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Мультимедиа по IP

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Iai?ae?auathueeny ?ino Internet e /anoiuo naoae i?aaeuyaeyao iiaua
o?aaiaaiey e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe. World Wide Web i?eaae e aeaaioneiio
oaaee/aieth o?aoeea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Naaiaeiy aua e aieiniaua, a
oaeaea aeaeaii?eeiaeaiey auaeaeaatho naie niaoeeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey e e
aac oiai ia?aa?oaeaiiui naoyi.

*oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana yoe cai?inu, iaeiiai oaaee/aiey aieinoe naoe
iaaeinoaoi/ii. *oi aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii, oae yoi ?acoiiua
yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey o?aoeeii e eiio?ieue caa?oaeaiiinoe.

Enoi?e/anee naoe ia aaca IP i?aaeinoaaeyee anai i?eeiaeaieyi oieueei
i?inoaeooth oneoao ii aeinoaaea aeaiiuo ii ia?a aiciiaeiinoe. Iaeiaei
iio?aaiinoe eciaieeenue ni a?aiaiai. I?aaiecaoeee, iio?aoeaoea ieeeeiiu
aeieea?ia ia onoaiiaeo naoe ia aaca IP aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
eieaeueiuie naoyie, noaeeeaathony oaia?ue n oai, /oi oaeea eiioeao?aoeee
ia niiniaiu yooaeoeaii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iiaua ioeueoeiaaeeeiua
i?eeiaeaiey ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie n iiiaiaae?aniie ?annueeie.

ATM – aaeeinoaaiiay naoaaay oaoiieiaey, ecia/aeueii ?ac?aaaouaaaoayny
aeey iiaeaea?aeee iau/iiai o?aoeea TCP e UDP ia?yaeo n o?aoeeii
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei i?eaioaoeey ia ATM icia/aao eeai nicaeaiea
iiaie naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u aeey o?aoeea ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie, eeai
caiaio eiathuaeny eiioeao?aoeee ia aaca IP, i?e/ai iaa aeueoa?iaoeau
iaieaeoonyaanueia iaaeaoaai.

Iiyoiio iio?aaiinoue a iiaeaea?aeea ianeieueeeo oeiia o?aoeea n
?acee/iuie o?aaiaaieyie e ea/anoao oneoa a ?aieao a?oeoaeoo?u TCP/IP
aanueia ianouia. Yoo caaea/o i?ecaaiu ?aoeoue aeaa eeth/aauo
eino?oiaioa: o?ainii?oiue i?ioieie ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie (Real-Time
Transport Protocol, RTP) e i?ioieie ?aca?ae?iaaiey ?ano?nia (Resource
Reservation Protocol, RSVP).

RTP aa?aioe?oao aeinoaaeo aeaiiuo iaeiiio eee aieaa aae?anaoai n
caaea?aeeie a caaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua iiaoo auoue
aini?iecaaaeaiu a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie. RSVP iicaieyao eiia/iui nenoaiai
?aca?ae?iaaoue naoaaua ?ano?nu aeey iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa
oneoa, a iniaaiiinoe ?ano?nu aeey o?aoeea ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie ii
i?ioieieo RTP.

Iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecoaiue i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy – yoi TCP.
Ianiio?y ia oi /oi TCP iicaieyao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iiiaeanoai
?aciiia?aciuo ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo i?eeiaeaiee, ii ia iiaeoiaeeo aeey
i?eeiaeaiee ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.

A i?eeiaeaieyo ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie ioi?aaeoaeue aaia?e?oao iioie aeaiiuo
n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth, a iieo/aoaeue(-e) aeieaeai i?aaeinoaaeyoue yoe
aeaiiua i?eeiaeaieth n oie aea naiie nei?inoueth. Oaeea i?eeiaeaiey
aeeth/atho aoaeei- e aeaeaieiioa?aioeee, ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeeaiai aeaeai
(aeey iaiaaeeaiiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey), ?acaeaeyaiua ?aai/ea iaeanoe,
oaeaeaiioth aeeaaiinoeeo a iaaeeoeeia, eiiiuethoa?ioth oaeaoiieth,
?ani?aaeaeaiiia eioa?aeoeaiia iiaeaee?iaaiea, ea?u e iiieoi?eia a
?aaeueiii a?aiaie.

Eniieueciaaiea TCP a ea/anoaa o?ainii?oiiai i?ioieiea aeey yoeo
i?eeiaeaiee iaaiciiaeii ii ianeieueeei i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, yoio
i?ioieie iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue niaaeeiaiea oieueei iaaeaeo aeaoiy
eiia/iuie oi/eaie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii ia iiaeoiaeeo aeey iiiaiaae?aniie
ia?aaea/e. Ii i?aaeoniao?eaaao iiaoi?ioth ia?aaea/o iioa?yiiuo
naaiaioia, i?eauaathueo, eiaaea i?eeiaeaiea ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie oaea eo
ia aeaeao. E?iia oiai, o TCP iao oaeiaiiai iaoaiecia i?eaycee
eioi?iaoeee i neio?iiecaoeee e naaiaioai – ae?oaia o?aaiaaiea
i?eeiaeaiee ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.

Ae?oaie oe?iei eniieuecoaiue i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy UDP ia eiaao
ia?auo aeaoo ia?aie/aiee (niaaeeiaiea oi/ea-oi/ea e ia?aaea/a iioa?yiiuo
naaiaioia), ii e ii ia i?aaeinoaaeyao e?eoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee i
neio?iiecaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, UDP ia i?aaeinoaaeyao nai ii naaa
eaeeo-eeai eino?oiaioia iauaai iacia/aiey aeey i?eeiaeaiee ?aaeueiiai
a?aiaie.

