe niioaaonoaoao iau?io anae
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. A yoii neo/aa any inoaeueiay iaiyoue
noaiiaeony ia ioaeiie. E?aeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiay neooaoeey – 1 aaeo
eyo-iaiyoe – oiaea ia eiaao i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey, oae eae
aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ioaeiay eioi?iaoeey ieaaeaony a yoii aaeoa,
no?aieony e ioeth. I?aeoe/anee, aeeaiacii eniieuecoaiie eyo-iaiyoe
eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 16-512E.

N iiiiuueth eyo-iaiyoe iau/ii aeaeaaony iiiuoea niaeaniaaoue oaeaea
?aaioo aiaoieo ono?ienoa, iai?eia?, ?acee/iuo iaeiieoaeae, e
iee?ii?ioeanni?a. ?aaeecaoeey eyo-nenoai ia oae i?inoa, eae yoi iiaeao
iieacaoueny n ia?aiai acaeyaea. Iee?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai ia oieueei
/eoaoue ec iaiyoe, ii e ienaoue a ia?. *oi neo/eony, anee i?ioeanni?
caian?o iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth a eyo-iaiyoue, a ia?aae eniieueciaaieai
yoie eioi?iaoeee iia aoaeao eciaiaia a iniiaiie iaiyoe? Aeey
ecaaaeaiey iiaeiaiie neooaoeee eiiaaea ?aaeecoaony iaoiae, iacaaiiue
caienueth /a?ac eyo-iaiyoue. I/aaeaeii, /oi yoio iaoiae nieaeaao
auno?iaeaenoaea nenoaiu, iioiio /oi i?eoiaeeony ienaoue ia oieueei a
eyo-iaiyoue. Ooaea oiai, iee?ii?ioeanni?o iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny
eioi?iaoeey, eioi?oth ii oieueei /oi caienae e eioi?ay au? ia auea
ia?acaa?oaeaia a eyo-iaiyoue.

Oeaeinoiinoue iaiyoe – yoi iaeia ec naiuo aieueoeo i?iaeai
?ac?aaio/eeia eyo-iaiyoe. Ana aii?inu ii i?aiaeieaieth yoeo i?iaeai auee
aiceiaeaiu ia ioaeaeueioth iee?inoaio -eyo-eiio?ieea? Intel
82385.Niioaaonoaothuee eiio?iea? eyo-iaiyoe aeieaeai caaioeoueny i oii,
/oiau eiiaiaeu e aeaiiua, eioi?ua aoaeoo iaiaoiaeeiu iee?ii?ioeanni?o a
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, eiaiii e yoiio iiiaioo ieacuaaeenue a
eyo-iaiyoe.

Aeey yoiai nouanoaoao i?eioeeieaeueii eiie oei iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe –
SRAM, /oi ?anoeo?iauaaaony eae Static (Noaoe/aneay) RAM.

Noaoe/aneay iaiyoue (SRAM).

A iae yeaiaioa?iay y/aeea i?aaenoaaeyaony ia eiiaeainaoi?aie, a
noaoe/aneeie o?eaaa?aie ia aeiiey?iuo eee IAeI – o?aicenoi?ao. *enei
ninoiyiee o?eaaa?a ?aaii aeaoi, /oi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue aai aeey
o?aiaiey aeaie/iie aaeeieoeu eioi?iaoeee. Iieo/ea ca?yae iaeei ?ac,
y/aeea oaeie iaiyoe niiniaia o?aieoue aai neieue oaiaeii aeieai, ii
e?aeiae ia?a aei oao ii?, iiea aoaeao ieoaiea. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a
aeaiiii neo/aa en/acatho iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua caaea?aeee ia iaiiaeaiea
eioi?iaoeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e onei?aieth ?aaiou n oaeeie iee?inoaiaie.
Iaeiaei SRAM noieo nouanoaaiii aei?iaea, /ai DRAM. A ?acoeueoaoa, noa?a
i?eiaiaiey iee?inoai SRAM ia?aie/aia oaie iaeanoyie, aeey eioi?uo
o?aaoaony iaaieueoie iauai iaiyoe, a cia/eoaeueiia auno?iaeaenoaea.
Eaeaaeueiue aa?eaio – eyo – iaiyoue, aaea SRAM i?eiaiyeanue e
i?eiaiyaony iiiuia. Ia?aae iieueciaaoaeai iau/ii ia anoa?o i?iaeaia
auai?a eyo – iaiyoe: a nia?aiaiiuo iaoa?eineeo ieaoao aeey Pentium eyo –
iaiyoue iau/ii i?inoi ?aniayia ia ieaoa. Aieaa oiai, eyo – iaiyoue
ia?aiai o?iaiy aeaaii ano?aeaaaony a oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?, a a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy yoa o/anoue iinoeaea e eyo II – ai o?iaiy a
i?ioeanni?ao eeiee Pentium II. A aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy oi aea naiia
i?iecieae?o e n i?ioeanni?aie aeey Socket 7 ( noaiaea?oiue Pentium –
?acuai): iai?eia?, iaeeaeaaiue anei?a i?ioeanni? AMD E6 – 3 aoaeao
niaea?aeaoue eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy. A ioee/ee io Pentium II ii
iiaeaea?aeeaaao eyo o?aoueaai o?iaiy (ia iaoa?eineie ieaoa).

Iaeiaei ii aieueoiio n/?oo iaiyoue nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia ia aaca
i?ioeanni?a Pentium niae?aaony ec oaeeo aea /eiia, eioi?ua
eniieueciaaeenue a ae?aaiai IBM PC AT. Iaaeaeo oai, ?ino auno?iaeaenoaey
oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?ea?e e oiio, /oi noaei
i?inoi iaaiciiaeii ie?eoueny n ionoaeinoueth oaoiieiaee ICO. Iiyoiio a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a yoii iai?aaeaiee i?ienoiaeyo ao?iua ?aaiethoeeiiiua
eciaiaiey.

Aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee ono?ienoaa
aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe aace?othueany ia niiniaiinoe nio?aiyoue
yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae. Iee?inoaiu aeeiaie/aneeo ICO ioee/athony io
iee?inoai noaoe/aneeo ICO aieueoae eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?ieinoueth, /oi
iaoneiaeaii iaiueoei /eneii eiiiiiaioia a iaeiii yeaiaioa iaiyoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieaa ieioiui eo ?aciauaieai a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaii
e?enoaeea.

Aeyaey ia aaa?aaeaoo?u, ioiinyueany e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, ianeiaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi ana iie ninoiyo ec ni/aoaiey DRAM: FPM DRAM, EDO DRAM,
SDRAM e o.ae. RAM (Random Access Memory) ia?aaiaeeony n aiaeeeneiai eae
«Caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai n i?iecaieueiui aeinooiii» –

A aoeaa D – nie?auaiea io neiaa Dynamic, o. a. aeeiaie/aneee. Iaiyoue
iacuaaaony aeeiaie/aneie, oae eae y/aeea noaiaea?oiiai ICO i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie eiiaeainaoi?, noi?ie?iaaiiue aioo?e iieoi?iaiaeieeiaiai e?enoaeea,
o?aiyuee yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae. Eae ecaanoii, eiiaeainaoi?u iiaoo
naiii?iecaieueii ?ac?yaeaoueny, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iioa?a eioi?iaoeee.
*oiau yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeei, eioi?iaoeeth ioaeii iinoiyiii iaiiaeyoue.
Ec-ca iai?a?uaiie i?e?iaeu yoiai i?ioeanna oaeay iaiyoue iacuaaaony
aeeiaie/aneie. A nia?aiaiiuo ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao
aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue ?aaeecoaony ia aaca niaoeeaeueiuo oeaiae
i?iaiaeieeia, caiaieaoeo iau/iua eiiaeainaoi?u. Aieueoia eiee/anoai
oaeeo oeaiae iauaaeeiythony a ei?iona iaeiiai aeeiaie/aneiai /eia.
Iaeiaei iiaeiaii iaiyoe ia eiiaeainaoi?ao, iia aeieaeia iinoiyiii
inaaaeaoueny.

Oae ?aaioatho i?aeoe/anee ana oeiu iee?inoai iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe – io
onoa?aaoeo FPM DRAM aei ia?niaeoeaiuo Rambus DRAM. Ana inoaeueiua
ioee/ey iaaeaeo ieie – oaea oaoiieiae/aneea «aeiaanee», iicaieythuea
auaeaoue ec iau/iuo iee?inoai aeiiieieoaeueiia auno?iaeaenoaea.

Iaiiiai enoi?ee.

