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История развития ЭВМ

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Aaaaeaiea.

N oaaee/aieai iau?ia au/eneaiee iiyaeeny ia?aue n/?oiue ia?aiiniie
eino?oiaio – “N/?ou”.

A ia/aea 17 aaea aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a neiaeiuo au/eneaieyo.
iio?aaiaaeenue n/?oiua ono?ienoaa, niiniaiua auiieiyoue aieueoie iau?i
au/eneaiee n aunieie oi/iinoueth. A 1642 a. o?aioeocneee iaoaiaoee
Ianeaeue neiino?oe?iaae ia?aoth iaoaie/aneoth n/?oioth iaoeio –
“Ianeaeeio”.

A 1830 a. aiaeeeneee o/?iue Ayaeaeae i?aaeeiaeee eaeath ia?aie
i?ia?aiie?oaiie au/eneeoaeueiie iaoeiu (“aiaeeoe/aneay iaoeia”). Iia
aeieaeia auea i?eaiaeeoueny a aeaenoaea neeie ia?a, a i?ia?aiiu
eiaee?iaaeenue ia ia?oiea?ou. ?aaeeciaaoue yoo eaeath ia oaeaeinue, oae
eae auei ia aiciiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua aeaoaee iaoeiu.

Ia?aue ?aaeeciaae eaeath ia?oiea?o Oieea?eo. Ii ecia??e iaoeio aeey
ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia ia?aiene ianaeaiey. A naiae iaoeia ii aia?aua
i?eiaiee yeaeo?e/anoai aeey ?an/?oia.

A 1930 a. aia?eeaineee o/?iue Aoo ecia?ae aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aiaeecaoi?
– ia?aue a ie?a eiiiuethoa?.

Aieueoie oie/ie a ?acaeoee au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee aeaea aoi?ay ie?iaay
aieia. Aiaiiui iiiaaeiaeeny eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ui noae “Ia?e-1” – ia?aue
a ie?a oeeo?iaie eiiiuethoa?, ecia?ao?iiue a 1944 a. i?ioanni?ii Aeeiai.
A i?i eniieueciaaeinue ni/aoaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo neaiaeia e iaoaie/aneeo
i?eaiaeia. ?acia?u: 15 X 2,5 i., 750000 aeaoaeae. Iiaea ia?aiiiaeeoue
aeaa 23-o ?ac?yaeiuo /enea ca 4 n.

A 1946 a. a?oiiie eiaeaia?ia ii caeaco aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa NOA aue
nicaeai ia?aue yeaeo?iiiue eiiiuethoa? – “Yieae”. Auno?iaeaenoaea: 5000
iia?aoeee neiaeaiey e 300 iia?aoeee oiiiaeaiey a naeoiaeo. ?acia?u: 30
i. a aeeeio, iau?i – 85 i3., aan – 30 oiii. Eniieueciaaeinue 18000 ye.
eaii.

Ia?aay iaoeia n o?iieiie i?ia?aiiie – ”Yaenae” – auea nicaeaia a
1949 a., a a 1951 a. nicaeaee iaoeio “THieaae” – ia?aue na?eeiue
eiiiuethoa? n o?iieiie i?ia?aiiie. A yoie iaoeia aia?aua auea
eniieueciaaia iaaieoiay eaioa aeey caiene e o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey e iieieaiey YAI.

1.Aiaeiaiaua au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu (AAI).

A AAI ana iaoaiaoe/aneea aaee/eiu i?aaenoaaeythony eae iai?a?uaiua
cia/aiey eaeeo-eeai oece/aneeo aaee/ei. Aeaaiui ia?acii, a ea/anoaa
iaoeiiie ia?aiaiiie aunooiaao iai?yaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneie oeaie. Eo
eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo ii oai aea caeiiai, /oi e eciaiaiey caaeaiiuo
ooieoeee. A yoeo iaoeiao eniieuecoaony iaoiae iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey (nicaea?ony iiaeaeue enneaaeoaiiai iauaeoa). ?acoeueoaou
?aoaiey auaiaeyony a aeaea caaeneiinoae yeaeo?e/aneeo iai?yaeaiee a
ooieoeee a?aiaie ia ye?ai inoeeeeia?aoa eee oeene?othony ecia?eoaeueiuie
i?eai?aie. Iniiaiui iacia/aieai AAI yaeyaony ?aoaiea eeiaeiuo e
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo o?aaiaiee.

Aeinoieinoaa AAI:

aunieay nei?inoue ?aoaiey caaea/, niecia?eiay ni nei?inoueth
i?ioiaeaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai neaiaea;

i?inoioa eiino?oeoeee AAI;

e?aeinoue iiaeaioiaee caaea/e e ?aoaieth;

iaaeyaeiinoue i?ioaeaiey enneaaeoaiuo i?ioeannia, aiciiaeiinoue
eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia enneaaeoaiuo i?ioeannia ai a?aiy naiiai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaaeinoaoee AAI:

iaeay oi/iinoue iieo/aaiuo ?acoeueoaoia (aei 10%);

aeai?eoie/aneay ia?aie/aiiinoue ?aoaaiuo caaea/;

?o/iie aaiae ?aoaaiie caaea/e a iaoeio;

aieueoie iau?i caaeaenoaiaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ?anoouee n oaaee/aieai
neiaeiinoe caaea/e.

2.Yeaeo?iiiua au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu (YAI).

A ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeoueo iaoei a YAI /enea i?aaenoaaeythony a aeaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oeeo?. A nia?aiaiiuo YAI /enea i?aaenoaaeythony a
aeaea eiaeia aeaie/iuo yeaeaaeaioia, oi anoue a aeaea eiiaeiaoeee 1 e
0. A YAI inouanoaeyaony i?eioeei i?ia?aiiiiai oi?aaeaiey. YAI iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia oeeo?iaua, yeaeo?eoeoee?iaaiiua e n/?oii-aiaeeoe/aneea
(ia?oi?aoeeiiiua) au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu.

YAI ?acaeaeythony ia aieueoea YAI, ieie-YAI e iee?iYAI. Iie ioee/athony
naiae a?oeoaeoo?ie, oaoie/aneeie, yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie e
aaaa?eoii-aaniauie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, iaeanoyie i?eiaiaiey.

Aeinoieinoaa YAI:

aunieay oi/iinoue au/eneaiee;

oieaa?naeueiinoue;

aaoiiaoe/aneee aaiae eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e;

?aciiia?acea caaea/, ?aoaaiuo YAI;

iacaaeneiinoue eiee/anoaa iai?oaeiaaiey io neiaeiinoe caaea/e.

Iaaeinoaoee YAI:

neiaeiinoue iiaeaioiaee caaea/e e ?aoaieth (iaiaoiaeeiinoue
niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee iaoiaeia ?aoaiey caaea/ e i?ia?aiie?iaaiey);

iaaeinoaoi/iay iaaeyaeiinoue i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia, neiaeiinoue
eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia yoeo i?ioeannia;

neiaeiinoue no?oeoo?u YAI, yenieoaoaoeey e oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea;

o?aaiaaiea niaoeeaeueiie aiia?aoo?u i?e ?aaioa n yeaiaioaie ?aaeueiie
aiia?aoo?u.

3.Aiaeiai-oeeo?iaua au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu (AOeAI).

AOeAI – yoi oaeea iaoeiu, eioi?ua niaiauatho a naaa aeinoieinoaa AAI e
YAI. Iie eiatho oaeea oa?aeoa?enoeee, eae auno?iaeaenoaea, i?inoioa
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e oieaa?naeueiinoue. Iniiaiie iia?aoeeae yaeyaony
eioaa?e?iaaiea, eioi?ia auiieiyaony n iiiiuueth oeeo?iauo eioaa?aoi?ia.

A AOeAI /enea i?aaenoaaeythony eae a YAI (iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth
oeeo?), a iaoiae ?aoaiey caaea/ eae a AAI (iaoiae iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey).

4.Iieieaiey YAI.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 4 iniiaiua iieieaiey YAI.

I I E I E A I E ss Y A I

OA?AEOA?ENOEEE I II III IV

Aiaeu i?eiaiaiey 1946-1960 1960-1964 1964-1970 1970-1980

Iniiaiie yeaiaio Ye. eaiia O?aicenoi? EN AEN

Eiee/anoai YAI

a ie?a (oo.) Nioie Ouny/e Aeanyoee ouny/ Ieeeeiiu

?acia?u YAI Aieueoea Cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa Ieie-YAI iee?iYAI

Auno?iaeaenoaea(one) 1 10 1000 10000

Iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee Ia?oiea?oa,

Ia?oieaioa Iaaieoiay

eaioa Aeene Aeaeee

aeene

Iieieaiey:

YAI ia ye. eaiiao, auno?iaeaenoaea ii?yaeea 20000 iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo,
aeey eaaeaeie iaoeiu nouanoaoao naie ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.
(“AYNI”,”No?aea”).

A 1960 a. a YAI auee i?eiaiaiu o?aicenoi?u, ecia?ao?iiua a 1948 a.,
iie auee aieaa iaae?aeiu, aeieaiaa/iu, iaeaaeaee aieueoie iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoueth. 1 o?aicenoi? niiniaai caiaieoue ~40 ye. eaii e ?aaioaao n
aieueoae nei?inoueth. A ea/anoaa iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee eniieueciaaeenue
iaaieoiua eaiou. (“Ieine-2”,”O?ae-14).

A 1964 a. iiyaeeenue ia?aua eioaa?aeueiua noaiu (EN), eioi?ua iieo/eee
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. EN – yoi e?enoaee, ieiuaaeue eioi?iai 10 ii2. 1
EN niiniaia caiaieoue 1000 o?aicenoi?ia. 1 e?enoaee – 30-oe
oiiiue “Yieae”. Iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaaouaaoue ia?aeeaeueii
ianeieueei i?ia?aii.

Aia?aua noaee i?eiaiyoueny aieueoea eioaa?aeueiua noaiu (AEN), eioi?ua
ii iiuiinoe i?eia?ii niioaaonoaiaaee 1000 EN. Yoi i?eaaei e nieaeaieth
noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa eiiiuethoa?ia. A 1980 a. oeaio?aeueiue
i?ioeanni? iaaieueoie YAI ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui ?acianoeoue ia e?enoaeea
ieiuaaeueth 1/4 aetheia. (“Eeeeae”,”Yeuea?on”).

Neioacaoi?u, caoee, niiniaiinoue aanoe aeeaeia, auiieiyoue eiiaiaeu,
iiaeaaaaiua aieinii eee i?eeiniiaaieai.

Aaeeiua na?ee YAI.

1.Ioee/ey YAI III iieieaiey io i?aaeieo.

A YAI III iieieaiey caiaoii cia/eoaeueiia oeo/oaiea aiia?aoo?u,
aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth eioaa?aeueiuo noai (EN), /oi niinianoaiaaei
oiaiueoaieth ?acia?ia, iio?aaeyaiie yia?aee, oaaee/aieth auno?iaeaenaey,
iaaeaaeiinoe e o.ae.

