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Интернет

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Iniiau ?aaiou a Internet

Ae. Aooyiia.

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3″ E?aoeia enoi?e/aneia aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON
_Toc379472571 PAGEREF _Toc379472571 4

*oi ninoaaeyao Internet ? GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472572 PAGEREF
_Toc379472572 6

Aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai Internet GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472573
PAGEREF _Toc379472573 6

Oeiainu GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472574 PAGEREF _Toc379472574 7

Eae no?oeoo?a Internet neacuaaaony ia Iieueciaaoaea ? GOTOBUTTON
_Toc379472575 PAGEREF _Toc379472575 7

Iioaioeeaeueiua iieueciaaoaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472576 PAGEREF
_Toc379472576 8

Aeinooi a Internet GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472577 PAGEREF _Toc379472577
9

?aaioa Internet: i?aaiecaoeey, no?oeoo?a, iaoiaeu GOTOBUTTON
_Toc379472578 PAGEREF _Toc379472578 10

Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472579 PAGEREF _Toc379472579 10

No?oeoo?a ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472580 PAGEREF
_Toc379472580 10

O?iaie ?aaiou naoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472581 PAGEREF _Toc379472581
15

Ia?anueea aeoia GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472582 PAGEREF _Toc379472582 15

Ia?anueea aeaiiuo GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472583 PAGEREF _Toc379472583
15

Naoe eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472584 PAGEREF
_Toc379472584 15

I?ioieie Internet (IP) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472585 PAGEREF
_Toc379472585 16

I?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae (TCP) e i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaeoaa?aii (UDP) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472586 PAGEREF _Toc379472586
18

Nicaeaiea naoe n /aeiaa/aneei eeoeii. I?eeeaaeiia iaania/aiea
GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472587 PAGEREF _Toc379472587 21

Nenoaiu naoaauo aae?ania GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472588 PAGEREF
_Toc379472588 22

?aaeiiaeueiay Nenoaia Eiai GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472589 PAGEREF
_Toc379472589 22

No?oeoo?a ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaiu eiai GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472590
PAGEREF _Toc379472590 22

Iiene aae?ana ii aeiiaiiiio eiaie GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472591 PAGEREF
_Toc379472591 23

Nenoaia aae?ania X.400 GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472592 PAGEREF
_Toc379472592 24

Caia/aiey ii ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaia eiai GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472593
PAGEREF _Toc379472593 25

Aeicaieaiiia a Internet GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472594 PAGEREF
_Toc379472594 26

Eaaaeueiia eniieueciaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472595 PAGEREF
_Toc379472595 26

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472596 PAGEREF
_Toc379472596 27

Eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472597 PAGEREF
_Toc379472597 27

Yenii?oiua caeiiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472598 PAGEREF _Toc379472598
28

I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472599 PAGEREF _Toc379472599
29

Internet e iieeoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472600 PAGEREF _Toc379472600
29

Naoaaay yoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472601 PAGEREF _Toc379472601 30

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua aiciiaeiinoe Internet GOTOBUTTON
_Toc379472602 PAGEREF _Toc379472602 30

Oaeaeaiiue aeinooi (telnet) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472603 PAGEREF
_Toc379472603 30

Ia?aaea/a oaeeia (ftp) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472604 PAGEREF
_Toc379472604 31

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa (e-mail) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472605 PAGEREF
_Toc379472605 31

Eniieueciaaiea aiiieiiiai ftp ii e-mail GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472606
PAGEREF _Toc379472606 32

Aeinee iauyaeaiee (USENET news) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472607 PAGEREF
_Toc379472607 33

Iiene aeaiiuo e i?ia?aii (Archie) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472608 PAGEREF
_Toc379472608 34

Iiene ethaeae (Eoi anoue Who) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472609 PAGEREF
_Toc379472609 34

Oaiei/ea Gopher GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472610 PAGEREF _Toc379472610 35

Iiene aeaiiuo ii eeth/aaui neiaai (WAIS) GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472611
PAGEREF _Toc379472611 35

Aeiaaeueiua aeia?oaenoiaua no?oeoo?u: WWW GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472612
PAGEREF _Toc379472612 36

Ianeieueei neia ia eiuo aiciiaeiinoyo GOTOBUTTON _Toc379472613
PAGEREF _Toc379472613 37

E?aoeia enoi?e/aneia aaaaeaiea

Ieiei 20 eao iacaae Ieienoa?noai Iai?iiu NOA nicaeaei naoue, eioi?ay
yaeeanue i?aaeoa/ae Internet, – iia iacuaaeanue ARPAnet. ARPAnet auea
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoueth, – iia nicaeaaaeanue aeey iiaeaea?aeee
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a, – a /anoiinoe, aeey
enneaaeiaaiey iaoiaeia iino?iaiey naoae, onoie/eauo e /anoe/iui
iia?aaeaeaieyi, iieo/aaiui, iai?eia?, i?e aiiaa?aee?iaea aaeaoeeae e
niiniaiuo a oaeeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaoue ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea.
Yoi o?aaiaaiea aeaao eeth/ e iiieiaieth i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey e
no?oeoo?u Internet. A iiaeaee ARPAnet anaaaea auea naycue iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?ii-enoi/ieeii e eiiiuethoa?ii-i?eaiieeii (noaioeeae
iacia/aiey). Naoue a priori i?aaeiieaaaeanue iaiaaeaaeiie: ethaay /anoue
naoe iiaeao en/aciooue a ethaie iiiaio.

Ia naycuaathueany eiiiuethoa?u – ia oieueei ia naio naoue – oaeaea
aiceiaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaania/eaaoue iaeaaeeaaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea
nayce. Iniiaiie i?eioeei ninoiye a oii, /oi ethaie eiiiuethoa? iia
naycaoueny eae ?aaiue n ?aaiui n ethaui ae?oaei eiiiuethoa?ii.

Ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo a naoe auea i?aaieciaaia ia iniiaa i?ioieiea Internet
– IP. I?ioieie IP – yoi i?aaeea e iienaiea ?aaiou naoe. Yoio naiae
aeeth/aao i?aaeea iaeaaeeaaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey nayce a naoe, i?aaeea
ia?auaiey n IP-iaeaoaie e eo ia?aaioee, iienaiey naoaauo iaeaoia
naiaenoaa IP (eo no?oeoo?a e o.i.). Naoue caaeoiuaaeanue e
i?iaeoe?iaaeanue oae, /oiau io iieueciaaoaeae ia o?aaiaaeinue ieeaeie
eioi?iaoeee i eiie?aoiie no?oeoo?a naoe. Aeey oiai, /oiau iineaoue
niiauaiea ii naoe, eiiiuethoa? aeieaeai iiianoeoue aeaiiua a iaeee
“eiiaa?o”, iacuaaaiue, iai?eia?, IP, oeacaoue ia yoii “eiiaa?oa”
eiie?aoiue aae?an a naoe e ia?aaeaoue iieo/eaoeany a ?acoeueoaoa yoeo
i?ioeaaeo? iaeaou a naoue.

Yoe ?aoaiey iiaoo iieacaoueny no?aiiuie, eae e i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
“iaiaaeaaeiie” naoe, ii oaea eiathueeny iiuo iieacae, /oi aieueoeinoai
yoeo ?aoaiee aiieia ?acoiii e aa?ii. Iiea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay I?aaiecaoeey
ii Noaiaea?oecaoeee (Organization for International Standartization –
ISO) o?aoeea aiaeu, nicaeaaay ieii/aoaeueiue noaiaea?o aeey
eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, iieueciaaoaee aeaeaoue ia aeaeaee. Aeoeaenou
Internet ia/aee onoaiaaeeaaoue IP-i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia ana
aiciiaeiua oeiu eiiiuethoa?ia. Anei?a yoi noaei aaeeinoaaiiui i?eaieaiui
niiniaii aeey nayce ?acii?iaeiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Oaeay noaia iii?aaeeanue
i?aaeoaeuenoao e oieaa?neoaoai, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyo iieeoeeo iieoiee
eiiiuethoa?ia o ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Eaaeaeue iieoiae oio
eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue aio i?aaeeny e ai?aaa aue iaeeaeaoue, /oi niiaeao
?aaioaoue ii naoe niaianoii n ae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?aie.

I?eia?ii 10 eao nionoy iinea iiyaeaiey ARPAnet iiyaeeenue Eieaeueiua
Au/eneeoaeueiua Naoe (LAN), iai?eia?, oaeea eae Ethernet e ae?.
Iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeeenue eiiiuethoa?u, eioi?ua noaee iacuaaoue ?aai/eie
noaioeeyie. Ia aieueoeinoaa ?aai/eo noaioeee auea onoaiiaeaia
Iia?aoeeiiiay Nenoaia UNIX. Yoa IN eiaea aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a naoe n
i?ioieieii Internet (IP). A nayce n aicieeiiaaieai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
caaea/ e iaoiaeia eo ?aoaiey iiyaeeanue iiaay iio?aaiinoue: i?aaiecaoeee
aeaeaee iiaeeeth/eoueny e ARPAnet naiae eieaeueiie naoueth. I?eia?ii a
oi aea a?aiy iiyaeeenue ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua ia/aee nicaeaaaoue
naie nianoaaiiua naoe, eniieuecothuea aeeceea e IP eiiioieeaoeeiiiua
i?ioieieu. Noaei ynii, /oi ana oieueei auea?aee au, anee au yoe naoe
iiaee iauaoueny ana aianoa, aaaeue oiaaea iieueciaaoaee ec iaeiie naoe
niiaee au naycuaaoueny n iieueciaaoaeyie ae?oaie naoe.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo n?aaee yoeo iiauo naoae auea NSFNET, ?ac?aaioaiiay
ii eieoeeaoeaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiai Iao/iiai Oiiaea (National Science
Foundation – NSF), aiaeiaa iaoaai Ieienoa?noaa Iaoee. A eiioea 80-o NSF
nicaeae iyoue noia?eiiiuethoa?iuo oeaio?ia, naeaeaa eo aeinooiiuie aeey
eniieueciaaiey a ethauo iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Auei nicaeaii anaai eeoue
iyoue oeaio?ia iioiio, /oi iie i/aiue aei?iae aeaaea aeey aiaaoie
Aia?eee. Eiaiii iiyoiio eo e neaaeiaaei eniieueciaaoue eiiia?aoeaii.
Aicieeea i?iaeaia nayce: o?aaiaaeny niinia niaaeeieoue yoe oeaio?u e
i?aaeinoaaeoue aeinooi e iei ?acee/iui iieueciaaoaeyi. Nia/aea auea
naeaeaia iiiuoea eniieueciaaoue eiiioieeaoeee ARPAnet, ii yoi ?aoaiea
iioa?iaei e?ao, noieeioaoenue n ath?ie?aoeae iai?iiiie io?anee e
i?iaeaiie iaania/aiey ia?niiaeii.

Oiaaea NSF ?aoee iino?ieoue naith nianoaaiioth naoue, iniiaaiioth ia IP
oaoiieiaee ARPAnet. Oeaio?u auee niaaeeiaiu niaoeeaeueiuie oaeaoiiiuie
eeieyie n i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth 56 Kbps . Iaeiaei, auei i/aaeaeii,
/oi ia noieo aeaaea e iuoaoueny niaaeeieoue ana oieaa?neoaou e
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii n oeaio?aie, o.e.
i?ieiaeeoue oaeia eiee/anoai eaaaey – ia oieueei i/aiue aei?iai, ii
i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio ?aoaii auei nicaeaaaoue naoe ii
?aaeiiaeueiiio i?eioeeio. A eaaeaeie /anoe no?aiu caeioa?aniaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey aeieaeiu auee niaaeeieoueny ni naieie aeeaeaeoeie
ninaaeyie. Iieo/eaoeany oeaii/ee iiaeniaaeeiyeenue e noia?eiiiuethoa?o a
iaeiie ec naieo oi/ae, oaeei ia?acii noia?eiiiuethoa?iua oeaio?u auee
niaaeeiaiu aianoa. A oaeie oiiieiaee ethaie eiiiuethoa? iia naycaoueny n
ethaui ae?oaei, ia?aaeaaay niiauaiey /a?ac ninaaeae.

Yoi ?aoaiea auei oniaoiui, ii ianoaea ii?a, eiaaea naoue oaea aieaa ia
ni?aaeyeanue n aic?inoeie iio?aaiinoyie. Niaianoiia eniieueciaaiea
noia?eiiiuethoa?ia iicaieyei iiaeeeth/aiiui iaueiai eniieueciaaoue e
iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo aauae, ia ioiinyueony e noia?eiiiuethoa?ai.
Iaiaeeaeaiii oieaa?neoaou, oeieu e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee iniciaee, /oi
caeiaee iiae ?oeie ii?a aeaiiuo e ie? iieueciaaoaeae. Iioie niiauaiee a
naoe (o?aoee) ia?anoae ana auno?aa e auno?aa iiea, a eiioea eiioeia, ia
ia?aa?ocee oi?aaeythuea naoueth eiiiuethoa?u e naycuaathuea eo
oaeaoiiiua eeiee. A 1987 a. eiio?aeo ia oi?aaeaiea e ?acaeoea naoe aue
ia?aaeai eiiiaiee Merit Network Inc., eioi?ay caieiaeanue
ia?aciaaoaeueiie naoueth Ie/eaaia niaianoii n IBM e MCI. Noa?ay
oece/anee naoue auea caiaiaia aieaa auno?uie (i?eia?ii a 20 ?ac)
oaeaoiiiuie eeieyie. Auee caiaiaiu ia aieaa auno?ua e naoaaua
oi?aaeythuea iaoeiu.

I?ioeann niaa?oainoaiaaiey naoe eaeao iai?a?uaii. Iaeiaei, aieueoeinoai
yoeo ia?ano?iae i?ienoiaeeo iacaiaoii aeey iieueciaaoaeae. Aeeth/ea
eiiiuethoa?, au ia oaeaeeoa iauyaeaiey i oii, /oi aeeaeaeoea iieaiaea
Internet ia aoaeao aeinooiia ec-ca iiaea?iecaoeee. Aiciiaeii aeaaea
aieaa aaaeii oi, /oi ia?aa?ocea naoe e aa oniaa?oainoaiaaiea nicaeaee
c?aeoth e i?aeoe/ioth oaoiieiaeth. I?iaeaiu auee ?aoaiu, a eaeae
?acaeoey i?iaa?aiu a aeaea.

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue oi, /oi oneeey NSF ii ?acaeoeth naoe i?eaaee e oiio,
/oi ethaie aeaeathuee iiaeao iieo/eoue aeinooi e naoe. I?aaeaea Internet
auea aeinooiia oieueei aeey enneaaeiaaoaeae a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee,
ainoaea?noaaiiui neoaeauei e iiae?yae/eeai. NSF niinianoaiaae anaiauae
aeinooiiinoe Internet ii eeiee ia?aciaaiey, aeeaaeuaay aeaiueae a
iiaeniaaeeiaiea o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey e naoe, oieueei anee oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, eiaei ieaiu ?ani?ino?aiyoue aeinooi aeaeaa ii ie?oaa. Oaeei
ia?acii, eaaeaeue nooaeaio /aou?aoeaoiaai eieeaaeaea iia noaoue
iieueciaaoaeai Internet.