Yaiethoeey iee?inoai ICO aieioioth naycaia n yaiethoeeae
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Aeey oniaoa ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia
o?aaiaaeenue ieieaoth?iua /eiu ICO. Ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?ieinoe iaiyoe
oeaia nea/eiia?acii aic?anoaea, ii iioii iinoiyiii oiaiueoaeanue ii ia?a
io?aaioee oaoiieiaee e ?inoa iau?iia i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?aua PC
?aaeeciauaaeenue ia noaiaea?oiuo RAM-/eiao ii 16 Eaeo. Eaaeaeiio aeoo
niioaaonoaiaae naie nianoaaiiue aae?an. Aaea-oi ieiei aiaea
iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey XT iiyaeeinue ICO n aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie e
aieaa yooaeoeaiia n oi/ee c?aiey aai oeaiu. Oioy iiaua iee?inoaiu
iiaee aiauaoue ii 64 Eaeo, iia auee aeaoaaea /ai 4 ii 16 Eaeo.
Nenoaiiay ieaoa PC auea nicaeaia n o/?oii eniieueciaaiey iiauo iee?inoai
iaiyoe. *a?ac ianeieueei eao 64 E aeoiua /eiu noaee ianoieueei
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu, /oi noaee aeaoaaea /ai 16 E aeoiua iee?inoaiu.
E 1984 aiaeo aue naeaeai au? iaeei oaa ii oaaee/aieth iau?ia iaiyoe a
iaeiii ei?iona – iiyaeeenue 256 – E aeoiua iee?inoaiu. E RAM /eiu yoiai
iiieiaea auee onoaiiaeaiu ia ia?auo AT. A naaiaeiy iee?inoaiu a 16 Iaeo
noaee iau/iui yaeaieai. PC eiae aeiaieueii i?inooth a?oeoaeoo?o iaiyoe,
ii e?aeiae ia?a, anee ia ia? niio?aoue nae/an n auniou iineaaeieo
aeinoeaeaiee eiiiuethoa?iie eiaeono?ee. Iaiyoue PC auea i?aaenoaaeaia
iaeiei aeieii, a eioi?ii eaaeaeue aaeo aue aeinooiai ii oeacaieth aai
aae?ana. Iee?inoaiu iaiyoe auee ?acaeou ia 9 aaieia, eniieuecothueo a
?aiieo PC 16-Eaeoiua, a caoai e 64-Eaeoiua iee?inoaiu. Ainaiue
iee?inoai auaeaeyee ii iaeiiio aeoo aeey i?aaiecaoeee eaaeaeiai aaeoa
iaiyoe, aeaayoay iee?inoaia eniieueciaaeanue a ea/anoaa eiio?ieueiiai
aeoa /?oiinoe. Eiaaea iee?ii?ioeanni? 80286 noaee eniieueciaaoue a AT
e eo aiaeiaao, aicieeea i?iaeaia n i?aaiecaoeeae a?oeoaeoo?u iaiyoe.
Iau/iua iee?inoaiu iaiyoe ia iiaee ?aaioaoue a oaeii auno?ii oaiia, a
eioi?ii ?aaioae iee?ii?ioeanni?. Iiyoiio i?eoeinue eniieueciaaoue
noaoon iaeeaeaiey, a neo/aa eiaaea i?ioeanni? o?aaiaae eioi?iaoeeth
ec iaiyoe, oi anoue iee?ii?ioeanni?o i?eoiaeeeinue caaenaoue ia
iaeei-aeaa oaeoa, /oi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iaiyoe ia?aaioaoue cai?in.

Eiaaea – oi an? auei i?inoi: /anoioa oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia ia
i?aauoaea 10 IAoe, /oi iicaieyei aeey nenoaiu ICO i?eiaiyoue iee?inoaiu
n a?aiaiai aeinooia 100 in., a oi e aieueoa. E?iia oiai, iia?aoeeiiiua
nenoaiu e i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu auee iao?aaiaaoaeueiu e iaiyoe: ana iie
ioee/ii ?aaioaee n iau?iii ICO aei 640 Eaaeo. Anoanoaaiii, /oi oiaaea
iniaiai aieiaiey iau?io iaiyoue ieeoi ia oaeaeye. Aeaaea i?e ?aaioa n
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth eniieuecoaony iau/iay nenoaiiay oeia PS – bus eee
ISA. I?iaeaiu aicieeee iinea iiyaeaiey i?ioeanni?ia eeiee 80386:
oaeoiaay /anoioa iineaaeieo ninoaaeyea io 16 aei 33 (a iicaeiaa 40)
IAoe. Ia neiaeii iiaen/eoaoue, /oi i?e yoii aeeeia oaeoa iaoiaeeony a
aeeaiaciia io 25 aei 60 in., /oi nouanoaaiii iaiueoa, /ai o
?ani?ino?ai?iiuo ia oio iiiaio iee?inoai DRAM. Iiaua i?eeeaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu iinoiyiii o?aaiaaee an? aieueoaai iau?ia ICO, /oi iiauoaei
o?aaiaaiey e nei?inoe iaiaia n iaiyoueth. A neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee
iaiyoue noaea iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia iiauoaiea
auno?iaeaenoaey eiiiuethoa?ia. Ioo?i aaaaeaiey ioaeaeueiie oeiu iaiyoe
oaeaeinue eeoue iaiiiai oaaee/eoue auno?iaeaenoaea, o.e. oaeoiaay
/anoioa ISA aei neo ii? oeene?iaaia ia 8 IAoe. E oiio aea ioaeaeueiay
oeia auea 32-?ac?yaeiie eae iiaua i?ioeanni?u. Iinea yoiai iiyaeeenue
neiaeiinoe n auno?iaeaenoaeai naieo iee?inoai. Ia?aoiae ia /enoi
noaoe/aneia ICO aue ia auaiaeai: oeaia aioiaiai eiiiuethoa?a aic?inea au
ia ii?yaeie, a oi e aieaa. Eiaiii oiaaea a ?N noaee aeoeaii i?eiaiyoue
eyo-iaiyoue, nia/aea iaeiio?iaiaaoth, a caoai (iinea iiyaeaiey
i?ioeanni?a j486)- aeaooo?iaiaaoth. Ai?i/ai, yoi ia iiaei cia/eoaeueii
oeo/oeoue neooaoeeth: ioaeii auei oaaee/eoue auno?iaeaenoaea anaai
iau?ia iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e a oi aea a?aiy nio?aieoue noa?oth
yeaiaioa?ioth aaco. Eciaiaiea neooaoeee ei?aiiui ia?acii auei
iaaiciiaeii: ianiio?y ia ana iiiuoee aeaaea nae/an iieiue oeeee aeinooia
e neo/aeiie y/aeee ICO ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 50 in. ?ac?aaio/eee iinoaaeee
caaea/o: onei?eoue ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueany
iia?aoeee. Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, /aua anaai aeinooi e y/aeeai iaiyoe
i?ienoiaeeo ia neo/aeiui ia?acii, a iineaaeiaaoaeueii.

No?aie/iue ?aaeei, ?anneiaiea aaieia

Au? iaeia ?aciiaeaeiinoue a?oeoaeoo?u iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a
– yoi a? ?acaeaea ia ioaeaeueiua naeoeee. A nia?aiaiiuo i?ioeanni?ao,
iai?eia?, oaeay iia?aoeey niaoeeaeueii iioeiece?iaaia: aeey n/eouaaiey
ianeieueeeo iiae?yae eaeoueo neia iaiyoe aeinoaoi/ii ia?aaeaoue aae?an
ia?aiai, a ia anao o?aaoaiuo neia. Niioaaonoaaiii oiaiueoaaony /enei
ia?aaea/ aeaiiuo ii oeia, e oiio aea, /ai aieueoa neia ia?anueaaony ca
iaeei ?ac (oae iacuaaaiue iaeaoiue ?aaeei), oai aieueoa auea?uo.
Naeaeaii yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey onei?aiey iaiaiia «iaiyoue – eyo».
Aeey onei?aiey ?aaiou iaiyoe a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia auee ?ac?aaioaiu
?acee/iua «oeo?ua» niiniau o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee: no?aie/iue ?aaeei,
?anneiaiea aaieia, auno?ue no?aie/iue ?aaeei (FPM) e o. ae. Aieueoay
nei?inoue aeinooia e ia?aie/aiiui iaeanoyi iaiyoe yaeyaony
iniaaiiinoueth iaeioi?uo niaoeeoe/aneeo iee?inoai, eioi?ua iicaieytho
iaeioi?iio iau?io, ii ia anae iaiyoe, auoue n/eoaiiiio aac oeeeea
iaeeaeaiey. Yoio iiaeoiae o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiuo RAM iee?inoai,
eioi?ua aeaeyo naie aae?ana ii no?aieoeai. Yoa oaoiieiaey iieo/eea
iacaaiea ?aaeeia no?aie/iiai aeinooia. Yoe niaoeeaeueiua iee?inoaiu
iaania/eaatho i/aiue auno?ue aeinooi a iaeiii ec aeaoo iai?aaeaiee eo
i?aaiecaoeee. Anee o?aaoaony /oaiea eee caienue eioi?iaoeee,
o?aiyuaeny ia ii?aaeae?iiie no?aieoea iaiyoe, e i?aaeuaeouay eiiaiaea
ii ?aaioa n iaiyoueth eniieueciaaea eioi?iaoeeth n oie aea no?aieoeu,
oeeeea iaeeaeaiey ia o?aaoaony. Iaeiaei i?e ia?aoiaea n iaeiie
no?aieoeu ia ae?oaoth oeeeeu iaeeaeaiey iaecaaaeiu