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi eaaeaeia i?eeiaeaiea ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie iiaeao eiaoue
naie nianoaaiiua iaoaieciu aeey iiaeaea?aeee ia?aaea/e a ?aaeueiii
a?aiaie, iie eiatho iiiai iaueo /a?o, a yoi aeaeaao ii?aaeaeaiea
aaeeiiai i?ioieiea aanueia aeaeaoaeueiui. Noaiaea?oiue i?ioieie oaeiai
?iaea – RTP, ii?aaeaeaiiue a RFC1889.

A oeie/iie n?aaea ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie ioi?aaeoaeue aaia?e?oao iaeaou n
iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth. Iie ioi?aaeythony ei /a?ac iaeeiaeiaua eioa?aaeu
a?aiaie, i?ioiaeyo /a?ac naoue e i?eieiathony iieo/aoaeai,
aini?iecaiaeyuei aeaiiua a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie ii eo iieo/aiee.

Iaeiaei aaeaeo aa?eaoeee caaea?aeee i?e ia?aaea/a iaeaoia ii naoe iie
i?eauaatho /a?ac ia?aaoey?iua eioa?aaeu a?aiaie. Aeey eiiiainaoeee yoiai
yooaeoa iinooiathuea iaeaou aooa?ecothony, i?eaea?aeeaathony ia
iaeioi?ia a?aiy e caoai i?aaeinoaaeythony n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth
i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth, aaia?e?othuaio auaiae. *oiau oaeay noaia
?aaioaea, eaaeaeue iaeao iieo/aao ioiaoeo i a?aiaie – oaeei ia?acii
iieo/aoaeue iiaeao aini?iecaanoe iinooiathuea aeaiiua n oie aea
nei?inoueth, /oi e ioi?aaeoaeue.

RTP iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie iaaeaeo
ianeieueeeie o/anoieeaie naaina. (Naain – yoi eiae/aneay naycue iaaeaeo
aeaoiy e aieaa iieueciaaoaeyie RTP, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiay a oa/aiea anaai
a?aiaie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. I?ioeann ioe?uoey naaina auoiaeeo ca ?aiee
RTP.).

Oioy RTP iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny e aeey iaeiiaae?aniie ia?aaea/e a
?aaeueiii a?aiaie, aai neea a iiaeaea?aeea iiiaiaae?aniie ia?aaea/e.
Aeey yoiai eaaeaeue aeie aeaiiuo RTP niaea?aeeo eaeaioeoeeaoi?
ioi?aaeoaey, oeacuaathuee, eoi ec o/anoieeia aaia?e?oao aeaiiua. Aeiee
aeaiiuo RTP niaea?aeao oaeaea ioiaoeo i a?aiaie, /oiau aeaiiua iiaee
auoue aini?iecaaaeaiu n i?aaeeueiuie eioa?aaeaie i?eieiathuae noi?iiie.

E?iia oiai, RTP ii?aaeaeyao oi?iao iieaciie iaa?ocee ia?aaeaaaaiuo
aeaiiuo. N yoei iai?yioth naycaia eiioeaioeey neio?iiecaoeee, ca
eioi?oth /anoe/ii ioaa/aao ieeoa? – iaoaieci o?aineyoeee RTP. I?eieiay
iioiee iaeaoia RTP io iaeiiai eee aieaa enoi/ieeia, ii eiiaeie?oao eo e
iinueaao iiaue iioie iaeaoia RTP iaeiiio eee aieaa iieo/aoaeyi. Ieeoa?
iiaeao i?inoi eiiaeie?iaaoue aeaiiua, a oaeaea eciaiyoue eo oi?iao.

I?eia? i?eeiaeaiey aeey ieeoa?a – eiiaeie?iaaiea ianeieueeeo enoi/ieeia
caoea. Iai?eia?, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi /anoue nenoai aeaiiiai aoaeeinaaina
aaia?e?oao eaaeaeay naie nianoaaiiue iioie RTP. Aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie
oieueei iaeei enoi/iee aeoeaai, oioy a?aiy io a?aiaie iaeiia?aiaiii
“aiai?yo” ianeieueei enoi/ieeia.

Anee iiaay nenoaia oi/ao i?eiyoue o/anoea a naaina, ii aa eaiae aei
naoe ia eiaao aeinoaoi/iie aieinoe aeey iiaeaea?aeee anao iioieia RTP,
oi ieeoa? iieo/aao ana yoe iioiee, iauaaeeiyao eo a iaeei e ia?aaeaao
iineaaeiee iiaiio /eaio naaina. I?e iieo/aiee ianeieueeeo iioieia ieeoa?
i?inoi neeaaeuaaao cia/aiey eiioeuenii-eiaeiaie iiaeoeyoeee. Caaieiaie
RTP, aaia?e?oaiue ieeoa?ii, aeeth/aao eaeaioeoeeaoi?(-u)
ioi?aaeoaey(-ae), /uee aeaiiua i?enoonoaotho a iaeaoa.

Aieaa i?inoia ono?ienoai nicaeaao iaeei enoiaeyuee iaeao RTP aeey
eaaeaeiai iinooiathuaai iaeaoa RTP. Yoio iaoaieci, iacuaaaiue
o?aineyoi?ii, iiaeao eciaieoue oi?iao aeaiiuo a iaeaoa eee
eniieueciaaoue eiie eiiieaeo ieceio?iaiaauo i?ioieieia aeey ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo ec iaeiiai aeiiaia a ae?oaie. Iai?eia?, iioaioeeaeueiue
iieo/aoaeue iiaeao ieacaoueny ia a ninoiyiee ia?aaaouaaoue
aunieinei?inoiie aeaeaineaiae, eniieuecoaiue ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie
naaina. O?aineyoi? eiiaa?oe?oao aeaeai a oi?iao aieaa ieceiai ea/anoaa,
o?aaothuee ia oaeie aunieie nei?inoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

I?ioieie RTP eniieuecoaony oieueei aeey ia?aaea/e iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaiiuo – iau/ii iiiaiaae?aniie – anai o/anoieeai naaina. Ioaeaeueiue
i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie (Real-Time Transport
Control Protocol, RTCP) ?aaioaao n ianeieueeeie aae?anaoaie aeey
iaania/aiey ia?aoiie nayce n ioi?aaeoaeyie aeaiiuo RTP e ae?oaeie
o/anoieeaie naaina.

