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AAAAeAIEA

Iu aeeaai ia nouea aeaoo ouny/aeaoee, eiaaea /aeiaa/anoai anooieei a
yiioo iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

E eiioeo aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea ethaee iaeaaeaee iiiaeie oaeiaie i?aa?auaiey
aauanoaa e yia?aee e noiaee eniieueciaaoue yoe ciaiey aeey oeo/oaiey
naiae aeecie. Ii e?iia aauanoaa e yia?aee a aeecie /aeiaaea ia?iiioth
?ieue ea?aao aua iaeia ninoaaeythuay – eioi?iaoeey. Yoi naiua
?aciiia?aciua naaaeaiey, niiauaiey, ecaanoey, ciaiey, oiaiey.

A na?aaeeia iaoaai noieaoey iiyaeeenue niaoeeaeueiua ono?ienoaa –
eiiiuethoa?u, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia o?aiaiea e i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee e
i?iecioea eiiiuethoa?iay ?aaiethoeey.

Naaiaeiy ianniaia i?eiaiaiea ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, e niaeaeaieth,
ieacaeinue naycaiiui n iiyaeaieai naiiaini?iecaiaeyueony
i?ia?aii-ae?onia, i?aiyonoaothueo ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a,
?ac?ooathueo oaeeiaoth no?oeoo?o aeeneia e iaiinyueo oua?a o?aieiie a
eiiiuethoa?a eioi?iaoeee.

Ianiio?y ia i?eiyoua ai iiiaeo no?aiao caeiiu i ai?ueaa n
eiiiuethoa?iuie i?anooieaieyie e ?ac?aaioeo niaoeeaeueiuo i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa caueou io ae?onia, eiee/anoai iiauo i?ia?aiiiuo ae?onia
iinoiyiii ?anoao. Yoi o?aaoao io iieueciaaoaey ia?niiaeueiiai
eiiiuethoa?a ciaiee i i?e?iaea ae?onia, niiniaao ca?aaeaiey ae?onaie e
caueou io ieo. Yoi e iineoaeeei noeioeii aeey auai?a oaiu iiae ?aaiou.

Eiaiii ia yoii y ?anneacuaath a naiai ?aoa?aoa. ss iieacuaath iniiaiua
aeaeu ae?onia, ?anniao?eaath noaiu eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, i?e/eiu eo
iiyaeaiey e iooe i?iieeiiaaiey a eiiiuethoa?, a oaeaea i?aaeeaaath ia?u
ii caueoa e i?ioeeaeoeea.

Oeaeue ?aaiou – iciaeiieoue iieueciaaoaey n iniiaaie eiiiuethoa?iie
ae?onieiaee, iao/eoue iaia?oaeeaaoue ae?onu e ai?ioueny n ieie. Iaoiae
?aaiou – aiaeec ia/aoiuo ecaeaiee ii aeaiiie oaia. Ia?aaei iiie anoaea
iai?inoay caaea/a – ?anneacaoue i oii, /oi aua i/aiue iaei
enneaaeiaaeinue, e eae yoi iieo/eeinue – noaeeoue aai.

1. EIIIUeTHOA?IUA AE?ONU, EO NAIENOAA

E EEANNEOEEAOeEss

Naienoaa eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia

Nae/an i?eiaiythony ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u, a eioi?uo iieueciaaoaeue
eiaao naiaiaeiue aeinooi ei anai ?ano?nai iaoeiu. Eiaiii yoi ioe?uei
aiciiaeiinoue aeey iianiinoe, eioi?ay iieo/eea iacaaiea eiiiuethoa?iiai
ae?ona.

*oi oaeia eiiiuethoa?iue ae?on? Oi?iaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea yoiai iiiyoey
aei neo ii? ia i?eaeoiaii, e anoue na?ueaciua niiiaiey, /oi iii aiiaua
iiaeao auoue aeaii. Iiiai/eneaiiua iiiuoee aeaoue «nia?aiaiiia»
ii?aaeaeaiea ae?ona ia i?eaaee e oniaoo. *oiau ii/oanoaiaaoue anth
neiaeiinoue i?iaeaiu, iii?iaoeoa e i?eia?o, aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey
«?aaeaeoi?». Au eeai i?eaeoiaaoa ia/oi i/aiue iauaa, eeai ia/iaoa
ia?a/eneyoue ana ecaanoiua oeiu ?aaeaeoi?ia. E oi e ae?oaia a?yae ee
iiaeii n/eoaoue i?eaieaiui. Iiyoiio iu ia?aie/einy ?anniio?aieai
iaeioi?uo naienoa eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia, eioi?ua iicaieytho aiai?eoue i
ieo eae i iaeioi?ii ii?aaeaeaiiii eeanna i?ia?aii.

I?aaeaea anaai ae?on – yoi i?ia?aiia. Oaeia i?inoia ooaa?aeaeaiea naii
ii naaa niiniaii ?acaayoue iiiaeanoai eaaaiae i iaiaueiiaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoyo eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia. Ae?on iiaeao ia?aaa?iooue
ecia?aaeaiea ia aaoai iiieoi?a, ii ia iiaeao ia?aaa?iooue nai iiieoi?. E
eaaaiaeai i ae?onao-oaeeoeao, «oie/oiaeathueo iia?aoi?ia iin?aaenoaii
auaiaea ia ye?ai nia?oaeueiie oeaaoiaie aaiiu 25-i eaae?ii» oaeaea ia
noieo ioiineoueny na?ueacii. E niaeaeaieth, iaeioi?ua aaoi?eoaoiua
ecaeaiey a?aiy io a?aiaie ioaeeeotho «naiua naaaeea iiainoe n
eiiiuethoa?iuo o?iioia», eioi?ua i?e aeeaeaeoai ?anniio?aiee
ieacuaathony neaaenoaeai ia aiieia yniiai iiieiaiey i?aaeiaoa.

Ae?on – i?ia?aiia, iaeaaeathuay niiniaiinoueth e naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth.
Oaeay niiniaiinoue yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii, i?enouei anai
oeiai ae?onia. Ii ia oieueei ae?onu niiniaiu e naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth.
Ethaay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia e aua iiiaeanoai i?ia?aii niiniaiu
nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiua eiiee. Eiiee aea ae?ona ia oieueei ia iaycaiu
iieiinoueth niaiaaeaoue n i?eaeiaeii, ii e iiaoo aiiaua n iei ia
niaiaaeaoue!

