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MS-DOS

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Enoi?ey nicaeaiey.

Ia?aie ?ac?aaioeie MS-DOS iiaeii n/eoaoue iia?aoeeiiioth
nenoaio aeey iapniiaeueiuo YAI, nicaeaiioth oe?iie Seattle Computer
Products a 1980 a. A eiioea 1980 a. nenoaia, ia?aiia/aeueii iacaaiiay
QDOS, auea iiaeeoeoee?iaaia e ia?aeiaiiaaia a 86-DOS.I?aai ia
eniieueciaaiea iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu 86-DOS auei eoieaii
Ei?ii?aoeeae MICROSOFT, caeeth/eaoae eiio?aeo n oe?iie IBM,
iaycoynue ?ac?aaioaoue iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio aeey iiaie
iiaeaee ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, auioneaaiuo oe?iie. Eiaaea a
eiioea 1981 a. iiaue eiiiuethoap IBM PC i?eia?ae oe?ieoth
iiioey?iinoue, aai iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiioth aa?neth nenoaiu 86-DOS, iacaaiioth PC-DOS, aa?ney
1.0.

Anei?a iinea auionea IBM-PC ia ?uiea noaee iiyaeyoueny
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u «noiaeea n PC». Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia
yoeo eiiiuethoa?ia iacuaaeanue MS-DOS, aa?ney 1.0. Ei?ii?aoeey
MICROSOFT i?aaeinoaaeea a ?anii?yaeaiea oepi, ipiecaiaeyueo yoe
iaoeiu, oi/ioth eiieth iiapaoeeiiiie nenoaiu PC-DOS, oe?iei oaia?ue
ipeiaiyaioth MS-DOS.

Aaeeinoaaiiui na?ueaciui pacee/eai yoeo nenoai auei oi, /oi
iacuaaaony «o?iaiai nenoaiu». Oi anoue aeey eaaeaeie iaoeiu
iaiaoiaeeii auei iieoiaoue naith iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio.
Ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeie nenoaiu iia auyaeoue oieueei
nenoaiiue i?iapaieno, a /uee iaycaiiinoe aoiaeeea paaioa ii «iiaeaiiea»
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e eiie?aoiie iaoeia. Iieueciaaoaeue,
?aaioathuee ia ?aciuo iaoeiao, ia iuouae ieeaeie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo ieie.

N iiiaioa auionea iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu PC-DOS e
MS-DOS oniaa?oainoaiaaeenue ia?aeeaeueii e aiaeiae/iui ia?acii. A
1982 a. iiyaeeenue aa?nee 1.1. Aeaaiui i?aeiouanoaii iiaie
aa?nee auea aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeaoonoipiiieo aeeneao
(aapney 1.0 iicaieyea ?aaioaoue oieueei n iaeiinoi?iiieie
aeeneaoaie), a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?anueee i?eioa?ianeiai auaiaea
ia ae?oaea ono?ienoaa.

A 1983 a. auee ?ac?aaioaiu aa?nee 2.0. Ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeoueie iie aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue aeanoeee aeene,
iaania/eaaee oneiaeiaiiue ea?a?oe/aneee aeepaeoipee aeenea,
aeeth/aee ano?iaiiua ono?ienoaa aeey aeeneao e nenoaio oi?aaeaiey
oaeeaie.

MS-DOS aa?nee 3.0, auiouaiiay a 1984 a.,
i?aaeinoaaeyea oeo/oaiiue aa?eaio ianeoaeeaaiey aeanoeiai aeenea e
iiaeniaaeeiaiiuo e eiiiuethoa?o iee?ieiiiuethoa?ia. Iineaaeothuea
aa?nee, aeeth/ay 3.3 (iiyaeaoothny a 1987 a.), ?acaeaaeenue a oii aea
iaipaaeaiee.

Aaiae -auaiae

Aaiae e auaiae – yoi i?ioeannu, inouanoaeythuea
ia?anueeo aoiaeiiuo e auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. MS-DOS i?aaeoniao?eaaao
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia iaoaiaoe/aneia iaania/aiea aeey oi?aaeaiey yoeie
i?ioeannaie ii aeaeaieth iieueciaaoaey. Oi?aaeaiea aeaiiuie
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth i?ioeaaeo?, iacuaaaiuo iai?aaeaiiue aaiae
e auaiae, oeeueo?u e eiiioieeaoeee. Eniieuecoy yoe i?ioeaaeo?u,
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao i?aaieciaaoue naith eeieth ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee. Ii iiaeao i?eaioe?iaaoue iioie eioi?iaoeee ia ethaia
ono?ienoai, eee a ethaia ianoi iaiyoe, oii?yaei/eoue eioi?iaoeeth,
i?iionoea aa /a?ac oeeueo?, iai?aaeyy caoai auoiaeiie iioie,
iai?eia?, ia aoiae nenoaiiie i?ia?aiiu eee iapaaio/eea eiiaiaeu.