E iio?aaiinoe i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe. Aieueoeinoai oaeeo eieeaaeaeae ia
Caiaaea oaea iiaeniaaeeiaii e Internet, i?aaei?eieiathony iiiuoee
iiaeeeth/eoue e yoiio i?ioeanno n?aaeiea e ia/aeueiua oeieu. Auioneieee
eieeaaeaeae i?ae?anii inaaaeiieaiu i i?aeiouanoaao Internet e
?anneacuaatho i ieo naiei ?aaioiaeaoaeyi. Any yoa aeayoaeueiinoue
i?eaiaeeo e iai?a?uaiiio ?inoo naoe, e aicieeiiaaieth e ?aoaieth i?iaeai
yoiai ?inoa, ?acaeoeth oaoiieiaee e nenoaiu aaciianiinoe naoe.

*oi ninoaaeyao Internet ?

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Internet ia i?inoi naoue, – iia anoue no?oeoo?a,
iauaaeeiythuay iau/iua naoe. Internet – yoi “Naoue naoae”. *oi
aeeth/aao Internet? Aii?in iai?inoie. Ioaao ia iaai iaiyaony ni
a?aiaiai. Aia/aea ioaao aue au aeinoaoi/ii i?ino: “ana naoe,
eniieuecothuea i?ioieie IP, eioi?ua eiiia?e?othony aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
aaeeiie naoe naieo iieueciaaoaeae”. Yoi aeeth/aei au ?acee/iua
aaaeiinoaaiiua naoe, iiiaeanoai ?aaeiiaeueiuo naoae, naoe o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee e iaeioi?ua ca?oaaaeiua naoe (ca i?aaeaeaie NOA).

*ooue iicaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue Internet iniciaee e iaeioi?ua
ia-IP-naoe. Iie caoioaee i?aaeinoaaeoue aa oneoae naiei eeeaioai e
?ac?aaioaee iaoiaeu iiaeeeth/aiey yoeo “no?aiiuo” naoae (iai?eia?,
Bitnet, DECnet e o.ae.) e Internet. Nia/aea yoe iiaeeeth/aiey, iacaaiiua
oethcaie, neoaeeee oieueei aeey ia?aaea/e yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou. Iaeiaei,
iaeioi?ua ec ieo ?ac?aaioaee niiniau ia?aaea/e e ae?oaeo oneoa.
ssaeythony ee yoe naoe /anoueth Internet? E aea, e iao. Ana caaeneo io
oiai, oioyo ee iie oiai naie.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai Internet

Internet ii i?aaiecaoeee ai iiiaii iaiiieiaao oea?eiaue. Yoi
i?aaiecaoeey n iieiinoueth aeia?iaieueiui o/anoeai. Oi?aaeyaony iia
/ai-oi iaiiaeiaea niaaoa noa?aeoei, iaeiaei, o Internet iao iao?ea?oa,
i?aceaeaioa eee Iaiu. Ninoaaeythuea naoe iiaoo eiaoue naieo i?aceaeaioia
eee aiaeiae/iuo aiaeaeae, ii yoi nianai ae?oaia aeaei; a Internet iao
aaeeinoaaiiie aaoi?eoa?iie oeao?u. Aunoay aeanoue, aaea au Internet ie
auea, inoaaony ca ISOC (Internet Society). ISOC – iauanoai n
aeia?iaieueiui /eainoaii. Aai oeaeue – niinianoaiaaoue aeiaaeueiiio
iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae /a?ac Internet. Iii iacia/aao niaao noa?aeoei,
eioi?ue ioaa/aao ca oaoie/aneoth iieeoeeo, iiaeaea?aeeo e oi?aaeaiea
Internet.

Niaao noa?aeoei i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio i?eaeaoaiiuo aeia?iaieueoeaa,
iacuaaaioth IAB (Niaao ii a?oeoaeoo?a Internet.). IAB ?aaoey?ii
niae?aaony, /oiau “aeaaineiaeoue” noaiaea?ou e ?ani?aaeaeeoue ?ano?nu,
oaeea, iai?eia?, eae aae?ana. Internet ?aaioaao, iineieueeo eiathony
noaiaea?oiua niiniau iauaiey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie e i?eeeaaeiuie
i?ia?aiiaie. Yoi iicaieyao eiiiuethoa?ai ?aciiai oeia naycuaaoueny aac
iniauo i?iaeai. IAB ioaaonoaaiai ca noai aea?ou; ii ?aoaao, eiaaea
noaiaea?o iaiaoiaeei e eaeei aio neaaeoao auoue. Eiaaea o?aaoaony
noaiaea?o, niaao ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaio, i?eieiaao noaiaea?o e ii naoe
iiiaauaao i iai ie?. IAB oaeaea neaaeeo ca ?acee/iuie iiia?aie (e
ae?oaeie aauaie), eioi?ua aeieaeiu inoaaaoueny oieeaeueiuie. Iai?eia?,
eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? a Internet eiaao naie oieeaeueiue 32-?ac?yaeiue
aeaie/iue aae?an; ieeaeie ae?oaie eiiiuethoa? ia eiaao oaeiai aea. Eae
i?enaaeaaaony yoio aae?an? IAB caaioeony i oaeiai ?iaea i?iaeaiao. Ii ia
i?enaaeaaao aae?ania naiiee/ii, ii ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeea, eae yoe
aae?ana i?enaaeaaoue.

Iieueciaaoaee Internet auneacuaatho naie aeaeiau e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
ano?a/ao IETF (Iia?aoeaiiai eiaeaia?iiai io?yaea Internet). IETF – yoi
ae?oaay aeia?iaieueiay i?aaiecaoeey; oaeaea niae?aaony ?aaoey?ii, /oiau
ianoaeeoue oaeouea yenieoaoaoeeiiiua e iac?aaathuea oaoie/aneea
i?iaeaiu. I?e ianoaeaeaiee aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie i?iaeaiu IETF nicaeaao
?aai/oth a?oiio aeey aa aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey. (Ia i?aeoeea
“aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiay” iau/ii icia/aao, /oi aeey ?aai/ae a?oiiu
iaoiaeeony aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aeia?iaieueoeaa). Iinauaoue ano?a/e
IETF e ninoiyoue a ?aai/eo a?oiiao iiaoo ana; aeaaiia, /oiau ethaee
?aaioaee, aeaei-oi aeia?iaieueiia. ?aai/ea a?oiiu eiatho ?acee/iua
ooieoeee: yoi iiaeao auoue auione aeieoiaioaoeee, au?aaioea no?aoaaee
aeaenoaee i?e aicieeiiaaiee i?iaeai, no?aoaae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey,
?ac?aaioea iiauo noaiaea?oia e i?ioieieia, aei?aaioea oaea nouanoaothueo
(iai?eia?, eciaiaiea cia/aiee ioaeaeueiuo iieae). ?aai/ay a?oiia iau/ii
auioneaao aeieeaae. A caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, yoi iiaeao
auoue i?inoi aeieoiaioaoeeae e auoue aeinooiiie aeey ethaiai
aeaeathuaai, /oi iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi aeia?iaieueii eae cae?aaay eaeay,
eee aea yoi iiaeao auoue iineaii a IAB e auoue iauyaeaiiie noaiaea?oii.

Anee iaeay naoue i?eieiaao o/aiea Internet, i?eniaaeeiyaony e iae e
n/eoaao naay aa /anoueth, oiaaea iia e yaeyaony /anoueth Internet.
Aiciiaeii ae iiiaia iieaaeaony ia?acoiiui, no?aiiui, niiieoaeueiui – iia
iiaeao iiaeaeeoueny naieie niiiaieyie n IETF. Iaeioi?ua
aeaeiau-i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo ieacaoueny aiieia ?acoiiuie e, aiciiaeii,
Internet niioaaonoaaiii eciaieony. *oi-oi iiaeao iieacaoueny i?inoi
aeaeii aeona eee o?aaeeoeee, oiaaea yoe aic?aaeaiey aoaeoo ioeeiiaiu.
Anee naoue aeaeaao /oi-eeai, /oi iiaeao iaa?aaeeoue Internet, iia iiaeao
auoue eneeth/aia ec niiauanoaa aei oao ii?, iiea iia ia eni?aaeony.

Nae/an Internet ninoieo ec aieaa /ai 12 ouny/ iauaaeeiaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie naoae.

Oeiainu

Ca Internet ieeoi oeaio?aeeciaaii ia ieaoeo; iao oaeie i?aaiecaoeee eae
Internet Inc., eioi?ay niae?aao ieaoo ni anao naoae Internet eee
iieueciaaoaeae. Aianoi yoiai eaaeaeue ieaoeo ca naith /anoue. NSF ieaoeo
ca niaea?aeaiea NSFNET. NASA ieaoeo ca Iao/ioth Naoue NASA (NASA Science
Internet). I?aaenoaaeoaee naoae niae?athony aianoa e ?aoatho, eae ei
niaaeeiyoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii e niaea?aeaoue yoe acaeiinayce. Eieeaaeae
eee ei?ii?aoeey ieaoeo ca aa iiaeeeth/aiea e iaeioi?ie ?aaeiiaeueiie
naoe, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue ieaoeo ca naie aeinooi naoaaiio
aeaaeaeueoeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai ianooaaa.

Eae no?oeoo?a Internet neacuaaaony ia Iieueciaaoaea ?

Oi, /oi Internet ia naoue, a nia?aiea naoae, iaei eae neacuaaaony ia
eiie?aoiii iieueciaaoaea. Aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue /oi-ieaoaeue
iieaciia (caionoeoue i?ia?aiio eee aeia?aoueny aei eaeeo-eeai
aaeeinoaaiiuo a naiai ?iaea aeaiiuo), iieueciaaoaeth ia iaaei
caaioeoueny i oii, eae yoe ninoaaeythuea naoe niaea?aeaony, eae iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho e iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaaenaoaaua nayce.

?anniio?ei aeey iaaeyaeiinoe oaeaoiiioth naoue – oiaea a iaeioi?ii ?iaea
Internet. Ieienoa?noai Nayce ?innee, Pacific Bell, AT&, MCI, British
Telecom, Telefon’s de Mexico e o.ae., – ana yoi ioaeaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee,
eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho ?aciua oaeaoiiiua nenoaiu. Iie aea caaioyony i
niaianoiie ?aaioa, i nicaeaiee iauaaeeiaiiie naoe; ana, /oi aai ioaeii
naeaeaoue, aaea au ia ieaiaoa au ie iaoiaeeeenue e eoaea au au ie
caiieee, – yoi iaa?aoue iiia?. Anee caauoue i oeaia e ?aeeaia, aai
aeieaeii auoue niaa?oaiii ana ?aaii, n eai au eiaaoa aeaei: n INI, AT&
eee Ieienoa?noaii Nayce. Nieiaaoa o?oai/eo, iaaeeiaaoa eiiii/ee (e?ooeoa
aeene) e aiai?eoa.

Aan, eae iieueciaaoaey, caaioeo oieueei, eoi caieiaaony aaoeie cayaeaie,
eiaaea iiyaeythony i?iaeaiu. Anee /oi-eeai ia?anoaao ?aaioaoue, oieueei
iaeia ec niioaaonoaothueo eiiiaiee iiaeao eni?aaeoue yoi. Iie iauathony
ae?oa n ae?oaii ii i?iaeaiiui aii?inai, ii eaaeaeue ec aeaaeaeueoeaa
naoae ioaaonoaaiai ca i?iaeaiu, aicieeathuea ia aai nianoaaiiii o/anoea
nenoaiu, ca na?aen, eioi?ue yoa naoue i?aaeinoaaeyao naiei eeeaioai.

Yoi aea aa?ii e aeey Internet. Eaaeaeay naoue eiaao naie nianoaaiiue
naoaaie yenieoaoaoeeiiiue oeaio? (NOC). Eaaeaeue oaeie ?aai/ee oeaio?
naycai n ae?oaeie e ciaao, eae ?ac?aoeoue ?acee/iua aiciiaeiua i?iaeaiu.
Aao ?aaeii eiaao niaeaoaiea n iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo naoae Internet e
aa caaioa ninoieo a oii, /oiau ethaee aaoaai ?aaeiia auee aeiaieueiu
?aaioie naoe. Oae /oi, anee /oi-oi enii?oeony, NOC e anoue oa naiay
i?aaiecaoeey, n eiai ca yoi ni?inyo, eiai ca yoi aoaeoo aeoue.

A?oeoaeoo?a naoaauo i?ioieieia TCP/IP, ia aaca eioi?uo iino?iaia
Internet, i?aaeiacia/aia niaoeeaeueii aeey iauaaeeiaiiie naoe. Naoue
iiaeao ninoiyoue ec niaa?oaiii ?acii?iaeiuo iiaenaoae, niaaeeiaiiuo
ae?oa n ae?oaii oethcaie. A ea/anoaa iiaenaoae iiaoo aunooiaoue naiua
?aciua eieaeueiua naoe (Token Ring, Ethernet, iaeaoiua ?aaeeinaoe e
o.i.), ?acee/iua iaoeeiiaeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
naoe (iai?eia?, HEPnet), a oaeaea ae?oaea aeiaaeueiua naoe, oaeea,
iai?eia?, eae Bitnet eee Sprint. E yoei naoyi iiaoo iiaeeeth/aoueny
iaoeiu niaa?oaiii ?aciuo oeiia. Eaaeaeay ec iiaenaoae ?aaioaao a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie e eiaao naith
i?e?iaeo nayce, naia ?ac?aoaao naie aioo?aiiea i?iaeaiu. Iaeiaei,
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaaeaeay iiaenaoue iiaeao i?eiyoue iaeao
eioi?iaoeee e aeinoaaeoue aai ii oeacaiiiio aae?ano a yoie eiie?aoiie
iiaenaoe. Ana aea ia o?aaoaony, /oiau iiaenaoue aa?aioe?iaaea aeinoaaeo
iaeaoia e eiaea iaaeaaeiue neaiciie i?ioieie (i?ioieie ?aaiou naoe a
ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea i?e ia?aaea/a niiauaiee iaaeaeo aeaoo aiaoieo
naoae). I?e?iaea oaeiai iineaaeaiey aai noaiao yni?a iicaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaa iaoeiu, iieeth/aiiua e iaeiie iiaenaoe, iiaoo iai?yioth
iaiaieaaoueny iaeaoaie, a anee aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaeaoue
niiauaiea iaoeia a ae?oaie iiaenaoe, oi anooiatho a neeo iaaenaoaaua
niaeaoaiey, aeey /aai iiaenaoe eniieuecotho naie iaaenaoaaie ycue –
i?ioieie IP; iie ia?aaeatho niiauaiea ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaii/ea oethcia
e iiaenaoae, iiea iii ia aeinoeaiao ioaeiie iiaenaoe, aaea iii e aoaeao
aeinoaaeaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii iieo/aoaeth. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
iieueciaaoaey any yoa eooiy niaa?oaiii ia caaioeo. Eae e a i?eia?a n
oaeaoiiiie naoueth, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyaony aio aaeeiie aieueoie
naoueth, a ia iiiaeanoaii naoae, aeey iaai ana yoi iano?ia nai?eua
?acii?iaeiuo e eiiaaea ianiaianoeiuo iaaeaeo niaie naoae i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaeiie naoueth – “Naoueth naoae” – Internet.