Ae?on ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a «iieiie ecieyoeee»:naaiaeiy iaeuecy
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ae?on, eioi?ue ia eniieuecoao eiae ae?oaeo i?ia?aii,
eioi?iaoeeth i oaeeiaie no?oeoo?a eee aeaaea i?inoi eiaia ae?oaeo
i?ia?aii. I?e/eia iiiyoia: ae?on aeieaeai eaeei-ieaoaeue niiniaii
iaania/eoue ia?aaea/o naaa oi?aaeaiey.

1.2. Eeanneoeeaoeey ae?onia

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoii aieaa 5000 i?ia?aiiiuo ae?onia, eo iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai:

n?aaea iaeoaiey

niiniao ca?aaeaiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey

aicaeaenoaeth

iniaaiiinoyi aeai?eoia

A caaeneiinoe io n?aaeu iaeoaiey ae?onu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia naoaaua,
oaeeiaua, caa?oci/iua e oaeeiai-caa?oci/iua. Naoaaua ae?onu
?ani?ino?aiythony ii ?acee/iui eiiiuethoa?iui naoyi. Oaeeiaua ae?onu
aiaae?ythony aeaaiui ia?acii a eniieiyaiua iiaeoee, o. a. A oaeeu,
eiathuea ?anoe?aiey COM e EXE. Oaeeiaua ae?onu iiaoo aiaae?youeny e a
ae?oaea oeiu oaeeia, ii, eae i?aaeei, caienaiiua a oaeeo oaeeao, iie
ieeiaaea ia iieo/atho oi?aaeaiea e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oa?ytho
niiniaiinoue e ?aciiiaeaieth. Caa?oci/iua ae?onu aiaae?ythony a
caa?oci/iue naeoi? aeenea (Boot-naeoi?) eee a naeoi?, niaea?aeauee
i?ia?aiio caa?ocee nenoaiiiai aeenea (Master Boot Re-

cord). Oaeeiai-caa?oci/iua ae?onu ca?aaeatho eae oaeeu, oae e
caa?oci/iua naeoi?a aeeneia.

Ii niiniao ca?aaeaiey ae?onu aeaeyony ia ?aceaeaioiua e ia?aceaeaioiua.
?aceaeaioiue ae?on i?e ca?aaeaiee (eioeoee?iaaiee) eiiiuethoa?a
inoaaeyao a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe naith ?aceaeaioioth /anoue, eioi?ay iioii
ia?aoaaouaaao ia?auaiea iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e iauaeoai ca?aaeaiey
(oaeeai, caa?oci/iui naeoi?ai aeeneia e o. i.) e aiaae?yaony a ieo.
?aceaeaioiua ae?onu iaoiaeyony a iaiyoe e yaeythony aeoeaiuie aieioue
aei aueeth/aiey eee ia?acaa?ocee eiiiuethoa?a. Ia?aceaeaioiua ae?onu ia
ca?aaeatho iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a e yaeythony aeoeaiuie ia?aie/aiiia
a?aiy.

Ii noaiaie aicaeaenoaey ae?onu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea aeaeu:

iaiianiua, ia iaoathuea ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a, ii oiaiueoathuea iauai
naiaiaeiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e iaiyoe ia aeeneao, aeaenoaey oaeeo
ae?onia i?iyaeythony a eaeeo-eeai a?aoe/aneeo eee caoeiauo yooaeoao

iianiua ae?onu, eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e ?acee/iui ia?ooaieyi a ?aaioa
eiiiuethoa?a

i/aiue iianiua, aicaeaenoaea eioi?uo iiaeao i?eaanoe e iioa?a i?ia?aii,
oie/oiaeaieth aeaiiuo, noe?aieth eioi?iaoeee a nenoaiiuo iaeanoyo
aeenea.

Ii iniaaiiinoyi aeai?eoia ae?onu o?oaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ec-ca
aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey. I?inoaeoea ae?onu – ia?aceoe/aneea, iie
eciaiytho niaea?aeeiia oaeeia e naeoi?ia aeenea e iiaoo auoue
aeinoaoi/ii eaaei iaia?oaeaiu e oie/oiaeaiu. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue
ae?onu-?aieeeaoi?u, iacuaaaiua /a?ayie, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiythony ii
eiiiuethoa?iui naoyi, au/eneytho aae?ana naoaauo eiiiuethoa?ia e
caienuaatho ii yoei aae?anai naie eiiee. Ecaanoiu ae?onu-iaaeaeeiee,
iacuaaaiua noaen-ae?onaie, eioi?ua i/aiue o?oaeii iaia?oaeeoue e
iaaca?aaeeoue, oae eae iie ia?aoaaouaatho ia?auaiey iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiu e ii?aaeaiiui oaeeai e naeoi?ai aeeneia e iiaenoaaeytho aianoi
naiaai oaea iaca?aaeaiiua o/anoee aeenea. Iaeaieaa o?oaeii iaia?oaeeoue
ae?onu-iooaiou, niaea?aeauea aeai?eoiu oeo?iaee-?anoeo?iaee, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui eiiee iaeiiai e oiai aea ae?ona ia eiatho ie iaeiie
iiaoi?ythuaeny oeaii/ee aaeoia. Eiathony e oae iacuaaaiua eaaceae?oniua
eee «o?iyineea» i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua oioy e ia niiniaiu e
naii?ani?ino?aiaieth, ii i/aiue iianiu, oae eae, ianee?oynue iiae
iieacioth i?ia?aiio, ?ac?ooatho caa?oci/iue naeoi? e oaeeiaoth nenoaio
aeeneia.

2. INIIAIUA AEAeU AE?ONIA

E NOAIU EO OOIEOeEIIE?IAAIEss

N?aaee anaai ?aciiia?acey ae?onia iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua
a?oiiu:

caa?oci/iua

oaeeiaua

oaeeiai-caa?oci/iua

Oaia?ue iiiiae?iaiaa ia eaaeaeie ec yoeo a?oii.

2.1. Caa?oci/iua ae?onu

?anniio?ei noaio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i/aiue i?inoiai caa?oci/iiai ae?ona,
ca?aaeathuaai aeeneaou. Iu niciaoaeueii iaieaeai ana iiiai/eneaiiua
oiieinoe, eioi?ua iaecaaaeii ano?aoeeenue au i?e no?iaii ?acai?a
aeai?eoia aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

*oi i?ienoiaeeo, eiaaea au aeeth/aaoa eiiiuethoa?? Ia?aui aeaeii
oi?aaeaiea ia?aaeaaony i?ia?aiia ia/aeueiie caa?ocee, eioi?ay o?aieony a
iinoiyiii caiiieiathuai ono?ienoaa (ICO) o.a. IIC ICO.