NOAIAeA?OIUA ONO?IENOAA AAIAeA E AUAIAeA

Aeey aaiaea eioi?iaoeee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
eniieuecotho eeaaeaoo?o. A ?acoeueoaoa auiieiaiey aieueoeinoaa
iia?aoeee iieo/aiiua aeaiiua auaiaeyony ia ye?ai aeenieay. Iiyoiio
eeaaeaoo?a n/eoaaony noaiaea?oiui ono?ienoaii aaiaea, a ye?ai –
noaiaea?oiui ono?ienoaii auaiaea.

MS-DOS i?aaeoniao?eaaao n?aaenoaa, iicaieythuea
iacia/aoue ianoaiaea?oiua ono?ienoaa aaiaea eee auaiaea, Oaeea
ono?ienoaa iacuaathony ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie aaiaea/auaiaea, o.e.
iie yaeythony aiaoieie ii ioiioaieth e iaoeia.

OEEUeO?U

Oeeueo? – yoi nenoaiiay i?ia?aiia eee eiiaiaea,
eioi?ay n/eouaaao aeaiiua n ono?ienoaa aaiaea, iaeioi?ui ia?acii
oii?yaei/eaaao eo e caoai ia?anueaao ia caaeaiiia ono?ienoai
auaiaea. MS-DOS i?aaeoniao?eaaao o?e eiiaiaeu oeeueo?aoeee: SORT,
FIND e MORE.

EIIIOIEEAOeEE

Eiiioieeaoeey – yoi niaaeeeiaiea aeaoo nenoaiiuo
i?ia?aii eee eiiaiae,eiiaiaeu n i?ia?aiiie eee iaiai?io. Oaeia
niaaeeiaiea iaania/eaaaoaiciiaeiinoue iapanueee auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo
iaeiie i?ia?aiiu eee eiiaiaeu iaaoiae ae?oaie i?ia?aiiu eee eiiaiaeu
.?acee/ea iaaeaeo iai?aaeaiiui aaiaeii/auaiaeii e
eiiioieeaoeeae:Iai?aaeaiiue aaiae/auaiae – yoi n/eouaaiea aeaiiuo n
eee eo ia?anueea ia ia?eoa?eeiia ono?ienoai . Eiiioieeaoeey -yoi niinia
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo i?ia?aiiaie eee eiiaiaeaie nenoaiu
(o.a.ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo i?ienoiaeeo aioo?e iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu)

AeIIIEIEOAEUeIUA AICIIAEIINOE OI?AAEAIEss EEAAEAOO?IE E
YE?AIII

Aaiae aeaiiuo n eeaaeaoo?u e auaiae eo ia ye?ai aeenieay
inouanoaeyaonyiiae oi?aaeaieai ae?aeaa?a ANSI.SYS. Oaee ANSI.SYS
ioiineony e aeiiieieoaeueiiio nenoaiiiio iao.iaania/aieath .
Ae?aeaa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiioth i?ia?aiio, ioaa/athuoth ca
naycue

MS-DOS n ia?eoa?eeiui ono?ienoaii, iai?eia?, n i?eioa?ii, aeeneiaiaeii
eee eiinieueth. Ae?aeaa? i?aaeinoaaeyaoiieueciaaoaeth oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey eeaaeaoo?ie e ye?aiii, iicaieyy ianopaeaaoue
eo ia eiie?aoiua caaeaiey: oi?aaeaiey eo?ni?ii, noe?aiey ye?aia,
ii?aaeaeaiey eee ia?aii?aaeaeaiey ooieoeee iaeioi?uo eeaaeo,
iacia/aiey ao?eaooia ye?aia.

I?EIAIAIEA ANSI.SYS

Aeaiiua, aaaaeaiiua n eeaaeaoo?u, ia?anueathony a iaiyoue iaoeiu
a aeaea iaai?a neiaieia noaiaea?oiiai eiaea ASCII. ANSI.SYS
ipiecaiaeeo ipaiapaciaaiea aaiaeeiuo aeaiiuo. Ii?aaeaeaiiua
eiiaeiaoeee neiaieia yaeythony eiiaiaeaie ae?aeaa?a, eioipua, a
naith i/apaaeue, yaeythony eino?oeoeeyie ii ia?aaioea aeaiiuo.
Ana eiiaiaeu ANSI.SYS ia/eiathony n en/acathuaai neiaiea (cia/aiea 27 a
eiaea ASCII). A ipioeanna paaiou iie ia auaiaeyony ia ye?ai aeenieay
.ANSI.SYS auiieiyao /aou?a oeia iiapaoeee: oi?aaeaiea iiceoeeae
eo?ni?a; noe?aiea ye?aia eee /anoe yepaia; cae?aieaiea oeacaiiuo
neiaieueiuo ia?aiaiiuo ca ii?aaeaeaiiuie eeaaeoaie; iacia/aiea
iiae e

ao?eaooia aeenieay.

