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IEIENOA?NOAI EOEUeOO?U ?O

AINOI*II-NEAE?NEAss AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss EOEUeOO?U E ENEONNOA

Eaoaae?a AEN

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ia oaio:

“Eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiuethoa?ia”

Auiieiaia nooaeaioii II eo?na

i/iiai ioaeaeaiey 423 a?oiiu

niaoeeaeueiinoe “eioi?iaoee-oaoiieia”

Aaaeiaaa *.A..

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

O?aaoaiia A.A.

1998 aiae

Oeai-Oaey

Ieai:

Aaaaeaiea

Eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiuethoa?ia ii auno?iaeaenoaeth.

Eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiuethoa?ia ii iaeanoe eo i?eiaiaiey

Ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee.

Eaoaai?ee.

Consumer PC (iieueciaaoaeueneee eiiiuethoa?).

Office PC(eiiiuethoa? aeey ioena).

Workstation PC (?aai/ay noaioeey).

Entertainment PC (aeey aeiia, aeey naiuee).

Mobile PC (aeey oao, eoi a iooe).

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey.

Ieieioi aeey anao e eaaeaeiai.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

X-oa?ieiaeu

Na?aa?u

Iyeio?aeiu

Eeanoa?iua a?oeoaeoo?u

Caeeth/aiea.

1. Aaaaeaiea

Ai ana a?aiaia ethaeyi ioaeii auei n/eoaoue. A ooiaiiii aeienoi?e/aneii
i?ioeii iie n/eoaee ia iaeueoeao eee aeaeaee iana/ee ia einoyo. I?eia?ii
ieiei 4000 eao iacaae, ia ca?a /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, auee
ecia?aoaiu oaea aeiaieueii neiaeiua nenoaiu n/eneaiey, iicaieyaoea
inouanoaeyoue oi?aiaua naeaeee, ?ann/eouaaoue ano?iiiie/aneea oeeeeu,
i?iaiaeeoue ae?oaea au/eneaiey. Ianeieueei ouny/aeaoee nionoy,
iiyaeeenue ia?aua ?o/iua au/eneeoaeueiua eino?oiaiou. A a iaoe aeie
iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ?aoaiea neiaeiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo caaea/ e
auiieiaiea iia?aoeee, eacaeinue au, ia naycaiiuo n /eneaie, aac iiiiue
“yeaeo?iiiiai iicaa”, iacuaaaiiai eiiiuethoa?ii, eee, ii noa?eiea, YAI.

Niaoeeaeenou (a oaeiauie yaeythony a iao aae ana iiae?inoee noa?oa
aeanyoe eao), ia i?aieioo caiaoeoue, /oi eiiiuethoa? – yoi ia iica (ii
e?aeia ia?a iiea – ooi/iyo iniaaiii oaeaioeeaua). Yoi i?inoi-iai?inoi
aua iaeei eino?oiaio, aua iaeii ono?ienoai, i?eaeoiaiiia aeey oiai,
/oiau iaeaa/eoue iao o?oae eee oneeeoue iaoo aeanoue iaae i?e?iaeie. I?e
anai naiai eaaeouainy aaeeeieaiee eiiiuethoa? iaeaaeaao, ii nouanoao,
iaeiei-aaeeinoaaiiui oaeaioii – ?aaae?iaaoue n iieieaiiniie auno?ioie ia
eiioeuenu yeaeo?e/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Enoeiiia aaee/ea caeeth/aii a
/aeiaaea, aai aaiee, eioi?ue iaoae niinia i?aia?aciauaaoue
?aciiia?acioth eioi?iaoeeth, iinooiathuoth ec ?aaeueiiai ie?a, a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ioeae e aaeeieoe, ia?aaiaeeoue ana iiiaiia?acea
iaoae ia iiae/eiythuaeny no?iaei iaoaiaoe/aneei caeiiai aeecie a no?iaee
ycue iaoaiaoeee, iiiyoiue yeaeo?iiiui noaiai eiiiuethoa?a. Eiaiii
iiyoiio y e ?aoee, /oi iiy aoaeouay niaoeeaeueiinoue aoaeao naycaia n
eiiiuethoa?aie: aii?aee iianaieyi ienaoaeae-oaioanoia, /aeiaae ia noae
i?eaeaoeii iaoeiu, a iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue eo/oa i?iyaeoue naie
niiniaiinoe e naeaeaoue aua iaeei oaa io /enoi iaoaie/aneiai o?oaea, e
oai?/aneiio. Iu anooiaai a iinoeiaeono?eaeueiue aae, aae eioi?iaoeee.

2. Eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiuethoa?ia ii auno?iaeaenoaeth.

Ia?aua eiiiuethoa?u auee nicaeaiu ii/oe iieaaea iacaae, e, oioy iie e
caieiaee oiaaea oeaeua caeu, eo auno?iaeaenoaea auei n?aaieii n
auno?iaeaenoaeai iuiaoieo “ia?niiaeie”; iie aiieia oaeiaeaoai?yee
iio?aaiinoyi e?oiiuo ieienoa?noa e ei?ii?aoeee. Oai ia iaiaa,
ieieaoth?ecaoeey e no?aieaiea naeaeaoue eiiiuethoa?u aeinoiyieai iann
i?eaaee e oiio, /oi a aeaaaeoeaoue ia?aue aae iu aoiaeei ia iiae
ciaiaiaie ec ia?oiea?o, ia eioi?uo ecia?aaeaiu aeaaioneea
au/eneeoaeueiua oeaio?u, a ?aciaoeaay e?ani/iuie iaeiaeeaie
eiiiuethoa?iuo aeo?iaeia, iaienaiiuo i?inoui ycueii, iiiyoiui ieeeeiiai
iieueciaaoaeae ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia.

Ii/aio aea eiiiuethoa?u noaee oaeeie iiioey?iuie e i?aa?aoeeenue ec
?aeeaee iaeeii/ae a i?oaeea i?iecaiaenoaa ieeeeiiia? Ii/aio iie n
oniaoii ?aoatho iinoaaeaiiua ia?aae ieie e oaeiaeaoai?ytho i?eaee?/eaua
o?aaiaaiey o/aiuo e niioaaonoaotho ecuneaiiiio aeono nae?aoa?o? Aeey
oiai, /oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoe e ae?oaea aii?inu, y ?anneaaeo i
eiiiuethoa?ao oi, /oi n/eoath ioaeiui, noa?aynue ia oaeoaeyoueny a
oaoie/aneea iiae?iaiinoe, e, i?ioo i?iuaiey, ia i/aiue caaioynue i
eiae/iinoe iiaanoaiaaiey.

Aeey ia/aea – enoi?ey. A iyoeaeanyouo – oanoeaeanyouo aiaeao oe?iu
i?iecaiaeyuea eiiiuethoa?u, eioi?ua auee oiaaea aeinooiiu eeoue e?oiiui
eiiiaieyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi ec-ca naieo ?acia?ia e oeaiu, noaee
no?aieoueny i?iecaiaeeoue eiiiuethoa?u, eioi?ua auee au iaiueoa e
aeaoaaea, /ai o eo eiieo?aioia. Yoi aeaeaeinue a ai?ueaa ca iieoiaoaeae,
a ai?ueaa ca oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iaeaae. (Aio iie – i?aeiouanoaa
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa, iiaei ee oaeia auoue o ian a no?aia? Iao, o
ian aeaeaee eeoue aieueoea eiiiuethoa?u – AYNIu, e iaeaiueeea aieueoea
eiiiuethoa?u – IYNIu.) Oae aio, aeaaiaea?y ecia?aoaieth o?aicenoi?ia,
iaiyoe ia iaaieoiuo na?aea/ieeao, ieieaoth?ecaoeee aiaoieo ono?ienoa, e,
iaeiiaoe, iiyaeaieth eioaa?aeueiuo noai, noaei aiciiaeiui iiyaeaiea a
1965 aiaeo ieie-eiiiuethoa?a PDP-8 ?acia?ii n oieiaeeeueiee e
noieiinoueth 20 ouny/ aeieea?ia. Aeaeueoa – aieueoa (a niunea iaiueoa).
A eiioea 1970 aiaea aue auiouai a i?iaeaaeo ia?aue iee?ii?ioeanni?
Intel-4004 – eioaa?aeueiay noaia, eioaa?aeueiay noaia, aiaeiae/iay ii
naiei ooieoeeyi oeaio?aeueiiio i?ioeanni?o aieueoie YAI. Aneaae ca yoei
/aou?aoaeoiui (neaaee nae/an eaeiio-ieaoaeue ?aaaieo o?aco “/aou?a aeoa”
– ii aoaeao aeieai niayoueny e cayaeo : “SEGA Mega Drive II – 16 aeo!
Yoi – eeann!”), iiyaeeenue ainueie aeoiua (oi anoue oaea ii/oe eae
“Aeaiaee”!) iiaeaee 8008 e 8080, eioi?ua aei eiioea naieaeanyouo noaee
noaiaea?oii eiiiuethoa?iie eiaeono?ee.

Aia/aea yoe i?ioeanni?u eniieueciaaeenue oieueei
yeaeo?iiueeaie-ethaeoaeyie e a ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiuo ono?ienoaao, ii n
1975 aiaea, ia iniiaa Intel-8080, noaee na?eeii i?iecaiaeeoueny ia?aua
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u. Iauaiu eo i?iaeaae auee iaauniee, ii aeey
aaniethoii iiaiai oiaa?a eiiia?/aneee oniao aue ioaeiieythu. *oi aea
auei i?e/eiie yoiai? Oaea oiaaea, ia ca?a, oniao “aeaeaca” caaenae io
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Oae “oeoaie” a oa aiaeu noaee ycue
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aeey “/aeieeia” Basic, oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi? WordStar
(iacia/aiey “ai?y/eo” eeaaeo eioi?iai eniieuecothony aei neo ii?) e
oaaee/iue i?ioeanni? VisiCalc, ia?a?inoee e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a aeaaioa
iiae iacaaieai Excel. Aeaeiaie ie? anaai ie?a oaeaeae, /oi iieoiaoue
eiiiuethoa?u aanueia auaiaeii: n eo iiiiuueth noaei aiciiaeii
cia/eoaeueii yooaeoeaiaa auiieiyoue aooaaeoa?neea ?an/aou, ninoaaeyoue
aeieoiaiou e oae aeaeaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ieacaeinue, /oi aeey iiiaeo
i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiua ei ?an/aou iiaeii auiieiyoue ia ia aieueoeo
YAI, a ia ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao, /oi cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea.

?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e eiioeo naieaeanyouo aiaeia
i?eaaei e iaeioi?iio nieaeaieth ni?ina ia aieueoea e ieie YAI. Yoi noaei
i?aaeiaoii na?ueaciiai aaniieienoaa ei?ii?aoeee IBM – aaaeouae eiiiaiee
ii i?iecaiaenoao oaeiauo. A 1979 aiaeo ?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu ?aoeei
i?iecaanoe eae au iaeeee yenia?eiaio (/oi-oi a?iaea iaeiie ec aeanyoeia
i?iaiaeeaoeony a oe?ia ?aaio ii nicaeaieth iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey) –
iii?iaiaaoue naie neeu ia ?uiea ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. *oiau ia
yoio yenia?eiaio neeoeii iiiai aeaiaa, ?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu i?aaeinoaaeei
iiae?acaeaeaieth, ioaaonoaaiiiio ca aeaiiue i?iaeo, iaaeaeaiioth a oe?ia
naiaiaeo. A /anoiinoe, aio auei ?ac?aoaii ia eiino?oe?iaaoue
ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? “n ioey”, a eniieueciaaoue aeiee,
ecaioiaeaiiua ae?oaeie oe?iaie. E yoi iiae?acaeaeaiea niieia
eniieueciaaei i?aaeinoaaeaiiue oain. I?aaeaea anaai a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai
iee?ii?ioeanni?a eiiiuethoa?a aue aua?ai iiaaeoee oiaaea 16-?ac?yaeiue
iee?ii?ioeanni? Intel-8I88. Aai eniieueciaaiea iicaieeei cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eoue iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eiiiuethoa?a, oae eae iiaue
iee?ii?ioeanni? iicaieye ?aaioaoue n 1Iaaeoii iaiyoe, a ana eiaaoeany
oiaaea eiiiuethoa?u auee ia?aie/aiu 64Eaaeoaie. A eiiiuethoa?a auee
eniieueciaaiu e ae?oaea eiiieaeoothuea ?acee/iuo oe?i, a aai i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea auei ii?o/aii ?ac?aaioaoue iaaieueoie oe?ia Microsoft.