Yoa i?ia?aiia oanoe?oao iai?oaeiaaiea e i?e oniaoiii caaa?oaiee i?iaa?ie
iuoaaony iaeoe aeeneaoo a aeeneiaiaea A:

Anyeay aeeneaoa ?acia/aia ia o.i. naeoi?u e aei?iaeee. Naeoi?u
iauaaeeiythony a eeanoa?u, ii yoi aeey ian ianouanoaaiii.

N?aaee naeoi?ia anoue ianeieueei neoaeaaiuo, eniieuecoaiuo iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiie aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae (a yoeo naeoi?ao ia iiaoo ?aciauaoueny
aaoe aeaiiua). N?aaee neoaeaaiuo naeoi?ia ian iiea eioa?anoao iaeei –
o.i. naeoi? ia/aeueiie caa?ocee (boot-sector).

A naeoi?a ia/aeueiie caa?ocee o?aieony eioi?iaoeey i aeeneaoa –
eiee/anoai iiaa?oiinoae, eiee/anoai aei?iaeae, eiee/anoai naeoi?ia e i?.
Ii ian nae/an eioa?anoao ia yoa eioi?iaoeey, a iaaieueoay i?ia?aiia
ia/aeueiie caa?ocee (IIC), eioi?ay aeieaeia caa?oceoue naio
iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio e ia?aaeaoue ae oi?aaeaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iaeueiay noaia ia/aeueiie caa?ocee neaaeothuay:

IIC (ICO) – IIC (aeene) – NENOAIA

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei ae?on. A caa?oci/iuo ae?onao auaeaeytho aeaa /anoe –
o.i. aieiao e o.i. oaino. Oaino, aiiaua aiai?y, iiaeao auoue ionoui.

Ionoue o aan eiathony /enoay aeeneaoa e ca?aaeaiiue eiiiuethoa?, iiae
eioi?ui iu iiieiaai eiiiuethoa? n aeoeaiui ?aceaeaioiui ae?onii. Eae
oieueei yoio ae?on iaia?oaeeo, /oi a aeeneiaiaea iiyaeeanue iiaeoiaeyuay
aea?oaa – a iaoai neo/aa ia caueuaiiay io caiene e aua ia ca?aaeaiiay
aeeneaoa, ii i?enooiaao e ca?aaeaieth. Ca?aaeay aeeneaoo, ae?on
i?iecaiaeeo neaaeothuea aeaenoaey:

auaeaeyao iaeioi?oth iaeanoue aeenea e iiia/aao aa eae iaaeinooiioth
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia, yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue ii-?aciiio, a i?inoaeoai e
o?aaeeoeeiiiii neo/aa caiyoua ae?onii naeoi?u iiia/athony eae naieiua
(bad)

eiie?oao a auaeaeaiioth iaeanoue aeenea naie oaino e i?eaeiaeueiue
(caei?iaue) caa?oci/iue naeoi?

caiauaao i?ia?aiio ia/aeueiie caa?ocee a caa?oci/iii naeoi?a (ianoiyuai)
naiae aieiaie

i?aaiecoao oeaii/eo ia?aaea/e oi?aaeaiey niaeanii noaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, aieiaa ae?ona oaia?ue ia?aie iieo/aao oi?aaeaiea, ae?on
onoaiaaeeaaaony a iaiyoue e ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea i?eaeiaeueiiio
caa?oci/iiio naeoi?o. A oeaii/ea

IIC (ICO) – IIC (aeene) – NENOAIA

iiyaeyaony iiaia caaii:

IIC (ICO) – AE?ON – IIC (aeene) – NENOAIA

Ii?aeue ynia: ieeiaaea ia inoaaeyeoa (neo/aeii) aeeneao a aeeneiaiaea A.

Iu ?anniio?aee noaio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?inoiai aooiaiai ae?ona,
aeeaouaai a caa?oci/iuo naeoi?ao aeeneao. Eae i?aaeei, ae?onu niiniaiu
ca?aaeaoue ia oieueei caa?oci/iua naeoi?u aeeneao, ii e caa?oci/iua
naeoi?u aei/anoa?ia. I?e yoii a ioee/ea io aeeneao ia aei/anoa?a
eiathony aeaa oeia caa?oci/iuo naeoi?ia, niaea?aeaueo i?ia?aiiu
ia/aeueiie caa?ocee, eioi?ua iieo/atho oi?aaeaiea. I?e caa?ocea
eiiiuethoa?a n aei/anoa?a ia?aie aa?ao ia naay oi?aaeaiea i?ia?aiia
ia/aeueiie caa?ocee a MBR (Master Boot Record – aeaaiay caa?oci/iay
caienue). Anee aao aeanoeee aeene ?acaeo ia ianeieueei ?acaeaeia, oi
eeoue iaeei ec ieo iiia/ai eae caa?oci/iue (boot). I?ia?aiia ia/aeueiie
caa?ocee a MBR iaoiaeeo caa?oci/iue ?acaeae aei/anoa?a e ia?aaeaao
oi?aaeaiea ia i?ia?aiio ia/aeueiie caa?ocee yoiai ?acaeaea. Eiae
iineaaeiae niaiaaeaao n eiaeii i?ia?aiiu ia/aeueiie caa?ocee,
niaea?aeauaeny ia iau/iuo aeeneaoao, a niioaaonoaothuea caa?oci/iua
naeoi?u ioee/athony oieueei oaaeeoeaie ia?aiao?ia. Oaeei ia?acii, ia
aei/anoa?a eiathony aeaa iauaeoa aoaee caa?oci/iuo ae?onia – i?ia?aiia
ia/aeueiie caa?ocee a MBR e i?ia?aiia ia/aeueiie caa?ocee a aoo-naeoi?a
caa?oci/iiai aeenea.

Oaeeiaua ae?onu

?anniio?ei oaia?ue noaio ?aaiou i?inoiai oaeeiaiai ae?ona. A ioee/ea io
caa?oci/iuo ae?onia, eioi?ua i?aeoe/anee anaaaea ?aceaeaioiu, oaeeiaua
ae?onu nianai ia iaycaoaeueii ?aceaeaioiu. ?anniio?ei noaio
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia?aceaeaioiiai oaeeiaiai ae?ona. Ionoue o ian eiaaony
eioeoee?iaaiiue eniieiyaiue oaee. I?e caionea oaeiai oaeea ae?on
iieo/aao oi?aaeaiea, i?iecaiaeeo iaeioi?ua aeaenoaey e ia?aaeaao
oi?aaeaiea «oicyeio» (oioy aua iaecaanoii, eoi a oaeie neooaoeee
oicyei).