NIAIANOEIINOUe IIA?AOeEIIIUO NENOAI

Iau/ii nenoaiiia iao.iaania/aiea DOS iiaeaiiyaony e eiie?aoiie
iaoeia. I?e yoii iii eiino?oe?oaony oae, /oiau iiaei iiaeieoe aeey
ethaie iaoeiu, niaianoeiie n aeaiiie. (Iai?eia?, aeey iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai PC-DOS eee MS-DOS aa?nee COMPAQ eee Cordata).
Aaeeinoaaiiay iaeanoue, aaea iao.iaania/aiea ?aciuo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai neeueii aeeooa?aioee?iaaii, yoi oaee IO.SYS. Oi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycai n oece/aneei ono?ienoaii yeaeo?iiiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e i?aaiecoaony iacaaeneii eaaeaeie oe?iie-ecaioiaeoaeai.
Iaeiaei, yeaeo?iiiia iai?oaeiaaiea ?aciuo nenoai noiaeii ii naiaio
no?iaieth, e yoi iaania/eaaao niaianoeiinoue IO.SYS ii iniiaiui
ia?aiao?ai.

Aeaaiaea?y oaeie niaianoeiinoe iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao aac
cao?oaeiaiee niaieoue iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio ia naiae au/eneeoaeueiie
iaoeia. Iaeiaei, i?e ia?aoiaea a ae?oaoth nenoaio neaaeoao iiiieoue,
/oi aa nenoaiiua oaeeu, eae i?aaeei, ioee/athony ii ?acia?o io
nenoaiiuo oaeeia nenoaiu, ?aaioaaoae ?aiaa. Anee nenoaiiua oaeeu
aeaiiie nenoaiu aieueoa nenoaiiuo oaeeia i?aaeuaeouae (ia
oeeaaeuaathony a ioaaaeaiiia i?aaeuaeouae nenoaiie ianoi), oi ia?aoiaea
a yoo iiapaoeeiiioth nenoaio iiaeao ia i?iecieoe. A aeiiieiaiea, a
iaeioi?uo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao i?aaeoniio?aiu i?ia?aiiu
n aaoiiaoe/aneeie i?ioeaaeo?aie, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaatho no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiue ?acia? eaaeaeiai nenoaiiiai oaeea. Oiaaea anee ?acia?u
nenoaiiuo oaeeia oie e ae?oaie nenoaiu ia niaiaaeatho, oi i?ioeaaeo?u
aeaiiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiuia n?aaaouaatho e iia aueaoaao.

CAA?OCEA MS-DOS

I?ioeann caa?ocee inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.
Nia/aea a iaiyoue caa?oaeaaony caienue noa?oa nenoaiu, caoai –
nenoaiiua oaeeu IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS e COMMAND.COM .

I?e aeeth/aiee iaoeiu (eee ?anoa?oa nenoaiu)
oi?aaeaiea ia?aaeaaony ipiapaiia ROM (/oaiea oieueei iaiyoe). Ipiapaiia
i?iaa?yao ipaaeeueiinoue nopoeoopu caiene noa?oa iiapaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu ia nenoaiiii aeenea. Anee caienue iaeaeaia e ia niaeapaeeo
ioeaie, oi iia caa?oaeaaony a iaiyoue e iieo/aao oi?aaeaiea.

Caienue noa?oa i?iaa?yao, yaeythony ee oaeeu IO.SYS e
MSDOS.SYS ia?auie oaeeaie ia aeenea. Anee ?acoeueoao i?iaa?ee
iieiaeeoaeueiue, oi oaeeu caa?oaeathony a iaiyoue, i?e/ai
auae?aaony naiaiaeiue o/anoie n naiui ieaaeoei aae?anii. Caoai
oi?aaeaiea ia?aaeaaony eieoeeaeece?othuaio iiaeoeth oaeea IO.SYS. Anee
oaeeu caienaiu a ae?oaii ianoa eee eo iao ia aeenea, ia ye?aia
iiyaeyaony niiauaiea:

Non system disk

Replace and press any key

Eieoeeaeece?othuee iiaeoeue ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea oaeeo
MSDOS.SYS, eioi?ie iipaaeaeyao ia/aeueiua ia?aiao?u aooa?a aeenea e
iaeanoe aeiea oi?aaeaiey aeaiiuie, eniieuecoaiuo i?e auiieiaiee
na?aeniuo i?ia?aii. I?ia?aiiu oaeea oaeaea iipaaeaeytho noaoon e
i?iecaiaeyo eieoeeaeecaoeeth yeaeo?iiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey
eiiiuethoa?a. Iinea yoiai oi?aaeaiea aica?auaaony a
eieoeeaeece?othuee iiaeoeue IO.SYS.

Eieoeeaeece?othuee iiaeoeue i?iaa?yao iaee/ea oaeea
CONFIG.SYS a ei?iaaii aee?aeoi?ee nenoaiiiai aeenea . Anee oaee
iaeaeai e niaea?aeeo

aeaiiua ia eiathueony aeeneiaiaeao, oi oeacaiiua aeeneiaiaeu
caiiieiathony a iaiyoe.