Aeaaiui ioee/eai oaeeo YAI io YAI I e II iieieaiee yaeyaony niaa?oaiii
iiaay i?aaiecaoeey au/eneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

YAI III iieieaiey niiniaiu ia?aaaouaaoue eae oeeo?iaoth, oae e
aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaoth eioi?iaoeeth. Aiciiaeiinoue iia?e?iaaoue iaae
oaenoaie ioe?uaaao aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae
iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e eiiiuethoa?ii.

Oae aea nicaeaiea ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa aaiaea-auaiaea eioi?iaoeee. ss?eei
i?eia?ii yoiio yaeyaony niinia aaiaea eioi?iaoeee ii n?aaenoaai iau/iie
oaeaoiiiie nayce, oaeaoaeia, naaoiaiai ea?aiaeaoa. A auaiae
inouanoaeyaony ia oieueei ia ia?oiea?ou, eae yoi auei ?aiueoa, ii e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ye?ai iiieoi?a, eaiaeu oaeaoiiiie nayce, i?eioa?
(aeey iieo/aiey oa??aeuo eiiee).

A nayce n eniieueciaaieai oaenoa aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeeceoue aaiaeiie ycue
e /aeiaa/aneiio, naeaeaoue aai aieaa aeinooiiui oe?ieiio e?oao
iieueciaaoaeae.

Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeeaeueii ?aoaoue ia YAI ianeieueei caaea/.

YAI III iieieaiey eiaao aiaoithth iaiyoue ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao.

Oe?ieee e?oa i?eiaiaiey.

Oeie/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaoei III iieieaiey yaeyaony AN YAI,
IBM-360. Iie eiatho neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe: eniieueciaaiea
eioaa?aeueiuo noai, aa?aaaoiinoue, aaeoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee,
eniieueciaaiea aeaie/iie e aeanyoe/iie a?eoiaoeee, i?aaenoaaeaiea /enae
a oi?ia n ieaaathuae e oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie, i?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue,
iaae?aeiinoue, ioeueoenenoaiiinoue.

2.Iniaaiiinoe iaoei AN YAI.

AN YAI – yoi oeaeia naiaenoai iaoei, eioi?ua iino?iaiu ia aaeeiie
yeaiaioiie aaca, aaeeiie eiino?oeoeaiie iniiaa, n aaeeiie nenoaiie
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, iaeeiaeiaui iaai?ii ia?eoa?eeiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Eo ?ac?aaioea ia/aeanue a 1970 a., a i?iiuoeaiiue auione
oaeeo iaoei ia/aeny a 1972 a.

Ana iaoeiu AN YAI i?ia?aiiii-niaianoeiu iaaeaeo niaie e i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey ?aoaiey iaeaieaa neiaeiuo e iau?iiuo caaea/. Yoe iaoeiu iiaeii
ioianoe e oeio iaoei oieaa?naeueiuo, ioeueoei?ia?aiiiuo, n
aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aeeaeueii ia?aaaouaaoue ianeieueei caaea/.

Iiiaea iiaeaee eiatho aaeeioth eiae/aneoth no?oeoo?o e i?eioeei ?aaiou.
iaeiaei ?acee/iua iiaeaee ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa auno?iaeaenoaeai,
eiioeao?aoeeae, ?acia?ii iaiyoe e o.ae.

Oae eae nenoaia AN YAI iinoiyiii ?acaeaaaony, iinoiyiii oeo/oathony ana
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oi yoe iaoeiu iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia 2 naiaenoaa. E
ia?aiio naiaenoao iiaeaeae (?yae-1) iiaeii ioianoe oaeea iaoeiu, eae
AN-1010, AN-1020, AN-1021, AN-1030, AN-1040, AN-1050, AN-1060. E
yoiio naiaenoao ioiinyony oae aea iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ia?acoeu (?yae-1I):
AN-1012, AN-1022, AN-1033, AN-1052. Aieaa niaa?oaiiua iaoeiu: AN-1015,
AN-1025, AN-1035, AN-1045, AN-1055, iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a ?yae-2, a
iiaea?iece?iaaiiua (?yae-2I): AN-1036, AN-1066 e ae?.

Ono?ienoaa AN YAI oae aea ?acaeaeythony ia oeaio?aeueiua e ia?eoa?eeiua.
Oeaio?aeueiua – yoi ono?ienoaa, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho iniiaiua
oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeiu, yoi oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?,
iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue, ioeueoeieaeniue e naeaeoi?iue eaiaeu. E
ia?eoa?eeiui ioiinyony aiaoiea ono?ienoaa (AO), ono?ienoaa iiaeaioiaee
aeaiiuo (OIAe), na?aeniua ono?ienoaa.

Aeey o?aiaiey aieueoeo iau?iia eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony iaeiieoaee ia
iaaieoiuo eaioao e iaaieoiuo aeeneao. Ono?ienoaa aaiaea i?aaeiacia/aiu
aeey aini?eyoey aaiaeeiie ecaia eioi?iaoeee, a? i?aia?aciaaiey a
yeaeo?e/aneea eiaeiaua neaiaeu e ia?aaea/e e ioeueoeieaeniiio eaiaeo ii
n?aaenoaai eioa?oaena aaiaea-auaiaea. Ono?ienoaa auaiaea ia?aaiaeyo
auaiaeeiue ec iaoeiu neaiae ia?aoii e auaiaeyo aai ia ia?oiea?ou
(ia?oieaiou), eeai ia ae?oaea aiaoiea ono?ienoaa.