Eaeea aea aeaenoaey auiieiyao ae?on? Ii euao iiaue iauaeo aeey
ca?aaeaiey – iiaeoiaeyuee ii oeio oaee, eioi?ue aua ia ca?aaeai (a oii
neo/aa, anee ae?on «i?eee/iue», a oi iiiaaeathony oaeea, /oi ca?aaeatho
n?aco, ie/aai ia i?iaa?yy). Ca?aaeay oaee, ae?on aiaae?yaony a aai eiae,
/oiau iieo/eoue oi?aaeaiea i?e caionea yoiai oaeea. E?iia naiae iniiaiie
ooieoeee – ?aciiiaeaiey, ae?on aiieia iiaeao naeaeaoue /oi-ieaoaeue
caiuneiaaoia (neacaoue, ni?ineoue, nua?aoue) – yoi oaea caaeneo io
oaioacee aaoi?a ae?ona. Anee oaeeiaue ae?on ?aceaeaioiue,, oi ii
onoaiiaeony a iaiyoue e iieo/eo aiciiaeiinoue ca?aaeaoue oaeeu e
i?iyaeyoue i?i/ea niiniaiinoe ia oieueei ai a?aiy ?aaiou ca?aaeaiiiai
oaeea. Ca?aaeay eniieiyaiue oaee, ae?on anaaaea eciaiyao aai eiae –
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ca?aaeaiea eniieiyaiiai oaeea anaaaea iiaeii
iaia?oaeeoue. Ii, eciaiyy eiae oaeea, ae?on ia iaycaoaeueii aiineo
ae?oaea eciaiaiey:

ii ia iaycai iaiyoue aeeeio oaeea

iaeniieuecoaiua o/anoee eiaea

ia iaycai iaiyoue ia/aei oaeea

Iaeiiaoe, e oaeeiaui ae?onai /anoi ioiinyo ae?onu, eioi?ua «eiatho
iaeioi?ia ioiioaiea e oaeeai», ii ia iaycaiu aiaae?youeny a eo eiae.
?anniio?ei a ea/anoaa i?eia?a noaio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ae?onia
ecaanoiiai naiaenoaa Dir-II. Iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue, /oi iiyaeaoenue a
1991 a., yoe ae?onu noaee i?e/eiie ianoiyuae yieaeaiee /oiu a ?innee.
?anniio?ei iiaeaeue, ia eioi?ie ynii aeaeia iniiaiay eaeay ae?ona.
Eioi?iaoeey i oaeeao o?aieony a eaoaeiaao. Eaaeaeay caienue eaoaeiaa
aeeth/aao a naay eiy oaeea, aeaoo e a?aiy nicaeaiey, iaeioi?oth
aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth, iiia? ia?aiai eeanoa?a oaeea e o.i.
?aca?aiua aaeou. Iineaaeiea inoaaeaiu «i?i caian» e naiie MS-DOS ia
eniieuecothony.

I?e caionea eniieiyaiuo oaeeia nenoaia n/eouaaao ec caiene a eaoaeiaa
ia?aue eeanoa? oaeea e aeaeaa ana inoaeueiua eeanoa?u. Ae?onu naiaenoaa
Dir-II i?iecaiaeyo neaaeothuoth «?ai?aaiecaoeeth» oaeeiaie nenoaiu: nai
ae?on caienuaaaony a iaeioi?ua naiaiaeiua naeoi?u aeenea, eioi?ua ii
iiia/aao eae naieiua. E?iia oiai, ii nio?aiyao eioi?iaoeeth i ia?auo
eeanoa?ao eniieiyaiuo oaeeia a ?aca?aiuo aeoao, a ia ianoi yoie
eioi?iaoeee caienuaaao nnueee ia naay.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e caionea ethaiai oaeea ae?on iieo/aao oi?aaeaiea
(iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia caioneaao aai naia), ?aceaeaioii onoaiaaeeaaaony
a iaiyoue e ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea aucaaiiiio oaeeo.

Caa?oci/ii-oaeeiaua ae?onu

Iu ia noaiai ?anniao?eaaoue iiaeaeue caa?oci/ii-oaeeiaiai ae?ona, eai
ieeaeie iiaie eioi?iaoeee au i?e yoii ia ociaaoa. Ii caeanue
i?aaenoaaeyaony oaeiaiue neo/ae e?aoei ianoaeeoue e?aeia «iiioey?iue» a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy caa?oci/ii-oaeeiaue ae?on OneHalf, ca?aaeathuee aeaaiue
caa?oci/iue naeoi? (MBR) e eniieiyaiua oaeeu. Iniiaiia ?ac?ooeoaeueiia
aeaenoaea – oeo?iaaiea naeoi?ia aei/anoa?a. I?e eaaeaeii caionea ae?on
oeo?oao i/a?aaeioth ii?oeeth naeoi?ia, a caoeo?iaaa iieiaeio aeanoeiai
aeenea, ?aaeinoii niiauaao ia yoii. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia i?e ea/aiee
aeaiiiai ae?ona ninoieo a oii, /oi iaaeinoaoi/ii i?inoi oaeaeeoue ae?on
ec MBR e oaeeia, iaaei ?anoeo?iaaoue caoeo?iaaiioth ei eioi?iaoeeth.
Iaeaieaa «nia?oaeueiia» aeaenoaea – i?inoi ia?aienaoue iiaue caei?iaue
MBR. Aeaaiia – ia iaieeoeoa. Acaanueoa ana niieieii, iiniaaooeoanue ni
niaoeeaeenoaie.

2.4. Iieeii?oiua ae?onu

Aieueoeinoai aii?inia naycaii n oa?ieiii «iieeii?oiue ae?on». Yoio aeae
eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia i?aaenoaaeyaony ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaeaieaa
iianiui. Iauyniei aea, /oi yoi oaeia.

Iieeii?oiua ae?onu – ae?onu, iiaeeoeoee?othuea naie eiae a ca?aaeaiiuo
i?ia?aiiao oaeei ia?acii, /oi aeaa yecaiiey?a iaeiiai e oiai aea ae?ona
iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue ie a iaeiii aeoa.

Oaeea ae?onu ia oieueei oeo?otho naie eiae, eniieuecoy ?acee/iua iooe
oeo?iaaiey, ii e niaea?aeao eiae aaia?aoeee oeo?iaueea e ?anoeo?iaueea,
/oi ioee/aao eo io iau/iuo oeo?iaaeueiuo ae?onia, eioi?ua oaeaea iiaoo
oeo?iaaoue o/anoee naiaai eiaea, ii eiatho i?e yoii iinoiyiiue eiae
oeo?iaaeueueea e ?anoeo?iaueea.