A aaaonoa 1981 aiaea iiaue eiiiuethoa? iiae iacaaieai IBM PC aue
ioeoeeaeueii i?aaenoaaeai ioaeeea e anei?a iinea yoiai ii i?eia?ae
aieueooth iiioey?iinoue o iieueciaaoaeae. *a?ac iaeei-aeaa aiaea
eiiiueoa? IBM PC noae noaiaea?oii ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Nae/an
oaeea eiiiuethoa?u (“niaianoeiua n IBM PC”) ninoaaeytho ieiei 90% anao
i?iecaiaeeiuo a ie?a ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. A /ai aea i?e/eia eo
oaiiiaiaeueiiai oniaoa? Anee au IBM PC aue naeaeai oae aea, eae ae?oaea
nouanoaiaaaoea oiaaea eiiiuethoa?u, ii au onoa?ae /a?ac aeaa-o?e aiaea e
iu au ana oaea aeaaii i iai caauee. Ii e n/anoueth, a IBM PC auea
caeiaeaia aiciiaeiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aai ioaeaeueiuo /anoae e
eniieueciaaiey iiauo ono?ienoa. Oe?ia IBM naeaeaea eiiiuethoa? ia
aaeeiui ia?acuaiiui ono?ienoaii, a iaania/eea aiciiaeiinoue aai nai?ee
ec iacaaeneii ecaioiaeaiiuo /anoae, iiaeiaii aeaoneiio eiino?oeoi?o. I?e
yoii iaoiaeu nii?yaeaiey ono?ienoa n eiiiuethoa?ii IBM PC ia oieueei ia
aea?aeaeenue a nae?aoa, ii e auee aeinooiiu anai aeaeathuei.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? i/aiue iaiiieiaao
iaueiiaaiiue eiino?oeoi?: noaiu, oi?aaeythuea anaie ono?ienoaaie –
iiieoi?ii, aeeneaie, i?eioa?ii, iiaeaiii e o.ae., ?aaeeciaaiu ia
ioaeaeueiuo ieaoao, eioi?ua anoaaeythony a noaiaea?oiua ?acuaiu
nenoaiiie ieaou – neiou. Aanue eiiiuethoa? ieoaaony io aaeeiiai aeiea
ieoaiey. Yoio i?eioeei, iacaaiiue i?eioeeiii ioe?uoie a?oeoaeoo?u,
ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie aeinoieinoaaie iaania/ee iio?ynathuee oniao
ia?niiaeueiiio eiiiuethoa?o IBM.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaeono?ey i?iecaiaenoaa eiiiuethoa?ia e i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey aeey ieo yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo noa? yeiiiieee
?acaeouo no?ai. Aaeaaiaeii a ie?a i?iaeathony aeanyoee ieeeeiiia
eiiiuethoa?ia e aua aieueoa i?ia?aii aeey ieo. E?oiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee
eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee aeeaaeuaatho ieeeea?aeu aeieea?ia a
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?ac?aaioee, a athaeaeaou eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?
i?aainoiaeyo athaeaeaou Aieeeaoaeneeo oeeueiia. Io?anee, naycaiiua n
eiiiuethoa?aie naiua auno?i?acaeaathueany e i?eaueueiua. A /ai aea
i?e/eia oaeiai no?aieoaeueiiai ?inoa eiaeono?ee ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia? Iaeia ec i?e/ei – eo iaaunieay noieiinoue (eae i?aaeei,
io ianeieueeeo nioai aei aeanyoe ouny/ aeieea?ia) e eo n?aaieoaeueiay
auaiaeiinoue aeey iiiaeo aeaeiauo i?eiaiaiee ii n?aaiaieth n aieueoeie
YAI. Ii anoue e ae?oaea:

i?inoioa eniieueciaaiey, iaania/aiiay aeeaeiaiaui e eioa?aeoeaiui
acaeiiaeaenoaeai n i?ia?aiiaie, eo oaeiaiui eioa?oaenii (iaith,
ieeoia?aiiu, anaaaea aeinooiiay iiae?iaiay “iiiiuue” e oae aeaeaa);

enoeiiay “ia?niiaeueiinoue” eiiiuethoa?a, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoue
acaeiiaeaenoaey n iei aac iin?aaeieeia e ia?aie/aiee;

ioiineoaeueii aunieea aiciiaeiinoe ii ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee (nei?inoue
au/eneaiee – ianeieueei ieeeeiiia iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo, aieueoay
aieinoue iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e iaaieoiuo iineoaeae);

aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue e i?inoioa ?aiiioa, iniiaaiiua ia eioaa?aoeee
eiiiiiaioia eiiiuethoa?a;

aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey e aaeaioaoeee e iniaaiiinoyi i?eiaiaiey
eiiiuethoa?ia – iaeei e oio aea eiiiuethoa? iiaeao auoue iniauai
?acee/iuie ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie e ?aciui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai;

iaee/ea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, ioaaouaathuaai ii/oe ana noa?u
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea iiuiuo nenoai aeey ?ac?aaioee
iiauo i?ia?aii.

Eae oaea auei neacaii, ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
anaai eeoue neiaeiue eiino?oeoi?, e iia eaaeaony, /oi aua aeieaea aiaeu
ana /aeiaa/anoai aoaeao n oiiaieai ea?aoue a iaai.

A. Ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u e ?aai/ea noaioeee

Ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u (IE) iiyaeeenue a ?acoeueoaoa yaiethoeee
ieieeiiiuethoa?ia i?e ia?aoiaea yeaiaioiie aacu iaoei n iaeie e n?aaeiae
noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee ia aieueoea e naa?oaieueoea eioaa?aeueiua noaiu.
IE, aeaaiaea?y naiae ieceie noieiinoe, i/aiue auno?i caaiaaaee oi?ioea
iiceoeee ia eiiiuethoa?iii ?uiea e nicaeaee i?aaeiinueee aeey ?ac?aaioee
iiauo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia eiia/iiai iieueciaaoaey.
Yoi i?aaeaea anaai – “ae?oaeanoaaiiua iieueciaaoaeueneea eioa?oaenu”, a
oaeaea i?iaeaiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua n?aaeu e eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa
aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ac?aaioee i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii.

Ieieeiiiuethoa?u noaee i?a?iaeeoaeyie e ae?oaiai iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
nia?aiaiiuo nenoai – 32-?ac?yaeiuo iaoei. Nicaeaiea RISC-i?ioeanni?ia e
iee?inoai iaiyoe aieinoueth aieaa 1 Iaeo i?eaaei e ieii/aoaeueiiio
ioi?ieaieth ianoieueiuo nenoai aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
naaiaeiy ecaanoiu eae ?aai/ea noaioeee. Ia?aiia/aeueiay i?eaioaoeey
?aai/eo noaioeee ia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae (a ioee/ea io IE,
eioi?ua a ia/aea i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia naiiai oe?ieiai iio?aaeoaey
iai?ioanneiiaea) i?eaaea e oiio, /oi ?aai/ea noaioeee – yoi oi?ioi
naaeaine?iaaiiua nenoaiu, a eioi?uo aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea ni/aoaaony n
aieueoei iauaiii iia?aoeaiie e aiaoiae iaiyoe, aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie
aioo?aiieie iaaeno?aeyie, aunieiea/anoaaiiie e auno?iaeaenoaothuae
a?aoe/aneie iiaenenoaiie e ?aciiia?aciuie ono?ienoaaie aaiaea/auaiaea.
Yoi naienoai auaiaeii ioee/aao ?aai/ea noaioeee n?aaeiaai e aunieiai
eeanna io IE e naaiaeiy. Aeaaea iaeaieaa iiuiua IBM PC niaianoeiua IE ia
a ninoiyiee oaeiaeaoai?eoue aic?anoathuea iio?aaiinoe nenoai ia?aaioee
ec-ca iaee/ey a eo a?oeoaeoo?a ?yaea “oceeo iano”.

Oai ia iaiaa, auno?ue ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe IE ia aaca iiaaeoeo
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia Intel a ni/aoaiee n ?aceei nieaeaieai oeai ia yoe
ecaeaeey e ?acaeoeai oaoiieiaee eieaeueiuo oei (VESA e PCI),
iicaieythuae ono?aieoue iiiaea “oceea ianoa” a a?oeoaeoo?a IE, aeaeatho
nia?aiaiiua ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u aanueia i?eaeaeaoaeueiie
aeueoa?iaoeaie ?aai/ei noaioeeyi. A naith i/a?aaeue i?iecaiaeeoaee
?aai/eo noaioeee nicaeaee ecaeaeey oae iacuaaaiiai “ia/aeueiiai o?iaiy”,
eioi?ua ii noieiinoiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai aeecee e aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiui
IE, ii ana aua nio?aiytho eeaea?noai ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e
aiciiaeiinoyi ia?aueaaiey. Ianeieueei oniaoii oaeaoueny IE ia aaca
i?ioeanni?ia e Pentium ai?ioueny i?ioea ?aai/eo noaioeee UNIX, iieaaeao
aoaeouaa, ii oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiyaeeinue iiiyoea “ia?niiaeueiie
?aai/ae noaioeee”, eioi?ia iauaaeeiyao iaa iai?aaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiue ?uiie “ia?niiaeueiuo ?aai/eo noaioeee” ia i?inoi
ii?aaeaeeoue. Ii nooe ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue a?oeoaeoo?iuo
ieaooi?i ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee, eioi?ua
iiyaeeenue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, iineieueeo iinoaaueee eiiiuethoa?iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey oaeaeytho ana aieueoaa aieiaiea ?uieo i?iaeoeoia aeey
eiiia?oeee e aeciana. Yoio ?uiie o?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoaeny aio/eiie
ieieeiiiuethoa?ia e iyeio?aeiia, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaaee ?aaioo
ianoieueiuo oa?ieiaeia n ia?aie/aiiui eioaeeaeoii. A i?ioeii
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u ia auee aeinoaoi/ii iiuiuie e ia ?aniieaaaee
aeinoaoi/iuie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, /oiau neoaeeoue
aaeaeaaoiie caiaiie iiaeeeth/aiiuo e aeaaiie iaoeia oa?ieiaeia. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?aai/ea noaioeee ia ieaooi?ia UNIX auee i/aiue neeueiu
a iao/iii, oaoie/aneii e eiaeaia?iii naeoi?ao e auee ii/oe oaeaea
iaoaeiaiu, eae e IE aeey oiai /oiau auiieiyoue na?ueaciua ioeniua
i?eeiaeaiey. N oao ii? neooaoeey eciaieeanue ei?aiiui ia?acii.
Ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiatho aeinoaoi/ioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, a ?aai/ea noaioeee ia aaca UNIX eiatho
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, niiniaiia auiieiyoue aieueoeinoai ooieoeee,
eioi?ua noaee annioeee?iaaoueny n iiiyoeai “ia?niiaeueiie ?aai/ae
noaioeee”. Aa?iyoii, iaa yoeo iai?aaeaiey iiaoo na?ueacii
?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa naoaaiai ?ano?na aeey nenoai ianooaaa
i?aaei?eyoey. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo eciaiaiee i?aeoe/anee ooee ni noeaiu
noa?iiiaeiua ieieeiiiuethoa?u n eo iaoaioiaaiiie a?oeoaeoo?ie e
eniieueciaaieai i?eniaaeeiyaiuo e aeaaiie iaoeia oa?ieiaeia. Ii ia?a
i?iaeieaeaiey i?ioeanna ?acoe?oiiaiey (downsizing) e oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ieaooi?iu Intel iaeaieaa iiuiua IE (ii ana aea /aua
ioe?uoua nenoaiu ia aaca UNIX) noaee eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa
na?aa?ia, iinoaiaiii caiaiyy ieieeiiiuethoa?u.

N?aaee ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia, niinianoaothueo yoiio i?ioeanno, neaaeoao
auaeaeeoue:

I?eiaiaiea IE noaei aieaa ?aciiia?aciui. Iiieii iau/iuo aeey yoiai
eeanna nenoai oaenoiauo i?ioeanni?ia, aeaaea n?aaeiee iieueciaaoaeue IE
iiaeao oaia?ue ?aaioaoue n?aco n ianeieueeeie i?eeeaaeiuie iaeaoaie,
aeeth/ay yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu, aacu aeaiiuo e aunieiea/anoaaiioth
a?aoeeo.

Aaeaioaoeey a?aoe/aneeo iieueciaaoaeueneeo eioa?oaenia nouanoaaiii
oaaee/eea o?aaiaaiey iieueciaaoaeae IE e niioiioaieth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue/noieiinoue. E oioy iaiei/ea MS Windows iiaeao
?aaioaoue ia iiaeaeyo IE 386SX n 2 Iaaeoaie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe,
?aaeueiua iieueciaaoaee oioaee au eniieueciaaoue ana i?aeiouanoaa
iiaeiaiuo nenoai, aeeth/ay aiciiaeiinoue eiiaeie?iaaiey e yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo iaeaoia.

Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea nenoai ioeueoeiaaeea i?yii caaeneo io
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo IE e ?aai/eo
noaioeee n aaeaeaaoiuie aoaeei e a?aoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, e iauaiaie
iia?aoeaiie e aiaoiae iaiyoe.

Neeoeii aunieay noieiinoue iyeio?aeiia e aeaaea nenoai n?aaeiaai eeanna
iiiiaea nianoeoue iiiaea ?ac?aaioee a iaeanoue ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo nenoai e
nenoai eeeaio-na?aa?, eioi?ua iiiaei i?aaenoaaeythony aiieia
ii?aaaeaiiie ii yeiiiie/aneei niia?aaeaieyi aeueoa?iaoeaie. Yoe nenoaiu
i?yii aace?othony ia aunieiiaaeaaeiuo e iiuiuo ?aai/eo noaioeeyo e
na?aa?ao.

A ia/aea i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue nin?aaeioi/aiey aunieie
iiuiinoe ia eaaeaeii ?aai/ai ianoa i?eaaaeao e ia?aoiaeo iiiaeo
iio?aaeoaeae IE ia UNIX-noaioeee. Yoi ii?aaeaeyeinue /anoe/ii oai, /oi
RISC-i?ioeanni?u, eniieueciaaaoeany a ?aai/eo noaioeeyo ia aaca UNIX,
auee iaiiiai aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie ii n?aaiaieth n
CISC-i?ioeanni?aie, i?eiaiyaoeieny a IE, a /anoe/ii iiuiinoueth nenoaiu
UNIX ii n?aaiaieth n MS-DOS e aeaaea OS/2.