Neaaeothuay eioa?aniay oaoiieiaey, iacaaiiay interleavid memory, i/aiue
iioiaea ia ICO no?aie/iiai ?aaeeia. Iia nouanoaaiii iiauoaao nei?inoue
ia?auaiey e iaiyoe, ii ia eiaao ia?aie/aiee ii no?aie/iie ?acaeaea.
I?e eniieueciaaiee yoie oaoiieiaee any iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ?acaeaaaony
ia aeaa eee aieueoaa /enei aaieia. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeoia
o?aieony a ?aciuo aaieao, iiyoiio iee?ii?ioeanni? ia?auaaony oi e
iaeiiio, oi e ae?oaiio aaieo i?e /oaiee yoie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ai
a?aiy ia?auaiey e iaeiiio aaieo, ae?oaie ?aaeecoao oeeee iaiiaeaiey,
e iiyoiio i?ioeanni?o ia i?eoiaeeony aeaeaoue. E oieueei, anee
iee?ii?ioeanni?o i?eoiaeeony /eoaoue ianiaaeiua aeou, noaoon
iaeeaeaiey iaieioai, ii aa?iyoiinoue aai iiyaeaiey oiaiueoaaony.

Iaeaieaa oeiiaay ?aaeecaoeey yoie oaoiieiaee
i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acaeaeie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ia aeaa aaiea, A
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey iaeeaeaiey – 50%.
*aou??oaaieiaay i?aaiecaoeey oiaiueoaao yoo aa?iyoiinoue aei 25%.

Oae eae aeaiiay oaoiieiaey ia o?aaoao i?eiaiaiey
niaoeeaeueiuo iee?inoai iaiyoe, iia yaeyaony iaeaieaa oaeiaiie aeey
iiauoaiey nei?inoe nenoaiu. E?iia oiai iia iiaeao niaiauaoueny n ICO
no?aie/iiai ?aaeeia, /oi au? aieueoa oaaee/eaaao iia?aoeaiinoue.

Iaiyoue oeia FPM DRAM eniieueciaaeanue aeieaea aiaeu, a aaiee
ieacaeenue ianoieueei oaea/iui ?aoaieai, /oi eniieuecothony a
nia?aiaiiie iaiyoe ii oiie/aieth, /oi iaiai?aii a noaiaea?oa (iai?eia?
oae naeaeaii a SDRAM ).An? yoi iicaieyei oaaee/eaaoue auno?iaeaenoaea
ia ianeieueei i?ioeaioia, iaeiaei nei?inoue ?aaiou ioaeii auei iiauneoue
a ianeieueei ?ac.

Neooaoeey onoaoaeeanue iinea iiyaeaiey i?ioeanni?a Pentium. I?eiaiaiea
64-?ac?yaeiie oeiu iaiyoe, ?aaioathuae ia /anoioa 66 IAoe, iiauoaei
auno?iaeaenoaea iaiaiia n iaiyoueth a /aou?a ?aca, ii n?aaiaieth n
iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaiie a eiiiuethoa?ao i?aaeuaeouaai iieieaiey
32-?c?yaeiie oeiie ia /anoioa 33-IAoe. Iaeiaei aeey yoiai ioaeia auea
oaeay iaeinoue, eae oaaee/aiea auno?iaeaenoaey naieo iiaeoeae ICO ii
iaiueoae ia?a a oa aea /aou?a ?aca. Iiyaeaiea iaiyoe oeia EDO,
yaeythuaeny aeaeueiaeoei oniaa?oainoaiaaieai FPM, oaaee/eei nei?inoue
?aaiou anaai eeoue a iieoi?a ?aca. Iaeiaei yoiai auei iaaeinoaoi/ii.
?ac?aaioea aieaa auno?iai noaiaea?oa BEDO oae e ia auea caaa?oaia.
Iaiyoue oeia EDO naaiaeiy aeinoaoi/ii aeoeaii i?eiaiyaony a
eiiiuethoa?ao ia aaca i?ioeanni?ia naiaenoaa Pentium e aeaaea a?aiaiaie
i?iaea?ony a iiauo nenoaiao. Oai ia iaiaa, iia n/eoaaony aaciaae?aeii
onoa?aaoae. Aaaeue e?iia ieceie ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nei?inoe ?aaiou,
aeey anao oiiiyioouo oeiia iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe nouanoaoao e oaeay
i?iaeaia eae eo ia niiniaiinoue ?aaioaoue ia /anoioao auoa 66 IAoe.
Oi/iaa, eo iiaeii canoaaeoue ?aaioaoue ia aieaa aunieie /anoioa, ii
eeoue oaaee/eaay oeeeeu caaea?aeee. I?iaeaia yoa iineo i?eioeeieaeueiue
oa?aeoa? ec-ca aeaoaeae ?aaeecaoeee eo aneio?iiiie yeaeo?e/aneie noaiu.
A aiaoiyy /anoioa oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia (e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
/anoioa nenoaiiuo ieao ) aeaaii ia?aoea yoio aa?uea?. Ia?aie
ioeoeeaeueii eniieuecothuae /anoioo 75 IAoe auea oe?ia Cyrix, iuia aea
i?ioeanni?u Intel e AMD ?aaioatho ia aiaoiae /anoioa 100IAoe.

SDRAM : aeaiue naaiaeiyoiee

Aieueoeinoai i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n ieceei auno?iaeaenoaeai iiaenenoaiu
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, iicaieyao ?aoeoue iaiyoue SDRAM. Ia?aiia/aeueii
?ac?aaioaiiay aeey aeaeaiea?o ( eae caiaia aei?iaie aeaooi?iaiaeiie VRAM
), iia ieacaeanue ioee/iui ?aoaieai e aeey aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea
iiaeoeae iaiyoe SDRAM e niiniaiinoue ?aaioaoue ia aunieeo /anoioao
iaeiiaoe-oi aeaee i?iecaiaeeoaeyi eiiiuethoa?ia nenoaio ICO,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuoth naaiaeiyoiei o?aaiaaieyi e auno?iaeaenoaeth. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, eniieueciaaiea an? oie aea yeaiaioiie aacu iicaieeei
aeinoe/ue anaai yoiai aac iiauoaiey oeaiu ia aioiaua ecaeaeey.

Eoae, a iniiaa SDRAM eaaeao an? oa aea iee?inoaiu noaiaea?oiie DRAM.
Eaeei aea ia?acii aeinoeaaaony oaaee/aiea auno?iaeaenoaey? Iniiaiuo
iniaaiiinoae, ii n?aaiaieth n eeanne/aneie iaiyoueth, o?e: /a?aaeiaaiea,
iaeaoii – eiiaaea?iue ?aaeei e neio?iiecaoeey ?aaiou n oeaio?aeueiui
i?ioeanni?ii.