Iieeii?oiua ae?onu – yoi ae?onu n naiiiiaeeoeoee?othueieny
?anoeo?iaueeaie. Oeaeue oaeiai oeo?iaaiey: eiay ca?aaeaiiue e
i?eaeiaeueiue oaeeu au ana ?aaii ia niiaeaoa i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aai eiae
n iiiiuueth iau/iiai aeecannaiaee?iaaiey. Yoio eiae caoeo?iaai e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aanniuneaiiue iaai? eiiaiae. ?anoeo?iaea
i?iecaiaeeony naiei ae?onii oaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ai a?aiy auiieiaiey.
I?e yoii aiciiaeiu aa?eaiou: ii iiaeao ?anoeo?iaaoue naay anaai n?aco, a
iiaeao auiieieoue oaeoth ?anoeo?iaeo «ii oiaeo aeaea», iiaeao aiiaue
oeo?iaaoue oaea io?aaioaaoea o/anoee. Ana yoi aeaeaaony ?aaee
cao?oaeiaiey aiaeeca eiaea ae?ona.

ENOI?Ess EIIIUeTHOA?IIE AE?ONIEIAEE

E I?E*EIU IIssAEAIEss AE?ONIA

Enoi?ey eiiiuethoa?iie ae?onieiaee i?aaenoaaeyaony naaiaeiy iinoiyiiie
«aiieie ca eeaea?ii», i?e/ai, ia niio?y ia anth iiuue nia?aiaiiuo
aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii, eeaea?aie yaeythony eiaiii ae?onu. N?aaee ouny/
ae?onia eeoue ianeieueei aeanyoeia yaeythony i?eaeiaeueiuie
?ac?aaioeaie, eniieuecothueie aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua
eaeae. Ana inoaeueiua – «aa?eaoeee ia oaio». Ii eaaeaeay i?eaeiaeueiay
?ac?aaioea canoaaeyao nicaeaoaeae aioeae?onia i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iiaui
oneiaeyi, aeiaiiyoue ae?onioth oaoiieiaeth. Iineaaeiaa iiaeii inii?eoue.
Iai?eia?, a 1989 aiaeo aia?eeaineee nooaeaio noiae nicaeaoue ae?on,
eioi?ue auaae ec no?iy ieiei 6000 eiiiuethoa?ia Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu
NOA. Eee yieaeaiey ecaanoiiai ae?ona Dir-II, ?ac?aceaoayny a 1991 aiaeo.
Ae?on eniieueciaae aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eaeiaeueioth, i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaoth oaoiieiaeth e ia ia?auo ii?ao noiae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieoueny ca
n/ao ianiaa?oainoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aioeae?oniuo n?aaenoa.

Eee anieane eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia a Aaeeeia?eoaiee : E?enoioa?o Iaeio
oaeaeinue nicaeaoue ae?onu Pathogen e Queeq, a oaeaea ae?on Smeg. Eiaiii
iineaaeiee aue naiui iianiui, aai iiaeii auei iaeeaaeuaaoue ia ia?aua
aeaa ae?ona, e ec-ca yoiai iinea eaaeaeiai i?iaiia i?ia?aiiu iie iaiyee
eiioeao?aoeeth. Iiyoiio eo auei iaaiciiaeii oie/oiaeeoue. *oiau
?ani?ino?aieoue ae?onu, Iaei neiie?iaae eiiiuethoa?iua ea?u e i?ia?aiiu,
ca?acee eo, a caoai ioi?aaee ia?aoii a naoue. Iieueciaaoaee caa?oaeaee a
naie eiiiuethoa?u ca?aaeaiiua i?ia?aiiu e eioeoee?iaaee aeenee.
Neooaoeey onoaoaeeanue oai, /oi Iaei oioae?eeny caianoe ae?onu e a
i?ia?aiio, eioi?ay n ieie ai?aony. Caionoea aa, iieueciaaoaee aianoi
oie/oiaeaiey ae?onia iieo/aee aua iaeei. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai auee
oie/oiaeaiu oaeeu iiiaeanoaa oe?i, oauoee ninoaaeee ieeeeiiu ooioia
noa?eeiaia.

Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/ee aia?eeaineee i?ia?aiieno Ii??en. Ii
ecaanoai eae nicaeaoaeue ae?ona, eioi?ue a iiya?a 1988 aiaea ca?acee
ii?yaeea 7 ouny/ ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e Internet.

I?e/eiu iiyaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ne?uaathony a ineoieiaee /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe e aa oaiaauo
noi?iiao (caaenoe, ianoe, ouaneaaee iai?eciaiiuo oai?oeia,
iaaiciiaeiinoe eiino?oeoeaii i?eiaieoue naie niiniaiinoe), n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iaoneiaeaiu ionoonoaeai aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa caueou e
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ni noi?iiu iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu ia?niiaeueiiai
eiiiuethoa?a.

4. IOOE I?IIEEIIAAIEss AE?ONIA A EIIIUeTHOA? E IAOAIECI ?ANI?AAeAEAIEss
AE?ONIUO I?IA?AII

Iniiaiuie iooyie i?iieeiiaaiey ae?onia a eiiiuethoa? yaeythony nuaiiua
aeenee (aeaeea e eaca?iua), a oaeaea eiiiuethoa?iua naoe. Ca?aaeaiea
aeanoeiai aeenea ae?onaie iiaeao i?iecieoe i?e caa?ocea i?ia?aiiu n
aeeneaou, niaea?aeauae ae?on. Oaeia ca?aaeaiea iiaeao auoue e neo/aeiui,
iai?eia?, anee aeeneaoo ia auioee ec aeeneiaiaea A e ia?acaa?oceee
eiiiuethoa?, i?e yoii aeeneaoa iiaeao auoue e ia nenoaiiie. Ca?aceoue
aeeneaoo ai?acaei i?iua. Ia iaa ae?on iiaeao iiianoue, aeaaea anee
aeeneaoo i?inoi anoaaeee a aeeneiaiae ca?aaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a e,
iai?eia?, i?i/eoaee aa iaeaaeaiea.