I?iecaiaeeoaee ?aai/eo noaioeee auno?i io?aaae?iaaee ia iio?aaiinoue a
iecei noieiinoiuo iiaeaeyo aeey ?uiea eiiia?/aneeo i?eeiaeaiee.
Iio?aaiinoue a aunieie iiuiinoe ia ?aai/ai noiea, iauaaeeiaiiay n
aeaeaieai iinoaaueeia UNIX-nenoai i?iaeaaaoue eae iiaeii aieueoa naieo
ecaeaeee, i?eaaea oaeea eiiiaiee eae “Sun Microsystems” e “Hewlett
Packard” ia ?uiie ?aai/eo noaioeee aeey eiiia?/aneeo i?eeiaeaiee. E oioy
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nenoai yoeo oe?i ana aua i?eaioe?iaaia ia
oaoie/aneea i?eeiaeaiey, iaaethaeaaony aani?aoeaaeaioiue ?ino i?iaeaae
i?iaeoeoeee yoeo eiiiaiee aeey ?aaiou n eiiia?/aneeie i?eeiaeaieyie,
o?aaothueie ana aieueoae e aieueoae iiuiinoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee neiaeiuo,
naoaauo i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai, aeeth/ay nenoaiu ioeueoeiaaeea.

Yoi i?eaaei e a?aiaiiiio ionooieaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeae IE ia aaca
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia Intel. Ino?ay eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae
UNIX-nenoai e iio?aaiinoe a iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia?iiiie oaea
einoaeee?iaaiiie aacu IE, canoaaeee eiiiaieth Intel oi?ne?iaaoue
?ac?aaioeo aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia naiaenoaa e Pentium.
I?ioeanni?u e Pentium, i?e ?ac?aaioea eioi?iai auee eniieueciaaiu iiiaea
iiaeoiaeu, i?eiaiyaoeany ?aiaa oieueei a RISC-i?ioeanni?ao, a oaeaea
eniieueciaaiea ae?oaeo oaoiieiae/aneeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, oaeeo eae
a?oeoaeoo?a eieaeueiie oeiu, iicaieeee niaaaeeoue IE aeinoaoi/iie
iiuiinoueth, /oiau ninoaaeoue eiieo?aioeeth ?aai/ei noaioeeyi ai iiiaeo
iai?aaeaieyo ?uiea eiiia?/aneeo i?eeiaeaiee. I?aaaea, aeey iiiaeo
ae?oaeo i?eeiaeaiee, a /anoiinoe, a iaeanoe neiaeiiai a?aoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey, IE ana aua neeueii ionoatho.

I. Eaoaai?ee.

Aiiaua aiai?y, eiiiuethoa?u i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey auiieiaiey ?aciiia?aciie
?aaiou e niioaaonoaaiii aeaeyony ia ?aciua eeannu. ?aiaa eiiiuethoa?u
aiiaua n/eoaeenue iieiinoueth oieaa?naeueiuie, a n iiyaeaieai
niaoeeoeeaoeee ?N 98 auee aanueia i?eaeeaeaiii ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa
eeanna: ioeniua e aeiiaoiea. E i?i oa, e i?i ae?oaea auei neacaii, /oi
iie iiaoo auoue iiaeeueiuie. A ?acoeueoaoa e iaeiie a?oiia ioiineeenue
?aciua iaoeiu: niaeanii noaiaea?oo ?N 98 eiiiuethoa? ia noiea nae?aoa?oe
n/eoaeny ioeniui oi/ii oae aea, eae e eiiiuethoa? aa?noaeueueea a
ecaeaoaeuenoaa, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoe iaoeiu aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue
niaa?oaiii ?aciuie aiciiaeiinoyie. Iiaeiaiia ?acaeaeaiea ?N iiaei
iniiaaoaeueii caiooaoue ia oieueei iau/iuo iieueciaaoaeae, ii e
niaoeeaeenoia ii oaoie/aneiio iaania/aieth. Ai?i/ai, aeaaea oaeay
eeanneoeeaoeey ana aea eo/oa, /ai ieeaeay. Naaiaeiy nouanoaoao iyoue
eeannia eiiiuethoa?ia, i?e/ai iiaeeueiua auaeaeaiu a ioaeaeueioth
a?oiio: o?aaiaaiey e iiaeiaiui ono?ienoaai aanueia niaoeeoe/aneea.
?acaeaeaiea ia eaoaai?ee iicaieeo oi?inoeoue auai? eiiiuethoa?a,
ono?aiyy ia?acaa?eoo. Yoi ecaaaeo aan io aeieaiai e ooiieoaeueiiai
iauyniaiey i?iaeaaoeai, eaeie eiaiii eiiiuethoa? aai ioaeai. Eiia/ii,
aeey auiieiaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo caaea/ iio?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea, ia aoiaeyuaa a eiioeao?aoeeth eiiiuethoa?a ethaie ec
a?oii, iaeiaei aeey aieueoeinoaa iieueciaaoaeae yoi ia noieue aaaeii: ei
ioaeii ?aoaoue aieaa eee iaiaa noaiaea?oiua caaea/e. A aeey yoeo oeaeae
aiieia iiaeieaeao eiiiuethoa? iaeiie ec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo a?oii, ioaeii
eeoue iaaiai?eoue aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, a ia anth eiioeao?aoeeth
eneiiie nenoaiu “n ioey”. ?anniio?ei nouanoaothuea eeannu ?N aieaa
iiae?iaii.

II. Consumer PC

(iieueciaaoaeueneee eiiiuethoa?)

I?aeoe/anee yoi aaciaue eiiiuethoa?: ie/aai eeoiaai, ieieioi
aiciiaeiinoae, caoi iaaei?iai. A eiioeao?aoeee, iienuaaaiie noaiaea?oii,
ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ?aaiou aia eieaeueiie naoe, ii n o/aoii
iiaeeeth/aiey e aeiaaeueiui oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui naoyi i?e iiiiue
iau/iuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee. Ii ioee/ii iiaeieaeao aeey iao/aiey,
ianeiaeiuo ea?, a oaeaea aeey iaeiai (iai?eia?, aeiiaoiaai) ioena, o. a.
aeey ?uiea SOHO. Eniieueciaaoue aai aeiia a ieieiaeueiie eiioeao?aoeee
aoaeao i/aiue neiaeii, caoi a ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie – a naiue ?ac. Anee ia
n/eoaoue o?aaiaaiee ii aiaae?aieth iiauo e ono?aiaieth noa?uo
oaoiieiaee, oi yoi iau/iue eiiiuethoa?, ec ?yaea oaeeo, eioi?ua aeoeaii
i?eia?aoathony iieueciaaoaeyie oaea naaiaeiy.

PRIVATE

Consumer PC 99

  O?aaoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaony

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey 300 IAoe i?ioeanni?, 128 Eaaeo L2­eyo, 32 Iaaeo
ICO, PC 99 basic minimum 64 Iaaeo ICO

Oeiu 2 ii?oa USB, ionoonoaea ea?o e neioia ISA IEEE 1394, Device Bay.
Ono?ienoaa, eniieuecothuea USB IrDA­niaianoeiua ono?ienoaa

Ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea PC 99 basic minimum

Aeaeainenoaia PC 99 basic minimum, aiia?aoiay 3D­aenaea?aoeey
Eniieueciaaiea AGP, ono?ienoaa aaiaea aiaeiaiaiai aeaeaiecia?aaeaiey e
aeaeaicaoaaoa, aiaeiaiaue TV­othia?, oaeaaeceiiiue auoiae

Caoeiaay nenoaia   PC 99 Audio

Ono?ienoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee PC 99 basic minimum Aeey aoi?iai
ono?ienoaa aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue IEEE 1394

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea Aioo?aiiee oaen­iiaeai noaiaea?oa
V.90 Aunieinei?inoiia ono?ienoai aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e ioaee/iui
naoyi

III. Office PC

(eiiiuethoa? aeey ioena)

I/aiue iioiae ia ?N i?aaeuaeouae eiioeao?aoeee. A i?eioeeia yoi
eiiiuethoa? n?aaeiaai eeanna, ii oaea aeey ?aaiou a ioena.
Niioaaonoaaiii iiyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaiou a eieaeueiie naoe
i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue nieaeaiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo
?anoiaeia. Oae eae iiaeiaiua eiiiuethoa?u ia i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
aeoeaiie ?aaiou n “oyaeaeuie” ioeueoeiaaeeeiuie i?eeiaeaieyie,
o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aeaeainenoaia, ianeieueei ieaea, /ai a
i?aaeuaeouai neo/aa. Ia o?aaoaony oaeaea e aeiiieieoaeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiia aeey iieueciaaoaeueneiai PC (iai?eia?,
TV-othia? eee oaeaaeceiiiue aeaeaiauoiae). Ai?i/ai, aiia?aoiue
onei?eoaeue o?aoia?iie a?aoeee ?aeiiaiaeiaai e a yoii neo/aa. Aiiaua,
eioa?anii iaaethaeaoue ca oai, eae yoe ea?ou aoeaaeueii ca aiae-aeaa ec
yecioeee, aeinooiiie eeoue aiaaoui ethaeoaeyi iiea?aoue, i?aa?aoeeenue a
iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea ioeniiai ?N. A a inoaeueiii o?aaiaaiey e
eiioeao?aoeee eiiiuethoa?a niioaaonoaotho i?aaeuaeouei niaoeeoeeaoeeyi.

PRIVATE

Office PC 99

  O?aaoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaony

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey 300 IAoe i?ioeanni?, 128 Eaaeo L2­eyo, 32 Iaaeo
ICO, PC 99 basic minimum  

Oeiu 2 ii?oa USB, ionoonoaea ea?o e neioia ISA IEEE 1394, Device Bay

Ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea PC 99 basic minimum Ono?ienoaa, eniieuecothuea
USB IrDA­niaianoeiua ono?ienoaa, SmartCard

Aeaeainenoaia PC 99 basic minimum Aiia?aoiay 3D­aenaea?aoeey,
DVD­Video e MPEG2­i?iea?uaaoaee

Caoeiaay nenoaia   PC 99 Audio

Ono?ienoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee PC 99 basic minimum, CD­ eee
DVD­i?eaiae Aeey aoi?iai ono?ienoaa aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue IEEE
1394

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea Naoaaie aaeaioa? n ae?aeaa?ii NDIS 5.0
Aioo?aiiee oaen­iiaeai noaiaea?oa V.90 eee ae?oaea ono?ienoaa aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey e ioaee/iui naoyi

IV. Workstation PC

(?aai/ay noaioeey)

Aiciiaeiinoae iau/iiai ioeniiai eiiiuethoa?a aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeioi?uo
oeaeae ia aeinoaoi/ii. Cai?inu ?aciiia?aciuo “e?oouo” iieueciaaoaeae
oaeaea o/oaiu noaiaea?oii. N iaeiie noi?iiu, nicaeaaaoue iniaoth
eaoaai?eth iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe: aicueieoa ioeniue eiiiuethoa?, aeiaaaueoa
ana iaiaoiaeeiia e iieo/eoa ana oo aea ?aai/oth noaioeeth. Iaeiaei
iaee/ea iniaie eaoaai?ee aeey naa?oiiuiuo eiiiuethoa?ia a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie oi?iuaao ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu auai?a. Eae aiai?eony: “Ana aeey
iieueciaaoaey, ana ai aeaai iieueciaaoaey”.

PRIVATE

Workstation PC 99

  O?aaoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaony

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey RISC eee 400 IAoe i?ioeanni?, 512 Eaaeo L2­eyo,
128 Iaaeo ECC ICO, PC 99 basic minimum Iiiaii?ioeanni?iinoue,
aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey iaiyoe aei 1 (eo/oa 2) Aaaeo

Oeiu 2 ii?oa USB, iiaeaea?aeea APIC, ionoonoaea ea?o e neioia ISA IEEE
1394, Device Bay

Ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea PC 99 basic minimum Ono?ienoaa, eniieuecothuea
USB, SmartCard, IrDA­niaianoeiua ono?ienoaa

Aeaeainenoaia PC 99 basic minimum, i?e aeoeaiie ?aaioa n a?aoeeie 4
Iaaeo AICO e 3D­onei?aiea 1280 o 1024 o 24 bpp,
RGB­?anoa?ecaoeey a ?aaeeia 32 bpp

Caoeiaay nenoaia   PC 99 Audio

Ono?ienoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee PC 99 basic minimum, CD­ eee
DVD­i?eaiae SCSI­eiio?ieea?, ianeieueei aeanoeeo aeeneia

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea Naoaaie aaeaioa? n ae?aeaa?ii NDIS 5.0
Aunieinei?inoiia Dial­Up­ono?ienoai n ae?aeaa?ii NDIS
5.0

Eoae, /oi aea oaeia “?aai/ay noaioeey” n oi/ee c?aiey aaoi?ia
noaiaea?oa? Yoi eiiiuethoa? n i?ioeanni?ii eae ieieioi Pentium II 400
eee RISC-i?ioeanni?ii (aeey iieueciaaoaeae Windows NT), a eo/oa n aeaoiy
oaeeie i?ioeanni?aie eee aiciiaeiinoueth onoaiiaeoue aieaa iaeiiai.
O?aaoaony iaee/ea ia iaiaa 128 Iaaeo iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe n ei??aeoeeae
ioeaie, i?e/ai n aiciiaeiinoueth ?anoe?aiey aei 1 (a eo/oa aei 2) Aaaeo.
Inoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey noaiaea?oiu aeey ?N 99, iaeiaei ?aeiiaiaeoaony
aeeth/aoue a eiioeao?aoeeth SCSI-aaeaioa?. I?e iaee/ee IEEE 1394 ia
nianai iiiyoii, ca/ai ioaeai ?aeiiaiaeoaiue aaeaioa?. Ai?i/ai, iiea
aei/anoa?ia, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia iiaue eioa?oaen, a i?iaeaaea ia
iaaethaeaaony, oae /oi SCSI nineoaeeo iaieiooth neoaeao (ia
onoaiaaeeaaoue aea a oaeie Super PC aeenee n eioa?oaenii EIDE). Iaoeia
oaeie eiioeao?aoeee niiaeao eaaei oi?aaeyoueny n naiuie “oyaeaeuie”
i?eeiaeaieyie: oaeeie, eae eiaeaia?iay a?aoeea, oeiainiaua i?eeiaeaiey,
?ac?aaioea II. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaiiay “?aai/ay noaioeey” iiaeao
?aaioaoue eae na?aa? iaeie eee n?aaeiae ?aai/ae a?oiiu.