Oaeeu

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo iaycaiiinoae MS-DOS –
ianeoaeeaaiea (o?aiaiea, nicaeaiea, oie/oiaeaiea e o.i.) oaeeia. Oaee
a MS-DOS aiaeiae/ai ethaiio oaeeo. Yoi iaai? acaeiinaycaiiuo
aeaiiuo, iaoiaeyueony a niaoeeaeueii ioaaaeaiiii ianoa. A ioee/ea
io iau/iuo aeieoiaioia, o?aiyueony a niaoeeeueiuo a?oeaiuo iaieao
eee naeoao, oaeeu MS-DOS o?aiyony ia aeeneao. I?e ia?aaioea oaeea ii
caa?oaeaaony a iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue iaoeiu. E caa?ocea a iaiyoue,
e o?aiaiea oaeeia aoiaeyo a ooieoeee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Eaeaioeoeeaoeey oaeeia

Eaaeaeue oaee a MS-DOS aeieaeai eiaoue eiy. Eiy oaeea
iiaeao auoue i?inoui e neiaeiui. Neiaeiia eiy ninoieo ec iniiaiiai
(ipinoiai) eiaie e panoepaiey. Ii eiaie oaee ?aniiciaaony
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie. Eiaia iaeioi?uo oaeeia, iai?eia?, oaeeia ia
nenoaiiie aeeneaoa, capaiaa iipaaeaeaiu . Iie ?aca?ae?othony
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie. Eiaia inoaeueiuo oaeeia iacia/athony
iieueciaaoaeai. Iau/ii noa?athony i?eaeoiaoue eiy, iopaaeathuaa
iacia/aiea iaoiaeyuaeny aioope oaeea eioipiaoeee. ?anoepaiea
eniieuecoaony aeey iaicia/aiey oeia oaeea, iai?eia?, – oaenoiaue eee
oaee aeaiiuo. Iii iiaeao neoaeeoue e aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee oaeeia n
aeeceie ii niuneo eioi?iaoeeae, iai?eia?, aeey aeeooapaioeepiaaiey
oaeeia n ee/iie e neoaeaaiie ia?aieneie.I?e caiene oaeea ia aeene aai
eiy aaoiiaoe/anee iiiauaaony a iaeanoue iaiyoe aeenea, iacuaaaioth
eaoaeiaii (eee aeepaeoipeai).

Ianeoaeeaaiea oaeeia a MS-DOS

Nenoaia oipaaeaiey oaeeaie a MS-DOS iinopiaia ia
eniieueciaaiee aeaiiuo aeepaeoipey (eee eaoaeiaa) aeenea.
Aee?aeoi?ee – yoi iaeanoue iaiyoe ia aeenea, auaeaeyaiay a i?ioeanna
aai oi?iaoe?iaaiey. Aeepaeoipee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaaeeoeo, eoaea
caiinyony aeaiiua i opaiyueony ia aeenea oaeeao. Eaaeaeiio oaeeo a
aeepaeoipee niioaaonoaoao iaeia caienue.Caienue aee?aeoi?ey aeeth/aao
neaaeothuoth eioipiaoeeth: iieiia eiy oaeea (eiy e panoepaiea),
aeaoo e a?aiy aai nicaeaiey eee iineaaeiae eippaeoepiaee,
iauai caieiaaiie iaiyoe a aaeoao, a oaeaea iaeioipoth
aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth, eniieuecoaioth ipe ianeoaeeaaiee
oaeea iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie.

AeI?IAEEE E NAEOI?A

Aeey oiai, /oiau aeaiiua iiaee auoue caienaiu ia
aeene, aai iiaa?oiinoue iaiaoiaeeii no?oeoo?e?iaaoue – o.a.
?acaeaeeoue ia naeoi?a e aei?iaeee. AeI?IAEEE – yoi eiioeaio?e/anea
ie?oaeiinoe, iie?uaathuea iiaa?oiinoue aeenea.Aeeaeaeoae e e?ath aeenea
aei?iaeea i?enaiai iiia? 0, neaaeothuae ca iae – 1 e o.ae. Anee
aeeneaoa aeaonoi?iiiyy, oi i?iioia?iaaiu iaa aa noi?iiu. Iiia? ia?aie
noi?iiu – 0, iiia? aoi?ie – 1.

Eaaeaeay aei?iaeea pacaeaaaony ia o/anoee, iacuaaaiua
naeoi?aie. Naeoi?ai oaeaea i?enaaeaathony iiia?a. Ia?aiio naeoi?o ia
aei?iaeea i?enaaeaaaony iiia? 1, aoi?iio – 2 e o.ae. Iau/ii naeoi?
caieiaao 512 aaeo.

AEANOEEA AeENEE

AEanoeee aeene ninoieo ec iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo
e?oaeuo ieanoei. Aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony iaa
iiaa?oiinoe ieanoeiu. Eaaeaeay iiaa?oiinoue ?acaeaaaony ia
aei?iaeee, aei?iaeee, a naith i/a?aaeue, – ia naeoi?a. Aei?iaeee
iaeeiaeiaiai ?aaeeona ninoaaeytho oeeeeiae?. Oaeei ia?acii, ana ioeaaua
aei?iaeee ninoaaeytho oeeeeiae? n iiia?ii iieue, aei?iaeee n iiia?ii 1 –
oeeeeiae? n iiia?ii 1 e o.ae.

OAAEEOeA ?ACIAUAIEss OAEEIA E AeE?AEOI?EE

Eiiaiaea FORMAT oipiepoao oaaeeoeo ?aciauaiey oaeeia (FAT)
e aee?aeoi?ee aeenea. Iaa yoe no?oeoo?u oanii naycaiu n
i?aaiecaoeeae aeinooia e oaeeai. Ia eaaeaeii aeenea eiaaony aeaa
eiiee FAT. Yoa oaaeeoea eiaao eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea i?e
ianeoaeeaaiee oaeeia, iiyoiio a neo/aa iioa?e ia?aie eiiee FAT, nenoaia
iieo/aao aeinooi ei aoi?ie.