Ae?on, eae i?aaeei, aiaae?yaony a ?aai/oth i?ia?aiio oaeei ia?acii,
/oiau i?e aa caionea oi?aaeaiea nia/aea ia?aaeaeinue aio e oieueei iinea
auiieiaiey anao aai eiiaiae niiaa aa?ioeinue e ?aai/ae i?ia?aiia.
Iieo/ea aeinooi e oi?aaeaieth, ae?on i?aaeaea anaai ia?aienuaaao nai
naay a ae?oaoth ?aai/oth i?ia?aiio e ca?aaeaao aa. Iinea caionea
i?ia?aiiu, niaea?aeauae ae?on, noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui ca?aaeaiea ae?oaeo
oaeeia. Iaeaieaa /anoi ae?onii ca?aaeathony caa?oci/iue naeoi? aeenea e
eniieiyaiua oaeeu, eiathuea ?anoe?aiey EXE, COM, SYS, BAT. E?aeia ?aaeei
ca?aaeathony oaenoiaua oaeeu.

Iinea ca?aaeaiey i?ia?aiiu ae?on iiaeao auiieieoue eaeoth-ieaoaeue
aeeaa?neth, ia neeoeii na?ueacioth, /oiau ia i?eaea/ue aieiaiey. E
iaeiiaoe, ia caauaaao aica?aoeoue oi?aaeaiea oie i?ia?aiia, ec eioi?ie
aue caiouai. Eaaeaeia auiieiaiea ca?aaeaiiie i?ia?aiiu ia?aiineo ae?on a
neaaeothuoth. Oaeei ia?acii, ca?aceony ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea.

Aeey eeethno?aoeee i?ioeanna ca?aaeaiey eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu ae?onii
eiaao niune oiiaeiaeoue aeeneiaoth iaiyoue noa?iiiaeiiio a?oeao n
iaieaie ia oanueia. A iaieao ?aniieiaeaiu i?ia?aiiu, a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iia?aoeee ii aiaae?aieth ae?ona aoaeao a yoii
neo/aa auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.( ni. I?eeiaeaiea 1 )

5. I?ECIAEE IIssAEAIEss AE?ONIA

I?e ca?aaeaiee eiiiuethoa?a ae?onii aaaeii aai iaia?oaeeoue. Aeey yoiai
neaaeoao ciaoue ia iniiaiuo i?eciaeao i?iyaeaiey ae?onia. E iei iiaeii
ioianoe neaaeothuea:

i?ae?auaiea ?aaiou eee iai?aaeeueiay ?aaioa ?aiaa oniaoii
ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeo i?ia?aii

iaaeeaiiay ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a

iaaiciiaeiinoue caa?ocee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu

en/aciiaaiea oaeeia e eaoaeiaia eee eneaaeaiea eo niaea?aeeiiai

eciaiaiea aeaou e a?aiaie iiaeeoeeaoeee oaeeia

eciaiaiea ?acia?ia oaeeia

iaiaeeaeaiiia cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa oaeeia ia aeenea

nouanoaaiiia oiaiueoaiea ?acia?a naiaiaeiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe

auaiae ia ye?ai iai?aaeoniio?aiiuo niiauaiee eee ecia?aaeaiee

iiaea/a iai?aaeoniio?aiiuo caoeiauo neaiaeia

/anoua caaenaiey e naie a ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi auoaia?a/eneaiiua yaeaiey iaiaycaoaeueii
aucuaathony i?enoonoaeai ae?ona, a iiaoo auoue neaaenoaeai ae?oaeo
i?e/ei. Iiyoiio anaaaea cao?oaeiaia i?aaeeueiay aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey
eiiiuethoa?a.

IAIA?OAEAIEA AE?ONIA E IA?U II CAUEOA E I?IOEEAEOEEA

Eae iaia?oaeeoue ae?on? O?aaeeoeeiiiue iiaeoiae

Eoae, iaeee ae?oniienaoaeue nicaeaao ae?on e caioneaao aai a«aeeciue».
Iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii, aiciiaeii, iiaoeyao aaieth, ii ?aii eee iicaeii
«eaoa» caeii/eony. Eoi-oi caiiaeic?eo /oi-ieaoaeue iaeaaeiia. Eae
i?aaeei, ae?onu iaia?oaeeaatho iau/iua iieueciaaoaee, eioi?ua caia/atho
oa eee eiua aiiiaeee a iiaaaeaiee eiiiuethoa?a. Iie, a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa, ia niiniaiu naiinoiyoaeueii ni?aaeoueny n ca?acie, ii yoiai io
ieo e ia o?aaoaony.

Iaiaoiaeeii eeoue, /oiau eae iiaeii nei?aa ae?on iiiae a ?oee
niaoeeaeenoia. I?ioanneiiaeu aoaeoo aai eco/aoue, auyniyoue, «/oi ii
aeaeaao», «eae ii aeaeaao», «eiaaea ii aeaeaao» e i?. A i?ioeanna oaeie
?aaiou niae?aaony any iaiaoiaeeiay eioi?iaoeey i aeaiiii ae?ona, a
/anoiinoe, auaeaeyaony neaiaoo?a ae?ona – iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aaeoia,
eioi?ay aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii aai oa?aeoa?ecoao. Aeey iino?iaiey neaiaoo?u
iau/ii aa?oony iaeaieaa aaaeiua e oa?aeoa?iua o/anoee eiaea ae?ona.
Iaeiia?aiaiii noaiiayony yniu iaoaieciu ?aaiou ae?ona, iai?eia?, a
neo/aa caa?oci/iiai ae?ona aaaeii ciaoue, aaea ii i?y/ao naie oaino,
aaea iaoiaeeony i?eaeiaeueiue caa?oci/iue naeoi?, a a neo/aa oaeeiaiai –
niinia ca?aaeaiey oaeea. Iieo/aiiay eioi?iaoeey iicaieyao auynieoue:

eae iaia?oaeeoue ae?on, aeey yoiai ooi/iythony iaoiaeu iienea neaiaoo? a
iioaioeeaeueiuo iauaeoao ae?oniie aoaee – oaeeao e \ eee caa?oci/iuo
naeoi?ao

eae iaaca?aaeeoue ae?on, anee yoi aiciiaeii, ?ac?aaaouaathony aeai?eoiu
oaeaeaiey ae?oniiai eiaea ec ii?aaeaiiuo iauaeoia

I?ia?aiiu iaia?oaeaiey e caueou io ae?onia

Aeey iaia?oaeaiey, oaeaeaiey e caueou io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia
?ac?aaioaii ianeieueei aeaeia niaoeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, eioi?ua iicaieytho
iaia?oaeeaaoue e oie/oiaeaoue ae?onu. Oaeea i?ia?aiiu iacuaathony
aioeae?oniuie. ?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu aioeae?oniuo i?ia?aii:

i?ia?aiiu-aeaoaeoi?u

i?ia?aiiu-aeieoi?a eee oaae

i?ia?aiiu-?aaeci?u

i?ia?aiiu-oeeueo?u

i?ia?aiiu-aaeoeeiu eee eiioiecaoi?u

I?ia?aiiu-aeaoaeoi?u inouanoaeytho iiene oa?aeoa?iie aeey eiie?aoiiai
ae?ona neaiaoo?u a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e a oaeeao e i?e iaia?oaeaiee
auaeatho niioaaonoaothuaa niiauaiea. Iaaeinoaoeii oaeeo aioeae?oniuo
i?ia?aii yaeyaony oi, /oi iie iiaoo iaoiaeeoue oieueei oa ae?onu,
eioi?ua ecaanoiu ?ac?aaio/eeai oaeeo i?ia?aii.