V. Entertainment PC

(aeey aeiia, aeey naiuee)

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, “iieueciaaoaeueneee eiiiuethoa?” iiaeieaeao
aeaeaei ia anai aeiiaoiei iieueciaaoaeyi. Eiaiii iiyoiio nouanoaoao
naiaia?aciue aa?eaio “aeiiaoiae ?aai/ae noaioeee”. I?aaeiacia/ai ii aeey
?aaiou n i?eeiaeaieyie ioeueoeiaaeea (a /anoiinoe, o?aoia?iuie ea?aie) e
aeey i?i/eo ioaeae aeiiaoiaai iieueciaaoaey. A i?eioeeia, oaeie
eiiiuethoa? a ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie eiioeao?aoeee niiniaai caiaieoue aua e
iocueaeueiue oeaio?, oaeaaeci?, aeaeaiiaaieoioii e oiio iiaeiaiia
(aeaeue, /oi ooieoeee iueanina ia i?aaeoniio?aee). E o?aaiaaiey,
eiia/ii, niioaaonoaothuea. Enoaoe, iaeiiaoe-oi eni?aaeee ioeaeo
i?aaeuaeouae aa?nee noaiaea?oa: aeey yoiai eeanna eiiiuethoa?ia iaee/ea
n?aaenoa ?aaiou ni caoeii yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui o?aaiaaieai, a ia
?aeiiaiaeaoeeae. Ai?i/ai, yoi noieei o/anoue e i?e iiaeai?a
eiioeao?aoeee ?N ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee: iuia caoe i?aeoe/anee iaiaoiaeei
aeaaea ia ?aai/ai ianoa aeaaooee-nae?aoa?y. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ai anai
ie?a i?iaeaaea eiiiuethoa?a aac caoeiaie ea?ou noaiiaeony nei?aa
eneeth/aieai, /ai i?aaeeii.

PRIVATE

Entertainment PC 99

  O?aaoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaony

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey 300 IAoe i?ioeanni?, 128 Eaaeo L2­eyo, 64 Iaaeo
ECC ICO, PC 99 basic minimum  

Oeiu 2 ii?oa USB, ionoonoaea ea?o e neioia ISA IEEE 1394, Device Bay

Ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea PC 99 basic minimum Ono?ienoaa, eniieuecothuea
USB, ana ono?ienoaa aaiaea – USB HID­niaianoeiua,
IrDA­niaianoeiua ono?ienoaa

Aeaeainenoaia PC 99 basic minimum, aiia?aoiay 3D­aenaea?aoeey n
aeiiieieoaeueiuie o?aaiaaieyie, DVD­Video e MPEG2­i?iea?uaaoaeue
Oaeaaeceiiiue auoiae, oeaaoiie iiieoi? n aieueoie aeeaaiiaeueth,
iiaeaea?aeea niooieeiaiai oaeaaeaeaiey, ono?ienoai aaiaea aiaeiaiaiai
ecia?aaeaiey e aeaeaicaoaaoa, aiaeiaiaue TV­othia?, iiaeaea?aeea
DTV, Digital Ready, iiaeaea?aeea neioaca caoea

Caoeiaay nenoaia PC 99 Audio

Ono?ienoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee PC 99 basic minimum, DVD­i?eaiae
eee DVD­i?iea?uaaoaeue Aeey aoi?iai ono?ienoaa aeaeaoaeueii
eniieueciaaoue IEEE 1394

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea Aioo?aiiee oaen­iiaeai noaiaea?oa
V.90 Aunieinei?inoiia Dial­Up­ono?ienoai n ae?aeaa?ii NDIS
5.0

VII. Mobile PC

(aeey oao, eoi a iooe)

A niaoeeoeeaoeeyo ?N 98 oaeea iaoeiu oaea oiiieiaeenue, ii auaeaeaiey a
ioaeaeueiue eeann ia auei. Oaia?ue aea aaoi?u ?aoeee, /oi iiaeiaiay
neooaoeey ioithaeue ia yaeyaony i?aaeeueiie, iiyoiio a noaiaea?oa ?N 99
ii?oaoeaiua eiiiuethoa?u auaeaeaiu a ioaeaeueioth eaoaai?eth. Iiiyoii
ii/aio: e yoei iaoeiai i?aaeuyaeythony iniaua o?aaiaaiey. A aeaiiii
neo/aa ia o?aaoaony naa?oaunieie au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoe e ?acaeouo
naoaauo aiciiaeiinoae, caoi i/aiue aaaeiu ieceee aan e aiciiaeiinoue
aeeeoaeueiie ?aaiou io aaoa?ae. Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi a ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie
eiioeao?aoeee iiooaoe niiniaai oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoe i?aeoe/anee
ethaiai iieueciaaoaey, anee iineaaeiee ia caieiaaony iaeeiaeiui
aeaeaiiiioaaeii eee ?an/aoii iieaoiie o?aaeoi?ee aaeeenoe/aneeo ?aeao.

PRIVATE

Mobile PC 99

  O?aaoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaony

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey 233 IAoe i?ioeanni?, 128 Eaaeo L2­eyo, 32 Iaaeo
ICO, PC 99 basic minimum, SmartBattery 64 Iaaeo ICO aeey Windows NT IEEE
1394, iiaeaea?aeea “ai?y/ae” caiaiu ono?ienoa, Device Bay Ono?ienoaa,
eniieuecothuea USB, IrDA­niaianoeiua ono?ienoaa

Oeiu 1 ii?o USB, CardBus, ionoonoaea ea?o e neioia ISA

Ono?ienoaa aaiaea/auaiaea PC 99 basic minimum

Aeaeainenoaia 800 o 600 o 16 bpp i?e 60 Aoe AGP (frame AGP),
DVD­Video­i?iea?uaaoaeue, oaeaaeceiiiue auoiae

Caoeiaay nenoaia   PC 99 Audio

Ono?ienoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee PC 99 basic minimum CD­ eee
DVD­i?eaiae

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea Aioo?aiiee oaen­iiaeai noaiaea?oa
V.34 Iiaeaea?aeea aieaa nei?inoiuo iiaeaiia e ono?ienoa aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey e ioaee/iui naoyi

VIII. Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey

A niaoeeoeeaoeeyo ?N 98 o?aaiaaiey e oeaio?aeueiiio i?ioeanni?o e
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe iniai ia iaiaa?eaaeenue. Oaia?ue aea ii?yaeie
iaaaaeai e a yoie iaeanoe: aeey eaaeaeie ec eaoaai?ee oeacaiu
ieieiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e yoei aeaoi eiiiiiaioai. Auaeyaeyo iineaaeiea
i/aiue eioa?anii. Anee ia iaiaa?eaaoue iiea nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey e
iiaeeueiui eiiiuethoa?ai e ?aai/ei noaioeeyi (o?aaothuei ioaeaeueiiai
?anniio?aiey), oi iieo/aaony ia/oi noiaeaa: i?ioeanni? n oaeoiaie
/anoioie ia iaiaa 300 IAoe, eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy ia iaiaa 128 Eaaeo e 32
(aeey Consumer PC) eee 64 (aeey inoaeueiuo) Iaaeoa iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.
Eoae, n iaiyoueth ana ynii. Ia?aie/aiea aea ia oaeoiaoth /anoioo
i?ioeanni?a iaiiaaiii “auoeaaao” n ?uiea noa?ua, ii iiioey?iua aei neo
ii? Pentium MMX e iiiaea ae?oaea iaeaieaa i?iaeaaaaiua i?ioeanni?u
eiieo?aioia Intel. Cyrix aiiaua ieacuaaaony a i/aiue oyaeaeii
iieiaeaiee: niaoeeaeenoai eiiiaiee a i/a?aaeiie ?ac i?eaeaony iuoaoueny
anai aeieacaoue, /oi i?eiaiyaiue eie P-Rating eiaao i?aai ia aeeciue. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa ia iaeei ec i?iaeaaaaiuo eie iuia i?ioeanni?ia ia
iiiaaeaao a oeacaiiua ?aiee. O?aaiaaiea e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ?acia?o
eyo-iaiyoe ia neo/aeii: eiaiii oaeie iauai eiaao aeoeaii i?iaeaeaaaiue
iuia Intel i?ioeanni? Celeron iiaiai iieieaiey. Noa?ua aea iiaeaee
Celeron e ieaaeoea i?ioeanni?u eeiee Pentium II (n /anoioie 233 e 266)
ana ?aaii a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aoaeoo niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa. Ea?oeia
au?eniauaaaony neaaeothuay: n iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi caueoa iieueciaaoaeae
io i?eiaiaiey iaeiiiuiuo i?ioeanni?ia, a n ae?oaie – iiaeaii
oaoie/aneiai i?ioeanna iiae nianoaaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ieaiu.
Ai?i/ai, ie/aai no?aoiiai a yoii iao, i?inoi ethaiiuoii, /oi ia yoe
aeaenoaey ioaaoyo eiieo?e?othuea n Intel oe?iu.

Nenoaiiua o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e ?aai/ei noaioeeyi, oaeaea aiieia
iauynieiu. Caeanue ia eiieo?aioia iaeyaeuaaoueny ia/aai, eai i?aeoe/anee
ana i?eiaiyaiua a eiiiuethoa?ao aeaiiiai eeanna i?ioeanni?u auoiaeyo n
caaiaeia Intel. I?ioeanni? Pentium II 400 – yoi ieieioi a aeaiiii
neo/aa, oioy i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa i?eiaiaiea Pentium II Xeon. Aiciiaeii
i?eiaiaiea RISC-i?ioeanni?ia, ?acoiaaony, oao, aeey eioi?uo nouanoaoao
Microsoft Windows NT. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia oi i?eoiaeeo i?ioeanni?
Alpha.

Aeey iiaeeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia aeiionoeiu nouanoaaiii iaiaa iiuiua
i?ioeanni?u. Caeanue aiieia ii?aaaeaii i?eiaiaiea iiiaeo eeiiia Intel
Pentium. Ai?i/ai, o?aaiaaiey e iauaio ICO aeinoaoi/ii auniee: eae
ieieioi 32 Iaaeoa, ?aeiiaiaeoaony 64 Iaaeoa (aeey onoaiiaee Windows NT)
– a oi/iinoe oi aea naiia, /oi e aeey Consumer PC. Eiaaea-oi iiooaoe n
16 Iaaeoaie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e i?aaeonoaiiaeaiiie Windows NT
?anniao?eaaeny eae iaeia /oaei, iuia aea yoi ii?iaeueiay ?aai/ay iaoeia.

A iauai e oeaeii a nenoaiiuo o?aaiaaieyo ia eceiaeaii ie/aai iiaiai.
I?inoi ?aiueoa iiaeiaiua ia?aie/aiey ia ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue aiia?aoo?u
iaeeaaeuaaeenue i?iecaiaeeoaeyie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Iuia aea
nianai iaiaycaoaeueii a aeieoiaioaoeee ia II aeaeaoue aieueoie ?acaeae
System Requirements: aeinoaoi/ii eeoue oeacaoue, /oi aeey ?aaiou n
aeaiiie i?ia?aiiie o?aaoaony eiiiuethoa?, oaeiaeaoai?ythuee
niaoeeoeeaoeeyi ?N 99.

IX. Ieieioi aeey anao e eaaeaeiai

Iaeioi?ua o?aaiaaiey, iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao eeannia eiiiuethoa?ia,
?anoeo?iauaathony ioaeaeueii, a a iienaiee eaoaai?ee i?inoi oeacuaaaony:
PC 99 Basic Minimum. Ianeieueei yoio ieieioi aeaenoaeoaeueii “aaciaue
ieieiaeueiue”?

Ia/iai n Video Basic Minimum. Caeanue ana i?inoi: o?aaoaony iiaeaea?aeea
aeaeai?aaeeiia n ?ac?aoaieai 640o480 e 800o600 oi/ae i?e /enea aeoia ia
ieenae aei 32 e 1024o768 oi/ae i?e 16 aeoao ia ieenae. *anoioa
iaiiaeaiey ye?aia aeieaeia auoue ia ieaea 75 Aoe. Yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii
ieieiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua aeaaii oaea o/eouaathony
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia e iiieoi?ia. Aeinoaoi/iuie iie
yaeythony eeoue aeey ioeniuo eiiiuethoa?ia: ai anao inoaeueiuo
eaoaai?eyo iiyaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, i ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo e
aiai?eoue ia/aai. Aaeaeo niaoeeoe/iinoe aeaeainenoaiu iiaeeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia, aeey ieo o?aaoaony eeoue ?aaeei 800o600 oi/ae e 16 aeo ia
ieenae i?e /anoioa ?aaaia?aoeee 60 Aoe.