Iioaioeeaeueiua iieueciaaoaee

Eiio aea iiaeao auoue noieue iieacia Internet e eaeei ia?acii? *oi oae
niinianoaoao aa ?acaeoeth?

Iieaciinoue Internet iiauoaeanue aianoa n ?acaeoeai au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee n caiacaeuaaieai i?eia?ii a 10 eao. A eiioea 80-o aiaeia
iiyaeaiea ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia ia?aianei eioi?iaoeeo ec oea?noaa
ciaoieia e oe?ieie ioaeeea. Internet a oiaea naiaai ?acaeoey e
iianaianoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey caieiaaony eiaiii oaeei ia?aiinii.

Internet, eae e au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea, niaa?oeea ia?aoiae io caaaau
yenia?oia e eino?oiaioo aaeaaeiaaiiai iieueciaaiey. E nai i?ioeann
ia?aoiaea aue niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/ai. Naoue iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeanue i?iua
a eniieueciaaiee, /anoe/ii iioiio /oi iai?oaeiaaiea noaei eo/oa, a
/anoe/ii iioiio, /oi naia noaea nei?aa e iaaeaaeiaa. E naiua niaeua ec
oao, eoi nia/aea ia ?aoaeenue naycuaaoueny n Internet, ia/aee aa
eniieueciaaoue. Yoe iiaua iieueciaaoaee ii?iaeeee ia?iiioth iio?aaiinoue
a iiauo ?ano?nao e eo/oai eino?oiaioa?ee. Oeo/oaeenue noa?ua n?aaenoaa,
iiyaeyeenue iiaua, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aeinooia e iiaui ?ano?nai, /oi
iaeaa/aei eniieueciaaiea naoe. E aio oaea ae?oaay a?oiia ethaeae noaea
iiieiaoue iieueco Internet. I?ioeann iiaoi?yeny. Yoio e?oaiai?io
i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny e ii nae aeaiue.

A iauai, ana iieueciaaoaee Internet euoo iaeiiai: iauaiey e eioi?iaoeee.
E iie iaoiaeyo yoi n?aaee ethaeae e eiiiuethoa?ia. Eaaei iicaauoue i
ethaeneeo ?ano?nao Internet, ii iie i/aiue aaaeiu, oae aea, eae e
aeinooiiua eiiiuethoa?u. Internet – ie?iethaeaay e ae?oaeaethaiay
no?aia. Caeanue iiaeii ano?aoeoue oaeeo aea ethaeae, eae au naie. Au,
ianiiiaiii, iioaioeeaeueiue iieueciaaoaeue naoe, anee, iai?eia?, au:

– Aeieia , eioi?iio iio?aaiaaeanue ea?oa aaiiia ae?icioeeeu;

– *aiue-aoaeaeeno a noaia iai-eneaienoia, euouee eaeia-eeai aeooiaiia
oiaa?euanoai e iiieiaiea;

– Ynoaonoaothuee eioaeeaeooae , iieeiiiee eeanneee e ?iea, eiio
inoi/a?oaea iii-iocuea a yoe?a;

– Ineoieia eee ineoioa?aiaao , aeaeathuee ianoaeeoue oiieea iiiaiou
ioiioaiee oaeiu eniiaaaee n caeiiii a i/aiue niaoeeoe/aneii neo/aa.

E oae aeaeaa. Anai yoei ethaeyi Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao aaeeeieaiioth
aiciiaeiinoue iaeoe aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia. Iiaeii – ia naiii aeaea, aeaaea
i/aiue eaaei – iaeoe yeaeo?iiiue aeeneonneiiiue eeoa ii/oe ii ethaie
oaia (eo nae/an anaai ieiei iieooi?a ouny/), eee ia/aoue iiaoth
aeeneonneth e anoaoue o enoieia iiaiai eeoaa, eioi?ue ieeoi aei neo ii?
ia aeiaaaeaeny nicaeaoue.

Internet ioe?uaaao yoei ethaeyi oaeaea e aeinooi e eiiiuethoa?iui
?ano?nai. Eaeoi? iauanoaa “Ciaiea” iiaeao naycaoueny n eiiiuethoa?ii
NASA, eioi?ue i?aaeinoaaeo aio eioi?iaoeeth i i?ioeii, ianoiyuai e
aoaeouai einie/aneie iaoee e i?ia?aiiu NOA. Nayuaiiee iiaeao iaeoe
Aeaeeth, Ei?ai, Oi?o, /oiau i?ioeeoe?iaaoue ioaeiua io?uaee. TH?eno
iiaeao aia?aiy iaeoe eiiee aeieeaaeia ia canaaeaieyo Aa?oiaiiai Noaea
NOA ii aeaeo “E?ai-eiio?an”. Ainueieeeannieoea iiaeao ianoaeeoue
iocueaeueioth ee?eeo A.Oeiy n ?iaanieeaie eee aunooieoue yenia?oii
n?aaee iiae/eia, aaaeue oieueei iia e iiieiaao ee?eeo ii-ianoiyuaio.

E yoi oieueei ia/aei. Ianiiiaiii, a eiia/iii n/aoa, ana i?eaeoo e
iiieiaieth oiai, /oi ianooiaao Y?a Eioi?iaoeee; iio?aaiinoue a iae
aic?anoaao e aoaeao aic?anoaoue eaaeiiia?acii, eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae
oiaea. Ieeoaea io yoiai ia aeaoueny. Aac iaaeaaeiie e iia?aoeaiie
eioi?iaoeee iaeuecy eaeoe a iiao ni a?aiaiai, ?acaeaaoue iaoeo e oaoieeo
ia o?iaia eo/oeo ie?iauo ia?acoeia. E ana iu, ana aei aaeeiiai, –
iioaioeeaeueiua iieueciaaoaee aeiaaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe.

A yoii au oaaaeeoanue naie, i?i/eoaa e iniciaa nae o?oae.

Aeinooi a Internet

Aeinooi a Internet, iau/ii, iieo/atho /a?ac iinoaaueeia oneoa (service
provider). Iinoaaueee yoe i?iaeatho ?acee/iua aeaeu oneoa, eaaeaeue ec
ieo eiaao naie i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee. Oae aea eae e i?e iieoiea
naaeiaie oa/ee (a i?eaeiaea – aaoiiiaeey) au ?aoaaoa, eaeeie ea/anoaaie
aeieaeia iia iaeaaeaoue, neieueei au ca iaa iiaeaoa naaa iicaieeoue
caieaoeoue, e, enoiaey ec yoiai, auae?aaoa iiaeoiaeyuee aa?eaio ec
i?aaeeaaaaiiai iiiaeanoaa.

Ii ia?aae oai, eae ia/aoue aeaenoaiaaoue a yoii iai?aaeaiee, o.a.
aeiauaaoue nienie iinoaaueeia Internet, /eoaoue e auae?aoue,
naycuaaoueny n ieie, auynieoa, a ia eiaaoa ee au oae?a aeinooia a
Internet, naie oiai ia aaaeay. Oaeia aiieia iiaeao eiaoue ianoi – a
?innee ia oae /anoi, a NOA ia oae oae e ?aaeei. Anee aaoa i?aaiecaoeey
eee o/?aaeaeaiea (einoeooo, eiiiaiey) oaea eiaao aeinooi a Internet, oi
a?yae ee au niiaeaoa iieo/eoue ia?niiaeueiue aeinooi a naoue eo/oee,
iaaeaee aaoa i?aaiecaoeey.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, anee au oaea eiaaoa aeinooi a Internet, aai ia iaaei
aoaeao ieaoeoue aeaiaa ec naiaai ea?iaia, ia iaaei aoaeao noaoeoueny
aie?oa iinoaaueeia oneoa e o.ae., aai i?inoi iaaei aoaeao iao/eoueny
iieueciaaoueny oai, /oi au oaea eiaaoa.

Anee aaoa i?aaiecaoeey iiea ia eiaao aeinooia a Internet, eee aiiaua-oi
eiaao, ii, aio aaaea, ia aaoa iiae?acaeaeaiea (eaai?aoi?ey, ioaeae,
oaeoeueoao), aai i?inoi neaaeoao iiiaaethaeaoue e i?eeeiooue, neieueei
aua iioaioeeaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae eiaaony n?aaee aaoeo nineoaeeaoeaa,
aiciiaeii, iiaiai?eoue n ieie e ca?o/eoueny iiaeaea?aeeie, ninoaaeoue
i?aaeeiaeaiea e/eee iiaeaoue o?aaiaaiea auoanoiyuaio ?oeiaiaenoao.

Eiathony (oioy yoi ano?a/aaony, oau, iiea i/aiue ?aaeei) aua
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/eoue aeinooi a Internet ia /a?ac aa i?yiuo
?ani?ino?aieoaeae, aac eeoieo cao?ao.

Ia?aue – iieueoa a ioaee/iuo aeaeeioaeao: iaeioi?ua (oeaio?aeueiua)
eiatho neoaeao, iacuaaaioth Freenet – naiaiaeiay (aanieaoiay) naoue. Yoi
eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay niioaaonoaothuei niiauanoaii, iau/ii
eiathuay iiaeaiiue aeinooi e Internet ii oaeaoiio.

Aoi?ie iooue iieacai aeey iieiaeuo ethaeae, i?iaeeaathueo a no?aiao
Caiaaea, eee a oeaio?aeueiuo ai?iaeao o ian. Noaiueoa nooaeaioii,
iinooieoa a caiaaeiue eee i?aaieciaaiiue o ian aea a ?innee niaianoii n
Caiaaeii oieaa?neoao eee eieeaaeae. E auaa?eoa niioaaonoaothuoth
niaoeeaeueiinoue eee caieoeoanue ia eo?nu, eioi?ua iicaieyo aai
aeia?aoueny aei caaaoiiai eiiiuethoa?a, eiathuaai aeinooi a Internet.
Iai?eia?, iao/eoanue ieanoe eaioe – oaea iioii aai aoaeao /ai
?acaea/ueny, eiaaea o aan io iai?a?uaiie ?aaiou a naoe iiaaeao e?uoa. E
eiaaea au iao/eoanue, o aan aoaeao aua iaeei aeiaiae ia/aeuenoao a
iieueco i?aaeinoaaeaiey aai aeinooia a Internet: naoe eae aicaeoo
iaiaoiaeeia aaca aeaiiuo n eino?oeoeeyie ii ieaoaieth eaioae, aac ieo
iie eae aac ?oe. Oaeie aeeaae ?oeiaiaenoai ia niiaeao ia ioeaieoue ii
aeinoieinoao.

?aaioa Internet: i?aaiecaoeey, no?oeoo?a, iaoiaeu

Aaaaeaiea

*oiau oniaoii inaieoue ia/oi e caoai n iei ?aaioaoue, i/aiue iieacii
ciaoue, oioy au a iaueo /a?oao, ono?ienoai e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoiai
iauaeoa. Ciaiea yoi iiiiaaao iniuneaiii aini?eieiaoue e
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue iaauee ?aaiou, a ia iieueciaaoueny i?aaeeaaaaiuie
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie /enoi iaoaie/anee. Oaeia iniciaiea iiaeneaaeao, /oi
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue io nenoaiu a niunea aa aiciiaeiinoae, iiaaaeaiey,
iaaeinoaoeia, e /oi aieaa aaaeii, iiiiaeao i?eaioe?iaaoueny a iaiau/iie
neooaoeee: a neo/aa iieiiee, niaiu na?aa?a, i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,
iiyaeaiey iiauo aiciiaeiinoae e o.i.

A yoii ?acaeaea iu ?anniio?ei naoe n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia e i?aeiouanoaa
iino?iaiey naoe ia i?eioeeiao TCP/IP i?ioieieia. Caeanue aoaeoo
?anniio?aiu iniiaiua i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey eiiioieeaoeeyie a : TCP e aai
aaaeiue ?iaenoaaiiee UDP. Yoi iniiaiua nenoaiiia?acothuea yeaiaiou naoe.
Aaaeiui yeaiaioii yaeyaony oaeaea ?aaeiiaeueiay nenoaia eiai (DNS).

No?oeoo?a ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naoe

  Nia?aiaiiua naoe iino?iaiu ii iiiaio?iaiaaiio i?eioeeio. *oiau
i?aaieciaaoue naycue aeaoo eiiiuethoa?ia, o?aaoaony nia/aea nicaeaoue
naiae i?aaee eo acaeiiaeaenoaey, ii?aaeaeeoue ycue eo iauaiey, o.a.
ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi icia/atho iinueaaiua eie neaiaeu e o.ae. Yoe i?aaeea e
ii?aaeaeaiey iacuaathony i?ioieieii. Aeey ?aaiou naoae iaiaoiaeeii
caianoenue iiiaeanoaii ?acee/iuo i?ioieieia: iai?eia?, oi?aaeythueo
oece/aneie naycueth, onoaiiaeaieai nayce ii naoe, aeinooiii e ?acee/iui
?ano?nai e o.ae. Iiiaio?iaiaaay no?oeoo?a ni?iaeoe?iaaia n oeaeueth
oi?inoeoue e oii?yaei/eoue yoi aaeeeia iiiaeanoai i?ioieieia e
ioiioaiee. Acaeiiaeaenoaea o?iaiae a yoie iiaeaee – noai?aeeia?iia.
Eaaeaeue o?iaaiue iiaeao ?aaeueii acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue oieueei n
ninaaeieie o?iaiyie (aa?oiei e ieaeiei), ae?ooaeueii – oieueei n
aiaeiae/iui o?iaiai ia ae?oaii eiioea eeiee.

Iiae ?aaeueiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai iu iiae?acoiaaaai iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea, iaiin?aaenoaaiioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee, iai?eia?,
ia?anueeo aeaiiuo a iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ec iaeanoe, ioaaaeaiiie iaeiie
i?ia?aiia, a iaeanoue ae?oaie i?ia?aiiu. I?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ia?aaea/a
aeaiiua inoathony iaeciaiiuie ana a?aiy. Iiae ae?ooaeueiui
acaeiiaeaenoaeai iu iiieiaai iiin?aaeiaaiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea e ia?aaea/o
aeaiiuo; caeanue aeaiiua a i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e iiaoo oaea ii?aaeaeaiiui,
ca?aiaa iaiai?aiiui ia?acii aeaeieciaiyoueny.

Oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea aiaeiae/ii noaia oeaie iinueee ienueia iaeiei
aee?aeoi?ii oe?iu ae?oaiio. Iai?eia?, aee?aeoi? iaeioi?ie oe?iu ieoao
ienueii ?aaeaeoi?o aacaou. Aee?aeoi? ieoao ienueii ia naiai oe?iaiiii
aeaiea e ioaeaao yoio eenoie nae?aoa?th. Nae?aoa?ue caia/aouaaao eenoie
a eiiaa?o, iaaeienuaaao eiiaa?o, iaeeaeaaao ia?eo e ia?aaeaao ii/oa.
Ii/oa aeinoaaeyao ienueii a niioaaonoaothuaa ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea. Yoi
ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea nayce iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeinoaaeyao ienueii
iieo/aoaeth – nae?aoa?th ?aaeaeoi?a aacaou. Nae?aoa?ue ?ania/aouaaao
eiiaa?o e, ii ia?a iaaeiaiinoe, iiaeaao ?aaeaeoi?o. Ie iaeii ec caaiueaa
oeaie ia iiaeao auoue i?iiouaii, eia/a oeaiue ?aci?aaony: anee
ionoonoaoao, iai?eia?, nae?aoa?ue, oi eenoie n ienueiaiaie aee?aeoi?a
oae e aoaeao iueeoueny ia noiea o nae?aoa?y.