RTCP eniieuecoao oio aea naiue aaciaue o?ainii?oiue i?ioieie, /oi e RTP
(iau/ii UDP), ii ae?oaie iiia? ii?oa. Eaaeaeue o/anoiee naaina
ia?eiaee/anee iinueaao RTCP-iaeao anai inoaeueiui o/anoieeai naaina. RFC
1889 iienuaaao o?e ooieoeee, auiieiyaiua RTCP.

Ia?aay ooieoeey ninoieo a iaania/aiee ea/anoaa oneoa e ia?aoiie nayce a
neo/aa ia?aa?ocee. Oae eae RTCP-iaeaou yaeythony iiiaiaae?aniuie, ana
o/anoieee naaina iiaoo ioeaieoue, ianeieueei oi?ioe ?aaioa e i?eai
ae?oaeo o/anoieeia. Niiauaiey ioi?aaeoaey iicaieytho iieo/aoaeyi
ioeaieoue nei?inoue aeaiiuo e ea/anoai ia?aaea/e. Niiauaiey iieo/aoaeae
niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeeth i i?iaeaiao, n eioi?uie iie noaeeeaathony,
aeeth/ay ooa?th iaeaoia e ecauoi/ioth ia?aaiiia?iinoue ia?aaea/e.
Iai?eia?, nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeey aoaeei/aeaeaii?eeiaeaiey iiaeao auoue
nieaeaia, anee eeiey ia iaania/eaaao aeaeaaiiai ea/anoaa oneoa i?e
aeaiiie nei?inoe ia?aaea/e.

Ia?aoiay naycue n iieo/aoaeyie aaaeia oaeaea aeey aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey
ioeaie i?e ?ani?ino?aiaiee. Aiaeece?oy niiauaiey anao o/anoieeia naaina,
aaeieieno?aoi? naoe iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue, eanaaony aeaiiay i?iaeaia
iaeiiai o/anoieea eee iineo iauee oa?aeoa?.

Aoi?ay iniiaiay ooieoeey RTCP – eaeaioeoeeaoeey ioi?aaeoaey. Iaeaou
RTCP niaea?aeao noaiaea?oiia oaenoiaia iienaiea ioi?aaeoaey. Iie
i?aaeinoaaeytho aieueoa eioi?iaoeee ia ioi?aaeoaea iaeaoia aeaiiuo, /ai
neo/aeiui ia?acii aua?aiiue eaeaioeoeeaoi? enoi/ieea neio?iiecaoeee.
E?iia oiai, iie iiiiaatho iieueciaaoaeth eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue iioiee,
ioiinyueany e ?acee/iui naainai. Iai?eia?, iie aeatho iieueciaaoaeth
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii ioe?uou ioaeaeueiua naainu
aeey aoaeei e aeaeai.

O?aouey ooieoeey ninoieo a ioeaiea ?acia?ia naaina e ianooaae?iaaiee.
Aeey iaania/aiey ea/anoaa oneoa e ia?aoiie nayce n oeaeueth oi?aaeaiey
caa?oaeaiiinoueth, a oaeaea n oeaeueth eaeaioeoeeaoeee ioi?aaeoaey, ana
o/anoieee ia?eiaee/anee iinueatho iaeaou RTCP. *anoioa ia?aaea/e yoeo
iaeaoia nieaeaaony n ?inoii /enea o/anoieeia.

I?e iaaieueoii /enea o/anoieeia iaeei iaeao RTCP iinueaaony iaeneioi
eaaeaeua 5 naeoiae. RFC 1889 iienuaaao aeai?eoi, niaeanii eioi?iio
o/anoieee ia?aie/eaatho /anoioo RTCP-iaeaoia a caaeneiinoe io iauaai
/enea o/anoieeia. Oeaeue ninoieo a oii, /oiau o?aoee RTCP ia i?aauoae 5%
io iauaai o?aoeea naaina.

Iacia/aiea ethaie naoe ninoieo a aeinoaaea aeaiiuo iieo/aoaeai n
aa?aioe?iaaiiui ea/anoaii oneoa, aeeth/athueo i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue,
caaea?aeeo e aeiionoeiue i?aaeae aa?eaoeee caaea?aeee. N ?inoii /enea
iieueciaaoaeae e i?eeiaeaiee iaania/eoue ea/anoai oneoa noaiiaeony ana
o?oaeiaa

I?inoi ?aaae?iaaoue ia ia?aa?oceo oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iaiaoiaeei
eino?oiaio, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ia?aa?ocie iiaeii auei au ecaaaeaoue
aiiaua, o. a. naeaeaoue oae, /oiau i?eeiaeaiey iiaee ?aca?ae?iaaoue
naoaaua ?ano?nu a niioaaonoaee n o?aaoaiui ea/anoaii oneoa.