Aeenieae – yoi ono?ienoai aaiaea-auaiaea aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaie e
a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaoth o?oaeo. Ii i/aiue oaeiaai
aeey iia?aoeaiiai eciaiaiey aeaiiuo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ai a?aiy ?aoaiey
caaea/e.

Auiineiua ioeueou i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iauaiey iieueciaaoaey n YAI,
eiaaea eo ?acaeaeytho nioie iao?ia.

Nouanoaotho 3 a?oiiu ono?ienoa iiaeaioiaee aeaiiuo AN YAI:
ia?oiea?oi/iua, ia?oieaioi/iua e eniieuecothuea iaaieoiua eaiou. Ia
eiio?ieueieeao a YAI i?iecaiaeeony eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiinoueth caiene
eioi?iaoeee ia ia?oiea?ou. Nouanoaoao aeaa ?aaeeia ?aaiou OIAe ia
iaaieoiie eaioa: caienue aeaiiuo e ia/aoue n/eouaaaiuo aeaiiuo.

Na?aeniua ono?ienoaa ioaeiu aeey eiio?iey iaae oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie,
eo iaeaaeee, eniuoaiey e ?aiiioa.

Iieacaoaee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa AN YAI iinoiyiii oeo/oathony:
oaaee/eaaaony auno?iaeaenoaea, iau?iu iaiyoe e o.ae. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
/anoiinoe ca n/?o ia?aoiaea ia iee?inoaiu n aieaa aunieei o?iaiai
eioaa?aoeee (AEN). Ii yoi oaea ioiineony e iaoeiai IV iieieaiey.

3.Aa?aaaoiue i?eioeei iino?iaiey YAI.

Yoio i?eioeei caeeth/aaony a ecaioiaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ono?ienoa n aaeeiuie oieoeoee?iaaiiuie naycyie. Yoe ono?ienoaa eaaei
iiaoo auoue niaaeeiaiu a au/eneeoaeueioth nenoaio o?aaoaiie
eiioeao?aoeee.

Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou e a?aiy ia ?ac?aaioeo, nai?eo iaeaaeeo e
aiaae?aiea aa?aaaoiuo YAI iaiiiai iaiueoa ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie YAI.

Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aueaaiey no?oeoo?u YAI e oiaiueoaiey oycaeiinoe e
ioeacai iaania/aia eiino?oe?iaaieai YAI ec ioaeaeueiuo iiaeoeae. Yoi
?anoe?yao a?aieoeu i?eiaiaiey oaeeo YAI.

Iiaeoeue – yoi eiino?oeoeaiay aaeeieoea yeaeo?iiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
eiathuaa caeii/aiiia ioi?ieaiea e noaiaea?oiua n?aaenoaa nii?yaeaiey n
ae?oaeie iiaeiaiuie aaeeieoeaie. Yoi, iai?eia?, iia?aoeaiia
caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai, iaeiieoaee ia aeeneao, i?ioeanni?, eaiae e
o.ae.

Iia?aoeaiia caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai (ICO) – yoi aioo?aiiyy
(iia?aoeaiay) iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a.

Iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao (IAe), eaioa (IE) e aa?aaaiao (IA) – yoi
aiaoiyy iaiyoue.

I?ioeanni? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiao eaaeaeie iaoeiu. Ii auiieiyao
a?eoiaoe/aneea e eiae/aneea iia?aoeee, oi?aaeyao iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth
auiieiaiey eiiaiae. Oa aea o i?ioeanni?a anoue nianoaaiiia
naa?oiia?aoeaiia caiiieiathuaa ono?ienoai. iino?iaiiia ia ?aaeno?ao.

Eaiaeu aaiaea-auaiaea – yoi niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua n?aaenoaa nenoaiu
aaiaea-auaiaea. Iie i?aaieciauaatho i?ioeann iaiaia iaaeaeo
ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth.

Ana iaeiioeiiua iiaeoee acaeiicaiaiyaiu.

4.Eioa?oaen, naeaeoi?iue e ioeueoeieaeniue eaiaeu.

Eioa?oaen – yoi niaieoiiinoue yeaeo?e/aneeo, iaoaie/aneeo e i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa, iicaieythueo niaaeeieoue iaaeaeo niaie yeaiaiou nenoaiu
aaoiiaoe/aneie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo.

Ia i?aeoeea eioa?oaen – yoi iiiaieiioaeoiia ?acu?iiia eaaaeueiia
niaaeeiaiea n /?oeei ?aca?aie/aieai neaiaeia aeey eaaeaeiai i?iaiaea. Ii
iicaieyao i?eniaaeeiyoue e ?aaioaoue n ?acee/iuie ia?eoa?eeiuie
ono?ienoaaie, auno?iaeaenoaea eioi?uo ia i?aainoiaeeo i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe eaiaea.

Naeaeoi?iue e ioeueoeieaeniue eaiaeu neoaeao aeey iaania/aiey nayce
iaaeaeo YAI e ia?eoa?eeiuie (aiaoieie) ono?ienoaaie.

Ii n?aaenoaai naeaeoi?iiai eaiaea YAI niaaeeiyaony n
auno?iaeaenoaothueie aiaoieie ono?ienoaaie, oaeeie eae iaeiieoaee ia
IAe, IA e IE. ?aaioa eaeao oieueei n iaeiei aiaoiei ono?ienoaii. Oaeie
?aaeei ?aaiou iacuaaaony iiiiiieueiui.

Oae aea naeaeoi?iue eaiae iiaeao auoue iniau?i aaeaioa?ii “eaiae-eaiae”,
eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaao naycue iaaeaeo eaiaeaie YAI.