Caeanue iu aeaeei, eae eioi?iaoeey (eeno aoiaae n oaenoii) ia?aaeaaony n
aa?oiaai o?iaiy aiec, i?ioiaey iiiaeanoai iaiaoiaeeiuo nooiaiae –
noaaeee ia?aaioee. Ia?anoaao neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeeae (iaeao, aae?an ia
eiiaa?oa, ii/oiaue eiaeaen; eiioaeia? n ei??aniiiaeaioeeae; ii/oiaue
aaaii, noaioeey iacia/aiey ii/oiaiai aaaiia e o.ae.), eciaiyaony ia
eaaeaeie noaaeee ia?aaioee e iinoaiaiii aeioiaeeo aei naiiai ieaeiaai
o?iaiy – o?iaiy ii/oiaiai o?ainii?oa (aoaeaaiai, aaoiiiaeeueiiai,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai, aicaeooiiai,…), eioi?ui ?aaeueii ia?aaiceony a
ioieo iacia/aiey. A ioieoa iacia/aiey i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiue i?ioeann:
ane?uaaaony eiioaeia? e ecaeaeaaony ei??aniiiaeaioeey, n/eouaaaony
aae?an ia eiiaa?oa e ii/oaeueii ianao aai aae?anaoo (nae?aoa?th),
eioi?ue ainnoaiaaeeaaao eioi?iaoeeth a ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea, – aeinoaao
ienueii ec eiiaa?oa, i?i/eouaaao aai e ii?aaeaeyao aai n?i/iinoue,
aaaeiinoue, e a caaeneiinoe io yoiai ia?aaeaao eioi?iaoeeth auoa.
Aee?aeoi? e ?aaeaeoi?, oaeei ia?acii, ae?ooaeueii eiatho i?yioth naycue.
Aaaeue ?aaeaeoi? aacaou iieo/aao a oi/iinoe oo aea eioi?iaoeeth,
eioi?oth ioi?aaee aee?aeoi?, a eiaiii – eeno aoiaae n oaenoii ienueia.
Ia/aeuenoaothuea ia?niiu niaa?oaiii ia caaioyony i i?iaeaiao ia?anueee
yoie eioi?iaoeee. Nae?aoa?e oaeaea eiatho ae?ooaeueii i?yioth naycue:
nae?aoa?ue ?aaeaeoi?a iieo/eo a oi/iinoe oi aea, /oi ioi?aaee nae?aoa?ue
aee?aeoi?a, a eiaiii – eiiaa?o n ienueiii. Nae?aoa?ae niaa?oaiii ia
aieiotho i?iaeaiu ii/ou, ia?anueathuae ienueia. E oae aeaeaa.

Aiaeiae/iua nayce e i?ioeannu eiatho ianoi e a yoaeiiiie iiaeaee ISO
OSI. Oece/aneay naycue ?aaeueii eiaao ianoi oieueei ia naiii ieaeiai
o?iaia (aiaeia ii/oiauo iiacaeia, naiieaoia, aaoiiiaeeae).
Ai?eciioaeueiua nayce iaaeaeo anaie inoaeueiuie o?iaiyie yaeythony
ae?ooaeueiuie, ?aaeueii iie inouanoaeythony ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee
nia/aea aiec, iineaaeiaaoaeueii aei naiiai ieaeiaai o?iaiy, aaea
i?ienoiaeeo ?aaeueiay ia?aaea/a, a iioii, ia ae?oaii eiioea, ia?aoiay
ia?aaea/a aaa?o iineaaeiaaoaeueii aei niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy.

Iiaeaeue ISO OSI i?aaeienuaaao i/aiue neeueioth noaiaea?oecaoeeth
aa?oeeaeueiuo iaaeo?iaiaauo acaeiiaeaenoaee. Oaeay noaiaea?oecaoeey
aa?aioe?oao niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoeoia, ?aaioathueo ii noaiaea?oo
eaeiai-eeai o?iaiy, n i?iaeoeoaie, ?aaioathueie ii noaiaea?oai ninaaeieo
o?iaiae, aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee iie auiouaiu ?aciuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Eiee/anoai o?iaiae iiaeao iieacaoueny ecauoi/iui,
iaeiaei aea, oaeia ?acaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii aeey aeinoaoi/ii /aoeiai
?acaeaeaiey o?aaoaiuo ooieoeee ai ecaaaeaiea eceeoiae neiaeiinoe e
nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u, eioi?ay iiaeao iiaeno?aeaaoueny iiae ioaeaeu
eiie?aoiiai iieueciaaoaey, inoaaaynue a ?aieao noaiaea?oa.

=====================================================================

Eiiueiuethoa? A Eiiiuethoa? A

+—————-+ Application protocol +——————+

| Application | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Application
|

| layer | |
layer |

+—————-+ O?iaaiue 7 -i?eeeaaeiie +——————+

| |

| |

+—————-+ Presentation protocol +—————-+

| Presentation | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Presentation |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 6 -i?aaenoaaeaiey +———–.—-+

. | aeaiiuo | .

. | | .

. | | .

+—.————+ Session protocol +———–.—-+

| Presentation | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Presentation |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 5 -naainiaue +———–.—-+

. | | .

. | | .

+—.————+ Transport protocol +———–.—-+

| Transport | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Transport |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 4 -o?ainii?oiue +———–.—-+

. | | .

. | | .

+—.————+ Network protocol +———–.—-+

| Network | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Network . |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 3 -naoaaie +———–.—-+

. | | .

. | | .

+—.————+ Data link protocol +———–.—-+

| Data Link | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Data Link |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 2 -eaiaeueiue +———–.—-+

. | | .

. | | .

+—.————+ Physical protocol +———–.—-+

| Physical | _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | Physical . |

| . layer | | layer . |

+—.————+ O?iaaiue 1 -oece/aneee +———–.—-+

. | | .

. | ********************** | .

. | * Physical media * | .

. | * -oece/aneay n?aaea * | .

. . |. . . . . .* . . . . . . . . . .* . . . . . . | . .

|___________*____________________*_____________|

**********************

_ _ _ _ _ Ae?ooaeueiua niaaeeiaiey

. . . . . Iooue aeaiiuo, niioaaonoaothuee nayce ia o?iaia 6

_________ Oece/aneia ?aaeueiia niaaeeiaiea

|

| Eioa?oaen (ea?a?oe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea o?iaiae)

=====================================================================

?enoiie: Yoaeiiiay iiaeaeue ISO OSI

Aeaaeei e?aoeee iaci? o?iaiae.  

O?iaaiue 0

naycai n oece/aneie n?aaeie – ia?aaeao/eeii neaiaea e ia naiii aeaea ia
aeeth/aaony a yoo noaio, ii aanueia iieacai aeey iiieiaiey. Yoio
ii/aoiue o?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeyao iin?aaeieeia, niaaeeiythueo eiia/iua
ono?ienoaa: eaaaee, ?aaeeieeiee e o.ae. Eaaaeae nouanoaoao aaeeeia
iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo aeaeia e oeiia: ye?aie?iaaiiua e iaye?aie?iaaiiua
aeoua ia?u, eiaeneaeueiua, ia iniiaa iioe/aneeo aieieii e o.ae. O.e.
yoio o?iaaiue ia aeeth/ai a noaio, ii ie/aai e ia iienuaaao, oieueei
oeacuaaao ia n?aaeo.

O?iaaiue 1

– oece/aneee. Aeeth/aao oece/aneea aniaeou ia?aaea/e aeaie/iie
eioi?iaoeee ii eeiee nayce. Aeaoaeueii iienuaaao, iai?eia?, iai?yaeaiey,
/anoiou, i?e?iaeo ia?aaeathuae n?aaeu. Yoiio o?iaith aiaiyaony a
iaycaiiinoue iiaeaea?aeaiea nayce e i?eai-ia?aaea/a aeoiaiai iioiea.
Aacioeai/iinoue aeaeaoaeueia, ii ia o?aaoaony.

O?iaaiue 2

– eaiaeueiue. Naycue aeaiiuo.   Iaania/eaaao aacioeai/ioth ia?aaea/o
aeieia aeaiiuo (iacuaaaiuo eaae?aie (frame)) /a?ac o?iaaiue 1, eioi?ue
i?e ia?aaea/a iiaeao eneaaeaoue aeaiiua. Yoio o?iaaiue aeieaeai
ii?aaeaeyoue ia/aei e eiiaoe eaae?a a aeoiaii iioiea, oi?ie?iaaoue ec
aeaiiuo, ia?aaeaaaaiuo oece/aneei o?iaiai, eaae?u eee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe , aeeth/aoue i?ioeaaeo?o i?iaa?ee iaee/ey ioeaie e
eo eni?aaeaiey. Yoio o?iaaiue (e oieueei ii) iia?e?oao oaeeie
yeaiaioaie, eae aeoiaua iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, iaoiaeu eiaee?iaaiey,
ia?ea?u. Ii ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaeeueioth ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo
(iaeaoia) ia o/anoeao iaaeaeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiuie yeaiaioaie
naoe. Iaania/eaaao oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e n?aaea ia?aaea/e. A aeaeo aai
neiaeiinoe, eaiaeueiue o?iaaiue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa iiaeo?iaiy: MAC
(Medium Access Control) – Oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e n?aaea e LLC (Logical
Link Control) – Oi?aaeaiea eiae/aneie naycueth (eaiaeii). O?iaaiue MAC
oi?aaeyao aeinooiii e naoe (n ia?aaea/ae ia?ea?a a naoyo Token Ring eee
?aniiciaaaieai eiioeeeoia (noieeiiaaiee ia?aaea/) a naoyo Ethernet) e
oi?aaeaieai naoueth. O?iaaiue LLC, aeaenoaothuee iaae o?iaiai MAC, e
anoue nianoaaiii oio o?iaaiue, eioi?ue iinueaao e iieo/aao niiauaiey n
aeaiiuie.

O?iaaiue 3

– naoaaie.   Yoio o?iaaiue iieuecoaony aiciiaeiinoyie, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie
aio o?iaiai 2, aeey iaania/aiey nayce aeaoo ethauo oi/ae a naoe. Ethauo,
iaiaycaoaeueii niaaeiuo. Yoio o?iaaiue inouanoaeyao i?iaiaeeo niiauaiee
ii naoe, eioi?ay iiaeao eiaoue iiiai eeiee nayce, eee ii iiiaeanoao
niaianoii ?aaioathueo naoae, /oi o?aaoao ia?o?ooecaoeee, o.a.
ii?aaeaeaiey iooe, ii eioi?iio neaaeoao ia?anueaoue aeaiiua.
Ia?o?ooecaoeey i?iecaiaeeony ia yoii aea o?iaia. Auiieiyao ia?aaioeo
aae?ania, a oaeaea e aeaioeueoeieaene?iaaiea.

Iniiaiie ooieoeeae i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia yoii o?iaia yaeyaony
auai?ea eioi?iaoeee ec enoi/ieea, i?aia?aciaaiea aa a iaeaou e
i?aaeeueiay ia?aaea/a a oi/eo iacia/aiey.

Anoue aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo niiniaa ?aaiou naoaaiai o?iaiy.
Ia?aue – yoi iaoiae ae?ooaeueiuo eaiaeia. Ii ninoieo a oii, /oi eaiae
nayce onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e auciaa (ia/aea naaina (session) nayce), ii
iaio ia?aaeaaony eioi?iaoeey, e ii ieii/aiee ia?aaea/e eaiae cae?uaaaony
(oie/oiaeaaony). Ia?aaea/a iaeaoia i?ienoiaeeo n nio?aiaieai enoiaeiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, aeaaea anee iaeaou ia?anueathony ii ?acee/iui
oece/aneei ia?o?ooai, o.a. ae?ooaeueiue eaiae aeeiaie/anee
ia?aiai?aaeyaony. I?e yoii iaeaou aeaiiuo ia aeeth/atho aae?an ioieoa
iacia/aiey, o.e. ii ii?aaeaeyaony ai a?aiy onoaiiaeaiey nayce.

Aoi?ie – iaoiae aeaeoaa?aii . Aeaeoaa?aiiu – iacaaeneiua , iie
aeeth/atho anth iaiaoiaeeioth aeey eo ia?anueee eioi?iaoeeth. A oi
a?aiy, eae ia?aue iaoiae i?aaeinoaaeyao neaaeothuaio o?iaith (o?iaith 4)
iaaeaaeiue eaiae ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, naiaiaeiue io eneaaeaiee (ioeaie) e
i?aaeeueii aeinoaaeythuee iaeaou a ioieo iacia/aiey, aoi?ie iaoiae
o?aaoao io neaaeothuaai o?iaiy ?aaiou iaae ioeaeaie e i?iaa?ee aeinoaaee
ioaeiiio aae?anaoo.

O?iaaiue 4

– o?ainii?oiue. ?aaeaiaioe?oao ia?anueeo iaeaoia niiauaiee iaaeaeo
i?ioeannaie, auiieiyaiuie ia eiiiuethoa?ao naoe. Caaa?oaao i?aaiecaoeeth
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo: eiio?iee?oao ia neaiciie iniiaa iioie aeaiiuo,
i?ioiaeyuee ii ia?o?ooo, ii?aaeaeaiiiio o?aoueei o?iaiai: i?aaeeueiinoue
ia?aaea/e aeieia aeaiiuo, i?aaeeueiinoue aeinoaaee a ioaeiue ioieo
iacia/aiey, eo eiiieaeoiinoue, nio?aiiinoue, ii?yaeie neaaeiaaiey.
Niae?aao eioi?iaoeeth ec aeieia a aa i?aaeiee aeae. Eee aea iia?e?oao n
aeaeoaa?aiiaie, o.a. iaeeaeaao ioeeeea-iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia ec ioieoa
iacia/aiey, i?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue aeinoaaee e aae?anaoeee, iiaoi?yao
iinueeo aeaeoaa?aiiu, anee ia i?eoae ioeeee. A ?aieao o?ainii?oiiai
i?ioieiea i?aaeoniio?aii iyoue eeannia ea/anoaa o?ainii?oe?iaee e
niioaaonoaothuea i?ioeaaeo?u oi?aaeaiey. Yoio aea o?iaaiue aeieaeai
aeeth/aoue ?acaeooth e iaaeaaeioth noaio aae?anaoeee aeey iaania/aiey
nayce /a?ac iiiaeanoai naoae e oethcia. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, caaea/ae
aeaiiiai o?iaiy yaeyaony aeiaanoe aei oia ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ec
ethaie oi/ee a ethaoth ai anae naoe.

O?ainii?oiue o?iaaiue ne?uaaao io anao aunoeo o?iaiae ethaua aeaoaee e
i?iaeaiu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, iaania/eaaao noaiaea?oiia acaeiiaeaenoaea
eaaeauaai iaae iei o?iaiy n i?eaiii-ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee iacaaeneii io
eiie?aoiie oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee yoie ia?aaea/e.