I?ia?aiiu-aeieoi?a eee oaae, a oaeaea i?ia?aiiu-aaeoeeiu ia oieueei
iaoiaeyo ca?aaeaiiua ae?onaie oaeeu, ii e «ea/ao» eo, o.a. oaeaeytho ec
oaeea oaei i?ia?aiiu-ae?ona, aica?auay oaeeu a enoiaeiia ninoiyiea. A
ia/aea naiae ?aaiou oaae euoo ae?onu a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, oie/oiaeay
eo, e oieueei caoai ia?aoiaeyo e «ea/aieth» oaeeia. N?aaee oaaia
auaeaeytho iieeoaae, o.a. i?ia?aiiu-aeieoi?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
iienea e oie/oiaeaiey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ae?onia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiua
ec ieo: Aidstest, Scan, Norton AntiVirus, Doctor Web.

O/eouaay, /oi iinoiyiii iiyaeythony iiaua ae?onu, i?ia?aiiu-aeaoaeoi?u e
i?ia?aiiu-aeieoi?a auno?i onoa?aaatho, e o?aaoaony ?aaoey?iia iaiiaeaiea
aa?nee.

I?ia?aiiu-?aaeci?u ioiinyony e naiui iaaeaaeiui n?aaenoaai caueou io
ae?onia. ?aaeci?u caiiieiatho enoiaeiia ninoiyiea i?ia?aii, eaoaeiaia e
nenoaiiuo iaeanoae aeenea oiaaea, eiaaea eiiiuethoa? ia ca?aaeai
ae?onii, a caoai ia?eiaee/anee eee ii aeaeaieth iieueciaaoaey
n?aaieaatho oaeouaa ninoiyiea n enoiaeiui. Iaia?oaeaiiua eciaiaiey
auaiaeyony ia ye?ai iiieoi?a. Eae i?aaeei, n?aaiaiea ninoiyiee
i?iecaiaeyo n?aco iinea caa?ocee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. I?e n?aaiaiee
i?iaa?ythony aeeeia oaeea, eiae oeeeee/aneiai eiio?iey (eiio?ieueiay
noiia oaeea), aeaoa e a?aiy iiaeeoeeaoeee, ae?oaea ia?aiao?u.
I?ia?aiiu-?aaeci?u eiatho aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoua aeai?eoiu, iaia?oaeeaatho
noaen-ae?onu e iiaoo aeaaea i/enoeoue eciaiaiey aa?nee i?iaa?yaiie
i?ia?aiiu io eciaiaiee, aianaiiuo ae?onii. E /eneo i?ia?aii-?aaeci?ia
ioiineony oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay a ?innee i?ia?aiia Adinf.

I?ia?aiiu-oeeueo?u eee «noi?iaea» i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaieueoea
?aceaeaioiua i?ia?aiiu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iaia?oaeaiey
iiaeic?eoaeueiuo aeaenoaee i?e ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
ae?onia. Oaeeie aeaenoaeyie iiaoo yaeyoueny:

iiiuoee ei??aeoeee oaeeia n ?anoe?aieyie COM, EXE

eciaiaiea ao?eaooia oaeea

i?yiay caienue ia aeene ii aaniethoiiio aae?ano

caienue a caa?oci/iua naeoi?a aeenea

caa?ocea ?aceaeaioiie i?ia?aiiu

I?e iiiuoea eaeie-eeai i?ia?aiiu i?iecaanoe oeacaiiua aeaenoaey
«noi?iae» iinueaao iieueciaaoaeth niiauaiea e i?aaeeaaaao cai?aoeoue eee
?ac?aoeoue niioaaonoaothuaa aeaenoaea. I?ia?aiiu-oeeueo?u aanueia
iieaciu, oae eae niiniaiu iaia?oaeeoue ae?on ia naiie ?aiiae noaaeee aai
nouanoaiaaiey aei ?aciiiaeaiey. Iaeiaei, iie ia «ea/ao» oaeeu e aeenee.
Aeey oie/oiaeaiey ae?onia o?aaoaony i?eiaieoue ae?oaea i?ia?aiiu,
iai?eia? oaae. E iaaeinoaoeai i?ia?aii-noi?iaeae iiaeii ioianoe eo
«iacieeeainoue»(iai?eia?, iie iinoiyiii auaeatho i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea i
ethaie iiiuoea eiie?iaaiey eniieiyaiiai oaeea), a oaeaea aiciiaeiua
eiioeeeou n ae?oaei i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai. I?eia?ii
i?ia?aiiu-oeeueo?a yaeyaony i?ia?aiia Vsafe, aoiaeyuay a ninoaa iaeaoa
ooeeeo MS DOS.

Aaeoeeiu eee eiioiecaoi?u – yoi ?aceaeaioiua i?ia?aiiu,
i?aaeioa?auathuea ca?aaeaiea oaeeia. Aaeoeeiu i?eiaiytho, anee
ionoonoaotho i?ia?aiiu-aeieoi?a, «ea/auea» yoio ae?on. Aaeoeeiaoeey
aiciiaeia oieueei io ecaanoiuo ae?onia. Aaeoeeia iiaeeoeoee?oao
i?ia?aiio eee aeene oaeei ia?acii, /oiau yoi ia io?aaeaeinue ia eo
?aaioa, a ae?on aoaeao aini?eieiaoue eo ca?aaeaiiuie e iiyoiio ia
aiaae?eony. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ia?aiiu-aaeoeeiu eiatho ia?aie/aiiia
i?eiaiaiea.

Naiaa?aiaiiia iaia?oaeaiea ca?aaeaiiuo ae?onaie oaeeia e aeeneia, iieiia
oie/oiaeaiea iaia?oaeaiiuo ae?onia ia eaaeaeii eiiiuethoa?a iicaieytho
ecaaaeaoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?oniie yieaeaiee ia ae?oaea eiiiuethoa?u.