*a?ac ioeueoeieaeniue eaiae eae?o iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iia?aoeaiie
iaiyoueth e ia?eoa?eeiui iai?oaeiaaieai n iaeui auno?iaeaenoaeai,
iai?eia?, ono?ienoaa aaiaea-auaiaea ia ia?oieaiou e ia?oiea?ou,
aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaia ia/aoathuaa ono?ienoai. Oaeea ono?ienoaa iiaoo
?aaioaoue iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa.

5.No?oeoo?a iaoei AN YAI.

Iaiau?iiay no?oeoo?a iaoei AN YAI.

Ioieoe?ii iieacaiu iooe i?ioiaeaeaiey eiiaiae i?ioeanni?a. Nieioiuie
eeieyie – iooe iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo iniiaiuie iia?aoeaiuie
caiiieiathueie ono?ienoaaie (IICO) e aiaoieie ono?ienoaaie.

Oae aea i?ioeanni? iinoiyiii niaaeei?i n aeaoiy ono?ienoaaie iniiaiie
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe.

6.Iaoeiiua yeaiaiou eioi?iaoeee (aaeo, iieoneiai, neiai, aeaieiia neiai,
iiea ia?aiaiiie aeeeiu).

Ethaia neiai, eaaeaeue neiaie oaaee/eaaao eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee.

*oiau ecia?eoue eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee, ioaeii acyoue neiai a ea/anoaa
yoaeiia. A ea/anoaa aeoaaeoa a YAI eniieuecoaony aeaie/iue aeoaaeo,
ninoiyuee ec 0 e 1. Yoaeiiiui n/eoaaony neiai, ninoiyuaa ec iaeiiai
neiaiea oaeiai aeoaaeoa. Iii i?eieiaaony ca 1 e iacuaaaony “Aeo”. *oiau
ecia?eoue eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee a i?iecaieueiii neiaa, aai eiaee?otho a
yoii aeoaaeoa, a caoai iaoiaeyo aai aeeeio.

Ieieiaeueiue yeaiaio eioi?iaoeee – 8 aeo ?aaiue 1 aaeoo. 1 aaeo
i?aaenoaaeyao a YAI aoeao eee neiaie.

Aeey eiio?iey eioi?iaoeee eniieuecoaony 9-e aeo i?iaa?ee ia /?oiinoue.

Aieaa e?oiiuie aaeeieoeaie ecia?aiey yaeythony:

1 Eaaeo = 210 aaeo,

1 Iaaeo = 220 aaeo,

1 Aaaeo = 230 aaeo.

Aaeo ninoieo ec 8-e ?ac?yaeia (aeoia), eioi?ua ioie?othony neaaa iai?aai
io 0 aei 7. Eaaeaeue aaeo a iaiyoe YAI eiaao naie ii?yaeeiaue iiia?,
iacuaaaiue aaniethoiui aae?anii aaeoa. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ianeieueeeo
aaeo ia?acotho iiea aeaiiuo. Eiee/anoai aaeo iiey iacuaatho aeeeiie
iiey, a aae?an naiiai eaaiai aaeoa – aae?anii iiey. Aaeou ioie?othony
neaaa iai?aai.

?acee/atho iiey oeene?iaaiiie e ia?aiaiiie aeeeiu.

Ieieiaeueiui iieai oeene?iaaiiie aeeeiu yaeyaony iieoneiai – a?oiia ec
aeaoo aaeo , caieiathueo a iaiyoe YAI ninaaeiea o/anoee. Aae?an
iieoneiaa – yoi aae?an e?aeiaai eaaiai aaeoa, eioi?ue anaaaea e?aoai
aeaoi. Iai?eia?, aaeou 8, 9 ia?acotho iieoneiai n aae?anii 8.

Aeaa iieoneiaa ia?acotho neiai, ninoiyuaa ec 4-o iineaaeiaaoaeueii
?aniieiaeaiiuo aaeo. Aae?an noa?oaai (eaaiai) aaeoa e?aoai 4 e yaeyaony
aae?anii yoiai neiaa.

A?oiia ec aeaoo neia ninoaaeyao aeaieiia neiai.

Iiea ia?aiaiiie aeeeiu iiaeao auoue ethaiai ?acia?a a i?aaeaeao
io 0 aei 255 aaeo.

0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31 32 39 40 47 48 55 56 63

Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo Aaeo

Iieoneiai Iieoneiai Iieoneiai Iieoneiai

Neiai Neiai

Aeaieiia neiai

Oae iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue niioiioaiea ?ac?yaeiinoe yeaiaioia eioi?iaoeee.

7.Nenoaia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey AN YAI.

Nenoaio i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI (NII) oi?ie?otho i?ia?aiiiua
n?aaenoaa. Yoi eiiieaen i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoei, iaeaa/aiey a?
yenieoaoaoeee. Yoa nenoaia yaeyaony iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo YAI e
iieueciaaoaeai, iaania/eaaao oaeiaiue niinia iauaiey.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 4 iniiaiua /anoe NII:

Iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu (IN);

Iaai? iaeaoia i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii (III);

Eiiieaen i?ia?aii oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey (EIOI);

Nenoaiu Yenieoaoaoeeiiiie aeieoiaioaoeee (NYAe) ia NII.

Nae/an eniieuecothony 4 oeia IN:

IN-10 – aeey iiaeaeae AN-1010;

IIN (iaeay) – aeey iiaeaeae AN-1021;

AeIN AN (aeeneiaay) – aeey anao ae?oaeo iiaeaeae AN YAI a iaeie
eiioeao?aoeee;

IN AN – aeey oao aea iiaeaeae, /oi e aeey AeIN AN, ii a n?aaeiae e
?anoe?aiiie eiioeao?aoeee;

No?oeoo?o IN iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei a?oii:

I?ia?aiiu ia/aeueiiai caionea iaoeiu, ia?aiia/aeueiue aaiae eioi?iaoeee
a iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue, iano?ieea YAI.