*a?aaeiaaiea eee ?anneiaiea aaieia aeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiue niinia ?aaiou.
Nouiinoue aai a neaaeothuai. Anee aeaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ia?auaiey e
iaiyoe i?ienoiaeyo e iaeiei e oai aea iee?inoaiai, oi aoi?ia cai?ioaiiia
neiai (eee aeaieiia neiai – iniaie ?acieoeu caeanue iao) aoaeao iieo/aii
oieueei /a?ac a?aiy, ?aaiia iieiiio oeeeeo iaiyoe. Naycaii yoi n
aeiaieueii iiiaeie oaeoi?aie, neaaeothueie ec noaiioaoieee DRAM. I?e
iau/iii iaeiiaaieiaii ono?ienoaa iiaeoey iaiyoe, eaaeaeia iineaaeothuaa
neiai iiaeii iieo/aoue eeoue /a?ac 50 in. iinea i?aaeuaeouaai, a oi e
?aaea. Anee ?acaeoue iaiyoue ia ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe (aaiee), oi i?e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii aeinooia iaeii neiai aoaeao auaeaaaoueny ia?aui
aaieii, a neaaeothuei aaieii – aoi?ia e o. ae. E oiio iiiaioo, eiaaea
niiaa ioaeii aoaeao ia?aoeoueny e ia?aiio aaieo, i?ieaeao iieiue oeeee e
ii aoaeao aioia auaeaoue aeaiiua aac caaea?aeee. Oai?aoe/anee, i?e
aeinoaoi/ii auno?ie ?aaioa oeiu onei?aiea ?aaiou i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
/eneo aaieia iaiyoe. Ia i?aeoeea yoi ia aeinoeaeeii: nouanoaotho
iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, e?iia oiai, i?ia?aiia iiaeao ia?auaoueny e iaiyoe
ia iineaaeiaaoaeueii, a e i?iecaieueiui y/aeeai, /oi eaaei naiaeeo ana
i?aeiouanoaa ?anneiaiey ia iao. Iaeiaei, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeaeaiea
ia aaiee ?aaioaao. A iiaeoeyo SDRAM eniieuecothony /aou?a aaiea.
Iaeaoiue ?aaeei ?aaiou iaiyoe noiaeai n aeai?eoiaie a eyo – iaiyoe.
Nooue aai a oii, /oi i?e ia?auaiee e y/aeea n eaeei eeai aae?anii,
aaoiiaoe/anee aaia?e?oaony iaeao aeaiiuo, aeeth/athueo eae yoo, oae e
ianeieueei iineaaeothueo y/aae. A ?acoeueoaoa i?e ia?auaiee e iei,
iaiyoue n?aco aea, aac caaea?aeae, aioiaa auaeaoue o?aaothuothny
eioi?iaoeeth. Anoanoaaiii, /oi iaeaoii – eiiaaea?iue ?aaeei iiauoaao
yooaeoeaiinoue ?anneiaiey aaieia: i?aeoe/anee anaaaea eiio?ieea? ICO
i?iecaiaeeo ia?auaiea ii niaaeiui aae?anai, ia caaeneii io aeaeaiey
i?ioeanni?a. Ae?oaie aii?in, /oi oaeia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou
iiaeao ieacaoueny iieiui: n/eoaiiua ec iaiyoe aeaiiua oae e inoaioony
iaaino?aaiaaiiuie i?ioeanni?ii.

Aeaa yoeo oeia onei?aiey ?aaiou i?eiaiyeenue oaea aeaaii e a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy noaee noaiaea?oiuie. A aio aua iaeia ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue
SDRAM ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie oeiaie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe noaea
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaoanoaii. ?a/ue eae?o i neio?iiecaoeee ?aaiou n
oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii. ?aiueoa nenoaiu iaiyoe ooieoeeiie?iaaea
aneio?iiii, iiyoiio, cai?inea ec iaa eaeea – eeai aeaiiua i?ioeanni? aue
auioaeaeai aoiaeeoue a oieinoie oeeee aeey oiai, /oiau eo aeiaeaeaoueny,
oae eae a?aiy iaeeaeaiey auei iaecaanoiui, e yoi ia iicaieyei
caieiaoueny ae?oaie ?aaioie. Aeaaiaea?y neio?iiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoue
iaiyoe e i?ioeanni?a, iineaaeiee anaaaea «ciaao», /a?ac neieueei oaeoia
ii iieo/eo iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua. Anee ?acoeueoao ia?auaiey e iaiyoe
ioaeai ia n?aco, OeI iiaeao auiieieoue iaeioi?ua eiiaiaeu aianoi oiai,
/oiau i?inoi i?ae?auaoue ?aaioo. Niioaaonoaaiii, aic?anoaao
yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou nia?aiaiiuo i?ioeanni?ia, /oi iiauoaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue anae au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaiu. O neio?iiiinoe
?aaiou anoue e ae?oaay ioee/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue: oaia?ue eiio?ieea?
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe anaaaea ca?aiaa «ciaao», /a?ac neieueei oaeoia
i?ioeanni?o iiiaaeiayony aeaiiua ec iaiyoe, /oi iicaieyao aio
iioeiece?iaaoue naith ?aaioo. Eiaiii neio?iiioth (ii ioiioaieth e
i?ioeanni?o) ?aaioo iiaie iaiyoe iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho eae iniiaioth aa
iniaaiiinoue, /oi caeiaeaii a iacaaiee: Synchronous DRAM.

Enoeiiay nei?inoue ?aaiou

Niaieoiiia eniieueciaaiea neio?iiecaoeee ?aaiou, ?anneiaiey aaieia e
iaeaoii-eiiaaea?iiai ?aaeeia niinianoaoao cia/eoaeueii (a ianeieueei
?ac) onei?aieth ?aaiou nenoaiu iaiyoe. E?iia oiai, SDRAM a ninoiyiee
?aaioaoue aac oeeeeia caaea?aeee ia /anoioa aei 100 IAoe, a iaeaieaa
ea/anoaaiiua iiaeoee – aei 125 IAoe (ia i?aeoeea aeinoeaaaony aei 133
IAoe). Oaeei ia?acii, a?aiy oeeeea iaiyoe SDRAM ninoaaeyao 7 – 10 in.
Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi oeacuaaaiia a niaoeeoeeaoeeyo a?aiy oeeeea
niioaaonoaoao a?aiaie aeinooia. N/eoatho, /oi o iaiyoe SDRAM n /anoioie
100 IAoe a?aiy aeinooia ?aaii 10 in., e iia anaaaea ?aaioaao a 5 ?ac
auno?aa, a o EDO DRAM – 50 in. Ia naiii aeaea yoi ia oae. E oa e ae?oaea
iiaeoee eiatho iieiia a?aiy aeinooia 50 in., oi anoue i?e ia?auaiee ii
neo/aeiiio aae?ano aeaiiua aoaeoo iieo/aiu eiaiii /a?ac yoi a?aiy aeey
iaieo iiaeoeae iaiyoe. I?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ia?auaiee aoi?ia neiai
iiaeoeue EDO auaeano /a?ac 20 in., a iiaeoeue SDRAM – /a?ac 10 in.
I/aaeaeii aeaoe?aoiia onei?aiea. I?e /aou??o iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
ia?auaieyo (iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiue neo/ae) iiaeoeth EDO aeey
auiieiaiey cai?ina iio?aaoaony 50 + 3 o 20 = 110 in., iiaeoeth SDRAM
niioaaonoaaiii 50 + 3 o 10 = 80 in. Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi ieeaeiai
iyoee?aoiiai ?inoa iao – auno?iaeaenoaea SDRAM auoa i?eia?ii ia 50 % e
iieiinoueth i?iiaaeaao i?e aieueoii /enea ia?auaiee ii neo/aeiui
aae?anai. Ai?i/ai, naaiaeiy ?acaiai?u i oii, /oi SDRAM aaconeiaii
auno?aa, /ai ethaua ae?oaea oeiu iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, aiieia oianoiu:
anee aeey EDO ia nouanoaoao a i?e?iaea (a anee e nouanoaoao, oi a
i?iaeaaea ia iiyaeyeenue) iiaeoee ni a?aiaiai aeinooia iaiueoei, /ai
oiiiyiooua 50 in., oi aeey SDRAM a?aiy oeeeea 10 in. ioithaeue ia
i?aaeae. Nae/an iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho iee?inoaiu n
a?aiaiai oeeeea 8 e aeaaea 7 in. A?aiy aeinooia aeey ieo ?aaii oaea ia
50, a 40 in., aeaaiaea?y /aio iieo/aaony cia/eoaeueiue auea?uo ii
n?aaiaieth n EDO. Anee aa?iooueny e iaoaio i?eia?o, oi SDRAM n /anoioie
125 IAoe. ia n/eouaaiea /aou??o neia cao?aoeo 40 + 3 o 8 = 64 in.
(ai?i/ai, n oaeie nei?inoueth iiaeao ia ni?aaeoueny nenoaiiay oeia,
ioeoeeaeueii iiea ia ?aaioathuay n /anoioaie aieueoa 100 IAoe.)