O?iaaiue 5

– naainiaue. Eii?aeeie?oao acaeiiaeaenoaea naycuaathueony
iieueciaaoaeae: onoaiaaeeaaao eo naycue, iia?e?oao n iae,
ainnoaiaaeeaaao aaa?eeii ieii/aiiua naainu. Yoio aea o?iaaiue
ioaaonoaaiai ca ea?oia?aoeth naoe – ii i?aia?aciauaaao ?aaeiiaeueiua
(aeiiaiiua) eiiiuethoa?iua eiaia a /eneiaua aae?ana , e iaiai?io. Ii
eii?aeeie?oao ia eiiiuethoa?u e ono?ienoaa, a i?ioeannu a naoe,
iiaeaea?aeeaaao eo acaeiiaeaenoaea – oi?aaeyao naainaie nayce iaaeaeo
i?ioeannaie i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy.

O?iaaiue 6

– o?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo. Yoio o?iaaiue eiaao aeaei n
neioaenenii e naiaioeeie ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee, o.a. caeanue
onoaiaaeeaaaony acaeiiiiieiaiea aeaoo niiauathueony eiiiuethoa?ia
ioiineoaeueii oiai, eae iie i?aaenoaaeytho e iiieiatho ii iieo/aiee
ia?aaeaaaaioth eioi?iaoeeth. Caeanue ?aoathony, iai?eia?, oaeea caaea/e,
eae ia?aeiaee?iaea oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee e ecia?aaeaiee, naeaoea e
?aniaeiaea, iiaeaea?aeea naoaauo oaeeiauo nenoai (NFS), aano?aeoiuo
no?oeoo? aeaiiuo e o.ae.

O?iaaiue 7

– i?eeeaaeiie. Iaania/eaaao eioa?oaen iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeai e naoueth,
aeaeaao aeinooiiuie aeey /aeiaaea anaaiciiaeiua oneoae. Ia yoii o?iaia
?aaeecoaony, ii e?aeiae ia?a, iyoue i?eeeaaeiuo neoaea: ia?aaea/a
oaeeia, oaeaeaiiue oa?ieiaeueiue aeinooi, yeaeo?iiiay ia?aaea/a
niiauaiee, neoaeaa ni?aai/ieea e oi?aaeaiea naoueth. A eiie?aoiie
?aaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony iieueciaaoaeai (i?ia?aiienoii) niaeanii aai
ianouiui ioaeaeai e aiciiaeiinoyi aai eioaeueea, eioaeeaeoa e oaioacee.
Eiaao aeaei, iai?eia?, n iiiaeanoaii ?acee/iuo i?ioieieia oa?ieiaeueiiai
oeia, eioi?uo nouanoaoao aieaa noa.

Caia/aiea.

Neaaeoao iiieiaoue, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo naoae a
neeo enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei eeoue a iaueo /a?oao, i?eaeeaeaiii,
niioaaonoaotho yoaeiiiie iiaeaee ISO OSI.

O?iaie ?aaiou naoe

Ia?anueea aeoia

Ia?anueea aeoia i?ienoiaeeo ia oece/aneii o?iaia noaiu ISO OSI. Oau,
caeanue anyeay iiiuoea e?aoeiai e aeinooiiiai iienaiey ia?a/aia ia
i?iaae. O?aaoaony aaaaeaiea ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa niaoeeaeueiuo oa?ieiia,
iiiyoee, iienaiee i?ioeannia ia oece/aneii o?iaia e o.ae. E iioii,
nouanoaoao noieue aaeeeia ?aciiia?acea i?eaiiia?aaeao/eeia e
ia?aaeathueo n?aae, – o?oaeii aeaaea e iaic?aoue yoio ieaai oaoiieiaee.
Aeey iiieiaiey ?aaiou naoae yoiai e ia o?aaoaony. N/eoaeoa, /oi i?inoi
eiaaony o?oaa, ii eioi?ie ec eiioea a eiiaoe ia?aea/eaathony aeou.
Eiaiii aeou, aaci anyeiai aeaeaiey ia eaeea-eeai a?oiiu (aaeou, aeaeaaeu
e o.i.).

Ia?anueea aeaiiuo

Ia i?aaiecaoeee aei/iie, neiaieueiie ia?aaea/e, iaania/aiee iaaeaaeiinoe
ia?anueee iiaiai?ei ia ae?oaeo o?iaiyo iiaeaee ISO OSI. O.a. ooieoeee
eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy a Internet ?ani?aaeaeaiu ii ae?oaei o?iaiyi, ii ia
auoa o?ainii?oiiai. A yoii niunea Internet ia nianai niioaaonoaoao
noaiaea?oo ISO. Caeanue eaiaeueiue o?iaaiue caieiaaony oieueei
?acaeaieai aeoiaiai iioiea ia neiaieu e eaae?u e ia?aaea/ae iieo/aiiuo
aeaiiuo ia neaaeothuee o?iaaiue. Iaania/aieai iaaeaaeiinoe ia?aaea/e ii
naay ia oo?oaeaeaao.

Naoe eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia

Ianoaea ii?a iiaiai?eoue ia Internet eiaiii eae i naoe, a ia iaooeia
eeiee nayce e iiiaeanoaa i?eaiiia?aaeao/eeia. Eacaeinue au, Internet
aiieia aiaeiae/ia oaeaoiiiie naoe, e iiaeaeue oaeaoiiiie naoe
aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao aa no?oeoo?o e ?aaioo. A naiii aeaea,
iaa iie yeaeo?iiiua, iaa iicaieytho aai onoaiaaeeaaoue naycue e
ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth. E Internet oiaea ninoieo, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, ec auaeaeaiiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee. Ii oau! Ea?oeia yoa iaaa?ia
e i?eaiaeeo ei iiiaei caaeoaeaeaieyi ioiineoaeueii ?aaiou Internet, ei
iiiaeanoao iaaei?acoiaiee. Oaeaoiiiay naoue – yoi oae iacuaaaiay naoue n
eiiiooaoeeae eeiee, o.a. eiaaea au aeaeaaoa aucia, onoaiaaeeaaaony
naycue e ia ana a?aiy naaina nayce eiaaony oece/aneia niaaeeiaiea n
aaiiaioii. I?e yoii aai auaeaeyaony /anoue naoe, eioi?ay aeey ae?oaeo
oaea ia aeinooiia, aeaaea anee au iie/a aeuoeoa a o?oaeo, a ae?oaea
aaiiaiou oioaee au iiaiai?eoue ii aeaenoaeoaeueii iaioeiaeiiio aeaeo.
Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ia?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth i/aiue aei?iaeo
?ano?nia – eeiee naoe. Internet aea yaeyaony naoueth n eiiiooaoeeae
iaeaoia, /oi i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io naoe n eiiiooaoeeae eaiaeia.

Aeey Internet aieaa iiaeoiaeeo iiaeaeue, eioi?ay iiia/aeo iiaeao ia
aiooaoue aeiaa?ey: ii/oa, iaueiiaaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiay ii/oiaay
neoaeaa. Ii/oa yaeyaony naoueth iaeaoiie nayce. Iao ieeaeie auaeaeaiiie
aai /anoe yoie naoe. Aaoa iineaiea ia?aiaoeaaaony n iineaieyie ae?oaeo
iieueciaaoaeae, eeaeaaony a eiioaeia?, ia?anueaaony a ae?oaia ii/oiaia
ioaeaeaiea, aaea niiaa ni?oe?oaony. Oioy oaoiieiaee neeueii ?aciyony,
ii/oa yaeyaony i?ae?aniui e iaaeyaeiui i?eia?ii naoe n eiiiooaoeeae
iaeaoia. Iiaeaeue ii/ou oaeeaeoaeueii oi/ii io?aaeaao nooue ?aaiou e
no?oeoo?u Internet. Ath iu e aoaeai iieueciaaoueny aeaeaa.

I?ioieie Internet (IP)

Ii i?iaiaeo iiaeii ia?aneaoue aeou oieueei ec iaeiiai aai eiioea a
ae?oaie. Internet aea oioae?yaony aeeo?aoii ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua a
?acee/iua oi/ee, ?aca?inaiiua ii anaio ie?o. Eae iia yoi aeaeaao? Caaioa
ia yoii aiceiaeaia ia naoaaie (iaaenaoaaie) o?iaaiue a yoaeiiiie iiaeaee
ISO OSI. I iai e iiaiai?ei.

?acee/iua /anoe Internet – ninoaaeythuea naoe – niaaeeiythony iaaeaeo
niaie iin?aaenoaii eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?ua iacuaathony “oceu”; oae
Naoue naycuaaaony aiaaeeii. Naoe yoe iiaoo auoue Ethernet, Token Ring,
naoe ia oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo, iaeaoiua ?aaeeinaoe e o.i. Auaeaeaiiua eeiee
e eieaeueiua naoe nooue aiaeiae aeaeaciuo aei?ia, naiieaoia ii/ou e
ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee, ii/oaeueiiia. Iin?aaenoaii eo ii/oa aeaeaeaony n
ianoa ia ianoi. Oceu – aiaeiae ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee, aaea i?eieiaaony
?aoaiea, eae ia?aiauaoue aeaiiua (“iaeaou”) ii naoe, oi/ii oae aea,
eae ii/oiaue ocae iaia/aao aeaeueiaeoee iooue ii/oiaiai eiiaa?oa.
Ioaeaeaiey eee oceu ia eiatho i?yiuo naycae ni anaie inoaeueiuie. Anee
au ioi?aaeyaoa eiiaa?o ec Aeieaii?oaeiiai (Iineianeay iaeanoue) a Ooo
(Aaoee?ey), eiia/ii aea, ii/oa ia noaiao iaieiaoue naiieao, eioi?ue
iieaoeo ec aeeaeaeoaai e Aeieaii?oaeiiio ay?iii?oa (Oa?aiaoueaai) a Ooo,
i?inoi ianoiia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea ioi?aaeyao iineaiea ia iiaenoaioeeth
a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee, oa a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeueoa a iai?aaeaiee
ioieoa iacia/aiey ia neaaeothuoth iiaenoaioeeth; oaeei ia?acii ienueii
noaiao iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eaeeaeaoueny e ioieoo iacia/aiey, iiea ia
aeinoeaiao ii/oiaiai ioaeaeaiey, a aaaeaiee eioi?iai iaoiaeeony ioaeiue
iauaeo e eioi?ia aeinoaaeo niiauaiea iieo/aoaeth. Aeey ?aaiou oaeie
nenoaiu o?aaoaony, /oiau eaaeaeay iiaenoaioeey ciaea i iaee/anoaothueo
naycyo e i oii, ia eaeoth ec aeeaeaeoeo iiaenoaioeee iioeiaeueii
neaaeoao ia?aaeaoue aae?aniaaiiue ooaea-oi iaeao. I?eia?ii oaeaea e a
Internet: oceu auyniytho, eoaea neaaeoao aao iaeao aeaiiuo, ?aoatho
eoaea aai aeaeueoa ioi?aaeoue e ioi?aaeytho.

Ia eaaeaeie ii/oiaie iiaenoaioeee ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuay
iiaenoaioeey, eoaea aoaeao aeaeaa iai?aaeaia ei??aniiiaeaioeey, o.a.
iaia/aaony aeaeueiaeoee iooue (ia?o?oo) – yoio i?ioeann iacuaaaony
ia?o?ooecaoeeae. Aeey inouanoaeaiey ia?o?ooecaoeee eaaeaeay iiaenoaioeey
eiaao oaaeeoeo, aaea aae?ano ioieoa iacia/aiey (eee eiaeaeno)
niioaaonoaoao oeacaiea ii/oiaie iiaenoaioeee, eoaea neaaeoao iinueaoue
aeaeaa yoio eiiaa?o (aaiaea?ieue). Eo naoaaua aiaeiae iacuaathony
oaaeeoeaie ia?o?ooecaoeee. Yoe oaaeeoeu ?annueathony ii/oiaui
iiaenoaioeeyi oeaio?aeeciaaii niioaaonoaothuei ii/oiaui
iiae?acaeaeaieai. A?aiy io a?aiaie ?annueathony i?aaeienaiey ii
eciaiaieth e aeiiieiaieth yoeo oaaeeoe. A Internet, eae e ethaua ae?oaea
aeaenoaey, ninoaaeaiea e iiaeeoeeaoeey, oaaeeoe ia?o?ooecaoeee (yoio
i?ioeann oiaea yaeyaony /anoueth ia?o?ooecaoeee e iacuaaaony oae aea)
ii?aaeaeythony niioaaonoaothueie i?aaeeaie – i?ioieieaie ICMP (Internet
Control Message Protocol), RIP (Routing Internet Protocol) e OSPF (Open
Shortest Path First). Oceu, caieiathueany ia?o?ooecaoeeae, iacuaathony
ia?o?ooecaoi?aie.

A ioeoaea naoue ciaao, eoaea iacia/ai aao iaeao aeaiiuo? Io aan. Anee au
oioeoa ioi?aaeoue ienueii e oioeoa, /oiau aaoa ienueii aeinoeaei ianoa
iacia/aiey, au ia iiaeaoa i?inoi eeiooue eenoi/ae aoiaae a yuee. Aai
neaaeoao oeiaeeoue aai a noaiaea?oiue eiiaa?o e iaienaoue ia iai ia “ia
aea?aaith aeaaeooea”, eae Aaiueea AEoeia, a aae?an iieo/aoaey a
noaiaea?oiie oi?ia. Oieueei oiaaea ii/oa niiaeao i?aaeeueii ia?aaioaoue
aaoa ienueii e aeinoaaeoue aai ii iacia/aieth. Aiaeiae/ii a Internet
eiaaony iaai? i?aaee ii ia?auaieth n iaeaoaie – i?ioieieu. I?ioieie
Internet (IP) aa?ao ia naay caaiou ii aae?anaoeee eee ii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieth oiai, /oi oceu iiieiatho, /oi neaaeoao aeaeaoue n
aaoeie aeaiiuie ii iooe eo aeaeueiaeoaai neaaeiaaiey. Niaeanii iaoae
aiaeiaee, i?ioieie Internet ?aaioaao oaeaea eae i?aaeea ia?aaioee
ii/oiaiai eiiaa?oa. A ia/aei eaaeaeiai aaoaai iineaiey iiiauaaony
caaieiaie, ianouee eioi?iaoeeth ia aae?anaoa, naoe. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue,
eoaea e eae aeinoaaeoue iaeao aeaiiuo, yoie eioi?iaoeee aeinoaoi/ii.