I?ia?aiiu oi?aaeaiey aeaiiuie.

I?ia?aiiu oi?aaeaiey caaea/aie.

Ianeoaeeaathuea e ia?aaaouaathuea i?ia?aiiu.

Oae aea a ninoaa IN aoiaeyo n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua nieaeatho o?oaei?ieinoue
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna i?e ?aoaiee caaea/. Yoi nenoaia
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey (NAI). Iia aeeth/aao a naay oaeea
eiiiiiaiou, eae:

Aeai?eoie/aneea ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey (Annaiaea?, Oi?o?ai e ae?.);

o?aineyoi?u;

eioa?i?aoe?othuea e eiiieee?othuea nenoaiu;

iaeaou noaiaea?oiuo i?ia?aii;

i?ia?aiiu na?aena.

Cia/eoaeueiie /anoueth NII yaeyaony iaeao i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii (III).
III – yoi eiiieaen i?ia?aii, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aoaiey ii?aaeae?iiie
caaea/e. Iie iaycaiu oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaiey IN, iiae oi?aaeaieai
eioi?uo iie ?aaioatho.

Nae/an nia?aiaiiua III ?ac?aaaouaatho eae i?ia?aiiiua nenoaiu. Eaaeaeue
iaeao ninoieo ec:

iaai? ia?aaaouaathueo i?ia?aiiiuo iiaeoeae (oaei iaeaoa),
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e iieueciaaoaeai;

oi?aaeythuay i?ia?aiia iaeaoa (oi?aaeaiea ia?aaioeie aeaiiuo). I?e
cai?ina ia ?aoaiea caaea/e yoa i?ia?aiia oi?ie?oao ec ia?aaaouaathueo
iiaeoeae ?aai/oth ia?aaaouaathuoth i?ia?aiio;

eiiieaen ianeoaeeaathueo i?ia?aii (aniiiiaaoaeueiua ooieoeee);

n?aaenoaa aeey iaania/aiey nicaeaiey iaeaoa.

Au? iaeiie ooieoeeae III yaeyaony ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoae IN i?e
iiaeeeth/aiee iiauo ono?ienoa.

Eiiieaen i?ia?aii oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey (EIOI) neoaeeo aeey
i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai eiio?iey, eni?aaeaiey iaeni?aaiinoae, iia?aoeaiie
i?iaa?ee ?aaiou ia?eoa?eeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Eiiieaen ninoieo ec aeaoo
a?oii oanoiauo i?ia?aii. Ia?aua ?aaioatho iiae oi?aaeaieai IN, aoi?ua
?aaioatho iacaaeneii io IN.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee NII:

Aaoiiaoe/aneia oi?aaeaiea au/eneeoaeueiui i?ioeannii.

Iaania/aiea iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey YAI.

Iaania/aiea oaeiaiiai iauaiey iaaeaeo YAI e iieueciaaoaeai.

Nie?auaiea a?aiaie, o?aaoaiiai aeey iiaeaioiaee caaea/e e ?aoaieth ia
YAI.

Iaania/aiea eiio?iey ?aaiou YAI.

8.I?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue AN YAI.

Aeey aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ana
iiaeaee AN YAI i?ia?aiiii niaianoeiu. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?ia?aiia,
?aaioathuay ia iaeiie iaoeia AN, aoaeao ?aaioaoue e ia ae?oaie, anee
aoi?ay iaoeia iaeaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiie iaiyoueth. Iieueciaaoaee iiaoo
iaiaieaaoueny i?ia?aiiaie, iacaaeneii io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eo iaoei.

I?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue aa?aioe?oao, /oi ?acee/iua iio?aaiinoe
iieueciaaoaey oaeiaeaoai?ythony niioaaonoaothuae iiaeaeueth.

I?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue nieaeaao noieiinoue i?eiaiaiey YAI, iiauoay
i?e yoii eo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

9.Caueoa iaiyoe a AN YAI.

Aeey oia, /oiau i?ia?aiiu ia aeeyee ae?oa ia ae?oaa, i?aaeoniio?aia
caueoa eioi?iaoeee a II. Eniieuecoaony iino?aie/iue iaoiae caueou. II
oneiaii ?acaeaeyaony ia aeiee, iacuaaaiua no?aieoeaie, ?ieinoueth 2048
aaeo. O eaaeaeie no?aieoeu anoue naie eeth/ caueou. Ia?acoaony
naiinoiyoaeueiay caiiieiathuay n?aaea, ninoiyuay ec eeth/ae caueou –
iaiyoue eeth/ae caueou (IEC).

Aaeo eeth/a ninoieo ec: 0-3 aeou – eeth/, 4 – i?eciae caueou ii /oaieth,
5-7 – ia eniieuecothony, 8 – eiinieue ii /?oiinoe.

I?e eaaeaeii ia?auaiee e II ec IEC n/eouaaaony eeth/ caueou aeaiiie
oece/aneie no?aieoeu. Ioeaaie eeth/ neoaeeo aeey caueou ?acaeaea, aaea
?aniieaaaaony oi?aaeythuay i?ia?aiia. Iia eiaao i?eaeeaaeth ia?auaiey a
ethaoth iaeanoue II.

Eeth/e ?aaioathueo i?ia?aii aeieaeiu niaiaaeaoue n eeth/aie i?ia?aiiu
caueou iaeanoe iaiyoe, e eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony ia?auaiea, eia/a
auiieiaiea i?ia?aiiu i?ae?auaaony.