*oi eanaaony ieieiaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee e ono?ienoaai aaiaea/auaiaea e eo
eioa?oaenia, oi niaeanii niaoeeoeeaoeeyi iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu
i?enoonoaiaaoue: eeaaeaoo?a, iuoue (eee iiaeiaiia ono?ienoai),
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue e ia?aeeaeueiue ?acuaiu. Iiea oi/ii ia ii?aaeaeaii, e
/aio iiaeeeth/aoue eeaaeaoo?o n iuoueth: ?aeiiaiaeiaaii eniieueciaaoue
aeey yoiai USB, iaeiaei i?iecaiaeeoaeyi ?ac?aoaii eniieueciaaoue ?acuaiu
a noeea PS/2. Ia ioiioaiee ?ac?aaio/eeia niaoeeoeeaoeee e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio e ia?aeeaeueiiio ii?oai oaea auei neacaii auoa: iie
n/eoathony onoa?aaoeie e, niioaaonoaaiii, io ieo iaiaoiaeeii
ecaaaeyoueny i?e ia?aie aea aiciiaeiinoe. Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi
aaea-ieaoaeue a niaoeeoeeaoeeyo ?N 2000 eo (eae e ?acuaiu PS/2) i?inoi
cai?aoyo eniieueciaaoue. Enoaoe, ai anao eaoaai?eyo eiiiuethoa?ia
?aeiiaiaeiaaiu eio?ae?aniua ii?ou (IrDA). Iiiyoii, aeey /aai
eio?ae?aniue ii?o a iiaeeueiii eiiiuethoa?a, ii ca/ai ii ioaeai a
ioeniie iaoeia, ia ynii.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea Basic Minimum e a ?acaeaea nenoaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, a
oaeaea a iaeanoe ono?ienoa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. I?aeoe/anee a yoeo
?acaeaeao iienuaaaony naaiaeiyoiaa, a eiiaaea e a/a?aoiaa iieiaeaiea
aeae. Oae /oi aiyoueny i?iecaiaeeoaeyi ia/aai: a yoie /anoe noaiaea?oo
oaeiaeaoai?ytho i?aeoe/anee ana i?iaeaaaaiua eie eiiiuethoa?u.

Ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey o?aaoao ?N 99 Audio. A niaoeeoeeaoeeyo yoiio
aii?ino iinayuaia aeinoaoi/ii aieay aeaaa. Naiia eioa?aniia, /oi a
iaeanoe caoea o?aaiaaiey i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaua e aeey ioeniiai
eiiiuethoa?a, e aeey Entertainment PC. ?acieoea oieueei a oii, /oi aeey
Entertainment PC iaee/ea caoeiauo aiciiaeiinoae iaycaoaeueii, a aeey
inoaeueiuo – ?aeiiaiaeiaaii. Ii ia yoie /anoe niaoeeoeeaoeee ?N 99 iu
aiai?eee a noaouea, iinayuaiiie oanoe?iaaieth niaianoeiuo n yoei
noaiaea?oii caoeiauo ea?o.

X. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee

Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aeoe/anee ana iai?oaeiaaiea, eioi?ia auei
?aeiiaiaeiaaii eniieueciaaoue noaiaea?oii ?N 98, oae aei neo ii? e
inoaeinue “?aeiiaiaeiaaiiui”. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ie iaeei ec
eiiiiiaioia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e yoie a?oiia, oae e ia noae noaiaea?oiui
ca i?ioaaeoee aiae. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi o?aaiaaiey
niaoeeoeeaoeee ?N 98 oae e ia auee auiieiaiu. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi
iiyaeeinue iiaiai a iineaaeiae aa?nee niaoeeoeeaoeee,- yoi
ianoiyoaeueiay ?aeiiaiaeaoeey e eniieueciaaieth iaeioi?uo ono?ienoa.
Oae, iai?eia?, aei neo ii? ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui iaee/ea a
au/eneeoaeueiie nenoaia oeiu IEEE 1394, iaeiaei a ?N 99 oeacaii, /oi
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeeneiaua ono?ienoaa aeaeaoaeueii iiaeeeth/aoue eiaiii
e iae (ia?ae/iua iiea ?ac?aoaii inoaaeoue ia EIDE e oiio iiaeiaiii).
Aieaa oiai, iaeioi?ua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iuia ianeieueei ionoaee io aeecie,
iai?eia? oaea a oaeouai aiaeo oeia AGP aeey aeaeaiea?o i?eiaiyaony
i?aeoe/anee iianaianoii, iaeiaei ia neaaeothuee aiae iia eeoue
?aeiiaiaeiaaia, ii ia iaycaoaeueia.

Enoaoe, ie ?N 98 ie ?N 99 ia i?aaeuyaeytho aaniethoii ieeaeeo o?aaiaaiee
e i?eiaiyaiiio n eiiiuethoa?ii iiieoi?o. Eiia/ii, yoi ia /anoue
eiiiuethoa?a, iaeiaei iaiaeiaaaeiue eiiiiiaio anae nenoaiu.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eaeie niune o?aaiaaoue iaee/ey iiuiiai o?aoia?iiai
onei?eoaey, niiniaiiai ?aaioaoue n aieueoei ?ac?aoaieai i?e ieeeeiiao
oeaaoia ia ye?aia, anee i?iaeaaoeu oaoieee iiaoo, auiieiea yoi oneiaea,
i?iaeaoue eiiiuethoa? ni noa?ui, 14-aetheiiaui iiieoi?ii. Iineaaeiee ia
aeaao aiciiaeiinoe ?aaioaoue n aunieei ?ac?aoaieai, aea e io o?aaoaiuo
75 Aoe ?aaaia?aoeee ye?aia ia aoaeao oieea (anee oaeoth /anoioo ia
iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiieoi?), iaeiaei oi?iaeueii iieo/aiiue eiiiuethoa?
aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe niaoeeoeeaoeeyi ?N 99. Ai?i/ai, a
?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie /anoe niaoeeoeeaoeee Entertainment PC oeacaii, /oi
iiieoi? aeieaeai auoue n aieueoie aeeaaiiaeueth e oeaaoiui. (Yoi
auaeyaeeo eae ianiaoea: io eoi aea aeey i?eeiaeaiee ioeueoeiaaeea aoaeao
i?eia?aoaoue /a?ii-aaeue?). Ia ia?aue acaeyae ana oi?ioi, ii /oi
iiieiaaony iiae aieueoie aeeaaiiaeueth ia neacaii. A iauai, oioaee eae
eo/oa, a iieo/eeinue eae anaaaea.

B. X-oa?ieiaeu

X-oa?ieiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eiiaeiaoeeth aacaeeneiauo ?aai/eo
noaioeee e noaiaea?oiuo ASCII-oa?ieiaeia. Aacaeeneiaua ?aai/ea noaioeee
/anoi i?eiaiyeenue a ea/anoaa aei?iaeo aeenieaaa e a yoii neo/aa ia
iieiinoueth eniieueciaaee eieaeueioth au/eneeoaeueioth iiuue.
Iaeiia?aiaiii iiiaea iieueciaaoaee ASCII-oa?ieiaeia oioaee oeo/oeoue eo
oa?aeoa?enoeee, /oiau iieo/eoue aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a iiiaiieiiiie
nenoaia e a?aoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe. Nianai iaaeaaii, eae oieueei noaee
aeinooiiuie i/aiue iiuiua a?aoe/aneea ?aai/ea noaioeee, iiyaeeanue
oaiaeaioeey i?eiaiaiey “iiae/eiaiiuo” X-oa?ieiaeia, eioi?ua eniieuecotho
?aai/oth noaioeeth a ea/anoaa eieaeueiiai na?aa?a.

Ia eiiiuethoa?iii ?uiea X-oa?ieiaeu caieiatho i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo ia?niiaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie e ?aai/eie noaioeeyie. Iinoaaueee
X-oa?ieiaeia cayaeytho, /oi eo ecaeaeey aieaa yooaeoeaiu a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee, /ai ?aai/ea noaioeee aunieiai oeaiiaiai eeanna, e
i?aaeeaaatho oaaee/aiiue o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n
ia?niiaeueiuie eiiiuethoa?aie. Auno?ia nieaeaiea oeai, i?iaiice?oaiia
eiiaaea a naeoi?a X-oa?ieiaeia, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eaeao, i/aaeaeii,
aeaaiaea?y iaino?eaoaeny eiieo?aioeee a yoii naeoi?a ?uiea. Iiiaea
eiiiaiee ia/aee aeoeaii eiieo?e?iaaoue ca ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?uiea, a
auno?ue ?ino iauaiiuo iinoaaie nicaeae i?aaeiinueee aeey nicaeaiey
oaeiai ?uiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea aeinoeaiooa oeaia a $1000 aeey
O-oa?ieiaeia ia/aeueiiai o?iaiy, /oi aeaeaao yoo oaoiieiaeth aeinooiiie
aeey oe?ieie iieueciaaoaeueneie aacu.

Eae i?aaeei, noieiinoue X-oa?ieiaeia ninoaaeyao ieiei iieiaeiu noieiinoe
n?aaieiie ii eiioeao?aoeee aacaeeneiaie iaoeiu e i?eia?ii /aoaa?oue
noieiinoe iieiinoueth iniauaiiie ?aai/ae noaioeee.

*oi oaeia X-oa?ieiae?

Oeiiaie X-oa?ieiae aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yeaiaiou:

Ye?ai aunieiai ?ac?aoaiey – iau/ii ?acia?ii io 14 aei 21 aetheia ii
aeeaaiiaee;

Iee?ii?ioeanni? ia aaca Motorola 68xxx eee RISC-i?ioeanni? oeia Intel
i960, MIPS R3000 eee AMD29000;

Ioaeaeueiue a?aoe/aneee nii?ioeanni? a aeiiieiaiea e iniiaiiio
i?ioeanni?o, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee aeaooi?ioeanni?ioth a?oeoaeoo?o, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaao aieaa auno?ia ?eniaaiea ia ye?aia e i?ie?o/eaaiea ye?aia;

Aaciaua nenoaiiua i?ia?aiiu, ia eioi?uo ?aaioaao nenoaia X-Windows e
auiieiythony naoaaua i?ioieieu;

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea na?aa?a X11;

Ia?aiaiiue iauai eieaeueiie iaiyoe (io 2 aei 8 Iaaeo) aeey aeenieay,
naoaaiai eioa?oaena, iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai TCP/IP e ae?oaea naoaaua
i?ioieieu.

Ii?ou aeey iiaeeeth/aiey eeaaeaoo?u e iuoe.

X-oa?ieiaeu ioee/athony io IE e ?aai/eo noaioeee ia oieueei oai, /oi ia
auiieiyao ooieoeee iau/iie eieaeueiie ia?aaioee. ?aaioa X-oa?ieiaeia
caaeneo io aeaaiie (oino) nenoaiu, e eioi?ie iie iiaeeeth/aiu
iin?aaenoaii naoe. Aeey oiai, /oiau X-oa?ieiae iia ?aaioaoue,
iieueciaaoaee aeieaeiu einoaeee?iaaoue i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
iiiaiieiiiiai na?aa?a X11 ia aeaaiii i?ioeanni?a, auiieiythuei
i?eeeaaeioth caaea/o (iaeaieaa ecaanoiay aa?ney X11 Release 5).
O-oa?ieiaeu ioee/athony oaeaea io noaiaea?oiuo aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iauo ASCII
e o?aaeeoeeiiiuo a?aoe/aneeo aeenieaeiuo oa?ieiaeia oai, /oi iie iiaoo
auoue iiaeeeth/aiu e ethaie aeaaiie nenoaia, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaao
noaiaea?o X-Windows. Aieaa oiai, eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay iiuue
X-oa?ieiaea iau/ii eniieuecoaony aeey ia?aaioee ioia?aaeaiey, a ia
ia?aaioee i?eeiaeaiee (iacuaaaiuo eeeaioaie), eioi?ua auiieiythony
oaeaeaiii ia aeaaiii eiiiuethoa?a (na?aa?a). Auaiae oaeiai oaeaeaiiiai
i?eeiaeaiey i?inoi ioia?aaeaaony ia ye?aia X-oa?ieiaea.

Ieieiaeueiue iauai o?aaoaiie aeey ?aaiou iaiyoe X-oa?ieiaea ninoaaeyao 1
Iaaeo, ii /aua 2 Iaaeoa. A caaeneiinoe io ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
ecaeaeey iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue iiaeao ?anoe?youeny aei 32 Iaaeo e aieaa.

Iniauaiiue noaiaea?oiie nenoaiie X-Windows, X-oa?ieiae iiaeao
ioia?aaeaoue ia iaeiii e oii aea ye?aia iiiaeanoai i?eeiaeaiee
iaeiia?aiaiii. Eaaeaeia i?eeiaeaiea iiaeao auiieiyoueny a naiai ieia, e
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao eciaiyoue ?acia?u ieii, eo ianoi?aniieiaeaiea e
iaieioee?iaaoue eie a ethaii ianoa ye?aia.

X-Windows – ?acoeueoao niaianoiie ?aaiou Iana/onaoneiai oaoiieiae/aneiai
einoeoooa (MIT) e ei?ii?aoeee DEC. Nenoaia X-Windows (ecaanoiay oaeaea
iiae eiaiai X) a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony ioe?uoui aea-oaeoi noaiaea?oii
aeey aeinooia e iiiaeanoao iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiythueony i?eeiaeaiee n
aiciiaeiinoyie iiiaiieiiiiai ?aaeeia e a?aoeeie aunieiai ?ac?aoaiey ia
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oa?ieiaeao, ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao, ?aai/eo
noaioeeyo e X-oa?ieiaeao. Iia noaea noaiaea?oii aeey iaania/aiey
eioa?iia?aaaeueiinoe (ia?aiineiinoe) i?iaeoeoia iiiaeo iinoaaueeia e
aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeinooia e iiiaeanoao i?eeiaeaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
X-Windows yaeyaony noaiaea?oii aeey ?ac?aaioee iieueciaaoaeueneiai
eioa?oaena. Aieaa 90% iinoaaueeia UNIX-?aai/eo noaioeee e iiiaea
iinoaaueee ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia aaeaioe?iaaee nenoaio X-Windows e
i?eiaiytho a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa.