Ia noaiaea?oiie aeeneaoa, eiathuae ii 8 naeoi?ia
ia aei?iaeea, FAT caieiaao 1 naeoi?. Ia noaiaea?oiie aeeneaoa n 9-th
naeoi?aie ia aei?iaeea aeey oaaeeoeu ioaiaeeony 2 naeoi?a.

NO?OEOO?A AeE?AEOI?Ess

Aee?aeoi?ee – yoi oaaeeoea-iienaiea niaea?aeeiiai aeenea.
Eaaeaeiio oaeeo a oaaeeoea niioaaonoaoao iaeia caienue. Caienue
caieiaao 32 aaeoa, ?acaeouo ia 8 o/anoeia eee iieae. A eaaeaeia
iiea caienuaaaony eioi?iaoeey, eniieuecoaiay nenoaiie i?e
ianeoaeeaaiee oaeea.

NENOAIIIA IANEOAEEAAIEA OAEEIA

MS-DOS iaania/eaaao aeaa oaoiieiaee ianeoaeeaaiey oaeeia. Ia?aay
auea ?ac?aaioaia i?e nicaeaiee aa?nee 1.O. Yoa oaoiieiaey
iniiaaia ia eniieueciaaiee no?oeoo? aeaiiuo, iacuaaaiuo aeieaie
oi?aaeaiey oaeeii (FCB). A oi a?aiy iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
eiiiuethuea?ia ?aaioaei iiae oi?aaeaieai iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu CPM.
Aeiee FCB iaania/eaaee niaianoiinoue oaeeia MS-DOS n oaeeaie
yoie nenoaiu. I?e ?ac?aaioea MS-DOS aa?nee 2.O, eiaaea auea
i?aaeeiaeaia ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee oaeeia, auea
?ac?aaioaia aoi?ay oaoiieiaey eo ianeoaeeaaiey. Iia iniiaaia ia
eniieueciaaiee nnueie ia oi?aaeythuoth caienue oaeea e ia o?aaoao
i?aaiecaoeee FCB. Iinea oiai, eae yoa oaoiieiaey auea ii?iaiaaia ia
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia UNIX, iia iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

I?AAIECAOeEss IAIssOE

Iaiyoue ninoieo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?aaeiacia/ai aeey o?aiaiey
ieieiaeueiie aaeeieoeu eioi?iaoeee – 1 aaeoa. Eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo
niioaaonoaoao oieeaeueiue /eneiaie aae?an. Ia?aiio yeaiaioo i?enaiai
aae?an 0, aoi?iio – 1 e o.ae., aeeth/ay iineaaeiee yeaiaio, /ae
aae?an ii?aaeaeyaony iauei eiee/anoaii yeaiaioia iaiyoe ieion aaeeieoea.
Iau/ii aae?an iipaaeaeyaony oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iui /eneii (a oaenoa
oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iua /enea iiia/athony caaeaaiie «I», iai?eia?, 10I).

NAAIAIOU

I?ioeanni? eiiiuethoa?a (CPU) aeaeeo iaiyoue ia aeiee,
iacuaaaiua naaiaioaie. Eaaeaeue naaiaio caieiaao 64 E e
eaaeaeiio naaiaioo niioaaonoaoao oieeaeueiue /eneiaie aae?an.
I?ioeanni? eiaao /aou?a ?aaeno?a naaiaioa. ?aaeno? – yoi aioo?aiiyy
nopoeoopa, ipaaeiacia/aiiay aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. ?aaeno?u
naaiaioa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey o?aiaiey aae?ania ioaeaeueiuo
naaiaioia. Iie iacuaathony CS (naaiaio eiaea), DS (naaiaio
aeaiiuo), SS (naaiaio noyea) e ES (caianiie naaiaio). E?iia
oeacaiiuo, i?ioeanni? eiaao aua 9 ?aaeno?ia. A aeaiiue iiiaio
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ?aaeno?u IP (oeacaoaeue eiiaiaeu) e SP
(oeacaoaeue noyea). ?aaeno?u CS e IP a ia?a ninoaaeytho aeeeiiue aae?an
eiiaiaeu, eioi?ay aoaeao auiieiyoueny neaaeothuae. ?aaeno?u SS e SP a
ia?a ninoaaeytho aeeeiiue aae?an

noyea.

AeINOOI E IAIssOE

Aeinooi e y/aeeai iaiyoe inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii
niaaeeiaiey niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a naaiaioa n niaea?aeeiui oiai eee
ae?oaiai ?aaeno?a.Oaeei ia?acii ii?aaeaeyaony aae?an o?aaoaiiai
o/anoea iaiyoe. Iai?eia?, aae?an neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu ii?aaeaeyaony
niaea?aeeiui ?aaeno?ia CS e IP (caienuaaaony «CS:IP»). Iinea
auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu e aa oaeaeaiey ec iaiyoe niaea?aeeiia IP eciaiyaony
oae, /oiau a ?aaeno?ao CS:IP iaoiaeeeny aae?an eiiaiaeu, eioi?ay
aoaeao auiieiaia iinea aeaiiie.