I?ia?ann oaoiieiaee: yaiethoeey…

N nia?aiaiiuie caaea/aie SDRAM a i?eioeeia ni?aaeyaony iaieioi. Iaeiaei
oaea a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy a? aiciiaeiinoae iiaeao ieacaoueny
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ai-ia?auo, yoi eanaaony nei?inoe a? ?aaiou, eioi?oth
iaieioi au oaaee/eoue oaea naaiaeiy. A ai-aoi?uo, aaaeii aeaeueiaeoaa
iiauoaiea ?aai/ae /anoiou, oioy yoi noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui ia n?aco.
Aeaei a oii, /oi iiauoaoue aioo?aiithth /anoioo oeaio?aeueiiai
i?ioeanni?a ioo?i oaaee/aiey iiiaeeoaey caiyoea ia aeaaiaea?iia: ia
ii?aaeae?iiii yoaia iiaeao iiyaeoueny aieaa aei?iaie i?ioeanni?, /ai
nouanoaothuay iiaeaeue, ii i?e yoii i?aeoe/anee ia iiauoathuee
auno?iaeaenoaea nenoaiu ( eioi?ia caaeneo ia oieueei io nei?inoe ?aaiou
i?ioeanni?a, ii e io /anoiou ?aaiou iaoa?eineie ieaou). A yoie nayce
i/aiue iieacaoaeueia neooaoeey n eiiiuethoa?ii ia aaca Intel Pentium 166
e 200. A nai? a?aiy eo noieiinoue ioee/aeanue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie, a
ii /anoe i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe nenoaiu ?ac?ua iieo/aeny ii?yaeea 5% .
Eeieth Pentium II iiea nianaao ano?iaiiue eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy, ii
iaaeieai ee aai oaaoeo? Nei?aa anaai, iaaeaaii auiouaiiue Pentium II 500
noaiao iineaaeiei a ?yaeo i?ioeanni?ia n aiaoiae /anoioie 100 IAoe. yoi
einaaiii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e Intel, iauyaea, /oi aeey iiauo i?ioeanni?ia
?ac?aaaouaaaony oeia n /anoioie 200 IAoe. a aiciiaeiinoae eeanne/aneie
SDRAM oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii.

Iaeei ec auoiaeia a i?eiaiaiee ?ac?aaioaiiie eiiiaieae
Samsung iaiyoe oeia Double Data Rate SDRAM, iacuaaaiie oaeaea SDRAM I.
Iuia iia oaea noaiaea?oece?iaaia annioeeaoeeae e iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
iaeioi?uie /einaoaie. Aeaaiaea?y ioaeaeueiui einiaoe/aneei oeo/oaieyi,
aeaiiay iaiyoue niiniaia ?aaioaoue ia /anoioa 200 IAoe e iaania/eaaao a
aeaa ?aca aieueooth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, /ai SDRAM.

Au? aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie aoaeao iaiyoue SLDRAM. Iia
?aaioaao ia n /aou?ueiy, a n oanoiaaeoeaoueth aaieaie e iiaeaea?aeeaaao
/anoioo aei 400 IAoe. ai?i/ai, yoi eeoue i?iaeo, i?iaiaeeiue a?oiiie ec
aeaaiaaeoeaoe e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae DRAM. Auoiae iiaie iaiyoe ia
?uiie iaeeaeaaony a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy, iiea eiathony eeoue ia?acoeu.
Iaaeio?aneaaie noaiaea?o ionoonoaoao.

…Eee ?aaiethoeey?

Iineieueeo i?ioeanni?u iaeioi?uo a?oeoaeoo? oaea
ia?aoaaioee aa?uea? a iaeei AAoe iiauoaiea a aoaeouai oaeoiaie /anoiou
iaania/eaaaiie SLDRAM aeaaea aei 400 IAoe, aoaeao ia aeinoaoi/ii
iaiaoiaeeii ii iaiueoae ia?a 600 IAoe. I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue 400
Iaaeo/n oiaea iaaaeeea: aei neo ii?, ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua iee?inoaiu
iaiyoe, ana iuoathony oaiaoueny ii auno?iaeaenoaeth ca i?ioeanni?aie, ii
ie i eaeii caiana nei?inoe ia ia?o-o?ieeo eao ?acaeoey e ?a/e iao, a
iio?aaiinoue a yoii oaea iuouaaony.

A iauai iau/iua iee?inoaiu DRAM i?inoi ia niiniaiu
?aaioaoue a iaiaoiaeeiii nae/an ?aaeeia, iiyoiio ioaeai ia?aoiae ia
iiaoth oaoiieiaeth, eioi?ay oaea i?aaeeiaeaia oe?iie Rambus e iacuaaaony
RDRAM. O ia? ianna aanueia nouanoaaiiuo ioee/ee io iau/iie iaiyoe.
Ia?aiia/aeueiue aa?eaio RDRAM, i?eiai?iiue a a?aoe/aneeo ?aai/eo
noaioeeyo au? a 1995 aiaeo. Ii aiciiaeiinoyi (600 IAoe /anoioa e 600
Iaaeo/n i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue) iaaiiyao SLDRAM, eioi?ue au? aiae
i?eae?ony aeaeaoue.A1997 aiaeo iiyaeeanue oeo/oaiiay niaoeeoeeaoeey
Concurrent RDRAM – ii nei?inoe iia aiaeiae/ia i?aaeuaeouae, iaeiaei
iieacuaaao oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou aeaaea ia iaeaiueeeo aeieao. Aeaaiaea?y
ioee/iui oa?aeoa?enoeeai iiaie iaiyoe, a? eeoeaice?iaaei ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai i?iecaiaeeoaeae. oaea nae /an iia i?eiaiyaony a iiuiuo
ea?iauo i?enoaaeao e iiiaeo ieaoao ?anoe?aiey aeey ?N. Aeaiiue i?iaeo
iieo/ee iiaeaea?aeeo Intel au? a 1996 aiaeo. A neaaeothuai aiaeo oe?ia
Rambus i?iaeaiiino?e?oao iiaia oeo/oaiea RDRAM, eioi?ia iacuaaaony
Direct RDRAM. Iaiyoue yoiai oeia aoaeao niiniaia ?aaioaoue ia /anoioa
aei 800 IAoe, iaania/eaay auno?iaeaenoaea 1,6 Aaaeoa/n aeey
iaeiiaaieiaiai iiaeoey e 3,2 Aaaeoa aeey aeaooaaieiaiai. Iiea iaiyoue
oeia Rambus ia noaiaea?oece?iaaia ia aunieii o?iaia, ii yoiai aiieia
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue.

Iee?inoaiu e iiaeoee

Auoa ?a/ue oea i ?aciiia?aciuo /eiao iaiyoe. Eiaiii iie
ii?aaeaeytho iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nianoaaiii ICO. Iiiai eao iacaae,
eiaaea oieueei ia/aee iiyaeyoueny ?N, iaiyoue a eiiiuethoa?u
onoaiaaeeaaeanue iaiin?aaenoaaiii oaie aea iee?inoaiaie. ?ac?yaeiinoue
iee?inoaiu anaai iaeei aeo, a oe?eia oeiu anaai 8 aeo iethn au? aeaayoue
aeey eiio?iey /?oiinoe. Cia/eo, iee?inoaiu ioaeii auei anoaaeyoue ii 9
oooe n?aco, a ianoa iie caieiaee i/aiue iiiai. Ai?i/ai, oiaaea yoi auei
ia noieue oae aaaeii: ?aaeei eoi ec iieueciaaoaeae ?anoe?ye iaiyoue
eiiiuethoa?a, aea e aiciiaeiinoae aeey oaeiai ?anoe?aiey auei ia iiiai.
Iioii oaea noaee i?eiaiyoue iiaeoee iaiyoe. Oioy auei i?aaeeiaeaii
ianeieueei eo aa?eaioia, iaeiaei ia aeieaia a?aiy cae?aieoueny oaeaeinue
eeoue iiaeoeyi oeia SIMM – n iaeii?yaeiuie ia/aoiuie eiioaeoaie. Ia?aia
a?aiy iie eiaee ?ac?yaeiinoue 8 aeo e 30 eiioaeoia. A ?acoeueoaoa au 16-
?ac?yaeiuo eiiiuethoa?ao iie eniieueciaaeenue ia?aie, a a 32- ?ac?yaeiuo
/aoa??eaie. Aeieaia a?aiy ?aaioaee oieueei n ieie, caoai ei ia niaio
iiyaeeenue 32- ?ac?yaeiua 72- eiioaeoiua iiaeoee. Aeey aeaaeaeueoeaa
?ani?ino?ai?iiuo oiaaea «/aoa??ie» iie noaee i?inoi nianaieai:
onoaiaaeeaaoue eee iaiyoue ioaeii auei ia aieaa iaeiiai iiaeoey. Oaeie
oei iiaeoeae iaiyoe «aeiaeee» e aei iiyaeaiey Pentium, e aeaaea aeoeaii
i?eiaiyeny a eiiiuethoa?ao yoiai eeanna. Iaeiaei oaia?ue iiaeoee SIMM
i?eoeinue anoaaeyoue ia?aie.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy eiino?oeoi?u ?aoeee, /oi iie aionooth
?anoiaeotho aeinoaoi/ii aieueooth ieiuaaeue iiaeoey. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
SIMM ioeoeeaeueii iacuaaaony iaeii?yaeiui, eiioaeou o iaai n iaaeo
noi?ii ieaou, ii oieueei niaaeeiaiu yeaeo?e/anee. ?aiueoa yoi
o?aaiaaeinue aeaeaoue ec-ca iaaunieiai ea/anoaa o?aaeaiey eniieuecoaiuo
ia/aoiuo ieao. Nae/an aea iiaeiaiia ?aniieiaeaiea eiioaeoia- i?inoi
?oaeeiaio. Ia?auie eiioaeou n aeaoo noi?ii ?acuaaeeieee ?ac?aaio/eee
iiooaoeia iiaeiaiuo eiiiaeoiuo ono?ienoa, aaea aaaeii auei nyeiiiieoue
iiaieueoa ianoa aeey onoaiiaee iaeneiaeueiiai /enea eiiiiiaioia. Oae
iiyaeeenue iiaeoee oeia SO DIMM aeaoo oeiia: «ei?ioeea» (iieiaeiea io
SIMM, ii aeeeia, 32 ?ac?yaea, 36 eiioaeoia n eaaeaeie noi?iiu –
i?aeoe/anee neiaeaiiue aaeaia noaiaea?oiue SIMM) e «aeeeiiua» (64 –
?ac?yaeiua). Iiaeoee SO DIMM aei neo ii? i?aeoe/anee ia
noaiaea?oece?iaaiu, /aai ia neaaeaoue i iiaeoeyo DIMM. Iineaaeiea
yaeythony 64 – ?ac?yaeiuie, eiatho 168 eiioaeoia e noaiiayony an? aieaa
?ani?ino?ai?iiuie – a eiiiuethoa?ao eeiee Pentium II, iai?eia?, anoue
oieueei ?acu?iu aeey DIMM, e iao aeey SIMM.