C. Na?aa?u

I?eeeaaeiua iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneea eiiia?/aneea e aecian-nenoaiu,
aeeth/athuea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo e ia?aaioee o?aicaeoeee,
e?oiiua ecaeaoaeueneea nenoaiu, naoaaua i?eeiaeaiey e nenoaiu
ianeoaeeaaiey eiiioieeaoeee, ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e
ia?aaioeo ecia?aaeaiee ana aieaa ianoie/eai o?aaotho ia?aoiaea e iiaeaee
au/eneaiee “eeeaio-na?aa?” e ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia?aaioea. A
?ani?aaeaeaiiie iiaeaee “eeeaio-na?aa?” /anoue ?aaiou auiieiyao na?aa?,
a /anoue iieueciaaoaeueneee eiiiuethoa? (a iauai neo/aa eeeaioneay e
iieueciaaoaeueneay /anoe iiaoo ?aaioaoue e ia iaeiii eiiiuethoa?a).
Nouanoaoao ianeieueei oeiia na?aa?ia, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?aciua
i?eiaiaiey: oaee-na?aa?, na?aa? aacu aeaiiuo, i?eio-na?aa?,
au/eneeoaeueiue na?aa?, na?aa? i?eeiaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, oei na?aa?a
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeii ?ano?na, eioi?ui ii aeaaeaao (oaeeiaay nenoaia,
aaca aeaiiuo, i?eioa?u, i?ioeanni?u eee i?eeeaaeiua iaeaou i?ia?aii).

N ae?oaie noi?iiu nouanoaoao eeanneoeeaoeey na?aa?ia, ii?aaeaeythuayny
ianooaaii naoe, a eioi?ie iie eniieuecothony: na?aa? ?aai/ae a?oiiu,
na?aa? ioaeaea eee na?aa? ianooaaa i?aaei?eyoey (ei?ii?aoeaiue na?aa?).
Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey aanueia oneiaia. Iai?eia?, ?acia? a?oiiu iiaeao
iaiyoueny a aeeaiaciia io ianeieueeeo /aeiaae aei ianeieueeeo nioai
/aeiaae, a na?aa? ioaeaea ianeoaeeaaoue io 20 aei 150 iieueciaaoaeae.
I/aaeaeii, a caaeneiinoe io /enea iieueciaaoaeae e oa?aeoa?a ?aoaaiuo
eie caaea/, o?aaiaaiey e ninoaao iai?oaeiaaiey e i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey na?aa?a, e aai iaaeaaeiinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe neeueii
aa?uee?othony.

Oaeeiaua na?aa?u iaaieueoeo ?aai/eo a?oii (ia aieaa 20-30 /aeiaae) i?iua
anaai ?aaeecothony ia ieaooi?ia ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e
i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee Novell NetWare. Oaee-na?aa?, a aeaiiii neo/aa,
auiieiyao ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai o?aieeeua aeaiiuo. Na?aa?u i?eeeaaeiuo
nenoai e aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua iaoeiu aeey n?aaeu “eeeaio-na?aa?”
cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony o?aaiaaieyie e aiia?aoiui e i?ia?aiiiui
n?aaenoaai.

Oeie/iuie aeey iaaieueoeo oaee-na?aa?ia yaeythony: i?ioeanni? Pentium
eee aieaa auno?iaeaenoaothuee, 32-Iaaeo ICO, 9 Aaaeo aeeneiaiai
i?ino?ainoaa e iaeei aaeaioa? Ethernet 10BaseT, eiathuee auno?iaeaenoaea
10 Iaeo/n. A ninoaa oaeeo na?aa?ia /anoi aeeth/athony oeiiie-aeeneiaiae
e CDROM. A?aoeea aeey aieueoeinoaa na?aa?ia ianouanoaaiia, iiyoiio
aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue iau/iue iiiio?iiiue iiieoi? n ?ac?aoaieai VGA.

Nei?inoue i?ioeanni?a aeey na?aa?ia n eioaineaiui aaiaeii/auaiaeii
iae?eoe/ia. Iie aeieaeiu auoue iniauaiu aeinoaoi/ii iiuiuie aeieaie
ieoaiey aeey aiciiaeiinoe onoaiiaee aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieao ?anoe?aiey e
aeeneiauo iaeiieoaeae. AEaeaoaeueii i?eiaiaiea ono?ienoaa aania?aaieiiai
ieoaiey. Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue iau/ii eiaao iauai ia iaiaa 32 Iaaeo, /oi
iicaieeo iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (iai?eia?, NetWare) eniieueciaaoue
aieueoea aeeneiaua eyoe e oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue na?aa?a. Eae
i?aaeei, aeey ?aaiou n iiiaicaaea/iuie iia?aoeeiiiuie nenoaiaie oaeea
na?aa?u iniauathony eioa?oaenii SCSI (eee Fast SCSI). ?ani?aaeaeaiea
aeaiiuo ii ianeieueeei aeanoeei aeeneai iiaeao cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

I?e iaee/ee iaeiiai naaiaioa naoe e 10-20 ?aai/eo noaioeee ieeiaay
i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue na?aa?a ia?aie/eaaaony iaeneiaeueiie i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoueth naoe. A yoii neo/aa caiaia i?ioeanni?ia eee aeeneiauo
iiaenenoai aieaa iiuiuie ia oaaee/eaatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, oae eae
oceei ianoii yaeyaony naia naoue. Iiyoiio aaaeii eniieueciaaoue oi?iooth
ieaoo naoaaiai eioa?oaena.

Oioy aeeyiea aieaa auno?iai i?ioeanni?a yaii ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia
neacuaaaony, iii caiaoii nieaeaao eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey OeI. Ai
iiiaeo na?aa?ao yoiai eeanna eniieuecoaony i?ioeanni?u Pentium, n
oaeoiaie /anoioie 166 e 200 IAoe, microSPARC-II e PowerPC. Aiaeiae/ii
i?ioeanni?ai aeeyiea oeia nenoaiiie oeiu (EISA ni nei?inoueth 33 Iaeo/n
eee PCI ni nei?inoueth 132 Iaeo/n) oaeaea ieieiaeueii i?e oaeii ?aaeeia
eniieueciaaiey.

Iaeiaei aeey oaee-na?aa?ia iauaai aeinooia, n eioi?uie iaeiia?aiaiii
iiaoo ?aaioaoue ianeieueei aeanyoeia, a oi e nioai /aeiaae, i?inoie
iaeiii?ioeanni?iie ieaooi?iu e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey Novell iiaeao
ieacaoueny iaaeinoaoi/ii. A yoii neo/aa eniieuecothony iiuiua
iiiaii?ioeanni?iua na?aa?u n aiciiaeiinoyie ia?aueaaiey iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoe aei ianeieueeeo aeaaaaeo, aeeneiaiai i?ino?ainoaa aei nioai
aeaaaaeo, auno?uie eioa?oaenaie aeeneiaiai iaiaia (oeia Fast SCSI-2,
Fast&Wide SCSI-2 e Fiber Channel) e ianeieueeeie naoaauie eioa?oaenaie.
Yoe na?aa?u eniieuecotho iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio UNIX, naoaaua i?ioieieu
TCP/IP e NFS. Ia aaca iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo UNIX-na?aa?ia iau/ii no?iyony
oaeaea na?aa?u aac aeaiiuo e?oiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, oae eae ia
ieo eiaeeony iniiaiay iaa?ocea ii ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo cai?inia.
Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea na?aa?u iieo/eee iacaaiea noia?na?aa?ia.

Ii o?iaith iauanenoaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ooieoeeiiaeueiui
aiciiaeiinoyi ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia, ioeacionoie/eainoe, a oaeaea a
iiaeaea?aeea iiiaii?ioeanni?iie ia?aaioee, nenoaiiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey
e aeeneiauo ianneaia aieueoie aieinoe noia?na?aa?u auoee a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ia iaeei o?iaaiue n iaeio?aeiaie e iiuiuie ieieeiiiuethoa?aie.
Nia?aiaiiua noia?na?aa?u oa?aeoa?ecothony:

iaee/eai aeaoo eee aieaa oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia RISC, eeai Pentium ,
eeai Pentium II;

iiiaio?iaiaaie oeiiie a?oeoaeoo?ie, a eioi?ie caiaoaioiaaiiay
aunieinei?inoiay nenoaiiay oeia naycuaaao iaaeaeo niaie ianeieueei
i?ioeanni?ia e iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue, a oaeaea iiiaeanoai noaiaea?oiuo
oei aaiaea/auaiaea, ?aciauaiiuo a oii aea ei?iona;

iiaeaea?aeeie oaoiieiaee aeeneiauo ianneaia RAID;

iiaeaea?aeeie ?aaeeia neiiao?e/iie iiiaii?ioeanni?iie ia?aaioee, eioi?ay
iicaieyao ?ani?aaeaeyoue caaeaiey ii ianeieueeei oeaio?aeueiui
i?ioeanni?ai eee ?aaeeia aneiiao?e/iie iiiaii?ioeanni?iie ia?aaioee,
eioi?ay aeiioneaao auaeaeaiea i?ioeanni?ia aeey auiieiaiey eiie?aoiuo
caaea/.

Eae i?aaeei, noia?na?aa?u ?aaioatho iiae oi?aaeaieai iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai UNIX, a a iineaaeiaa a?aiy e Windows NT (ia Digital 2100 Server
Model A500MP), eioi?ua iaania/eaatho iiiaiiioieiaoth iiiaii?ioeanni?ioth
e iiiaicaaea/ioth ia?aaioeo. Noia?na?aa?u aeieaeiu eiaoue aeinoaoi/iua
aiciiaeiinoe ia?aueaaiey aeeneiaiai i?ino?ainoaa e au/eneeoaeueiie
iiuiinoe, n?aaenoaa iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey aeaiiuo e caueou
io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia. E?iia oiai, a oneiaeyo auno?i
?anoouae i?aaiecaoeee, aaaeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
ia?aueaaiey e ?anoe?aiey oaea nouanoaothuae nenoaiu.

D. Iaeio?aeiu

Iaeio?aei – yoi neiiiei iiiyoey “aieueoay oieaa?naeueiay YAI”.
Iaeio?aeiu e aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy inoathony iaeaieaa iiuiuie (ia
n/eoay noia?eiiiuethoa?ia) au/eneeoaeueiuie nenoaiaie iauaai iacia/aiey,
iaania/eaathueie iai?a?uaiue e?oaeinooi/iue ?aaeei yenieoaoaoeee. Iie
iiaoo aeeth/aoue iaeei eee ianeieueei i?ioeanni?ia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo,
a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeao iniauaoueny aaeoi?iuie nii?ioeanni?aie
(onei?eoaeyie iia?aoeee n noia?eiiiuethoa?iie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth).
A iaoai niciaiee iaeio?aeiu ana aua annioeee?othony n aieueoeie ii
aaaa?eoai iaoeiaie, o?aaothueie niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiuo iiiauaiee n
nenoaiaie aiaeyiiai ioeaaeaeaiey e eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey. Iaeiaei yoi ia
nianai oae. I?ia?ann a iaeanoe yeaiaioii-eiino?oeoi?neie aacu iicaieee
nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue aaaa?eou iniiaiuo ono?ienoa. Ia?yaeo ni
naa?oiiuiuie iaeio?aeiaie, o?aaothueie i?aaiecaoeee aeaooeiioo?iie
aiaeyiie nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey, eiathony iaiaa iiuiua iiaeaee, aeey
ioeaaeaeaiey eioi?uo aeinoaoi/ii i?eioaeeoaeueiie aicaeooiie
aaioeeyoeee, e iiaeaee, iino?iaiiua ii aei/ii-iiaeoeueiiio i?eioeeio e
ia o?aaothuea niaoeeaeueiuo iiiauaiee e eiiaeeoeeiia?ia.

Iniiaiuie iinoaaueeaie iaeio?aeiia yaeythony ecaanoiua eiiiuethoa?iua
eiiiaiee IBM, Amdahl, ICL, Siemens, Nixdorf e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, ii
aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaconeiaii eiiiaiee IBM. Eiaiii a?oeoaeoo?a
nenoaiu IBM/360, auiouaiiie a 1964 aiaeo, e aa iineaaeothuea iieieaiey
noaee ia?acoeii aeey iiae?aaeaiey. A iaoae no?aia a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao
auioneaeenue iaoeiu ?yaea AN YAI, yaeyaoeany ioa/anoaaiiui aiaeiaii yoie
nenoaiu.

A a?oeoaeoo?iii ieaia, iaeio?aeiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iiiaii?ioeanni?iua nenoaiu, niaea?aeauea iaeei eee ianeieueei
oeaio?aeueiuo e ia?eoa?eeiuo i?ioeanni?ia n iauae iaiyoueth, naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie aunieinei?inoiuie iaaeno?aeyie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. I?e yoii
iniiaiay au/eneeoaeueiay iaa?ocea eiaeeony ia oeaio?aeueiua i?ioeanni?u,
a ia?eoa?eeiua i?ioeanni?u (a oa?ieiieiaee IBM – naeaeoi?iua,
aeie-ioeueoeieaeniua, ioeueoeieaeniua eaiaeu e i?ioeanni?u
oaeaia?aaioee) iaania/eaatho ?aaioo n oe?ieie iiiaieeaoo?ie ia?eoa?eeiuo
ono?ienoa.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iaeio?aeiu i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia oeaio?aeeciaaiioth
iiaeaeue au/eneaiee, ?aaioaee iiae oi?aaeaieai iaoaioiaaiiuo
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e eiaee ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey iauaaeeiaiey
a aaeeioth nenoaio iai?oaeiaaiey ?acee/iuo oe?i-iinoaaueeia. Iaeiaei
iiauoaiiue eioa?an iio?aaeoaeae e ioe?uoui nenoaiai, iino?iaiiui ia aaca
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia e iicaieythuei aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue ana i?aeiouanoaa oaeiai iiaeoiaea, canoaaee iinoaaueeia
iaeio?aeiia nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe naieo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai a iai?aaeaiee niaianoeiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie aeaiiino?e?oao
naith “ioe?uoinoue”, iaania/eaay niioaaonoaea ni niaoeeoeeaoeeyie POSIX
1003.3, aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?ioieieia iaae niaaeeiaiee OSI e
TCP/IP eee i?aaeinoaaeyy aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou ia naieo eiiiuethoa?ao
iiae oi?aaeaieai iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu UNIX nianoaaiiie ?ac?aaioee.