10.?aaeeiu ?aaiou AN YAI.

Ana i?aeaee AN YAI – yoi ioeueoei?ia?aiiiua iaoeiu. Yoi icia/aao, /oi a
ieo i?eiaiyaony niaiauaiea i?ia?aiiiuo e aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey.
I?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa ninoaaeytho IN, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaao ii?yaeie
?aaiou YAI i?e ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiao ?aaiou. Ana ?eaeeiu ?aaiou YAI
aeaeyony ia iaeiii?ia?aiiiua e ioeueoei?ia?aiiiua.

I?e ?aaioa a ieiii?ia?aiiiii ?aaeeia ana ?ano?nu YAI ioaeaiu iaeiie
i?ia?aiia. Auiieiaiea neaaeothuae i?ia?aiiu aiciiaeii oieueei iinea
iieiiai auiieiaiey i?aaeuaeouae i?ia?aiiu.

?aciiaeaeiinoe iaeiii?ia?aiiiiai ?aaeeia:

Iaeiii?ia?aiiiue ?aaeei n iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeinooiii iieueciaaoaey e
YAI. Iieueciaaoaue aaae?o aeeaeia n iaoeiie, ?aaioay ca ioeueoii. A yoii
?aaeeia iaoeiiia a?aiy en?ieuecoaony ia?aoeeiiaaeueii. Oaeie ?aaeei
eniieuecoaony oieueei i?e iaeaaeea YAI.

Iaeiii?ia?aiiiue ?aaeei n iineaaeiaaoaeueiui auiieiaieai i?ia?aii aac
o/anoey iieueciaaoaey. Ana i?ia?aiiu aaaaeaiu ca?aiaa e auiieiythony
iiae oi?aaeaieai IN. Yoio ?aaeei iayooaeoeaai, oae eae i?e oaeii ?aaeeia
ia iieiinoueth eniieuecothony aiciiaeiinoe ia?ieeaeueiie ?aaiou iniiaiuo
ono?ienoa iaoeiu.

?aciiaeaeiinoe ioeueoei?ia?aiiiiai ?aaeeia:

?aaeei iaeaoiie ia?aaioee. A oaeii ?aaeeia aiciiaeii ?aoaiey ianeieueeeo
caaea/ ia YAI iaeiia?aiaiii. Ana i?ia?aiiu, enoiaeiua aeaiiua aaiaeyony
ca?aiaa, ec ieo ia?acoaony iaeo caaea/. Ana caaea/e ?aaeecothony aac
aiaoaoaeuenoaa iieueciaaoaey. I?e oaeii ?aaeeia cia/eoaeueii yeiiiieony
a?aiy ia auiieiaiea iaai?a caaea/.

?aaeei ?acaeaeaiey a?aiaie. Yoio ?aaeei iioiae ia i?aaeuaeouee, ii ai
a?aiy auiieiaiey iaeaoa aiciiaeii aiaoaoaeuenoai iieueciaaoaeae. ?aaeei
?acaeaeaiey ?aaiaie ni/aoaao yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea aiciiaeiinoae
YAI n aea?o iieueciaaoaeth aiciiaeiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iieueciaaiey. I?eiaiaiea oaeiai ?aaeeia aiciiaeii oieueei, eiaaea ?aaioa
YAI i?ioaeaao a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie.

?aaeei cai?in-ioaao. Yoio ?aaeei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeae oaeaia?aaioee,
i?e eioi?ie a niioaaonoaee n cai?inaie io aaiiaioia, YAI iinueaao
aeaiiua, niaea?aeaueany a Oaeeao aeaiiuo. *enei ioaaoia ia?aie/aii
?ieinoueth iaiyoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii ia?aie/aii e /enei cai?inia.

Aeeaeiaiaue ?aaeei. yoi iaeaieaa eniieuecoaiue ?aaeei ?aaiou YAI. I?e
oaeii ?aaeeia i?ienoiaeeo aeaonoi?iiiaa acaeiiaeaenoaea (aeeaeia)
iieueciaaoaey e YAI. Aeey inouanoaeaiee yoiai ?aaeeia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau
oaoie/aneea e i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa iiaee ?aaioaoue a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa
a?aiaie; /oiau aaiiaiou eiaee aiciiaeiinoue oi?ioee?iaaoue naie
niiauaiey ia aunieii o?iaia.

A ioeueoei?ia?aiiiuo ?aaeeiao ?aaeeciaaiu aeaa aa?eaioa:
ioeueoei?ia?aiiiue ?aaeei n oeene?iaaiiui e i?iecaieueiui /eneii
niaianoii ?aoaaiuo caaea/.

Iee?ii?ioeanni?u e eo i?eiaiaiea.

1.Yooaeoeaiinoue iee?ii?ioeanni?ia.

A 1959 aiaeo oe?ia Intel (NOA) ii caeaco oe?iu Datapoint (NOA) ia/aea
nicaeaaaoue iee?ii?ioeanni?u (II). Ia?aui iee?ii?ioeanni?ii ia ie?iaii
?uiea noae II Intel 8008.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iiyaeeenue oaeea II, eioi?ua iiaoo iieiinoueth
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai e iiiaea noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey. Yoi iiaeao
i?eaanoe e ?inoo aac?aaioeoeu.

II – yoi yooaeoeaiue n oaoiieiae/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
eino?oiaio aeey ia?a?aaioee aic?anoathueo iioieia eioi?iaoeee.