Eioi?iaoeey i oii, /oi iiaeoee DIMM cia/eoaeueii eo/oa SIMM, iaaa?ia.
Aaeeinoaaiiia i?aainoiaenoai aeaoo?yaeiuo iiaeoeae iaae iaeii?yaeiuie –
yoi oaeianoai onoaiiaee: SIMM a nia?aiaiiua eiiiuethoa?u
onoaiaaeeaathony ia?aie, a DIMM – ii iaeiiio. A inoaeueiii aea, anee ia
ieo onoaiiaeaiu noiaeea iee?inoaiu, aeathuea iaeeiaeiaue noiia?iue iau?i
iaiyoe, iie aaniethoii eaeaioe/iu: iiaeoeue EDO DIMM iau?iii 64 Iaaeo e
a?aiaiai aeinooia 60 in., ie/ooue ia eo/oa aeaoo iiaeoeae EDO SIMM n oai
aea a?aiaiai aeinooia ii 32 Iaaeo eaaeaeue. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi,
iai?eia?, SDRAM a aeaea SIMM i?inoi ia auioneaaony.

Iiaeoee RIMM (n iaiyoueth oeia RDRAM) aiaoia iioiaee ia noaiaea?oiua
DIMM. Iniiaiua ioee/ey – a iee?inoaiao. Ai?i/ai, ieeoi ec iieueciaaoaeae
?N iiea ia ia?auae ia ieo aieiaiea, aea e ia aoaeao aei oao ii?, iiea
yoa iaiyoue ia ia/i?o iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny i?iecaiaeeoaeyie /einaoia e
nenoaiiuo ieao.

*aoiinoue.

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, aieueoeinoai ia?aiao?ia ICO caaeneo io
eniieuecoaiuo iee?inoai iaiyoe, a ioithaeue ia io iiaeoeae, a ninoaaa
eioi?uo iie i?iaeathony. I?aaaea, nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?enoeee
eiaiii iiaeoeae, ia i?eiaieiua e iee?inoaiai. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue noieo
?acia?aoueny n eiio?ieai /aoiinoe. Eaeay i?inoa: i?e caiene eaaeaeiai
aaeoa aeaiiuo a iaiyoue au/eneyaony noiia anao aeo ii iiaeoeth aeaa, a
iieo/aiiia cia/aiea caiineoueny a aeiiieieoaeueiue, aeaayoue ii n/aoo,
aeo. I?e /oaiee i?iecaiaeeony oa aea iia?aoeey, e iieo/aiiia cia/aiea
n?aaieaaaony n o?aieiui. Anee aaea-oi iaeei ec aeoia eciaieeny,
aaia?e?oaony eneeth/aiea e ?aaioa inoaiaaeeaaaony n auaea/ae
niioaaonoaothuaai niiauaiey. Oaeie iaoaieci aue ?ac?aaioai aaeaeo
iaaunieie iaae?aeiinoe a ia?auo iee?inoaiao iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.
I?aaeiacia/ai ii aiana ia aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue
naieiua iee?inoaiu, a aeey oiai, /oiau iieueciaaoaeue a neo/aa /anoiai
aicieeiiaaiey ioeaie caiaiee iaeni?aaiua /eiu ia ii?iaeueiua. Iaeiaei ni
a?aiaiai iaae?aeiinoue eioaa?aeueiuo noai aic?inea, e a ?acoeueoaoa
iiaeiaiue eiio?ieue noae i?aeoe/anee ia ioaeai. Aianoa n oai i?eiaiyaiua
iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu noaee iiiaicaaea/iuie, e a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
eniieueciaaiea iiaeoeae n /?oiinoueth noaei ia oieueei iaioaeiui, ii e
a?aaeiui. Aeinaaeii, eiaaea ec-ca ioeaee a eaeie – ieaoaeue ooeeeoa aeey
?aai/aai noiea, i?iiaaeatho ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou anao i?eeiaeaiee,
aeeth/ay ioaeiua e aaaeiua aeey ?aaiou. A nayce n yoei a ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ao ianniaiai iacia/aiey iaiyoue n /aoiinoueth i?inoi
ia?anoaea i?eiaiyoueny aieaa oiai, iiiaea nia?aiaiiua /einaou eiio?ieue
/aoiinoue i?inoi ia iiaeaea?aeeaatho. Nianai ae?oaia aeaei na?aa?u. A
ieo iaiyoue n eiio?ieai /aoiinoue ia i?inoi i?eiaiyaony, a aua e
?aaeecoao aieaa oeo?ue aeai?eoi, iacuaaaiue ANN. Nooue aai a oii, /oi
ioeaea a iaeiii aeoa ia oieueei iaia?oaeeaaaony, ii e eni?aaeyaony, a
aeaieiay ioeaea (oi anoue eiaaea iaaa?iuie ieacuaathony aeaa aeoa)
ii?aaeaeyaony. An? yoi i/aiue aaaeii aeay na?aa?ia, iaeiaei niaa?oaiii
aaniieacii aeey iau/iuo aeaaeaeueoeaa ?N: aa?iyoiinoue ioeaee a
nia?aiaiiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ie/oiaeii iaea, aea e aieueoiai o?iia
i?e/eieoue ia iiaeao, a o?aoeoue e?oiiua noiiu iaecaanoii ia /oi ia
noieo.

Ia?ee?iaea iiaeoeae iaiyoe.