No?aieoaeueiue ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia,
?aai/eo noaioeee e na?aa?ia nicaeae oaiaeaioeeth ia?aoiaea n iaeio?aeiia
ia eiiiuethoa?u iaiaa aei?iaeo eeannia: ieieeiiiuethoa?u e
iiiaii?ioeanni?iua na?aa?u. Yoa oaiaeaioeey iieo/eea iacaaiea
“?acoe?oiiaiea” (downsizing). Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann a naiia iineaaeiaa
a?aiy ianeieueei caiaaeeeeny. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie aic?iaeaeaiey eioa?ana e
iaeio?aeiai yenia?ou n/eoatho neiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea e ?ani?aaeaeaiiie
a?oeoaeoo?a eeeaio-na?aa?, eioi?ay ieacaeanue auoa, /ai
i?aaeiieaaaeinue. E?iia oiai, iiiaea iieueciaaoaee n/eoatho, /oi
?ani?aaeaeaiiay n?aaea ia iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie iaaeaaeiinoueth aeey
iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiuo i?eeiaeaiee, eioi?ie iaeaaeatho iaeio?aeiu.

I/aaeaeii auai? oeaio?aeueiie iaoeiu (na?aa?a) aeey iino?iaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey aiciiaeai oieueei iinea aeoaieiai
aiaeeca i?iaeai, oneiaee e o?aaiaaiee eiie?aoiiai caeac/eea e
aeieain?i/iiai i?iaiice?iaaiey ?acaeoey yoie nenoaiu.

Aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii iaeio?aeiia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy inoaaony
ioiineoaeueii ieceia niioiioaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue/noieiinoue.
Iaeiaei oe?iaie-iinoaaueeaie iaeio?aeiia i?aaei?eieiathony cia/eoaeueiua
oneeey ii oeo/oaieth yoiai iieacaoaey.

Neaaeoao oaeaea iiiieoue, /oi a ie?a nouanoaoao ia?iiiay
einoaeee?iaaiiay aaca iaeio?aeiia, ia eioi?ie ?aaioatho aeanyoee ouny/
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aiiiuo nenoai. Ioeacaoueny io aiaeaie ia?aaioaiiiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?inoi ia ?acoiii. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaeeaeaaony ?ino i?iaeaae iaeio?aeiia ii e?aeiae ia?a aei eiioea yoiai
noieaoey. Yoe nenoaiu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iicaieyo iiaea?iece?iaaoue
nouanoaothuea nenoaiu, iaania/ea nie?auaiea yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia,
n ae?oaie noi?iiu, nicaeaaeoo iiaoth aaco aeey iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiuo
i?eeiaeaiee.

E. Eeanoa?iua a?oeoaeoo?u

Aeaoiy iniiaiuie i?iaeaiaie iino?iaiey au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai aeey
e?eoe/anee aaaeiuo i?eeiaeaiee, naycaiiuo n ia?aaioeie o?aicaeoeee,
oi?aaeaieai aacaie aeaiiuo e ianeoaeeaaieai oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, yaeythony
iaania/aiea aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue niinia aeinoeaeaiey
caaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe – i?eiaiaiea ia?aeeaeueiuo
ianooaae?oaiuo a?oeoaeoo?. Caaea/a iaania/aiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu eiaao o?e ninoaaeythueo: iaaeaaeiinoue,
aioiaiinoue e oaeianoai ianeoaeeaaiey. Ana yoe o?e ninoaaeythueo
i?aaeiieaaatho, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ai?ueao n iaeni?aaiinoyie nenoaiu,
ii?iaeaeaaiuie ioeacaie e naiyie a aa ?aaioa. Yoa ai?ueaa aaaeaony ii
anai o?ai iai?aaeaieyi, eioi?ua acaeiinaycaiu e i?eiaiythony niaianoii.

Iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe iniiaaii ia i?eioeeia i?aaeioa?auaiey
iaeni?aaiinoae iooai nieaeaiey eioaineaiinoe ioeacia e naiaa ca n/ao
i?eiaiaiey yeaeo?iiiuo noai e eiiiiiaioia n aunieie e naa?oaunieie
noaiaiueth eioaa?aoeee, nieaeaiey o?iaiy iiiao, iaeaa/aiiuo ?aaeeiia
?aaiou noai, iaania/aiea oaieiauo ?aaeeiia eo ?aaiou, a oaeaea ca n/ao
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia nai?ee aiia?aoo?u. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy
aioiaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iiaeaaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao aeeyiey
ioeacia e naiaa ia ?aaioo nenoaiu n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa eiio?iey e
ei??aeoeee ioeaie, a oaeaea n?aaenoa aaoiiaoe/aneiai ainnoaiiaeaiey
au/eneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna iinea i?iyaeaiey iaeni?aaiinoe, aeeth/ay
aiia?aoo?ioth e i?ia?aiiioth ecauoi/iinoue, ia iniiaa eioi?ie
?aaeecothony ?acee/iua aa?eaiou ioeacionoie/eauo a?oeoaeoo?. Iiauoaiea
aioiaiinoe anoue niinia ai?ueau ca nieaeaiea a?aiaie i?inoiy nenoaiu.
Iniiaiua yenieoaoaoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu nouanoaaiii caaenyo io
oaeianoaa aa ianeoaeeaaiey, a /anoiinoe io ?aiiioii?eaiaeiinoe, eiio?iea
i?eaiaeiinoe e o.ae.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a eeoa?aoo?a ii au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea ana /aua
oiio?aaeyaony oa?iei “nenoaiu aunieie aioiaiinoe” (High Availability
Systems). Ana oeiu nenoai aunieie aioiaiinoe eiatho iauoth oeaeue –
ieieiecaoeeth a?aiaie i?inoiy. Eiaaony aeaa oeia a?aiaie i?inoiy
eiiiuethoa?a: ieaiiaia e iaieaiiaia. Ieieiecaoeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo
o?aaoao ?acee/iie no?aoaaee e oaoiieiaee. Ieaiiaia a?aiy i?inoiy iau/ii
aeeth/aao a?aiy, i?eiyoia ?oeiaiaenoaii, aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aaio ii
iiaea?iecaoeee nenoaiu e aeey aa ianeoaeeaaiey. Iaieaiiaia a?aiy i?inoiy
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii ioeaca nenoaiu eee eiiiiiaioa. Oioy nenoaiu
aunieie aioiaiinoe aiciiaeii aieueoa annioeee?othony n ieieiecaoeeae
iaieaiiauo i?inoiaa, iie ieacuaathony oaeaea iieaciuie aeey oiaiueoaiey
ieaiiaiai a?aiaie i?inoiy.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei oeiia nenoai aunieie aioiaiinoe, ioee/athueany
naieie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e noieiinoueth. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi aunieay aioiaiinoue ia aeaaony aanieaoii. Noieiinoue
nenoai aunieie aioiaiinoe ia iiiai i?aauoaao noieiinoue iau/iuo nenoai.
Aa?iyoii iiyoiio, iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ie?a iieo/eee eeanoa?iua
nenoaiu, aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iie iaania/eaatho aeinoaoi/ii aunieee
o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe nenoai i?e ioiineoaeueii ieceeo cao?aoao. Oa?iei
“eeanoa?ecaoeey” ia naaiaeiy a eiiiuethoa?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe eiaao iiiai
?acee/iuo cia/aiee. No?iaia ii?aaeaeaiea iiaei au cao/aoue oae:
“?aaeecaoeey iauaaeeiaiey iaoei, i?aaenoaaeythuaainy aaeeiui oeaeui aeey
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, nenoaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii e iieueciaaoaeae”. Iaoeiu, eeanoa?eciaaiiua aianoa oaeei
niiniaii iiaoo i?e ioeaca iaeiiai i?ioeanni?a i/aiue auno?i
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue ?aaioo ia ae?oaea i?ioeanni?u aioo?e eeanoa?a. Yoi,
aiciiaeii, iaeaieaa aaaeiay caaea/a iiiaeo iinoaaueeia nenoai aunieie
aioiaiinoe.

Ia?aie eiioeaioeeth eeanoa?iie nenoaiu aiiine?iaaea eiiiaiey DEC,
ii?aaeaeea aa eae a?oiio iauaaeeiaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie au/eneeoaeueiuo
iaoei, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie aaeeiue ocae ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Ii
nouanoao VAX-eeanoa? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neaainaycaiioth iiiaiiaoeiioth
nenoaio n iauae aiaoiae iaiyoueth, iaania/eaathuoth aaeeiue iaoaieci
oi?aaeaiey e aaeieieno?e?iaaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia niaio
VAX-eeanoa?ai i?eoiaeyo UNIX-eeanoa?u. I?e yoii VAX-eeanoa?u
i?aaeeaaatho i?iaa?aiiue iaai? ?aoaiee, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaao e?eoa?ee
aeey ioeaiee iiaeiaiuo nenoai.

VAX-eeanoa? iaeaaeaao neaaeothueie naienoaaie:

?acaeaeaiea ?ano?nia. Eiiiuethoa?u VAX a eeanoa?a iiaoo ?acaeaeyoue
aeinooi e iauei aeeneiaui iaeiieoaeyi. Ana eiiiuethoa?u VAX a eeanoa?a
iiaoo ia?auaoueny e ioaeaeueiui oaeeai aeaiiuo eae e eieaeueiui.

Aunieay aioiaiinoue. Anee i?ienoiaeeo ioeac iaeiiai ec
VAX-eiiiuethoa?ia, caaeaiey aai iieueciaaoaeae aaoiiaoe/anee iiaoo auoue
ia?aianaiu ia ae?oaie eiiiuethoa? eeanoa?a. Anee a nenoaia eiaaony
ianeieueei eiio?ieea?ia aiaoieo iaeiieoaeae e iaeei ec ieo ioeacuaaao,
ae?oaea eiio?ieea?u aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeoaaouaatho aai ?aaioo.

Aunieay i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue. ?yae i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai iiaoo
iieueciaaoueny aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aeeaeueiiai auiieiaiey caaeaiee ia
ianeieueeeo eiiiuethoa?ao eeanoa?a.

Oaeianoai ianeoaeeaaiey nenoaiu. Iauea aacu aeaiiuo iiaoo
ianeoaeeaaoueny n aaeeinoaaiiiai ianoa. I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu iiaoo
einoaeee?iaaoueny oieueei iaeiaaeaeu ia iaueo aeeneao eeanoa?a e
?acaeaeyoueny iaaeaeo anaie eiiiuethoa?aie eeanoa?a.

?anoe?yaiinoue. Oaaee/aiea au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoe eeanoa?a
aeinoeaaaony iiaeeeth/aieai e iaio aeiiieieoaeueiuo VAX-eiiiuethoa?ia.
Aeiiieieoaeueiua iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao noaiiayony aeinooiiuie
aeey anao eiiiuethoa?ia, aoiaeyueo a eeanoa?.

?aaioa ethaie eeanoa?iie nenoaiu ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy aeaaiuie
eiiiiiaioaie: aunieinei?inoiui iaoaieciii nayce i?ioeanni?ia iaaeaeo
niaie e nenoaiiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao
eeeaioai i?ic?a/iue aeinooi e nenoaiiiio na?aeno.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea oaeaea oaoiieiaey
ia?aeeaeueiuo aac aeaiiuo. Yoa oaoiieiaey iicaieyao iiiaeanoao
i?ioeanni?ia ?acaeaeyoue aeinooi e aaeeinoaaiiie aaca aeaiiuo.
?ani?aaeaeaiea caaeaiee ii iiiaeanoao i?ioeanni?iuo ?ano?nia e
ia?aeeaeueiia eo auiieiaiea iicaieyao aeinoe/ue aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe o?aicaeoeee, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aieueoaa /enei
iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaioathueo iieueciaaoaeae e onei?eoue auiieiaiea neiaeiuo
cai?inia. Nouanoaotho o?e ?acee/iuo oeia a?oeoaeoo?u, eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaatho ia?aeeaeueiua aacu aeaiiuo:

Neiiao?e/iay iiiaii?ioeanni?iay a?oeoaeoo?a n iauae iaiyoueth (Shared
Memory SMP Architecture). Yoa a?oeoaeoo?a iiaeaea?aeeaaao aaeeioth aaco
aeaiiuo, ?aaioathuoth ia iiiaii?ioeanni?iii na?aa?a iiae oi?aaeaieai
iaeiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oaeeo
nenoai iaania/eaaaony ia?aueaaieai /enea i?ioeanni?ia, ono?ienoa
iia?aoeaiie e aiaoiae iaiyoe.

A?oeoaeoo?a n iaueie (?acaeaeyaiuie) aeeneaie (Shared Disk
Architecture). Yoi oeie/iue neo/ae iino?iaiey eeanoa?iie nenoaiu. Yoa
a?oeoaeoo?a iiaeaea?aeeaaao aaeeioth aaco aeaiiuo i?e ?aaioa n
ianeieueeeie eiiiuethoa?aie, iauaaeeiaiiuie a eeanoa? (iau/ii oaeea
eiiiuethoa?u iacuaathony oceaie eeanoa?a), eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo ?aaioaao
iiae oi?aaeaieai naiae eiiee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. A oaeeo nenoaiao ana
oceu ?acaeaeytho aeinooi e iauei aeeneai, ia eioi?uo nianoaaiii e
?aniieaaaaony aaeeiay aaca aeaiiuo. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue oaeeo nenoai
iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny eae iooai ia?aueaaiey /enea i?ioeanni?ia e iauaiia
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe a eaaeaeii ocea eeanoa?a, oae e iin?aaenoaii
oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa naieo oceia.