Aae?an a Internet ninoieo ec 4 aaeo. I?e caiene aaeou ioaeaeythony ae?oa
io ae?oaa oi/eaie: 123.45.67.89 eee 3.33.33.3 . (Ia ioaaeoanue,
caiiieiaoue yoe oeeo?u aai ia i?eaeaony !) A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aae?an
ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo /anoae. Oae eae Internet anoue naoue naoae,
ia/aei aae?ana aiai?eo oceai Internet, /anoueth eaeie ec naoae au
yaeyaoanue. I?aaue eiiaoe aae?ana aiai?eo yoie naoe, eaeie eiiiuethoa?
eee oino aeieaeai iieo/eoue iaeao (oioy ?aaeueii ia ana oae i?inoi, ii
eaeay oaeiaa). Eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? a Internet eiaao a yoie noaia
oieeaeueiue aae?an, aiaeiae/ii iau/iiio ii/oiaiio aae?ano, a aua oi/iaa
– eiaeaeno. Ia?aaioea iaeaoa niaeanii aae?ano oaeaea aiaeiae/ia.
Ii/oiaay neoaeaa ciaao, aaea iaoiaeeony oeacaiiia a aae?ana ii/oiaia
ioaeaeaiea, a ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea iiae?iaii ciaao iiaeiia/iue ?aeii.
Internet ciaao, aaea eneaoue oeacaiioth naoue, a yoa naoue ciaao, aaea a
iae iaoiaeeony eiie?aoiue eiiiuethoa?. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey, aaea a
eieaeueiie naoe iaoiaeeony eiiiuethoa? n aeaiiui /eneiaui IP-aae?anii,
eieaeueiua naoe eniieuecotho naie nianoaaiiua i?ioieieu naoaaiai o?iaiy.
Iai?eia?, Ethernet aeey iouneaiey Ethernet-aae?ana ii IP-aae?ano
eiiiuethoa?a, iaoiaeyuaainy a aeaiiie naoe, eniieuecoao i?ioieie ARP –
i?ioieie ?ac?aoaiey(a niunea ?acee/aiey) aae?ania. (Ni. aeieoiaioaoeeth
ii ARP: RFC 826, 917, 925, 1027)

*eneiaie aae?an eiiiuethoa?a a Internet aiaeiae/ai ii/oiaiio eiaeaeno
ioaeaeaiey nayce. Ia?aua oeeo?u eiaeaena aiai?yo i ?aaeiia (iai?eia?, 45
– yoi Aaoee?ey, 141 – iiaeiineiauea e o.ae.), iineaaeiea aeaa oeeo?u –
iiia? ii/oiaiai ioaeaeaiey a ai?iaea, iaeanoe eee ?aeiia. I?iiaaeooi/iua
oeeo?u iiaoo ioiineoueny eae e ?aaeiio, oae e e ioaeaeaieth, a
caaeneiinoe io oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey e aeaea ianaeaiiiai ioieoa.
Aiaeiae/ii nouanoaoao ianeieueei oeiia aae?ania Internet (oeiu: A, B, C,
D, E), eioi?ua ii-?aciiio aeaeyo aae?an ia iiey iiia?a naoe e iiia?a
ocea, io oeia oaeiai aeaeaiey caaeneo eiee/anoai aiciiaeiuo ?acee/iuo
naoae e iaoei a oaeeo naoyo.

Ii ?yaeo i?e/ei (iniaaiii, – i?aeoe/aneeo, ec-ca ia?aie/aiee
iai?oaeiaaiey) eioi?iaoeey, ia?anueaaiay ii naoyi IP, aeaeeony ia /anoe
(ii a?aieoeai aaeoia), ?aneeaaeuaaaiua a ioaeaeueiua iaeaou. Aeeeia
eioi?iaoeee aioo?e iaeaoa iau/ii ninoaaeyao io 1 aei 1500 aaeo. Yoi
caueuaao naoue io iiiiiieece?iaaiey eaeei-eeai iieueciaaoaeai e
i?aaeinoaaeyao anai i?eia?ii ?aaiua i?aaa. Iiyoiio aea, anee naoue
iaaeinoaoi/ii auno?a, /ai aieueoa iieueciaaoaeae aa iaeiia?aiaiii
iieuecoao, oai iaaeeaiiaa iia aoaeao iauaoueny n eaaeaeui.

I?ioieie IP yaeyaony aeaeoaa?aiiiui i?ioieieii, o.a. IP-iaeao yaeyaony
aeaeoaa?aiiie. Yoi niaa?oaiii ia oeeaaeuaaaony a iiaeaeue ISO OSI, a
?aieao eioi?ie oaea naoaaie o?iaaiue niiniaai ?aaioaoue ii iaoiaeo
ae?ooaeueiuo eaiaeia.

Iaeii ec aeinoieinoa Internet ninoieo a oii, /oi i?ioieiea IP naiiai ii
naaa oaea aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey ?aaiou (a i?eioeeia). Yoi niaa?oaiii
iaoaeiaii, ii, i?e aeinoaoi/iuo aneaoe/iinoe, oia e oii?noaa oaeanony
i?iaeaeaoue iaiaeue iauai ?aaiou. Eae oieueei aeaiiua iiiauathony a
iaiei/eo IP, naoue eiaao anth iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth aeey ia?aaea/e
eo n enoiaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a iieo/aoaeth. ?aaioa a?o/ioth n i?ioieieii
IP iaiiieiaao iai no?iaua a?aiaia aeiia?niiaeueiie eiiiuethoa?iie y?u,
eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue any/anee oaiaeaeae YAI, oe?iuay naie oaei, aeoo e
ynoaoe/aneea /oanoaa. Ia oaeianoaa iieueciaaoaey ieeoi e ia niae?aeny
aeoiaoue, iioiio /oi iaoeiiia a?aiy noieei ai iiiai ?ac aei?iaea
/aeiaa/aneiai. Ii nae/an a aneaoecia iaaeiaiinoe oaea iao. Iiyoiio
neaaeoao iino?ieoue ia iniiaa oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo IP, aieaa
niaa?oaiioth e oaeiaioth nenoaio. Aeey yoiai nia/aea neaaeoao
?acia?aoueny n iaeioi?uie aeeciaiii aaaeiuie i?iaeaiaie, eioi?ua eiatho
ianoi i?e ia?anueea eioi?iaoeee:

aieueoay /anoue ia?anueaaiie eioi?iaoeee aeeeiiaa 1500 neiaieia. anee au
ii/oa ia?anueaea oieueei ii/oiaua ea?oi/ee e ioeacuaaeanue au io
ia?anueee /aai-eeai aieueoaai, iu au, iai?eia?, eeoeeenue
oaeaeaoaeueiaeoaai eeoa?aoo?iiai aeai?a – yienoiey?iiai. Ia aiai?y oaea
i oii, /oi i?aeoe/aneie iieuecu io oaeie ii/ou auei au i/aiue iaiiiai;

aiciiaeiu e iaoaea/e. Ii/oa, ia?aaeei auaaao, ienueia oa?yao; naoue
oiaea, auaaao, oa?yao iaeaou eee eneaaeaao a iooe eioi?iaoeeth a ieo. A
ioee/ea io ii/ou, Internet iiaeao n /anoueth auoiaeeoue ec oaeeo
cao?oaeieoaeueiuo iieiaeaiee;

iaeaou iiaoo i?eoiaeeoue a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, ioee/iie io ia/aeueiie.
Ia?a ienai, ioi?aaeaiiuo ae?oa ca ae?oaii ia aeiyo, ia anaaaea i?eoiaeeo
e iieo/aoaeth a oii aea ii?yaeea; oi aea aa?ii e aeey Internet.

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaeothuee o?iaaiue Internet aeieaeai iaania/eoue niinia
ia?anueee aieueoeo ianneaia eioi?iaoeee e iicaaioeoueny ia
“eneaaeaieyo”, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeaoue ii aeia naoe.

I?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae (TCP) e i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaeoaa?aii (UDP)

Transmission Control Protocol – yoi i?ioieie, oanii naycaiiue n IP,
eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a aiaeiae/iuo oeaeyo, ii ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia –
o?ainii?oiii o?iaia yoaeiiiie iiaeaee ISO OSI. *anoi yoe i?ioieieu, ii
i?e/eia eo oaniie nayce, eiaiotho aianoa, eae TCP/IP. Oa?iei “TCP/IP”
iau/ii icia/aao ana, /oi naycaii n i?ioieieaie TCP e IP. Ii ioaaouaaao
oeaeia naiaenoai i?ioieieia, i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu e aeaaea naio naoue.
A ninoaa naiaenoaa aoiaeyo i?ioieieu TCP, UDP, ICMP, telnet, FTP e
iiiaea ae?oaea.TCP/IP – yoi oaoiieiaey iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
oaoiieiaey internet. Naoue, eioi?ay eniieuecoao oaoiieiaeth internet,
iacuaaaony internet.

Nai i?ioieie TCP caieiaaony i?iaeaiie ia?anueee aieueoeo iauaiia
eioi?iaoeee, iniiauaaynue ia aiciiaeiinoyo i?ioieiea IP. Eae yoi
aeaeaaony? Aiieia cae?aai iiaeii ?anniio?aoue neaaeothuoth neooaoeeth.
Eae iiaeii ia?aneaoue eieao ii ii/oa, anee oa i?eieiaao oieueei ienueia
e ie/aai aieaa? I/aiue i?inoi: ?aciae?aoue aa ia no?aieoeu e ioi?aaeoue
no?aieoeu ioaeaeueiuie eiiaa?oaie. Iieo/aoaeue, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue
iiia?aie no?aieoe, eaaei niiaeao eieao ainnoaiiaeoue. Yoei aea i?inoui e
anoanoaaiiui iaoiaeii e iieuecoaony TCP.

TCP aeaeeo eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth iaaei ia?aneaoue, ia ianeieueei
/anoae. Ioia?oao eaaeaeoth /anoue, /oiau iicaea ainnoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie.
*oiau ia?anueaoue yoo ioia?aoeeth aianoa n aeaiiuie, ii iaeeaaeuaaao
eaaeaeue eoni/ae eioi?iaoeee naiae iaeiaeeie – eiiaa?oii, eioi?ue
niaea?aeeo niioaaonoaothuoth eioi?iaoeeth. Yoi e anoue TCP-eiiaa?o.
Iieo/eaoeeny TCP-iaeao iiiauaaony a ioaeaeueiue IP-eiiaa?o e iieo/aaony
IP-iaeao, n eioi?ui naoue oaea oiaao ia?auaoueny.

Iieo/aoaeue (TCP-iiaeoeue (i?ioeann)) ii iieo/aiee ?aniaeiauaaao
IP-eiiaa?ou e aeaeeo TCP-eiiaa?ou, ?aniaeiauaaao e eo e iiiauaao aeaiiua
a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue /anoae a niioaaonoaothuaa ianoi. Anee /aai-oi ia
aeinoaao, ii o?aaoao ia?aneaoue yoio eoni/ae niiaa. A eiioea eiioeia
eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony a ioaeiii ii?yaeea e iieiinoueth
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony. Aio oaia?ue yoio iannea ia?anueaaony auoa e
iieueciaaoaeth (ia aeene, ia ye?ai, ia ia/aoue).

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, yoi neaaea oo?e?iaaiiue acaeyae ia TCP. A
?aaeueiinoe iaeaou ia oieueei oa?ythony, ii e iiaoo eneaaeaoueny i?e
ia?aaea/a ec-ca iaee/ey iiiao ia eeieyo nayce. TCP ?aoaao e yoo
i?iaeaio. Aeey yoiai ii iieuecoaony nenoaiie eiaeia, eni?aaeythueo
ioeaee. Nouanoaoao oeaeay iaoea i oaeeo eiaee?iaeao. I?inoaeoei i?eia?ii
oaeiaiai neoaeeo eiae n aeiaaaeaieai e eaaeaeiio iaeaoo eiio?ieueiie
noiiu (e e eaaeaeiio aaeoo aeoa i?iaa?ee ia /aoiinoue). I?e iiiauaiee a
TCP-eiiaa?o au/eneyaony eiio?ieueiay noiia, eioi?ay caienuaaaony a
TCP-caaieiaie. Anee i?e i?eaia caiiai au/eneaiiay noiia ia niaiaaeaao n
oie, /oi oeacaia ia eiiaa?oa, cia/eo /oi-oi ooo ia oi, – aaea-oi a iooe
eiaee ianoi eneaaeaiey, oae /oi iaaei ia?aneaoue yoio iaeao ii iiaie,
/oi e aeaeaaony.

Aeey yniinoe e iieiiou ea?oeiu, iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue caeanue aaaeiia
caia/aiea: Iiaeoeue TCP ?acaeaaao iioie aaeoia ia iaeaou, ia nio?aiyy
i?e yoii a?aieoe iaaeaeo caienyie. O.a., anee iaeei i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann
aeaeaao 3 caiene a -ii?o, oi nianai ia iaycaoaeueii, /oi ae?oaie
i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ia ae?oaii eiioea ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea iieo/eo ec
naiaai -ii?oa eiaiii 3 caiene, i?e/ai eiaiii oaeeo (ii ?acaeaieth), /oi
auee ia?aaeaiu n ae?oaiai eiioea. Any eioi?iaoeey aoaeao iieo/aia
eni?aaii e n nio?aiaieai ii?yaeea ia?aaea/e, ii iia iiaeao oaea auoue
?acaeoa ii ae?oaiio e ia eiia eiee/anoai /anoae. Ia nouanoaoao
caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo /eneii e ?acia?ii caienuaaaiuo niiauaiee n iaeiie
noi?iiu e /eneii e ?acia?ii n/eouaaaiuo niiauaiee n ae?oaie noi?iiu. TCP
o?aaoao, /oiau ana ioi?aaeaiiua aeaiiua auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu i?eiyaoae
eo noi?iiie. Ii eniieuecoao iaeeaeaiey (oaeiaoou) e iiaoi?iua ia?aaea/e
aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiie aeinoaaee. Ioi?aaeoaeth ?ac?aoaaony
ia?aaeaaaoue iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai aeaiiuo, ia aeiaeeaeaynue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia ?aiaa ioi?aaeaiiuo aeaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaaeaeo ioi?aaeaiiuie e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuie aeaiiuie nouanoaoao ieii oaea
ioi?aaeaiiuo, ii aua ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo aeaiiuo. Eiee/anoai aaeo,
eioi?ia iiaeii ia?aaeaaaoue aac iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey, iacuaaaony ?acia?ii
ieia. Eae i?aaeei, ?acia? ieia onoaiaaeeaaaony a noa?oiauo oaeeao
naoaaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Oae eae TCP-eaiae yaeyaony , o.a.
aeaiiua iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaeaaaoueny a iaieo iai?aaeaieyo, oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aeey aeaiiuo, eaeoueo a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee, iiaoo
ia?aaeaaaoueny aianoa n aeaiiuie, eaeoueie a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
iai?aaeaiee. I?eaiieee ia iaaeo noi?iiao ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea auiieiytho
oi?aaeaiea iioieii ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo aeey oiai, /oiau ia aeiioneaoue
ia?aiieiaiey aooa?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioieie TCP iaania/eaaao aa?aioe?iaaiioth aeinoaaeo n
onoaiiaeaieai eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey a aeaea aaeoiauo iioieia. Ii
inaiaiaeaeaao i?eeeaaeiua i?ioeannu io iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaoue
iaeeaeaiey e iiaoi?iua ia?aaea/e aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe. Iaeaieaa
oeie/iuie i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie, eniieuecothueie TCP, yaeythony ftp e
telnet. E?iia oiai, TCP eniieuecoao nenoaia X-Windows (noaiaea?oiue
iiiaiieiiiue a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen n iieueciaaoaeai), “r-eiiaiaeu”.

Aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe TCP aeathony ia aanieaoii, ?aaeecaoeey TCP o?aaoao
aieueoie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?a e aieueoie i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe naoe. Eiaaea i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue
TCP, oi ia/eiatho iauaoueny iiaeoeue TCP ia iaoeia iieueciaaoaey e
iiaeoeue ia iaoeia na?aa?a. Yoe aeaa ieiia/iuo iiaeoey TCP
iiaeaea?aeeaatho eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee niaaeeiaiey – ae?ooaeueiiai
eaiaea. Yoio ae?ooaeueiue eaiae iio?aaeyao ?ano?nu iaieo ieiia/iuo
iiaeoeae TCP. Eaiae yoio, eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, yaeyaony aeoieaeniui.
Iaeei i?eeeaaeiie i?ioeann ieoao aeaiiua a TCP-ii?o, ioeoaea iie
iiaeoeyie niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiae ii oeaii/ea ia?aaeathony ii naoe e
auaeathony a TCP-ii?o ia ae?oaii eiioea eaiaea, e ae?oaie i?eeeaaeiie
i?ioeann /eoaao eo ionthaea – ec naiaai TCP-ii?oa. yioee?oao (nicaeaao
aeaeeiinoue) auaeaeaiioth eeieth nayce aeaoo iieueciaaoaeae. Aa?aioe?oao
iaeciaiiinoue ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. *oi aoiaeeo ia iaeiii eiioea,
aueaeao n ae?oaiai. Oioy a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ieeaeay i?yiay eeiey
ioi?aaeoaeth e iieo/aoaeth a aac?acaeaeueiia aeaaeaiea ia auaeaeyaony
(ae?oaea iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieueciaaoue oa aea oceu e eaiaeu nayce a
naoe a i?iiaaeooeao iaaeaeo iaeaoaie yoeo), ii ecaia yoi, i?aeoe/anee,
eiaiii oae e auaeyaeeo.

Eae au oi?ioi yoi ia cao/aei, ii yoi ia iaiaoeay. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue,
onoaiiaea TCP-ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea nayce o?aaoao aieueoeo ?anoiaeia ia
eieoeee?iaaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea niaaeeiaiey e i?eaiaeeo e caaea?aeeai
ia?aaea/e. Anee any yoa noaoa – eceeoanoai, eo/oa iaieoenue aac iaa.
Anee ana aeaiiua, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ia?anueee, oiauathony a iaeiii
iaeaoa, e anee aan ia iniaaiii caaioeo iaaeaaeiinoue aeinoaaee (? –
/eoaeoa aeaeueoa, – iieiaoa), oi iiaeii iaieoenue aac TCP.

Eiaaony ae?oaie noaiaea?oiue i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, eioi?ue ia
ioyaiuai oaeeie iaeeaaeiuie ?anoiaeaie. Yoio i?ioieie iacuaaaony UDP –
User Datagram Protocol – i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo aeaeoaa?aii. Ii
eniieuecoaony aianoi TCP. Caeanue aeaiiua iiiauathony ia a TCP, a a
UDP-eiiaa?o, eioi?ue oaeaea iiiauaaony a IP-eiiaa?o. Yoio i?ioieie
?aaeecoao aeaeoaa?aiiiue niinia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Aeaeoaa?aiia – yoi iaeao, ia?aaeaaaaiue /a?ac naoue iacaaeneii io
ae?oaeo iaeaoia aac onoaiiaeaiey eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia. Aeaeoaa?aiia – niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiue
iaeao, iineieueeo naia niaea?aeeo anth iaiaoiaeeioth aeey aa ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeeth. Aa ia?aaea/a i?ienoiaeeo aaci anyeiai i?aaeaa?aiey e
iiaeaioiaee. Aeaeoaa?aiiu, naie ii naaa, ia niaea?aeao n?aaenoa
iaia?oaeaiey e eni?aaeaiey ioeaie ia?aaea/e, iiyoiio i?e ia?aaea/a
aeaiiuo n eo iiiiuueth neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ia?u ii iaania/aieth
iaaeaaeiinoe ia?anueee eioi?iaoeee. Iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaaeiinoe
iiaoo auoue naiuie ?aciuie, iau/ii aea eniieuecoaony iaoiae
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?eaia iinueeie yoiioeeeea i?e iieo/aiee eaaeaeiai
iaeaoa n aeaeoaa?aiiie.

UDP i?iua TCP, iineieueeo ii ia caaioeony i aiciiaeiie i?iiaaea aeaiiuo,
iaeaoia, i nio?aiaiee i?aaeeueiiai ii?yaeea aeaiiuo e o.ae. UDP
eniieuecoaony aeey eeeaioia, eioi?ua iinueatho oieueei ei?ioeea
niiauaiey e iiaoo i?inoi caiiai iineaoue niiauaiea, anee ioeeee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ia i?eaeao aeinoaoi/ii auno?i. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi au
ieoeoa i?ia?aiio, eioi?ay i?iniao?eaaao aaco aeaiiuo n oaeaoiiiuie
iiia?aie aaea-ieaoaeue a ae?oaii ianoa naoe. Niaa?oaiii iaca/ai
onoaiaaeeaaoue TCP naycue, /oiau ia?aaeaoue 33 eee ieiei oiai neiaieia a
eaaeaeii iai?aaeaiee. Au iiaeaoa i?inoi oeiaeeoue eiy a UDP-iaeao,
caiaeiaaoue yoi a IP-iaeao e iineaoue. Ia ae?oaii eiioea i?eeeaaeiay
i?ia?aiia iieo/eo iaeao, i?i/eoaao eiy, iiniio?eo oaeaoiiiue iiia?,
iieiaeeo aai a ae?oaie UDP-iaeao e ioi?aaeo ia?aoii. *oi i?iecieaeao,
anee iaeao ii iooe iioa?yaony? Aaoa i?ia?aiia oiaaea aeieaeia
aeaenoaiaaoue oae: anee iia aeaeao ioaaoa neeoeii aeieai e noaiiaeony
ynii, /oi iaeao caoa?yeny, iia i?inoi iiaoi?yao cai?in, o.a. iinueaao
aua ?ac oi aea iineaiea. Oae iaania/eaaaony iaaeaaeiinoue ia?aaea/e i?e
eniieueciaaiee i?ioieiea UDP.

A ioee/ea io TCP, aeaiiua, ioi?aaeyaiua i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii /a?ac
iiaeoeue UDP, aeinoeaatho ianoa iacia/aiey eae aaeeiia oeaeia. Iai?eia?,
anee i?ioeann-ioi?aaeoaeue i?iecaiaeeo 3 caiene a UDP-ii?o, oi
i?ioeann-iieo/aoaeue aeieaeai aoaeao naeaeaoue 3 /oaiey. ?acia?
eaaeaeiai caienaiiiai niiauaiey aoaeao niaiaaeaoue n ?acia?ii
niioaaonoaothuaai i?i/eoaiiiai. I?ioieie UDP nio?aiyao a?aieoeu
niiauaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiua i?eeeaaeiui i?ioeannii. Ii ieeiaaea ia
iauaaeeiyao ianeieueei niiauaiee a iaeii oeaeia e ia aeaeeo iaeii
niiauaiea ia /anoe.

Aeueoa?iaoeaa TCP-UDP iicaieyao i?ia?aiienoo aeaei e ?aoeeiiaeueii
eniieueciaaoue i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ?ano?nu, enoiaey ec naieo aiciiaeiinoae
e iio?aaiinoae. Anee ioaeia iaaeaaeiay aeinoaaea, oi eo/oa iiaeao auoue
TCP. Anee ioaeia aeinoaaea aeaeoaa?aii, oi – UDP. Anee ioaeia
yooaeoeaiay aeinoaaea ii aeeeiiiio e iaiaaeaaeiiio eaiaeo ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo, oi eo/oa eniieueciaaoue TCP. Anee ioaeia yooaeoeaiinoue ia
auno?uo naoyo n ei?ioeeie niaaeeiaieyie, eo/oa anaai aoaeao UDP. Anee
iio?aaiinoe ia iiiaaeatho ie a iaeio ec yoeo eaoaai?ee, oi auai?
o?ainii?oiiai i?ioieiea ia ynai. I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu, eiia/ii, iiaoo
ono?aiyoue iaeioi?ua iaaeinoaoee aua?aiiiai i?ioieiea. Iai?eia?, anee au
aua?aee UDP, a aai iaiaoiaeeia iaaeaaeiinoue, oi i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia
aeieaeia iaania/eoue iaaeaaeiinoue naia, eae iienaii auoa: o?aaiaaoue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey, ia?anueee ooa?yiiuo eee oaa/iuo iaeaoia e o.ae. Anee
au aua?aee TCP, a aai ioaeii ia?aaeaaaoue caiene, oi i?eeeaaeiay
i?ia?aiia aeieaeia anoaaeyoue iaoee a iioie

Nicaeaiea naoe n /aeiaa/aneei eeoeii. I?eeeaaeiia iaania/aiea

E aio iu eiaai aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie oi/eaie a naoe. Aio oaia?ue iu iiaeai ia/aoue ?aaioaoue iaae
nicaeaieai ae?oaeanoaaiiiai eioa?oaena Internet, iicaaioeoueny ia
oaeianoaa aeey iieueciaaoaey. Aeey yoiai iu iaieoai i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea, eioi?ia aoaeao iiieiaoue ycue eiiaiae, auaeaaaoue niiauaiey
ia ioeaeao, iiaeneacee, eniieueciaaoue aeey aae?anaoeee naoaauo
eiiiuethoa?ia i?e iauaiee n iieueciaaoaeai eiaia, a ia /enea e o.ae. A
iiaeaee ISO OSI ia yoi ?aaioatho o?iaie auoa o?ainii?oiiai, o.a.
naainiaue, i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo e i?eeeaaeiie. Any yoa aeayoaeueiinoue
iai?aaeaia ia iiauoaiea o?iaiy oaeianoaa ?aaiou a naoe, ia nicaeaiea
nenoai, iicaieythueo iieueciaaoueny i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie
iau/iiio iieueciaaoaeth naoe.

Aaaeue aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae nianai ia aieioao ie iaee/ea
iaaeaaeiiai iioiea aeoia iaaeaeo iaoeiaie, ie i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
yoeo eeiee eee oiieinoe e iniaaiiinoe eniieuecoaiie oaoiieiaee, ie
aeaaea yecioe/iinoue yoie oaoiieiaee. Iie oioyo eniieueciaaoue yoio
aeoiaue iioie aeey aeaea, eae oi: ia?aneaoue oaee, aeia?aoueny aei
eaeeo-oi aeaiiuo eee i?inoi iiea?aoue a ea?o. I?eeiaeaiey – yoi /anoe
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Eo nicaeatho ia iniiaa na?aena TCP eee UDP.
I?eeiaeaiey iicaieytho iieueciaaoaeth aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi ni?aaeoueny n
aicieeoae caaea/ae, ia iia?oaeaynue a io/eio oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee i
eiie?aoiie naoe, i i?ioieieao e o.ae.

I?eeeaaeiia iaania/aiea ?acieony i/aiue neeueii. I?eeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue
io naiiaeaeueiie i?ia?aiiu aei iaoaioiaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia, iinoaaeyaiuo
?acee/iuie oe?iaie (DEC, Microsoft e o.i.). Nouanoaoao o?e noaiaea?oiuo
Internet -i?eeiaeaiey: oaeaeaiiue aeinooi, ia?aaea/a oaeeia, yeaeo?iiiay
ii/oa (e-mail); ia?yaeo n ieie eniieuecothony ae?oaea oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiua ianoaiaea?oiua i?eeiaeaiey.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa Internet iino?iaii ii noaia “eeeaio – na?aa?”.
I?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa inouanoaeyaony niaianoiie ?aaioie aeaoo
i?ioeannia: ia eiiiuethoa?a iieueciaaoaey e ia eiiiuethoa?a-na?aa?a.
I?ioeann ia eiiiuethoa?a iieueciaaoaey iacuaaaony eeeaioii, a ia
eiiiuethoa?a-na?aa?a – na?aa?ii. Eeeaio e na?aa? yaeythony, ii nooe,
/anoyie iaeiie i?ia?aiiu, acaeiiaeaenoaothuea ii ae?ooaeueiie nayce a
naoe. Na?aa? ii oeacaieyi eeeaioa auiieiyao niioaaonoaothuea aeaenoaey,
iai?eia?, ia?anueaao eeeaioo oaee. Aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoae
niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea aeaoo yoeo iiaeoeae – eeeaioa e na?aa?a,
e eo iaeiia?aiaiiay niaeaniaaiiay ?aaioa. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eeeaioa e
na?aa?a iienuaaaony niioaaonoaothueie noaiaea?oiuie i?ioieieaie, iiyoiio
eeeaio e na?aa? iiaoo auoue auiouaiu niaa?oaiii ?aciuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
e ?aaioaoue ia ?acii?iaeiuo eiiiuethoa?ao. Iiyoiio aea nouanoaoao
iaaieueoay i?iaeaia ianoaiaea?oiinoe eioa?oaena eeeaioa iaiin?aaenoaaiii
oaea n iieueciaaoaeai. Yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea iiaeao eiaoue niaa?oaiii
?acee/ioth oi?io: eioa?aeoeaioth, eiiaiaeioth e o.ae. Nenoaiu eiiaiae
iiaoo ?acee/aoueny. Ii io yoiai naie aiciiaeiinoe ia eciaiythony,
iineieueeo eeeaio e na?aa? anaaaea acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaeeiaeiai –
niaeanii i?ioieieo.

Oae eae i?eeeaaeiui iaania/aieai niaaaeatho ii aieueoae /anoe /a?ac
eieaeueiua naoe, a ?acaiai?a i i?eeiaeaieyo aicieeaao auoaoiiiyiooay
i?iaeaia: eiiaiaeu, niiauaiey, ni?aaee, iiaeneacee e o.i. a ?aciuo
eieaeueiuo naoyo iiaoo a oie eee eiie noaiaie ioee/aoueny. Ia yoii ia
neaaeoao caauaaoue i?e /oaiee ?oeiaiaenoa iieueciaaoaey: niiauaiey iiaoo
ioee/aoueny, ii niune eo aoaeao oaeie aea, oi aea eanaaony e eiiaiae.
Aeaaea anee iie neaaea ioee/athony, ia noieo aieiiaaoueny, aieueoeinoai
i?eeiaeaiee eiaao ?acoiioth nenoaio iiaeneacie e iienaiea iaai?a
eiiaiae, aaea au aeaoaeueii e eiie?aoii niiaeaoa ?acociaoue ana, /oi aai
iiiaaeiaeony.

Nenoaiu naoaauo aae?ania

?aaeiiaeueiay Nenoaia Eiai

*eneiaua aae?ana oi?ioe aeey nayce iaoei, ethaee aea i?aaeii/eoatho
eiaia. I/aiue iai?inoi ?acaiaa?eaaoue, eniieuecoy iaoeiioth aae?anaoeeth
(eae au yoi cao/aei: “192.112.36.5 iaauaao anei?a…”?), aua o?oaeiaa
caiiiieoue yoe aae?ana. Iiyoiio eiiiuethoa?ai a Internet aeey oaeianoaa
iieueciaaoaeae auee i?enaiaiu nianoaaiiua eiaia. Oiaaea iienaiiue
?acaiai? i?eieiaao aeae: “NIC iaauaao anei?a…”. Ana i?eeiaeaiey
Internet iicaieytho iieueciaaoueny nenoaiiuie eiaiaie aianoi /eneiauo
aae?ania.