I?aaaioeaiua ia?u iieaciu eae i?e iaeiiaae?aniie, oae e i?e
iiiaiaae?aniie ia?aaea/a. I?e iaeiiaae?aniie ia?aaea/a aeaa i?eeiaeaiey
aeiaiaa?eaathony i eiie?aoiii o?iaia ea/anoaa oneoa aeey aeaiiiai
naaina. Anee naoue neeueii caa?oaeaia, oi iia iiaeao ieacaoueny ia a
ninoiyiee i?aaeinoaaeoue oneoae iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa. A yoii neo/aa
i?eeiaeaieyi i?eaeaony ioeiaeeoue naain aei eo/oeo a?aiai eee
iii?iaiaaoue nieceoue o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao oneoa, anee yoi aiciiaeii.

?aoaiea a aeaiiii neo/aa ninoieo a ?aca?ae?iaaiee iaeiiaae?aniuie
i?eeiaeaieyie ?ano?nia aeey iaania/aiey o?aaoaiiai o?iaiy oneoa. Oiaaea
ia?o?ooecaoi?u ia i?aaeiieaaaaiii iooe auaeaeytho ?ano?nu, iai?eia?
ianoi a i/a?aaee e /anoue aieinoe enoiaeyuae eeiee. Anee ia?o?ooecaoi?
ia eiaao aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeeoue ?ano?nu aneaaenoaea ?aiaa acyouo ia
naay iaycaoaeuenoa, oi ii ecaauaao ia yoii i?eeiaeaiea. A yoii neo/aa
i?eeiaeaiea iiaeao iiiuoaoueny eieoeee?iaaoue ae?oaie naain n iaiueoeie
o?aaiaaieyie e ea/anoao oneoa eee ia?aianoe aai ia aieaa iicaeiee n?ie.

Iiiaiaae?aniay ?annueea noaaeo ai?acaei aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e ii
?aca?ae?iaaieth ?ano?nia. Iia aaaeao e aaia?aoeee ia?iiiuo iauaiia
naoaaiai o?aoeea a neo/aa, iai?eia?, oaeeo i?eeiaeaiee, eae aeaeai, eee
aieueoie e ?ann?aaeioi/aiiie a?oiiu iieo/aoaeae. Iaeiaei o?aoee io
enoi/ieea iiiaiaae?aniie ?annueee iiaeao auoue a i?eioeeia cia/eoaeueii
nieaeai.

Aeey yoiai anoue aeaa iniiaaiey. Ai-ia?auo, iaeioi?ua /eaiu a?oiiu iiaoo
ia ioaeaeaoueny a aeinoaaea aeaiiuo io eiie?aoiiai enoi/ieea a
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie. Iai?eia?, /eaiu iaeiie a?oiiu iiaoo
iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth iaeiia?aiaiii ii aeaoi eaiaeai (io aeaoo
enoi/ieeia), ii i?e yoii iieo/aoaeue iiaeao auoue caeioa?aniaai a i?eaia
oieueei iaeiiai eaiaea.

Iiiaiaae?aniue o?aoee iiaeii nieceoue e aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi iaeioi?ua
/eaiu a?oiiu a ninoiyiee ia?aaaouaaoue oieueei /anoue ia?aaeaaaaiie
ioi?aaeoaeai eioi?iaoeee. Iai?eia?, aeaeaiiioie iiaeao ninoiyoue ec
aeaoo eiiiiiaioia: iaeei n ieceei ea/anoaii ea?oeiee, a ae?oaie – n
aunieei. Oaeie oi?iao eiaao ?yae aeai?eoiia naeaoey aeaeai: iie
aaia?e?otho aaciaue eiiiiiaio n ea?oeieie ieceiai ea/anoaa e
aeiiieieoaeueiue eiiiiiaio n iiauoaiiui ?ac?aoaieai.

Iaeioi?ua iieo/aoaee iiaoo ia eiaoue aeinoaoi/iie au/eneeoaeueiie iiue
aeey ia?aaioee eiiiiiaioia n aunieei ?ac?aoaieai eee auoue iiaeeeth/aiu
e naoe /a?ac iiaenaoue eee eaiae, ia eiathuea aeinoaoi/iie aieinoe,
/oiau i?iionoeoue iieiue neaiae.

?aca?ae?iaaiea ?ano?nia iicaieyao ia?o?ooecaoi?ai ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeeoue,
a ninoiyiee ee iie inouanoaeoue aeinoaaeo iiiaiaae?aniiai o?aoeea anai
iieo/aoaeyi.

A i?aaeuaeoueo iiiuoeao ?aaeecaoeee ?aca?ae?iaaiey ?ano?nia e a i?eiyouo
ai frame relay e ATM iiaeoiaeao iaiaoiaeeiua ?ano?nu cai?aoeaaao
enoi/iee iioiea aeaiiuo. Yoio iaoiae aeinoaoi/ai a neo/aa iaeiiaae?aniie
ia?aaea/e, iioiio /oi ia?aaeathuaa i?eeiaeaiea ia?aaeaao aeaiiua a
ii?aaeaeaiiii oaiia, a iaiaoiaeeiu o?iaaiue ea/anoaa oneoa caeiaeai a
noaio ia?aaea/e.

Iaeiaei oaeie iiaeoiae iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue aeey iiiaiaae?aniie
?annueee. O ?aciuo /eaiia a?oiiu iiaoo auoue iaiaeeiaeiaua o?aaiaaiey e
?ano?nai. Anee enoiaeiue iioie iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeai ia iiaeiioiee, oi
iaeioi?ua /eaiu a?oiiu, aiieia aiciiaeii, iiaeaeatho iieo/aoue oieueei
iaeei ec ieo. Iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua iieo/aoaee iiaoo auoue a ninoiyiee
ia?aaaouaaoue oieueei eiiiiiaio aeaeaineaiaea ieceiai ?ac?aoaiey. Eee
anee ianeieueei ioi?aaeoaeae aauatho ia iaeio a?oiio, oi iieo/aoaeue
iiaeao aua?aoue oieueei iaeiiai ioi?aaeoaey eee iaeioi?ia eo
iiaeiiiaeanoai. Iaeiiaoe, o?aaiaaiey ?acee/iuo iieo/aoaeae e ea/anoao
oneoa iiaoo iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io iai?oaeiaaiey auaiaea, iiuiinoe
i?ioeanni?a e nei?inoe eaiaea.