Niinia iauaaeeiaiey ?aaeno?ia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana y/aeee
iaiyoe ia iaeeaaeuaaao ia?aie/aiee ia eiee/anoai aeinooiiie
iaiyoe. Aa?oiaa ia?aie/aiea caaeneo io oece/aneiai no?iaiey
iaiyoe (o.a. io iauaai eiee/anoaa y/aae). Ia?aua aa?nee MS-DOS
?ac?aaaouaaeenue aeey i?ioeanni?a Intel 8088 CPU. Eaaeaeue ?aaeno?
yoiai i?ioeanni?a ?ann/eoai ia o?aiaiea 16-aeoiaiai /enea. Oi anoue
CPU 8088 eiiaeie?oao niaea?aeeiia naaiaioiiai ?aaeno?a (neaaeai, CS)
n niaea?aeeiui ae?oaiai ?aaeno?a (neaaeai, IP), iieo/ay 20-aeoiaue
aae?an iaiyoe, /oi ia?aie/eaaao aeinooiioth iaiyoue aei

2oo20 aaeoia eee 1 Ia.

Iicaea iiyaeeenue oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua aa?nee MS-DOS e niioaaonoaaiii
ei oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua i?ioeanni?u CPU 80286 e 80386,
iicaieythuea ipiecaiaeeoue aeinooi e y/aeeai, paniieiaeaiiui ca
apaieoeae iapaiai Ia iaiyoe. Iaeiaei, ia?aie/aiea ia 1 Ia aei neo ii?
(ii e?aeiae ia?a a aa?nee 3.3) ia oaeaeinue iaieoe, /oi yaeyaony
iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iaaeinoaoeia iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Aeinooi e iaiyoe ipaaiecoaony niaaeeiaieai niaeapaeeiiai iaeiiai
ec paaenopia naaiaioa n niaeapaeeiui iaeiiai ec inoaaoeony paaenopia.
Cia/aiea naaiaioiiai paaenopa iacuaaaony aaepanii naaiaioa. Cia/aiea
inoaeueiuo paaenopia a yoii neo/aa iacuaaaony ioiineoaeueiui aaepanii
y/aeee iaiyoe (io ia/aea naaiaioa) eee aa eipioeei aaepanii. Oaeei
iapacii, aaepan aaeoa au/eneyaony iinpaaenoaii oiiiaeaiey aaepana
naaiaioa ia 16, e e iieo/aiiiio cia/aieth aeiaaaeyaony eipioeee aaepan.

NAAIAIOIUA ?AAENO?U

Naaiaioiua paaenopu eniieuecothony ipe eaeaioeoeeaoeee
naaiaioa iaiyoe. Naaiaio – yoi iaipapuaiue aeie iaiyoe, aeeeiie 64 E.
Naaiaioiua paaenopu ipeiaiythony a eiiaeiaoeee n paaenopii oeacaoaey
eee eiaeaeniuie paaenopaie e a yoii neo/aa eaeaioeoeoeepotho eiiepaoioth
y/aeeo iaiyoe.

Anaai naaiaioiuo paaenopa /aoupa. ?aaenop CS iau/ii eniieuecoaony ipe
eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeiea iaiyoe, a eioipii opaieony eiae ipiapaiiu. ?aaenop
DS ipe eaeaioeoeeaoeee o/anoea iaiyoe, a eioipii iaoiaeyony aeaiiua
yoie ipiapaiiu. N iiiiuueth paaenopa SS ipaaiecoaony aeinooi e noyeo.
(Noye – yoi apaiaiii panipaaeaeaiiay iaeanoue iaiyoe,
iaania/eaathuay eioapoaen «MS-DOS-ipeeeaaeiay ipiapaiia»). ?aaenop
ES – aeiiieieoaeueiue (eee caianiie) naaiaioiue paaenop. Ia iaai
aiceiaeaiu paciiiapaciua ooieoeee,

/anoue ec eioipuo panniaopeaaaony ieaea.

?AAENO?U NOYEA

Eiaaony aeaa paaenopa noyea. Iie ipeiaiythony a
eiiaeiaoeee n paaenopii SS e iipaaeaeytho ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea noyea.
?aaenop SP iacuaaaony oeacaoaeai ia/aea noyea, e a eiiaeiaoeee n
paaenopii SS eaeaioeoeoeepoao iapaue aaeo noyea. ?aaenop BP iacuaaaony
oeacaoaeai aacu noyea e a eiiaeiaoeee n paaenopii SS
eaeaioeoeoeepoao iineaaeiee aaeo noyea.

EIAeAENIUA ?AAENO?U

Eiaeaeniuo paaenopa oiaea aeaa. ?aaenopu SI e DI
ipeiaiythony a eiiaeiaoeee n iaeiei ec naaiaioiuo paaenopia e
iipaaeaeytho ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea eiiepaoiie y/aeee iaiyoe. ?aaenop SI
iau/ii eiiaeiepotho n paaenopii DS, paaenop DI – n paaenopii ES.