Iieueciaaoaeue ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a eaaei iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue oei
e iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeoeae iaiyoe, anaai eeoue i?i/eoaa
ia?ee?iaeo. Ai?acaei o?oaeiaa naeaeaoue yoi eiiiuethoa?o, o eioi?iai
aeac, eae ecaanoii, iao. A ?acoeueoaoa aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee iaiyoe
i?eaaaatho e niaoeeaeueiui i?e?iai. A iiaeoeyo oeia SIMM aeey yoie oeaee
eniieueciaaeenue niaoeeaeueiua ieiuaaeee ?acenoi?ia (iacuaaeenue iie
PRD). Iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea ?acenoi?ia a ii?aaeae?iiuo iiceoeeyo
caaeaaaei iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeoey (iai?eia?, a?aiy aeinooia).
Ai?i/ai, aieueoeinoai i?eiaiyaiuo eiio?ieea?ia iaiyoe e, niioaaonoaaiii,
iaoa?eineeo ieao, ia ?aaae?iaaee ia iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea PRD. O
iiaeoeae iaiyoe oeia DIMM ai?acaei aieueoa aaaeiuo ia?aiao?ia. Aeey eo
o?aiaiey iau/ii i?eiaiyaony onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia ieaoa niaoeeaeueiay
iee?inoaia EEPROM, iacuaaaiay SPD (Serial Presence Detect). Aa iauai
(256 aeo) aeinoaoi/ai ia oieueei aeey o?aiaiey iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia, ii e
aeey caiene eioi?iaoeee i i?iecaiaeeoaea e o.i. I?iecaiaeeoaee iaiyoe
ia?aia a?aiy eaii?e?iaaee o?aaiaaiey noaiaea?oa, iaeiaei /a?ac iaeioi?ia
a?aiy iaoa?eineea ieaou oe?iu Intel aeey Pentium II noaee ioeacuaaoueny
?aaioaoue n iaiyoueth aac SPD. Ai?i/ai, oeaia iee?inoai SPD i?inoi
eiiaa/iay (aeiey i?ioeaioa io noieiinoe naiiai iiaeoey), oae /oi oaia?ue
iaiyoue aac ia? ii/oe ia ano?a/aaony. Oioy iiiaea ieaou niieieii
?aaioatho e aac SPD, ii yeiiiieoue 1-2 aeieea?a niunea iao, iniaaiii n
o/aoii aiciiaeiinoe iineaaeothuae iiaea?iecaoeee eiiiuethoa?a. Neaaeoao
o/anoue, /oi noaiaea?o ?N 100, iienuaathuee iaiyoue aeey oeiu n
/anoioie 100 IAoe (i?eiaiyaiue a iineaaeieo iiaeaeyo Intel, e AMD),
iaycaoaeueii o?aaoao iaee/ey iee?inoaiu SPD.

Noaiaea?o ?N 100.

Aeaiiue noaiaea?o, eae auei ioia/aii auoa, iienuaaao ana oiieinoe ?aaiou
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, niiniaiie ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ia /anoioa 100 IAoe.
Iaeaaeaoaeue oaeie iaiyoe i?iaeai n iiauie iaoa?eineeie ieaoaie eiaoue
ia aoaeao. Aeaiiua niaoeeoeeaoeee caieiatho ii?yaeea 70 no?aieoe ,
aeeth/ay aeaoaeueiia iienaiea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey EEPROM. Ec iniiaiuo
o?aaiaaiee oiiiyiai iaycaoaeueiinoue oi/iie ia?ee?iaee. Nae/an
aieueoeinoai auioneaaiuo /eiia SDRAM eiatho (niaeanii ia?ee?iaea) a?aiy
oeeeea 10 in., /oi iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoaeyi cayaeyoue ia eo ?aaioa ia
/anoioa 100 IAoe. Ii ooaa?aeaeaieth Intel, aeaiiua iee?inoai ia
yaeythony ?N 100 – niaianoeiuie. I?eoeinue ?ac?aaaouaaoue iee?inoaiu ni
a?aiaiai oeeeea 8 in., eo ?aaioa ia 100 IAoe aa?aioe?iaaia. Nia?aiiua ia
ieo iiaeoee niiniaiu ?aaioaoue e ia aieaa aunieeo /anoioao aei 125 IAoe
(aieueoay /anoue iaoa?eineeo ieao ia /einaoa Intel 440AO
iiaeaea?aeeaatho /anoiou aieueoa 100 IAoe).

Eiae/aneay i?aaiecaoeey iaiyoe.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ?aoaiey auee i?eiyou i?e ?ac?aaioea ia?auo PC.
Aeey oiai, /oiau iee?ii?ioeanni? 8088 iia iieueciaaoueny, iia aeieaeia
auoue aae?anoaiie. Eae ecaanoii, eniieuecoaiue a IBM ?N, PC/XT
iee?ii?ioeanni? i8088 /a?ac naie 20 aae?aniuo oei i?aaeinoaaeyao aeinooi
anaai e 1-Iaaeoiiio i?ino?ainoao iaiyoe. Eiino?oeoi?u IBM ?aoeee
auaeaeeoue niaoeeaeueiua iaeanoe iaiyoe aeey niaoeeoe/anee oeaeae. Iie
?acaeaeeee anth iaiyoue ia ?acaeaeu, e eaaeaeue ?acaeae
i?aaeiacia/aeny aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo ooieoeee. ?acoeueoe?othuay
aeeaa?aiia iacaaia ea?oie iaiyoe. I?e ?ac?aaioea PC iieiaeia anae iaiyoe
auea ca?aca?ae?iaaia. Aa?oiyy iieiaeia aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, auea
auaeaeaia aeey niaea?aeaiey eiaeia BIOS e aeey i?yiiai i?ioeanni?iiai
aeinooia e iaiyoe, eniieuecoaiie aeaeainenoaiie. Ia?aua
ianeieueei Eaaeo auee ca?aca?ae?iaaiu iiae eioi?iaoeeth i nenoaia e
?aniieiaeaiea eiie?aoiuo naeoeee eiaeia, eioi?ua auiieiyeenue ia iiiaio
aicieeiiaaiey i?a?uaaiee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Yoe y/aeee iaiyoe
iacuaathony aaeoi?aie i?a?uaaiey, a ooieoeey i?ia?aiiiiai eiaea –
iaoaieciii i?a?uaaiey.

A eiioea aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa ?aniieaaaaony aooa? eeaaeaoo?u –
iiieiaeii 16 aaeo. Caeanue o?aiyony 16 iineaaeieo neiaieia aaaae?iiuo
n eeaaeaoo?u. Yoio aooa? ioaeai aeey nio?aiaiey iaa?aiiiai oaenoa ai
a?aiy, eiaaea i?ioeanni? caiyo ae?oaie caaea/ae, iinea oiai eae ii
inaiaiaeeony, oaeno aoaeao ia?aaioai. Iia?ceoaeueiue iene eiiiuethoa?a
icia/aao – aooa? ia?aiieiai e aeaeueiaeoee iaai? aanniuneaiai. E?iia
oiai, ?acee/iua nenoaiiua oeaae, oeacuaathuea ia aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea
nenoaiu, oaeaea o?aiyony a ieaeiai ?acaeaea iaiyoe.

A oa aeie, eiaaea aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?ia eiaee 60E iaiyoe, 512E
eacaeenue oea?neie uaae?inoueth. Iiyoiio 128E auee ioaeaiu iiae
th?enaeeeoeeth i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, inoaeueiua 384E io ia/aea
aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey eniieueciaaiey
i?ia?aiiaie BIOS e aeaeaiiaiyoueth. Yoe ?aoaiey auaeaeyee 640E
noaiaea?oiie iaiyoe (conventional memory) aeey DOS – yoi aue iaeneioi
aae?anoaiiai i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?ui iia iia?e?iaaoue 8088 i?e auiieiaiee
i?ia?aii. Ni a?aiaiai yoe 640E auee iacaaiu aaciaie iaiyoueth, iioiio
/oi yoi yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei noaiaea?oii, ia eioi?ii aeieaeiu
aace?iaaoueny ana IBM niaianoeiua nenoaiu.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay (expanded) iaiyoue.

Ii/oe ia anao ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao iaeanoue iaiyoe UMB (Upper
Memory Blocks) ?aaeei ieacuaaaony caiieiaiiie iieiinoueth. Ionooao, eae
i?aaeei, iaeanoue ?anoe?aiey nenoaiiiai ROM BIOS eee /anoue aeaeaiiaiyoe
e iaeanoe iiae aeiiieieoaeueiua iiaeoee ROM. Ia yoii e aace?oaony
niaoeeoeeaoeey aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe EMS (Aopanded Memory
Specification), aia?aua ?ac?aaioaiiay oe?iaie Lotus Development, Intel e
Microsoft (iiyoiio iacuaaaiay eiiaaea LIM-cieoeeoeeaoeeae). Yoa
niaoeeoeeaoeey iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue nauoa
noaiaea?oiuo 640 Eaaeo aeey i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii. I?eioeei
eniieueciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe iniiaai ia ia?aeeth/aiee aeieia
(no?aieoe) iaiyoe. A iaeanoe UMB, iaaeaeo aeaeaiaooa?ii e nenoaiiui RGM
BIOS, auaeaeyaony iacaiyoia 64-Eaaeoiia “ieii”, eioi?ia ?acaeoi ia
no?aieoeu. I?ia?aiiiua e aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa iicaieytho ioia?aaeaoue
ethaie naaiaio aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe a ethaoth ec auaeaeaiiuo no?aieoe
“ieia(TM). Oioy iee?ii?ioeanni? anaaaea ia?auaaony e aeaiiui, o?aieiui a
“ieia” (aae?an ieaea 1 Iaaeoa), aae?ana yoeo aeaiiuo iiaoo auoue niauaiu
a aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe ioiineoaeueii “ieia” ia ianeieueei iaaaaaeo
(ni. ?en. 2).