Ii yoie i?e/eia ?aca?ae?iaaiea ?ano?nia iieo/aoaeai i?aaenoaaeyaony
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui. Ioi?aaeoaee iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeoue ia?o?ooecaoi?ai
iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aoeea (iai?eia?, oaii ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e
aa?eaaaeueiinoue), ii iieo/aoaee aeieaeiu naie ii?aaeaeeoue o?aaoaiue
o?iaaiue ea/anoaa oneoa. Ia?o?ooecaoi?u naiaeyo caoai aiaaeeii cai?inu
ia auaeaeaiea ?ano?nia ia iaueo o/anoeao aea?aaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

A iniiaa RSVP eaaeao o?e eiioeaioeee, eanathueany iioieia aeaiiuo:
naain, niaoeeoeeaoeey iioiea e niaoeeoeeaoeey oeeueo?a. Naain – yoi
iioie aeaiiuo, eaeaioeoeoee?oaiue ii aae?anaoo. Ioiaoei, /oi yoa
eiioeaioeey ioee/aaony io eiioeaioeee naaina RTP, oioy naainu RSVP e RTP
iiaoo eiaoue acaeiiiaeiicia/iia niioaaonoaea. Iinea ?aca?ae?iaaiey
ia?o?ooecaoi?ii ?ano?nia aeey eiie?aoiiai aae?anaoa ii ?anniao?eaaao yoi
eae ia/aei naaina e auaeaeyao ?ano?nu ia a?aiy yoiai naaina.

Cai?in ia ?aca?ae?iaaiea io eiia/iie nenoaiu-iieo/aoaey, iacuaaaiue
iienaoaeai iioiea, ninoieo ec niaoeeoeeaoeee iioiea e oeeueo?a.
Niaoeeoeeaoeey iioiea ii?aaeaeyao o?aaoaiia ea/anoai oneoa e
eniieuecoaony oceii aeey caaeaiey ia?aiao?ia ieaie?iaueea iaeaoia.
Ia?o?ooecaoi? ia?aaeaao iaeaou n caaeaiiui iaai?ii i?aaeii/oaiee,
iie?aynue ia oaeouoth niaoeeoeeaoeeth iioiea.

Niaoeeoeeaoeey oeeueo?a ii?aaeaeyao iaai? iaeaoia, iiae eioi?ua
cai?aoeaathony ?ano?nu. Aianoa n naainii iia ii?aaeaeyao iaai? iaeaoia
(eee iioie), aeey eioi?uo o?aaoaiia ea/anoai oneoa aeieaeii auoue
iaania/aii. Ethaua ae?oaea iaeaou, iai?aaeyaiua yoiio aae?anaoo,
ia?aaaouaathony iinoieueeo, iineieueeo naoue a ninoiyiee yoi naeaeaoue.

RSVP ia ii?aaeaeyao niaea?aeaiea niaoeeoeeaoeee iioiea, ii i?inoi
ia?aaeaao cai?in. Niaoeeoeeaoeey iioiea aeeth/aao iau/ii eeann oneoa,
Rspec (R icia/aao ?aca?a) e Tspec (O icia/aao o?aoee). Aeaa ae?oaeo
ia?aiao?a i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaai? /enae. Ia?aiao? Rspec ii?aaeaeyao
o?aaoaiia ea/anoai oneoa, a ia?aiao? Tspec iienuaaao iioie aeaiiuo.
Niaea?aeeiia Rspec e Tspec i?ic?a/ii aeey RSVP

A i?eioeeia niaoeeoeeaoeey oeeueo?a iienuaaao i?iecaieueiia
iiaeiiiaeanoai iaeaoia iaeiiai naaina (o. a. iaeaoia, aae?anao eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaiiui naainii). Iai?eia?, niaoeeoeeaoeey oeeueo?a iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoue oieueei eiie?aoiuo ioi?aaeoaeae eee i?ioieieu eeai iaeaou,
iiey i?ioieieueiuo caaieiaeia eioi?uo niaiaaeatho n caaeaiiuie.

N oi/ee c?aiey oinoa ?aaioa i?ioieiea ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yoaiia
(ia?aua aeaa yoaia a yoie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eiatho eiiaaea ia?aoioth
i/a?aaeiinoue)

1. Iieo/aoaeue anooiaao a a?oiio iiiaiaae?aniie ?annueee iin?aaenoaii
ioi?aaee niiauaiey ii i?ioieieo IGMP ninaaeiaio ia?o?ooecaoi?o.

2. Iioaioeeaeueiue ioi?aaeoaeue ioi?aaeyao niiauaiea ii aae?ano a?oiiu.

3. Iieo/aoaeue i?eieiaao niiauaiea Path, eaeaioeoeoee?othuaa
ioi?aaeoaey.

4. Oaia?ue, eiaaea iieo/aoaeue eiaao eioi?iaoeeth ia ia?aoiii iooe, ii
iiaeao ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey Resv n aeane?eioi?aie iioiea.

5. Niiauaiey Resv ia?aaeathony ii naoe ioi?aaeoaeth.

6. Ioi?aaeoaeue ia/eiaao ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo.

7. Iieo/aoaeue ia/eiaao i?eai iaeaoia aeaiiuo.

Iaoaieci onoaiiaea niaaeeiaiey n ?aca?ae?iaaieai iieinu i?iioneaiey.