?AAENO?U IAUAAI IACIA*AIEss

E paaenopai iauaai iacia/aiey ioiinyony paaenopu AX, BX,
CX e DX (eo /aoupa). Yoi iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua paaenopu. ?aaenop
oeacaoaey eiiaiaeu

?aaenop IP iau/ii ipeiaiyaony a eiiaeiaoeee n paaenopii CS e
iipaaeaeyao aaepan neaaeothuae eiiaiaeu. ?aaenop oeaaia ninoiyiey

A paaenopa oeaaia iau/ii iaoiaeyony aeaayoue oeaaia ninoiyiey
ipioeannipa (eaaeaeue oeaa caieiaao 1 aeo). Yoe oeaae iipaaeaeytho
pacoeueoao eiiepaoiuo iiapaoeee, auiieiyaiuo iiae oipaaeaieai MS-DOS.
?aaenopu iaiyoe ?aaenop iaiyoe aeeth/aao 2 aaeoa aeaiiuo (eee 16
aeoia). ?aaeueii paaenopu iauaai iacia/aiey iaeiiaaeoiua. Oae, paaenop
AX aeeth/aao paaenop AH (eioipue ninoaaeyao noapoee aaeo paaenopa AX) e
paaenop AL (eioipue ninoaaeyao ieaaeoee aaeo paaenopa AX). Aiaeiae/ii,
paaenopu BH, BL, CH, CL, DH e DL – iaeiiaaeoiua.

Ae?AEAA?U MS-DOS

Aeaa aaaeiaeoea eiiiiiaiou yeaeopiiiiai iaipoaeiaaiey
eiiiuethoapa – aai oeaiopaeueiue ipioeannip (CPU) e aai iaiyoue.
Inoaeueiua eiiiiiaiou (aeeneiaiaeu, eeaaeaoopa, aeenieae, ipeioapu e
o.ae.) yaeythony aiaoieie ii ioiioaieth e eiiiuethoapo. Yoe aiaoiea
eiiiiiaiou yeaeopiiiiai iaipoaeiaaiey iacuaathony IA?EOA?EEIUIE
ONO?IENOAAIE eee ipinoi ONO?IENOAAIE.

Naycue iaoeiu n iapeoapeeiui onopienoaii inouanoaeyaony a
nopiai iipaaeaeaiiii iipyaeea. Eaaeaeiio iapeoapeeiiio onopienoao a
iiapaoeeiiiie nenoaia niioaaonoaoao ipiapaiia, ioaa/athuay ca
aai eiioaeo n eiiiuethoapii. Yoe ipiapaiiu iacuaathony
Ae?AEAA?AIE.

I?EIAIAIEA Ae?AEAA?IA

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee iiapaoeeiiiie nenoaiu – yoi
iaania/aiea apoiiu paaioiniiniaiuo aepaeaapia, aeinooiiuo nenoaiiui
e ipeeeaaeiui ipiapaiiai. Anee paaioathuae ipiapaiia iaiaoiaeei
eiioaeo n iapaoapeeiui onopienoaii, oi iia niiauaao iiapaoeeiiiie
nenoaia, eaeia ec onopienoa ae iaiaoiaeeii, e MS-DOS ipaaeinoaaeyao
ae niioaaonoaothuee aepaeaap.

ONO?IENOAA IINEIAIEUeIIE E IIAEI*IIE IA?AAeA*E AeAIIUO

Onopienoaa iineiaieueiie iapaaea/e aeaiiuo inouanoaeytho
iapanueeo eioipiaoeee ii iaeiiio neiaieo ca ipeai. E yoei
onopienoaai ioiinyony iipou iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo e iapaeeaeueiuo
aaeaioapia e aeenieae. A MS-DOS eaaeaeiio ec yoeo onopienoa
niioaaonoaoao eiiepaoiia iacaaiea (eiy). Aepaeaap MS-DOS iiaeao
oipaaeyoue oieueei iaeiei onopienoaii iineiaieueiie iapaaea/e.
Onopienoaa iiaei/iie iapaaea/e aeaiiuo inouanoaeytho iapanueeo
eioipiaoeee ii aeieai. Eaaeaeue aeie, eae ipaaeei, ninoaaeyao 512 aaeo.
E yoei onopienoaai ioiinyony aeeneiaiaeu aeey aeaeeo aeeneao,
aeeneiaiaeu aeey aeanoeiai aeenea e aepoaea onopienoaa aeey
iaeiieoaeae eioipiaoeee. Onopienoaa iiaei/iie iapaaea/e ia
iaeaaeatho eiiepaoiui iacaaieai. Aepaeaap MS-DOS iiaeao ianeoaeeaaoue
ianeieueei onopienoa iiaei/iie

I?A?UAAIEA

Ipapuaaiea – yoi neaiae, iinooiathuee ec ipiapaii
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaania/aiey, eee aaiapepoaiue yeaeopiiiui
iaipoaeiaaieai. Neaiae ia ipapuaaiea ipaaeoipaaeaeaao ipioeannip
(CPU) i iaiaoiaeeiinoe auiieiaiey iaeioipuo ooieoeee. Iaipeiap, ipe
iaaeaoee ethaie eeaaeoe aaiapepoaony neaiae ia ipapuaaiea io
eeaaeaoopu (o.a. io yeaeopiiiiai iaipoaeiaaiey), ipaaeoipaaeaeathuee
ipioeannip i aaaaeaiee aeaiiuo n eeaaeaoopu.