Iiaia iieieaiea II eae?o ia niaio i?aaeuaeouaio eaaeaeua aeaa aiaei e
ii?aeueii onoa?aaaao ca 3-4 aiaea. II aianoa n ae?oaeie ono?ienoaaie
iee?iyeaeo?iieee iicaieytho nicaeaoue aeiaieueii yeiiiie/iua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu.

I?e/eia oaeie iiioey?iinoe II ninoieo a oii, /oi n eo iiyaeaieai ioiaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a niaoeeaeueiuo noaiao ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee,
aeinoaoi/ii cai?ia?aie?iaaoue a? ooieoeeth e aaanoe a ICO II.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee II.

Ia?ea

II Nii?i-oeanni?

Aae?anoa-iay iaiyoue Oaeoiaay /anoioa (IAoe) Ae?ooa-eueiay iaiyoue
Auno?i-aeaenoaea

8086/88

(1979 a.) 8087 16 20 2020 = 1 Ia 4,77

(8; 10) – 0,33

80286

(1982 a.) 80287 16 24 16 Ia 8

(12; 16) 1 Aa 1,2

80386 DX

80386 SX

(1985 a.) 80387 32

16 32

32 4 Aa

4 Aa 16 (20-40)

16 (20-25) 64 Aa

64 Aa 6

2,5

80486 DX

80486 SX

80486 DX2

(1989 a.)

80486 DX4

(1992 a.)

Ano?iai-iue 32

32

32

32 32

32

32

32 4 Aa

4 Aa

4 Aa

4 Aa 25 (33; 50)

20 (25)

50 (66)

100 64 Aa

64 Aa

64 Aa

64 Aa 20

16,5

40

80

Pentium 60

(1994 a.) Ano?iai-iue 32 32 4 Aa 100 64 Aa 90/100

Noia?i?ioeanni? P6:

Ecaioiaeyaony ia 0,6 iei.-oaoiieiaee.

Aeinoieinoaa:

*anoiou 133-150 Iaoe

Aaeaia i?aacieae?o ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe nouanoaothuea iiaeaee,
iineieueeo:

Eiaao 4 eiiaaea?a aeey ia?aeeaeueiie ia?aaioee eiiaiae.

Eioaa?e?iaaiiua a iaeiii ei?iona 2 iiaeoey EYO-iaiyoe ia?aiai o?iaiy –
32 Ea, aoi?iai – 256 eee 512 Ea.

Aaaaeaia iiaay oeia, eioi?ie aei yoiai iniiuaeenue aieueoea YAI.

A iaeiii eiiiuethoa?a iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue aei 4-o i?ioeanni?ia ?6.

A ?6 onoaiiaeaiu eioaa?e?iaaiiue e iaoaiaoe/aneee nii?ioeanni?u.

A?oeoaeoo?a ?6 iniiauaaaony ia 4-o i?eioeeiao:

I?iaiice?iaaiea ianeieueeeo aaoaeaiee.

Aiaeec iioieia aeaiiuo n oeaeueth ieieiecaoeee caaeneiinoe io aeaiiuo.

Oai?aoe/aneia eniieiaiea eiiaiae (iia?aaeaiea): i?ioeanni? i?aaenoaaeyao
?acoeueoaou, a caoai ia/eiaao auiieiaiea ae?oaeo eiiaiae.

Oaaee/aiea iaai?a eiiaiae.

OA – 32?.

OAe – 64?.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue: 250-300 MFlops, 1000 Mflops – aeey eiiiuethoa?ia
n 4-iy i?ioeanni?aie.

Cae?iua eiiiuethoa?u:

Y?a yeieiae/anee a?aaeiuo ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia caeai/eaaaony! Eaoii
1994 aiaea aaeieieno?aoeey NOA cai?aoeea i?aaei?eyoeyi iieoiaoue ia
cae?iua eiiiuethoa?u.

Cae?iua eiiiuethoa?u oa?aeoa?ecothony:

Io?aiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e caei?iauey iieueciaaoaey.

Iiieaeaiiui o?iaiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo e ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo eceo/aiee.

Iieiie ooeeecaoeeae ninoaaiuo yeaiaioia eiiiuethoa?a.

Iiieaeaiiui iio?aaeaieai yeaeo?iyia?aee, iiieaeaiiui oaieiauaeaeaieai.
Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao eniieueciaaiea i?ioeanni?ia n ?acee/iuie
?aaeeiaie ?aaiou: ii?iaeueiue, ae?aiethuee e niyuee.

2.No?oeoo?a 3-iaaeno?aeueiiai II.

IICO IICO

I?ioeanni?

Ioeeoeieaeniue eaiae

I naeeoi?iue eaiae

Ioeueo iia?aoi?a

II naeaeoi?iue eaiae

Ono?ienoai aaiaea ia IE

Ono?ienoai aaiaea ia IE

Aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaia ia/aoath- uaa ono?ienoai

Aaeaioa? “eaiae-eaiae”

Ieoouay iaoeiea n aeieii oi?aaea-iey

Ono?ienoai aaiaea ia IE

Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ACO ia IAe e IA

Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey ACO ia IE

Ono?ienoai auaiaea ia IE

Ieoouay iaoeiea n aeieii oi?aaea-iey

ACO ia IE

ACO ia IAe

Ono?ienoai aaiaea ia IE

Ono?ienoai auaiaea ia IE

ACO ia IE

ACO ia IAe

Ono?ienoai auaiaea ia IE

ACO ia IE

ACO ia IAe

ACO ia IE

ACO ia IA

Ono?ienoai auaiaea ia IE

ACO ia IA

ACO ia IE

Aeoaaeoii-oeeo?iaia ia/aoath- uaa ono?ienoai

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