I?ioeaaeo?a onoaiiaee niaaeeiaiey n ?aca?ae?iaaieai iieinu i?iioneaiey
i?ioiaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Eiia/iue iieueciaaoaeue, caeioa?aniaaiiue a ia?aaea/a /oanoaeoaeueiiai
e caaea?aeeai o?aoeea, ia?aaeaao a naoue niiauaiea n oeacaieai
eioi?iaoeee i aeaiiuo, eioi?ua ii niae?aaony ia?aaeaaaoue (nthaea
aeeth/aaony IP aae?an enoi/ieea e iiia? UDP/TCP ii?oa),a oae aea
eioi?iaoeeth i oeia o?aoeea.

Yoa eioi?iaoeey i?eiaiyaony i?e iano?ieea iaoaieciia oi?aaeaiey iioieii
aeaiiuo a i?iiaaeooi/iuo oceao naoe aeey inouanoaeaiey ?aca?ae?iaaiey
iieinu i?iioneaiey, a oae aea aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ecauoi/iiai
?aca?ae?iaaiey ?ano?nia aeey aeaiiiai oeia o?aoeea.

I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee ii naoe yoio eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaeao “caiiieiaao”
ia?o?oo ii eioi?iio ii aeioae aei iieo/aoaey.

I?e iieo/aiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaeaoa i?eaiiee aiaeece?oao aai
niaea?aeaiea e, a neo/aa naiae caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a aeaiiie eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aaeaao a naoue cai?in ia ?aca?ae?iaaiea iieinu i?iioneaiey.

Aeaiiue cai?in, iienuaathuee iaiaoiaeeiue oei na?aena e naoaaiai
niaaeeiaiey, ia?aaeaaony ii naoe io i?eaiieea e ia?aaeao/eeo ii oiio aea
ia?o?ooo, /oi e eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaeao.

Eaaeaeue i?iiaaeooi/iue ocae naoe i?iaiaeeo aiaeec iieo/aiiiai cai?ina
ia iniiaaiee iienaiiuo ieaea i?aaee.

I?e iieo/aiee cai?ina ia onoaiiaeo niaaeeiaiey n ?aca?ae?iaaieai
?ano?na a ocea naoe aeeth/athony aeaa iaoaiecia: eiio?ieea? ?ano?nia
eaiaea, ii?aaeaeythuee iaee/ea cai?aoeaaaiiai ?ano?na e eiio?ieea?
aeinooia, naa?ythuee i?aaa aeaiiiai iieueciaaoaey n iieo/aiiui cai?inii.

Anee i?e io?aaioea iaieo iaoaieciia aue iieo/ai iieiaeeoaeueiue
?acoeueoao, oi ?aca?ae?iaaiea, a aeaiiii ocea, n/eoaaony onoaiiaeaiiui e
niioaaonoaothuay eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony a iiaeoee, ioaa/athuea ca
eeanneoeeaoeeth iioieia e oi?ie?iaaiea auoiaeiuo i/a?aaeae.

Anee aea oioy au iaeei ec iaoaieciia aica?auaao io?eoeaoaeueiue
?acoeueoao, oi i?ioieie eioi?ie?oao enoi/iee cai?ina i iaaiciiaeiinoe
aai inouanoaeaiey.

Ia?aaioea cai?ina ia onoaiiaeaiea niaaeeiaiey n ?aca?ae?iaaieai ?ano?na
i?ioiaeeo ii ioaeaeueiinoe aeey eaaeaeiai oeia naoaaiai niaaeeiaiey oae
eae i?ioieie RSVP niiniaai ?acee/aoue oeiu niaaeeiaiey.

Oei naoaaiai niaaeeiaiey ii?aaeaeyaony o?aiy ia?aiao?aie: IP aae?an
iieo/aoaey, oei i?ioieiea e oei ii?oa iacia/aiey.

Anee iieo/aiiue cai?in oaeiaeaoai?yao anai o?aaiaaieyi, oi ocae
i?iecaiaeeo ?aca?ae?iaaiea iaiaoiaeeiie iieinu i?iioneaiey e ia?aaeaao
cai?in aeaeueoa, a iai?aaeaiee e ia?aaeao/eeo.

Eae oieueei ia?aaeao/ee iieo/aao cai?in ia ?aca?ae?iaaiea iieinu
i?iioneaiey io i?eaiieea niaaeeiaiea n/eoaaony onoaiiaeaiiui e
ia/eiaaony iaiai eioi?iaoeeae.

Ai a?aiy naaina nayce i?eaiiee e ia?aaeao/ee ia?eiaee/anee
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeaeueiaeooth iaiaoiaeeiinoue a inouanoaeaiee
?aca?ae?iaaiey iieinu i?iioneaiey iooai iinueee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iaeaoia
ia?aaeao/eeii e cai?inia ia ?aca?ae?iaaiea i?eaiieeii.

Ocae naoe a i?aaa i?ae?aoeoue ?aca?ae?iaaiea iieinu i?iioneaiey eae
oieueei ii ia iieo/aao i/a?aaeiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey io i?eaiieea eee
ia?aaeao/eea.

?aca?ae?iaaiea iieinu i?iioneaiey oae aea iiaeao auoue i?ae?auaii iinea
ia?aaea/e i?eaiieeii eee ia?aaeao/eeii cai?ina ia ioiaio niaaeeiaiey.

Ea/anoai oneoa. Ea/anoai oneoa (QoS) – yoi eeth/aaay o?aca aeey
iaicia/aiey naoae ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aac iioa?e y/aae n i?aaeneacoaiie
caaea?aeeie ec eiioea a eiiaoe e aeinoaaeie a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie iinea
onoaiiaeaiey niaaeeiaiey. Aunieiea/anoaaiiia ioeueoeiaaeea a naoe eae a
?aaeueiii a?aiaie, oae e i?e aini?iecaaaeaiee aoaeei- e aeaeaioaeeia n
na?aa?a i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea naoe n iaania/aieai ea/anoaa oneoa. Oaeea
i?ioieieu, eae ATM, ?ac?aaaouaaeenue niaoeeaeueii aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ianeieueeeo o?iaiae oneoa. Iaania/aiea ea/anoaa oneoa a neo/aa IP
aiciiaeii oieueei i?e eniieueciaaiee niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioieieia, oaeeo eae
RSVP, aeey ?aca?ae?iaaiey i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ia i?iiaaeooi/iuo
ono?ienoaao (ia?o?ooecaoi?ao).