Eaaeaeiio oeio ipapuaaiey niioaaonoaoao iipaaeaeaiiue iipyaeeiaue
iiiap (ipapuaaiea io eeaaeaoopu, e ipeiapo, iaicia/aii iiiapii 9). Ii
yoiio iiiapo ipioeannip pacee/aao, eaeie iapaaio/ee iaiaoiaeeii
aucaaoue aeey iapaaioee neaiaea ia ipapuaaiea. Ii niaeaoaieth
iiiapa ipapuaaiee ipaaenoaaeaiu a oanoiaaeoeaoape/iii oipiaoa.

Ipapuaaiey iiae iiiapaie 20I-2FH capacapaepiaaiu aeey
nenoaiiiai iieueciaaiey. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ipeeeaaeiua ipiapaiiu,
pann/eoaiiua ia acaeiiaeaenoaea n nenoaiiui iao.iaania/aieai, iiaoo
iapauaoueny e yoei ipapuaaieyi oieueei a iniauo neo/ayo, eioipua
iipaaeaeaiu iiapaoeeiiiie nenoaiie. *aua anaai ipiapaiiii eniieuecoaony
ipapuaaiea 21I – aeeniao/ap ooieoeee.

AeENIAO*A? OOIEOeEE

Ipapuaaiea 21I iineo iacaaiea «aeeniao/ap ooieoeee».
Aeeniao/ap ooieoeee ioaa/aao ca auiieiaiea aieueoae /anoe paaiou
MS-DOS. A aai iaycaiiinoe aoiaeeo iaania/aiea aeinooia e nenoaiiui
ooieoeeyi. Eaaeaeay ooieoeey auiieiyao iaeioipia eiiepaoiia
caaeaiea, iaipeiap, ioepuaaao oaee, auaiaeeo neiaieueioth nopieo ia
yepai aeenieay, panipaaeaeyao aeie iaiyoe eee auaeaao iiiap paaioathuae
aapnee MS-DOS. Ooieoeee oaeaea aeeooapaioeepiaaiu ii iiiapai.

*oiau ipiapaiiii iapaoeoueny e nenoaiiie ooieoeee,
iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue neaaeothuaa: (1) caienaoue iiiap
niioaaonoaothuae ooieoeee a paaenop AI; (2) caienaoue iapaiaopu,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey paaiou ooieoeee, a niioaaonoaothuea paaenopu; (3)
aucaaoue ipapuaaiea 21I. Ipe iapauaiee e ipapuaaieth 21I, oipaaeaiea
iapaaeaaony MS-DOS. Iiapaoeeiiiay nenoaia ii cia/aieth paaenopa AI
iipaaeaeyao, eaeay ooieoeey aeieaeia auiieiyoueny. Caoai ec
inoaeueiuo (aiieia iipaaeaeaiiuo aeey eaaeaeie ooieoeee) paaenopia
n/eouaathony cia/aiey iapaiaopia, iinea /aai opaaoaiay ooieoeey
auiieiyaony. MS-DOS iiiauaao aicapauaaiua ooieoeeae iapaiaopu a
niioaaonoaothuea paaenopu e aicapauaao oipaaeaiea a aucuaathuoth
ipiapaiio. Ipiapaiia ipiniaopeaaao paaenopu e ipiecaiaeeo aiaeec
pacoeueoaoa auiieiaiey ooieoeee.

CA?ACA?AE?IAAIIUA OOIEOeEE

Iaeioipua ooieoeee iiia/aiu, eae «capacapaepiaaiiua
aeey nenoaiiiai iieueciaaiey». Yoe ooieoeee eniieuecothony
iiapaoeeiiiie nenoaiie, iaeiaei oepiu IBM e Microsoft ioeacuaathony
panniaopeaaoue eo a ioeoeeaeueiie eeoapaoopa. Aeaaiaeapy noapaieyi
ipiapaiienoia noaei ecaanoii iacia/aiea iaeioipuo ec ieo.
Iieueciaaoaee, eniieuecothuea yoe ooieoeee, /anoi iacuaatho eo
«ioeoeeaeueii iaaeieoiaioepiaaiiuie», a ia «capacapaepiaaiiuie».

EIAe IOEAIE

Iiiaea ooieoeee MS-DOS aapnee onoaiaaeeaatho oaeouee
oeaa ipioeannipa e aicapauatho eiae ioeaee a paaenopa AX, anee a
ipioeanna iapauaiey e ooieoeee ipiecioea ioeaea.Ec niaoeeaeueiuo
oaaeeoe iiaeii ociaoue i?e/eio ioeaee.

EO IAOO ei Aaoiaia.

Ie?n ia oaio:

Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia MSDOS.

Cooaeaioa : Eiiae?aoueaaa A.Ae

A?oiiu :
YAI-31

I?eiyea : Aea?thaeia A. I.

1997 aiae

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