A?oeoaeoo?a aac ?acaeaeaiey ?ano?nia (Shared Nothing Architecture). Eae
e a a?oeoaeoo?a n iaueie aeeneaie, a yoie a?oeoaeoo?a iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
aaeeiue ia?ac aacu aeaiiuo i?e ?aaioa n ianeieueeeie eiiiuethoa?aie,
?aaioathueie iiae oi?aaeaieai naieo eiiee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. Iaeiaei
a yoie a?oeoaeoo?a eaaeaeue ocae nenoaiu eiaao nianoaaiioth iia?aoeaioth
iaiyoue e nianoaaiiua aeenee, eioi?ua ia ?acaeaeythony iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie oceaie nenoaiu. I?aeoe/anee a oaeeo nenoaiao ?acaeaeyaony
oieueei iauee eiiioieeaoeeiiiue eaiae iaaeaeo oceaie nenoaiu.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue oaeeo nenoai iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny iooai
aeiaaaeaiey i?ioeanni?ia, iauaiia iia?aoeaiie e aiaoiae (aeeneiaie)
iaiyoe a eaaeaeii ocea, a oaeaea iooai ia?aueaaiey eiee/anoaa oaeeo
oceia.

Oaeei ia?acii, n?aaea aeey ?aaiou ia?aeeaeueiie aacu aeaiiuo iaeaaeaao
aeaoiy aaaeiuie naienoaaie: aunieie aioiaiinoueth e aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. A neo/aa eeanoa?iie i?aaiecaoeee ianeieueei
eiiiuethoa?ia eee oceia eeanoa?a ?aaioatho n aaeeiie aacie aeaiiuo. A
neo/aa ioeaca iaeiiai ec oaeeo oceia, inoaaoeany oceu iiaoo acyoue ia
naay caaeaiey, auiieiyaoeany ia ioeacaaoai ocea, ia inoaiaaeeaay iauee
i?ioeann ?aaiou n aacie aeaiiuo. Iineieueeo eiae/anee a eaaeaeii ocea
nenoaiu eiaaony ia?ac aacu aeaiiuo, aeinooi e aaca aeaiiuo aoaeao
iaania/eaaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea a nenoaia eiaaony ii e?aeiae ia?a
iaeei eni?aaiue ocae. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu eaaei
ianooaae?oaony, o.a. aeiaaaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia, iauaiia
iia?aoeaiie e aeeneiaie iaiyoe, e iiauo oceia a nenoaia iiaeao
auiieiyoueny a ethaia a?aiy, eiaaea yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii o?aaoaony.

Ia?aeeaeueiua aacu aeaiiuo iaoiaeyo oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a nenoaiao
ia?aaioee o?aicaeoeee a ?aaeeia on-line, nenoaiao iiaeaea?aeee i?eiyoey
?aoaiee e /anoi eniieuecothony i?e ?aaioa n e?eoe/anee aaaeiuie aeey
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee i?eeiaeaieyie, eioi?ua
yenieoaoe?othony ii 24 /ana a nooee.

Caeeth/aiea.

*oi eanaaony nianoaaiii niaea?aeaiey aeaiiuo niaoeeoeeaoeee, oi iii a
iniiaiii oaea auei eceiaeaii auoa. Oa, eiai aeaiiay oaia iniaaiii
caeioa?aniaaea, iiaoo iaeoe aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth a Internet.
Nae/an oioaeinue au inoaiiaeoueny ia oii, ianeieueei auno?ui e
aacaieaciaiiui aoaeao aiaae?aiea oeacaiiuo niaoeeoeeaoeee a aeeciue. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, ana caieaie?iaaiiia aaoi?aie naai aeieoiaioa iieacii e
ioaeii, n ae?oaie… Iaiiiyoii, aoaeoo ee i?iecaiaeeoaee iaoa?eineeo
ieao ioeacuaaoueny io ISA-neioia. Yoi aiciiaeii naeaeaoue, anee au ana
i?iecaiaeeoaee ieao ?anoe?aiey o/eouaaee oeacaiey, niaea?aeaueany a
niaoeeoeeaoeeyo ?N 98 e iieiinoueth ioeacaeenue au io ea?o aeey ISA.
Iaeiaei iiaeiaiay i?iaeoeoeey aeoeaii i?iecaiaeeeanue a oa/aiea anaai
aiaea e aua aieaa aeoeaii i?iaeaaaeanue. A eaeie-oi iiiaio
i?iecaiaeeoaee iniciaee, /oi ono?ienoaa aeey yoie oeiu, iyaei aiai?y,
onoa?aee, e ?aoeee eae iiaeii nei?aa ecaaaeoueny io noa?uo caiania,
niecea oeaiu. Oi aea naiia naeaeaee e e?oiiaeoea i?iaeaaoeu
iai?oaeiaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa a oiaea ?ani?iaeaae na?aaeeiu aiaea iiaeii
auei, iai?eia?, eoieoue a Iineaa caoeiaoth ea?oo Sound Blaster 32 PNP
oe?iu Creative Labs aeey oeiu ISA anaai ca $25. Ai anai ie?a i?ienoiaeeo
aaniethoii oi aea naiia. Ea?ou aeey oeiu PCI, n?aaieiua n iae ii
aiciiaeiinoyi, noieee io $30 (ca i?iaeoeoeeth iaeiecaanoiuo oe?i) aei
$100 e aieaa (ca ecaeaeey oiai aea Creative e oiio iiaeiaiiai). Yoi
eanaaony e aioo?aiieo iiaeaiia, e ae?oaeo ieao aeey ISA. Anoanoaaiii,
/oi, i?iecaiaey iiaea?iecaoeeth eiiiuethoa?a, ie iaeei ec
“n/anoeeaoeaa”, iieo/eaoeo ii aeaoaaea oi?iooth ieaoo ?anoe?aiey, aeaaea
ia iiniio?eo ia iaoa?eineoth ieaoo, oaeiaeaoai?ythuoth niaoeeoeeaoeeyi
?N 99. N iiauie eiiiuethoa?aie ana ai?acaei i?iua, iaeiaei neaaeoao
o/anoue, /oi aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia eiee/anoai noa?uo ieao ?anoe?aiey
inoaeinue e o i?iecaiaeeoaeae oaoieee. Ii aiieia iiiyoiui i?e/eiai ei
i?eaeaony ecaaaeyoueny io ieo. A eo/oee niinia naeaeaoue yoi: i?iaeaoue
eo a ninoaaa iiauo eiiiuethoa?ia. Oae /oi, ii iaiueoae ia?a, /anoue
eiiiuethoa?ia, i?iaeaaaaiuo a ianooiathuai 1999 aiaeo, o?aaiaaieyi
noaiaea?oa oaeiaeaoai?youe ia aoaeao.

Oaia?ue ?acaa?ainy n oaie au/eneeoaeueiuie nenoaiaie, eioi?ua aoaeoo
niioaaonoaiaaoue iiaiio noaiaea?oo. Iniiaiie aii?in: ec /aai eo
aeaeaoue? Ioaeiu eiiieaeoothuea, oaeaea niioaaonoaothuea niaoeeoeeaoeeyi
?N 99. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia a aeaiiii neo/aa – iaoa?eineea ieaou. Iiea ana
auioneaaiua iiaeaee (aeaaea oa, eioi?ua aeaeathony naiie Intel)
oeiiieaeoiaaiu ISA-neioaie. Oaeei ia?acii, ie iaeia ec nouanoaothueo
?ac?aaioie ia niiniaia noaoue iniiaie nenoaiu, oaeiaeaoai?ythuae iiaiio
noaiaea?oo. Ia ?ac?aaioeo e ia?ai?eaioaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa ia auione
iiauo iiaeaeae nenoaiiuo ieao oeaeao iaeioi?ia a?aiy, oae /oi ?aaeueii
iaeeaeaoue iiyaeaiey eiiiuethoa?ia, ioaa/athueo ?N 99, iiaeii eeoue e
eiioeo neaaeothuaai aiaea. O i?iecaiaeeoaeae oaoieee brand name a nayce
n yoei iaiueoa i?iaeai, ii e a yoii neo/aa noieo o/eouaaoue, /oi a
?ac?aaioeo ea?o aeey oeiu ISA eie aeiaeaiu aieueoea n?aaenoaa.
I?iecaiaeeoaee iaoa?eineeo ieao ia noaioo ioeacuaaoueny io onoaiiaee
ISA-neioia: o/eouaay, /oi eiio?ieea? ISA ana ?aaii i?eaeaony inoaaeoue
(LPC oae e ia noaea noaiaea?oii), iaieaeaony iia iaaei?iai, a
iieueciaaoaee ie/aai i?ioea eiaoue ia aoaeoo.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi n aaaaeaieai a iaoae no?aia noaiaea?oa ?N 99 aicieeioo
oa aea i?iaeaiu, /oi e ai anai ie?a. Iaeiaei anoue e naie iniaaiiinoe.
Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
eiiiuethoa?ia niae?atho eo ec aioiauo eiiieaeoothueo, a ia
naiinoiyoaeueii ?ac?aaaouaatho eiiiiiaiou. Nia?aoue ec eiathuaainy ia
iaoai ?uiea iieiioeaiioth iaoeio, oaeiaeaoai?ythuoth niaoeeoeeaoeeyi ?N
98 (ii e?aeiae ia?a, iniiaiie eo /anoe) iuia eaaei. Naeaeaoue oi aea
naiia, ii i?eaioe?oynue ia ?N 99, aaniethoii iaaiciiaeii. Nei?aa anaai
neooaoeey eciaieony ianei?i: iiea i?iecaiaeeoaee eiiieaeoothueo
?ac?aaioatho iiaua iiaeaee i?iaeoeoeee, iiea inaiyo eo auione, iiea ia
iiaeiee ia?ai?eaioe?othony ?inneeneea eiiiaiee – i?ieaeao iaiaei
a?aiaie. A ?uiie eiiiuethoa?ia brand name, iau/ii i/aiue auno?i
?aaae?othuee ia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iiaeiaiua ?N 99, a ?innee i/aiue iae.

Eaeie ec anaai auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae? Aaconeiaii,
auoiae a naao iiaiai noaiaea?oa ia eaeaaeueiue PC iieiaeeoaeueii
ioeaieaaaony aieueoeinoaii iieueciaaoaeae. Aio oieueei ioiineoueny e
iaio noieo eeoue eae e iienaieth aiciiaeiiai iooe ?acaeoey
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. Iiiuoea aea i?eiyoue ana /anoe niaoeeoeeaoeee
?N 99 eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai e aeaenoaeth a 1999 aiaeo
/?aaaoa eeoieie oeiainiauie cao?aoaie aac eaeie-eeai ioaea/e.

Ii anoue aieaa na?ueaciay i?iaeaia: eiiiuethoa?, iieiinoueth
oaeiaeaoai?ythuee o?aaiaaieyi niaoeeoeeaoeee ?N 99, a iaoae no?aia
i?aeoe/anee ieeiio ia ioaeai. I?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi iaiaeoth /anoue
o?aaoaiiai eee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?inoi iaaiciiaeii
eniieueciaaoue. Oae, iai?eia?, eiiiuethoa?u Consumer PC e Entertainment
PC a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea aeieaeiu eiiieaeoiaaoueny iiaeaiaie
noaiaea?oa V.90 (nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo 56 Eaeo/n). Eiia/ii, iiaeai
ioaeai aeey aeinooia a Internet ii oaeaoiiiie eeiee. Iaeiaei /enei
iieueciaaoaeae yoie naoe a ?iaeiie no?aia iiea iaaaeeei, aeaaea a
e?oiiuo ai?iaeao. E?iia oiai, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eiathueony
iieueciaaoaeae (aea e aiciiaeiuo) iiaeeeth/aii e aiaeiaiaui AON, n
eioi?uie yoe iiaeaiu ia ?aaioatho, o. a. a i?eioeeia ooieoeeiie?otho,
iaeiaei oi/ii oae aea, eae aieaa aeaoaaua ono?ienoaa noaiaea?oa V.34+,
o?aaoaiua a ?N 98. Aicieeaao aii?in: ca/ai /aeiaaeo aieaa aei?iaie
iiaeai (e niioaaonoaaiii eiiiuethoa?), anee ii ana ?aaii ia niiaeao
ainiieueciaaoueny aai i?aeiouanoaaie, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aua ianeieueei
eao? I eiiiuethoa?ao oeia Entertainment PC aiiaua ?acaiai? iniaue. Oae,
iai?eia?, aeey ieo iaycaoaeai i?eaiae DVD. Ca/ai ii naaiaeiy ioaeai,
iaiiiyoii: “ie?aou” iiea ia auioneatho aeey ieo aeenee, a eaaaeueioth
i?iaeoeoeeth eoieoue i?aeoe/anee iaaaea. ?aeiiaiaeoaony oaeaea
iiaeaea?aeea niooieeiaiai oaeaaeaeaiey. Eae aiai?eony: “No Comment”.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

1. “Understanding computer.” Time-Life Books, 1985,1986.

2. A.Y. Oeao?iia. “IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaey.” 4-a ecaeaiea,

Iineaa, Oeiainu e Noaoenoeea, 1994.

3. A. O?aieai, N. Iieyaei. “MS-DOS 6.2” BHV, 1994.

4. AEo?iaeu “Ie? IE” e “Iiieoi?” ca 1993-1995 aiaeu.

AEo?iae PC Magazine (02.98)

Internet:

Na?aa? Eioi?iaoeeiiiuo Oaoiieiaee.

http://ixbt.stack.net/ – iXBT Hardware (iaci?u aeieiiaioaoeee).

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