Eiiiuethoa?iay oaeaoiiey. Oa?iei “eiiiuethoa?iay oaeaoiiey”
(Computer-Telephony Integration, CTI) ioiineony e ?aaeecaoeee
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aoaeei- (eiiaaea e aeaeai-) na?aenia a naoe ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo. Nenoaiu eiiiuethoa?iie oaeaoiiee iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu eae a
naoyo n aa?aioe?iaaiiie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth (oeia ATM), oae e a
naoyo ia?aaea/e eaae?ia (oeia Ethernet eee frame relay).

CIF. Iauee i?iiaaeooi/iue oi?iao (Common Intermediate Format) n
?ac?aoaieai 352 ieenaea ii ai?eciioaee ia 288 ieenaeia ii aa?oeeaee
yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiioey?iui oi?iaoii ecia?aaeaiee a
aeaeaieiioa?aioeeyo. I?e iaiueoae i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe aeaeainenoaiu
eniieuecotho, eae i?aaeei, eeai QCIF (Quarter CIF) n ?ac?aoaieai 176o144
ieenaea, eeai SQCIF (Sub-Quarter CIF) n ?ac?aoaieai 128o96 ieenaeia.
Aeaeai n aunieie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth iienuaaaony oi?iaoii 4CIF
(704o576 ieenaeia) eee 16CIF (1408o1152 ieenaea).

G.711. Iaeei ec iniiaiuo noaiaea?oia ITU-T aeey aoaeeieiaeaeia
(eiaee?iaueeia-aeaeiaee?iaueeia aieina e iocuee). G.711 yaeyaony
/anoueth aieaa iaueo ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo noaiaea?oia, oaeeo eae H.320 e
H.323, e?iia oiai, ii eniieuecoaony a eiiiuethoa?iie oaeaoiiee e nai ii
naaa. G.711 ii?aaeaeyao aoaeeineaiae n oe?eiie iieinu 3,4 EAoe (eiuie
neiaaie, iau/iue aiaeiaiaue aieiniaie neaiae) ii eioi?iaoeeiiiui eaiaeai
a 64 Eaeo/n. Noaiaea?o G.722 iienuaaao aoaeeiiioie n oe?eiie iieinu 7,0
EAoe ii eaiaeo a 64 Eaeo/n, a noaiaea?o G.728 – aoaeeiiioie n oe?eiie
iieinu 3,4 EAoe ii eaiaeo a 16 Eaeo/n. Noaiaea?o G.723 ii?aaeaeyao
ia?aaea/o eiiiuethoa?iie aoaeeieioi?iaoeee ii oceiiieinoiui oaeaoiiiui
eeieyi. Ii iienuaaao oieioiaiiue neaiae a 3,4 EAoe aeey iau/iuo
oaeaoiiiuo eeiee e eniieuecoaony a ioeueoeiaaeeeiii noaiaea?oa H.324.

H.233. Noaiaea?o oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo ITU-T aeey ioeueoeiaaeeeiie
eioi?iaoeee ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. H.233 iiaeaea?aeeaaaony oeaeui ?yaeii
noaiaea?oiuo neoaea, a oii /enea H.320, H.323 e H.324. Noaiaea?o H.234
ii?aaeaeyao, eaeei ia?acii ia?aaaouaathony eeth/e oeo?iaaiey.

H.261. Noaiaea?o ITU-T ia eiaeae ni naeaoeai aeaeai. Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue
H.320, H.323 e H.324, H.261 niaianoei n oi?iaoaie ecia?aaeaiee CIF e
QCIF. H.261 ?ac?aaaouaaeny aeey niieueciaaiey n ISDN e aeiioneaao
nei?inoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, e?aoiua 64 Eaeo/n. Iiaue noaiaea?o H.263
(iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue H.324) iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue H.261 e niaianoei n
ecia?aaeaieyie a oi?iaoao SQCIF, 4CIF, 16CIF.

H.320. Iaeei ec iniiaiuo noaiaea?oia ITU-T aeey ioeueoeiaaeea a
?aaeueiii a?aiaie. H.320 – yoi noaiaea?o aeey aeaeaieiioa?aioeee a
oceiiieiniuo aeiaaeueiuo naoyo n eiiiooaoeeae eaiaeia, oaeeo eae ISDN.
Ii aeeth/aao niaoeeoeeaoeee aeey aeaiiuo (T.120), aieina (G.711 e
G.728), aeaeai (H.261) e oeo?iaaiey (H.233 e H.234). H.323 i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue noaiaea?o H.320 aeey iniiaiuo naoae n
eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia. ?iaenoaaiiua noaiaea?ou aeey ioeueoeiaaeea
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie, ia ?anniao?eaaaiua ioaeaeueii a yoii neiaa?a,
aeeth/atho H.321 aeey oe?ieiiieiniiai ISDN e ATM, H.322 aeey naoae
eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia n aa?aioe?iaaiiie iieinie i?iioneaiey e H.310 aeey
ioeueoeiaaeea aunieiai ?ac?aoaiey iiaa?o ATM.