A eiiiuethoa?ao ia i?ioeanni?a i8088 aeey ?aaeecaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiie
iaiyoe aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny niaoeeaeueiua ieaou n aiia?aoiie
iiaeaea?aeeie “iiaeea/ee” aeieia (no?aieoe) iaiyoe e niioaaonoaothuee
i?ia?aiiiue ae?aeaa?. ?acoiaaony,

ieaou aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny e a eiiiuethoa? ia
aaca i?ioeanni?ia i80286 e auoa.

?anoe?aiiay (extended) iaiyoue

Eiiiuethoa?u, eniieuecothuea i?ioeanni? l80286 n 24-?ac?yaeiuie
aae?aniuie oeiaie, oece/anee iiaoo aae?aniaaoue 16 Iaaeo, a a neo/aa
i?ioeanni?ia i80386/486 – 4 Aaaeoa iaiyoe. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue eiaaony
oieueei aeey caueuaiiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou i?ioeanni?a, eioi?ue
iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia MS-DOS ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao. ?anoe?aiiay iaiyoue
(extended) ?aniieaaaaony auoa iaeanoe aae?ania 1 Iaaeo (ia iaaei iooaoue
1 Iaaeo ICO e 1 Iaaeo aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa). Aeey ?aaiou n
?anoe?aiiie iaiyoueth iee?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai ia?aoiaeeoue ec
?aaeueiiai a caueuaiiue ?aaeei e ia?aoii. A ioee/ea io l80286
iee?ii?ioeanni?u i80386/486 auiieiytho yoo iia?aoeeth aeinoaoi/ii
i?inoi, eiaiii iiyoiio aeey ieo a ninoaaa MS-DOS eiaaony niaoeeaeueiue
ae?aeaa? – iaiaaeaea? iaiyoe AII386 (ni. ?en. 3).

Enoaoe, i?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai ae?aeaa?a ?anoe?aiioth iaiyoue
iiaeii yioee?iaaoue eae aeiiieieoaeueioth. Aiia?aoioth iiaeaea?aeeo a
yoii neo/aa aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue iee?ii?ioeanni? ia ieaea i80386 eee
aniiiiaaoaeueiue iaai? niaoeeaeueiuo iee?inoai (iai?eia?, iaai?u NEAT
oe?iu Chips and Technologies). Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iiiaea ieaou
iaiyoe, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea noaiaea?o LIM/EMS, iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
oaeaea e a ea/anoaa ?anoe?aiiie iaiyoe.

Expanded- iaiyoue

Iaeanoue HMA

Iaeanoue IIA – iaiyoue

1024 K

10000 h

Nenoaiiue ROM BIOS

ROM BIOS

960 K

F000 h

?anoe?aiea ROM BIOS

896 K

E000 h

” Ieii EMS ”

Hard Disk ROM BIOS

I/O ROM BIOS

C800 h

784 K EGA/VGA ROM BIOS C000 h

Aeaeaiiaiyoue

768 K Aeenieae CGA

ICO

736 K Iiiio?iiiue aeenieae B000 h

Aeenieae EGA/VGA

… A000 h

Ae?aeaa? AIM.SYS

TSR-i?ia?niiu

DOS

DOS

0 K

?en. 1 Aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue

?en. 2 ?anoe?aiiay iaiyoue

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui ?acee/eai aaciaie e aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe
yaeyaony oi, /oi i?ia?aiiu, ?aaioathuea a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia, ia iiaoo
auiieiyoueny a aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe. A oae eae DOS iaienai aeey
?aaeueiiai ?aaeeia, aio i?eoiaeeony iaoiaeeoueny oieueei aaciaie
iaiyoueth. Ii neacaoue, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue aaniieacia a
?aaeueiii ?aaeeia – iaaa?ii. I?ia?aiiu ia ciatho, eae aae?aniaaoueny
e aeiiieieoaeueiui y/aeeai iaiyoe. Ii aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue iiaeao
auoue eniieueciaaia aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. A neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?inoi ioaeii ?ac?aaioaoue i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, /oiau
eniieueciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe. E oaeea
DOS-i?ia?aiiu nouanoaotho. I?ae?aniue i?eia? oiio eieoaoi? eiae/aneiai
aeenea – VDISK, eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaaony DOS, ia/eiay n aa?nee 3.0.
Oioy i?ia?aiiiua eiaeu VDISK auiieiythony a iau/iie iaiyoe DOS a
?aaeueiii ?aaeeia, aeiiieieoaeueiay iaiyoue iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny
aeey o?aiaiey aeaiiuo. Oae eae OS/2 iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a
caueuaiiii ?aaeeia, ae aeinooiiu ana ?ano?nu aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe.
Iaeiaei noieo iaiiiieoue, /oi, eiaaea OS/2 eniieuecoao iiaei?ia?aiiu
noa?ooee DOS, ae i?eoiaeeony aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny ia?aie/aieyie iaiyoe
?aaeueiiai ?aaeeia a 640 Ea.

A ai?aea 1985 aiaea ianeieueei ianyoeaa nionoy iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey
ia?auo AT n ianeieueeeie Ia aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe – aeaaiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai ii i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth e ?ac?aaio/ee oaoie/aneiai
iaania/aiey noi?ioee?iaaee naie nianoaaiiue iaoiae i?aiaeieaiey
ia?aie/aiey a 640 Ea noa?uo eiiiuethoa?ia ia 8088 iee?ii?ioeanni?a,
?aaioathueo a DOS. *a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa e iei i?eniaaeeieeanue
e Microsoft Corporation. Eo ?ac?aaioea iacaaia Lotus –
Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification eee LIM iaiyoue, eee EMS,
eee i?inoi ?anoe?aiiay iaiyoue. Ia?aay aa?ney auea iacaaia EMS 3.0,
/oiau oeacaoue ia niaianoeiinoue n oiaaea iineaaeiae aa?neae DOS.
Iiaay nenoaia ioee/aeanue eae io aaciaie iaiyoe, oae e io
aeiiieieoaeueiie. Iia ia auea a i?aaeaeao aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa
oeaio?aeueiiai iee?ii?ioeanni?a. A? ?aaioa iniiauaaeanue ia
niaoeeaeueiie noaia oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey, eioi?ay ooieoeeiie?iaaea
iaiiaeiaea ia?aeeth/aoaey. Yoi ono?ienoai ia?aeeth/aei aaiee iaiyoe ec
ii?iaeueiiai aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa 8088 iee?ii?ioeanni?a, aaea /ei
iia /eoaoue e ienaoue a ia?. Yoa noaia, iacaaiiay ia?aeeth/aoaeai
aaieia, ia auea ie iiaie ie iaiau/iie. Iiaeiaiia ono?ienoai
eniieueciaaeinue a eiiiuethoa?ao ia Z80 aeey i?aiaeieaiey eeieoa a 64E.
Ia?aua EMS eiaee aeaei n ?anoe?aiiie iaiyoueth, ?acaeoie ia aaiee ii
16E. I?aaenoaaeaiea AT n iioaioeeaeueii aae?anoaiuie 16I caoieei EMS,
iiea oyaeaeay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iaaeinooiiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe
auea aei eiioea iniciaia. Aeaaea ianeieueei eiathueony i?ia?aii,
eioi?ua iiaee iieueciaaoueny aeinoieinoaaie EMS, auee aieaa iieaciu /ai
ae?aeaa? VDISK , eioi?ue aue aaeeinoaaiiie niaianoeiie n DOS
i?ia?aiiie, iicaieythuae eniieueciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueioth iaiyoue. Ana
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea EMS iiaeii auei ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu.
Ia?aay eniieuecoao aiciiaeiinoe 80386 ?aaioaoue n ea?oaie iaiyoe
ae?ooaeueiuo no?aieoe. Aoi?ay eiie?oao aaiee a 16E ec aeiiieieoaeueiie
iaiyoe a iniiaioth. Oioy iaa oeia i?ia?aii yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony,
Lotus cayaeyao, /oi nenoaiu eniieuecothuea eiie?iaaiea aeieia
i?ia?aii, ia iiaoo iaania/eoue iieioth ei??aeoioth ?aaeecaoeeth EMS.

an?……………………….

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Yeaiaio iaiyoe (YI)

Iao?eoea iaeiieoaey

Uieo Iau

Auoiae

1

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Aoiae

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