Iniiaiua ia?u ii caueoa io ae?onia

Aeey oiai, /oiau ia iiaeaa?aiooue eiiiuethoa? ca?aaeaieth ae?onaie e
iaania/eoue iaaeaaeiia o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee ia aeeneao, iaiaoiaeeii
niaethaeaoue neaaeothuea i?aaeea:

inianoeoa naie eiiiuethoa? nia?aiaiiuie aioeae?oniuie i?ia?aiiaie,
iai?eia? Aidstest, Doctor Web, e iinoiyiii aiciaiiaeyeoa eo aa?nee

ia?aae n/eouaaieai n aeeneao eioi?iaoeee, caienaiiie ia ae?oaeo
eiiiuethoa?ao, anaaaea i?iaa?yeoa yoe aeeneaou ia iaee/ea ae?onia,
caioneay aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu naiaai eiiiuethoa?a

i?e ia?aiina ia naie eiiiuethoa? oaeeia a a?oeae?iaaiiii aeaea
i?iaa?yeoa eo n?aco aea iinea ?aca?oeaaoeee ia aeanoeii aeenea,
ia?aie/eaay iaeanoue i?iaa?ee oieueei aiiaue caienaiiuie oaeeaie

ia?eiaee/anee i?iaa?yeoa ia iaee/ea ae?onia aeanoeea aeenee
eiiiuethoa?a, caioneay aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu aeey oanoe?iaaiey oaeeia,
iaiyoe e nenoaiiuo iaeanoae aeeneia n caueuaiiie io caiene aeeneaou,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii caa?ocea iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio n caueuaiiie io caiene
nenoaiiie aeeneaou

anaaaea caueuaeoa naie aeeneaou io caiene i?e ?aaioa ia ae?oaeo
eiiiuethoa?ao, anee ia ieo ia aoaeao i?iecaiaeeony caienue eioi?iaoeee

iaycaoaeueii aeaeaeoa a?oeaiua eiiee ia aeeneaoao oeaiiie aeey aan
eioi?iaoeee

ia inoaaeyeoa a ea?iaia aeeneiaiaea A aeeneaou i?e aeeth/aiee eee
ia?acaa?ocea iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, /oiau eneeth/eoue ca?aaeaiea
eiiiuethoa?a caa?oci/iuie ae?onaie

eniieuecoeoa aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu aeey aoiaeiiai eiio?iey anao
eniieiyaiuo oaeeia, iieo/aaiuo ec eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae

aeey iaania/aiey aieueoae aaciianiinoe i?eiaiaiey Aidstest e Doctor Web
iaiaoiaeeii ni/aoaoue n iianaaeiaaiui eniieueciaaieai ?aaeci?a aeenea
Adinf

CAEETH*AIEA

Eoae, iiaeii i?eaanoe ianno oaeoia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i oii, /oi
oa?ica eioi?iaoeeiiiiio ?ano?no aic?anoaao n eaaeaeui aeiai, iiaeaa?aay
a iaieeo ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe a aaieao, ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e a eiiiaieyo ai
anai ie?a. E oa?ica yoa enoiaeeo io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia, eioi?ua
eneaaeatho eee oie/oiaeatho aeeciaiii aaaeioth, oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth,
/oi iiaeao i?eaanoe ia oieueei e oeiainiaui iioa?yi, ii e e /aeiaa/aneei
aea?oaai.

Eiiiuethoa?iue ae?on – niaoeeaeueii iaienaiiay i?ia?aiia, niiniaiay
naiii?iecaieueii i?eniaaeeiyoueny e ae?oaei i?ia?aiiai, nicaeaaaoue naie
eiiee e aiaae?youe eo a oaeeu, nenoaiiua iaeanoe eiiiuethoa?a e a
au/eneeoaeueiua naoe n oeaeueth ia?ooaiey ?aaiou i?ia?aii, ii?/e oaeeia
e eaoaeiaia, nicaeaiey anaaiciiaeiuo iiiao a ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoii aieaa 5000 i?ia?aiiiuo ae?onia, /enei eioi?uo
iai?a?uaii ?anoao. Ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea nicaeaaaeenue o/aaiua
iiniaey, iiiiaathuea a iaienaiee ae?onia.

Iniiaiua aeaeu ae?onia: caa?oci/iua, oaeeiaua, oaeeiai-caa?oci/iua.
Iaeaieaa iianiue aeae ae?onia – iieeii?oiua.

Ec enoi?ee eiiiuethoa?iie ae?onieiaee ynii, /oi ethaay i?eaeiaeueiay
eiiiuethoa?iay ?ac?aaioea canoaaeyao nicaeaoaeae aioeae?onia
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iiaui oaoiieiaeyi, iinoiyiii oniaa?oainoaiaaoue
aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu.

I?e/eiu iiyaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey ae?onia ne?uou n iaeiie noi?iiu a
ineoieiaee /aeiaaea, n ae?oaie noi?iiu – n ionoonoaeai n?aaenoa caueou o
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Iniiaiua iooe i?iieeiiaaiey ae?onia – nuaiiua aeenee e eiiiuethoa?iua
naoe. *oiau yoiai ia neo/eeinue, niaethaeaeoa ia?u ii caueoa. Oaeaea
aeey iaia?oaeaiey, oaeaeaiey e caueou io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia
?ac?aaioaii ianeieueei aeaeia niaoeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, iacuaaaiuo
aioeae?oniuie. Anee au ana aea iaia?oaeeee a eiiiuethoa?a ae?on, oi ii
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio iiaeoiaeo eo/oa iicaaoue i?ioanneiiaea, /oiau oio
aeaeueoa ?acia?aeny.

Ii iaeioi?ua naienoaa ae?onia icaaea/eaatho aeaaea niaoeeaeenoia. Aua
nianai iaaeaaii o?oaeii auei naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi ae?on iiaeao
ia?aaeeoue oieiaeioth ia?acaa?oceo eee ?ani?ino?aiyoueny /a?ac oaeeu
aeieoiaioia. A oaeeo oneiaeyo iaeuecy ia i?eaeaaaoue cia/aiea oioy au
ia/aeueiiio aioeae?oniiio ia?aciaaieth iieueciaaoaeae. I?e anae
na?ueaciinoe i?iaeaiu ie iaeei ae?on ia niiniaai i?eianoe noieueei
a?aaea, neieueei iiaaeaaoee iieueciaaoaeue n ae?iaeaueie ?oeaie!

Eoae, caei?iauea aaoeo eiiiuethoa?ia, nio?aiiinoue aaoeo aeaiiuo – a
aaoeo ?oeao!

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