H.323. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oethcu e eeeaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
yaeythony ii aieueoae /anoe ianoaiaea?oiuie. Anee iaa eiiiiiaioa ia
i?aaenoaaeaiu iaeiie eiiiaieae, oi, nei?aa anaai, au ia niiaeaoa
eniieueciaaoue IP-oaeaoiieth aeey caiiea ae?oaiio aaiiaioo.

Caeanue i?eoiaeeo ia iiiiuue noaiaea?o I.323, ii?aaeaeythuee ia?aaea/o
aeaeai e aoaeei ii naoyi n iaaa?aioe?iaaiiui ea/anoaii oneoa, oaeei eae
Ethernet e IP.I.323 iienuaaao ianeieueei yeaiaioia, a oii /enea aoaeei-
e aeaeaieiaeaee (eiaea?u/aeaeiaea?u), eiiioieeaoeeiiiua i?ioieieu e
neio?iiecaoeeth iaeaoia. Ia?aiia/aeueii noaiaea?o ?ac?aaaouaaeny aeey
?uiea aeaeaieiioa?aioeee a ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau naainia ii ISDN, ii
oaia?ue niiauanoai IP-oaeaoiiee aaeaioe?iaaei noaiaea?o aeey naieo
nianoaaiiuo ioaeae.

Ii ec-ca oiai, /oi I.323 ?ac?aaaouaaeny aeey aeaeaieiioa?aioeee, aeaeaei
ia anyeee oethc e eeeaio IP-oaeaoiiee iiaeaea?aeeaaao noaiaea?o. Oai ia
iaiaa yoa neooaoeey iinoaiaiii iaiyaony, oae eae /enei i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
auneacuaathueony a iieueco noaiaea?oia e ?aaioathueo iaae eo
iioeiecaoeeae aeey IP-oaeaoiiee, iaoeeiiii ?anoao. N?aaee eiiiaiee,
cayaeaoeo i iiaeaea?aeea I.323, – VocalTec, Clarent, Dialogic, Array
Telecom, Micom, Microsoft, Intel, Brooktrout. A naioya?a 1997 aiaea ia
eiioa?aioeee “Aiein ii naoe” a Ainoiia i?iecaiaeeoaee ec anao iaeanoae
?uiea IP-oaeaoiiee

i?eiyee o/anoea a e?oiiaeoae ioaee/iie aeaiiino?aoeee
eioa?iia?aaaeueiinoe I.323.

H.324. Noaiaea?o ITU-T aeey ia?aaea/e ioeueoeiaaeea a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie
ii iau/iui oaeaoiiiui eeieyi n iiiiuueth iiaeaiia V.34 ia 28,8 Eaeo/n
eee aieaa auno?uo. Iiaeiaii H.320, H.324 aeeth/aao noaiaea?o T.120 aeey
?acaeaeaiey aeaiiuo, naeaoea aeaeai ii noaiaea?oo H.261, a oaeaea
noaiaea?ou oeo?iaaiey H.233 e H.234. A ioee/ea io H.320, H.324
eniieuecoao aoaeeinoaiaea?o G.723.

MMX. Ii ooaa?aeaeaieth Intel, ae?iiei “MMX” ia eiaao eaeiai-eeai
eiie?aoiiai cia/aiey, ii iau/ii ii ?anoeo?iauaaaony eae
“Ioeueoeiaaeeeiua ?anoe?aiey”. Aieaa eiie?aoii MMX ?aaeecoaony eae iaai?
iiauo eiiaiae aeey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia Pentium n MMX e Pentium II. Iaeiaei
MMX caieiaaony ia oieueei Intel: oae, iai?eia?, eiiiaiey Advanced Micro
Devices, eiieo?e?othuee i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?ioeanni?ia, auionoeea iiaia
MMX-niaianoeiia naiaenoai i?ioeanni?ia. Iiiaea iiaua ioeueoeiaaeeeiua
i?iaeoeou iiae Windows aeey eiiiuethoa?iie oaeaoiiee e
aeaeaieiioa?aioeee ieooony n o/aoii i?aeiouanoa iiauo eiiaiae MMX.

RTP. O?ainii?oiue i?ioieie ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie – yoi noaiaea?o IETF
aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, oaeeo eae aiein eee aeaeai, a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie
ii iaeaoiie naoe, ia aa?aioe?othuae ea/anoaa oneoa. Naycaiiue n iei
noaiaea?o – i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie
(Real-Time Transport Control Protocol, RTCP) – iaania/eaaaoia?aoioth
naycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy ono?ienoaaie eee a?oiiie. Oaeea ioeueoeiaaeeeiua
noaiaea?ou ITU-T aeey naoae aac iaania/aiey ea/anoaa oneoa, eae H.323 e
H.324, iie?athony ia RTP/RTCP.

T.120. Yoio noaiaea?o ITU-T eanaaony ?acaeaeaiey ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo
aeaiiuo ii naoe a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie. Ii neoaeeo aacenii aeey oaeeo
i?eeiaeaiee, eae niaianoiay ?aaioa iaae i?iaeoaie i?e aeaonoi?iiieo eee
iiiainoi?iiieo naainao. T.120 yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth iaeioi?uo
noaiaea?oia aeaeaieiioa?aioeee, iai?eia? H.320, H.323 e H.324.

?ACTHIA.

A/a?aoiea iaoiaeu ?aaiou n aieueoeie iauaiaie o?aoeea niaa?oaiii
iai?eaiaeiu aeey nia?aiaiiuo nenoai. Oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?anoouei
o?aaiaaieyi e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo a nayce n ?inoii eo iauaia,
?ani?ino?aiaieai i?eeiaeaiee ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie e iiiaiaae?aniie
?annueee aac iiauo eino?oiaioia iaaiciiaeii. RTP e RSVP iaania/eaatho
iaaeaaeiue ooiaeaiaio aeey naoae neaaeothuaai iieieaiey.

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