Eae iu oaea oiiieiaee, aeey iiieiaiey iieacii eniieueciaaoue ii/oiaoth
aiaeiaeth. Naoaaua /eneaiiua aae?ana aiieia aiaeiae/iu ii/oiaie
eiaeaenaoeee. Iaoeiu, ni?oe?othuea ei??aniiiaeaioeeth ia ii/oiauo oceao,
i?eaioe?othony eiaiii ii eiaeaenai, e oieueei anee n eiaeaenaie auoiaeeo
eaeay-oi iano?aciinoue, ia?aaeatho ii/oo ia ?anniio?aiea ethaeyi,
eioi?ua ii aae?ano iiaoo ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeeueiue eiaeaen ii/oiaiai
ioaeaeaiey ianoa iacia/aiey. Ethaeyi aea i?eyoiaa e oaeiaiaa eiaoue
aeaei n aaia?aoe/aneeie iacaaieyie – yoi aiaeiae aeiiaiiuo eiai.

Eiia/ii, oaeia eiaiiaaiea eiaao naie nianoaaiiua i?iaeaiu. I?aaeaea
anaai, neaaeoao oaaaeeoueny, /oi ieeaeea aeaa eiiiuethoa?a, aeeth/aiiua
a naoue, ia eiatho iaeeiaeiauo eiai. Aeieaeii oaeaea iaania/eoue
i?aia?aciaaiea eiai a /eneiaua aae?ana, aeey oiai /oiau iaoeiu (e
i?ia?aiiu) iiaee iiieiaoue ian, iieuecothueony eiaiaie: oaoieea
ii-i?aaeiaio iauaaony ia ycuea oeeo?.

A ia/aea Internet ?acia?aie iaiiieiaea eo?eeeo, e eiaoue aeaei n eiaiaie
auei aeiaieueii i?inoi. NIC nicaeae ?aaeno?aoo?o. Iiaeii auei iineaoue
cai?in e a ioaao aunueaee nienie eiai e aae?ania. Yoio oaee, iacuaaaony
“host file” (oaee ?aai/eo YAI), ?aaoey?ii ?ani?ino?aiyeny ii anae naoe
– ?annueaeny anai iaoeiai. Eiaia auee i?inouie neiaaie, ana auee
aaeeinoaaiiuie. Anee au eniieueciaaee eiy, aao eiiiuethoa? i?iniao?eaae
yoio oaee e iiaenoaaeye aianoi eiaie ?aaeueiue /eneiaie aae?an. Oae aea,
eae ?aaioaao oaeaoiiiue aiia?ao ni ano?iaiiui nieneii aaiiaioia. Ana
auei eaaei, i?inoi e caia/aoaeueii. Anai oaaoaei i?inouo eiai, a eo?eeea
aue iaeei Aeaeii, iaeei Ieo, iaeei Iaoa?iooee.

Ii ii ia?a ?acaeoey e ?anoe?aiey Internet aic?anoaei eiee/anoai
iieueciaaoaeae, oinoia, a iioiio oaaee/eaaeny e oiiiyiooue oaee.
Aicieeaee cia/eoaeueiua caaea?aeee i?e ?aaeno?aoeee e iieo/aiee eiaie
iiaui eiiiuethoa?ii, noaei cao?oaeieoaeueii ecuneeaaoue eiaia, eioi?ua
aua ieeoi ia eniieueciaae, neeoeii iiiai naoaaiai a?aiaie cao?a/eaaeinue
ia ?annueeo yoiai ia?iiiiai oaeea anai iaoeiai, a iai oiiiyiooui. Noaei
i/aaeaeii, – /oiau ni?aaeoueny n oaeeie oaiiaie eciaiaiee e ?inoa naoe,
ioaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiiay iia?aoeaiay nenoaia, iie?athuayny ia iiaue
i?eioeei. Oaeiaay auea nicaeaia, aa iacaaee “aeiiaiiie nenoaiie eiai”
– DNS, a niinia aae?anaoeee – niiniaii aae?anaoeee ii aeiiaiiiio
i?eioeeio. DNS eiiaaea aua iacuaatho ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaiie
iaeiaiiaaiee.

No?oeoo?a ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaiu eiai

Aeiiaiiay nenoaia eiai – yoi iaoiae iacia/aiey eiai iooai ia?aaea/e
naoaaui a?oiiai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eo iiaeiiiaeanoai eiai. Eaaeaeue
o?iaaiue yoie nenoaiu iacuaaaony aeiiaiii. Aeiiaiu a eiaiao ioaeaeythony
ae?oa io ae?oaa oi/eaie: inr.msk.su, nusun.jinr.dubna.su,
arty.bashkiria.su, vxcern.cern.ch, nic.ddn.mil. A eiaie iiaeao auoue
?acee/iia eiee/anoai aeiiaiia, ii i?aeoe/anee eo ia aieueoa iyoe. Ii
ia?a aeaeaeaiey ii aeiiaiai neaaa iai?aai a eiaie, eiee/anoai eiai,
aoiaeyueo a niioaaonoaothuoth a?oiio aic?anoaao.

Ia?aui a eiaie noieo iacaaiea ?aai/ae iaoeiu – ?aaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a n
IP aae?anii. Yoi eiy nicaeaii e iiaeaea?aeeaaaony a?oiiie (iai?eia?,
eiiiuethoa? nusun (yoi SUN sparc) a a?oiia jinr (IEssE)), e eioi?ie ii
ioiineony. A?oiia aoiaeeo a aieaa e?oiiia iiae?acaeaeaiea (iai?eia?,
ai?iaeneia iauaaeeiaiea – naoue ai?iaea Aeoaiu), eioi?ia a naith
i/a?aaeue, yaeyaony /anoueth iaoeeiiaeueiie naoe (iai?eia?, naoe no?ai
auaoaai NNN?, aeiiai su). Aeey NOA iaeiaiiaaiea no?aiu ii o?aaeeoeee
iioneaaony, oai naiuie e?oiiuie iauaaeeiaieyie yaeythony naoe
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo (edu), eiiia?/aneeo (com), ainoaea?noaaiiuo (gov),
aiaiiuo (mil) o/?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea naoe ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee (org) e
naoaauo ?ano?nia (net).

A?oiia iiaeao nicaeaaaoue eee eciaiyoue ethaua ae iiaeeaaeauea eiaia.
Anee jinr ?aoeo iinoaaeoue ae?oaie eiiiuethoa?, iai?eia?, VAX 11/780, e
iacaaoue aai mainx, ii ie o eiai ia aeieaeai ni?aoeaaoue ?ac?aoaiey,
ana, /oi io iaai o?aaoaony, – yoi aeiaaaeoue iiaia eiy a
niioaaonoaothuoth /anoue niioaaonoaothuae anaie?iie aacu aeaiiuo, e,
?aii eee iicaeii, eaaeaeue, eiio iio?aaoaony, ociaao ia yoii eiaie.
Aiaeiae/ii, anee a Aeoaia ?aoao nicaeaoue iiaoth a?oiio, iai?eia?,
schools, iie (aeiiai dubna) iiaoo yoi naeaeaoue oaeaea, ie o eiai ia oi
ia ni?aoeaay ieeaeiai niecaieaiey. E oiaaea, anee eaaeaeay a?oiia
i?eaea?aeeaaaony oaeeo i?inouo i?aaee e anaaaea oaaaeaeaaony, /oi eiaia,
eioi?ua iia i?enaaeaaao, aaeeinoaaiiu ai iiiaeanoaa aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
iiae/eiaiiuo, oi ieeaeea aeaa nenoaiu, aaea au oa ie auee a naoe
Internet, ia niiaoo caeiaoue iaeeiaeiauo eiai.

Yoa neooaoeey niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/ia neooaoeee n i?enaiaieai
aaia?aoe/aneeo iacaaiee – i?aaiecaoeeae ii/oiauo aae?ania. Iacaaiey anao
no?ai ?acee/athony. ?acee/athony iacaaiey anao iaeanoae, ?anioaeee a
Oaaea?aoeee, e yoe iacaaiey ooaa?aeaeathony a ainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa
ec oeaio?a (eiia/ii, iau/ii naie ?aaeiiu caaioyony ia oieeaeueiinoe
naieo iacaaiee, iiyoiio caeanue oea?eo iieiay aeaiie?aoey: eae
?anioaeeea oi/ao, oae iia e iacuaaaony). A ?anioaeeeao –
noauaeoao oaaea?aoeee – ?aoatho aii?inu i iacaaieyo ?aeiiia e ie?oaia, a
i?aaeaeao iaeiie ?anioaeeee iie ?acee/athony. Aiaeiae/ii aeaeaa n
ai?iaeaie e oeeoeaie ai?iaeia. A ?aciuo ai?iaeao iiaoo auoue oeeoeu n
iaeeiaeiauie iacaaieyie: ii/aio au ia auoue ai anao ai?iaeao Cithca ii
oeeoea Eaieia eee Ie?a? Yoi oeeoeu ?aciuo ai?iaeia, e eo ia ia?aiooaoue
(iiiiy i ai?iaeao! Ia iaiiieiaeoa “N eaaeei ia?ii!”). A i?aaeaeao aea
iaeiiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa oeeoeu anaiai?aiaiii eiatho ?aciua iacaaiey,
i?e/ai eiaiiaaiea yoeo oeeoe oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth iiae
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e ia/aeii niioaaonoaothuaai oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaia
aeaiiiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa (iy?ee, naeueniaaoa, ai?niaaoa). Oaeei
ia?acii, ii/oiaue aae?an ia iniiaa aaia?aoe/aneeo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
iacaaiee iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyao oi/eo iacia/aiey.

Iineieueeo Internet – naoue ie?iaay, o?aaiaaeny oaeaea niinia ia?aaea/e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eiaia aioo?e no?ai ei naiei. Nae/an i?eiyoa
aeaooaoeaaiiay eiaee?iaea ainoaea?noa. Yoi iaiai?aii a RFC 822. Oae,
iai?eia?, aeiiai Eaiaaea iacuaaaony ca, auaoee NNN? – su, NOA – us e
o.ae. NOA oaeaea aeeth/eee a yoo nenoaio no?oeoo?e?iaaiey aeey
anaiauiinoe e ii?yaeea. Anaai aea eiaeia no?ai ii/oe 300, ec eioi?uo
ieiei 100 eiaao eiiiuethoa?ioth naoue oiai eee eiiai ?iaea. Aaeeiue
eaoaeia Internet iaoiaeeony o SRI International (Iaiei-Ia?e, Eaeeoi?iey,
NOA) – ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiene aae?ana ii aeiiaiiiio eiaie

Oaia?ue au ciaaoa, eae niioiinyony aeiiaiu e nicaeathony eiaia.
Aiciiaeii, au oaia?ue icaaea/aiu: a eae eniieueciaaoue yoo
caia/aoaeueioth nenoaio? Aaoiiaoe/anee. Aai iaaei eeoue oiio?aaeoue eiy
ia eiiiuethoa?a, eioi?ue iiieiaao, eae ia?auaoueny n DNS. Aai ieeiaaea
ia i?eaeaony naiei ?acuneeaaoue aae?an, niioaaonoaothuee yoiio eiaie,
eee iiaeaaaoue niaoeeaeueioth eiiaiaeo aeey aai iienea (a UNIX –
eiiaiaea nslookup). Au, eiia/ii, iiaeaoa yoi i?iaeaeaoue – aeey
nianoaaiiiai oaeiaieuenoaey, ii ca/ai, aaaeue yoiai nianai ia o?aaoaony.
Ana eiiiuethoa?u Internet niiniaiu iieueciaaoueny aeiiaiiie nenoaiie. E
?aaioathuee a naoe eiiiuethoa? anaaaea ciaao naie nianoaaiiue naoaaie
aae?an.

Eiaaea au iieuecoaoanue eiaiai, iai?eia?, mx.ihep.su, eiiiuethoa?
aeieaeai i?aia?aciaaoue aai a aae?an. Aeey yoiai ii ia/eiaao
cai?aoeaaoue iiiiuue o DNS-na?aa?ia. Yoi oceu, ?aai/ea iaoeiu,
iaeaaeathuea niioaaonoaothuae aacie aeaiiuo, a /enei iaycaiiinoae
eioi?uo aoiaeeo ianeoaeeaaiea oaeiai ?iaea cai?inia. DNS-na?aa? ia/eiaao
ia?aaioeo eiaie n i?aaiai aai eiioea e aeaeaaaony ii iaio aeaai, o.a.
nia/aea i?iecaiaeeony iiene aae?ana a naiie aieueoie a?oiia (aeiiaia),
iio?ii iinoaiaiii noaeaao iiene. Ii aeey ia/aea ii?aoeaaaony ia i?aaeiao
iaee/ey o iaai ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee ianoiue ocae. Caeanue aiciiaeiu o?e
neo/ay:

Ianoiue na?aa? ciaao aae?an, iioiio, /oi yoio aae?an niaea?aeeony a aai
/anoe anaie?iie aacu aeaiiuo. Iai?eia?, anee au iiaeniaaeeiaiu e naoe
Einoeoooa Oeceee Aunieeo Yia?aee (IHEP), oi aao ianoiue na?aa? aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue eioi?iaoeeae i anao eiiiuethoa?ao eieaeueiie naoe yoiai
einoeoooa (mx, desert, ixwin e o.ae.);

Ianoiue na?aa? ciaao aae?an, iioiio, /oi eoi-oi iaaeaaii oaea
cai?aoeaae oio aea aae?an. Eiaaea cai?aoeaaaony aae?an, na?aa? DNS
i?eaea?aeeaaao aai o naay a iaiyoe iaeioi?ia a?aiy, eae ?ac ia neo/ae,
anee eoi-ieaoaeue aua caoi/ao iiiicaea oiai aea aae?ana – yoi iiauoaao
yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu;

Ianoiue na?aa? aae?an ia ciaao, ii ciaao eae aai auynieoue.

Eae ianoiue na?aa? iiaeao ?acociaoue cai?ioaiiue aae?an? A aai
i?eeeaaeiii eee nenoaiiii i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee eiaaony eioi?iaoeey i
oii, eae naycaoueny n ei?iaaui na?aa?ii. Yoi na?aa?, eioi?ue ciaao
aae?ana na?aa?ia eiai aunoaai o?iaiy (naiuo i?aauo a eiaie), caeanue yoi
o?iaaiue ainoaea?noa (?aiaa aeiiaia su). O iaai cai?aoeaaaony aae?an
eiiiuethoa?a, ioaaonoaaiiiai ca ciio su. Ianoiue DNS-na?aa? naycuaaaony
n yoei aieaa iauei na?aa?ii e cai?aoeaaao o iaai aae?an na?aa?a,
ioaaonoaaiiiai ca aeiiai ihep.su. Oaia?ue oaea cai?aoeaaaony yoio na?aa?
e o iaai cai?aoeaaaony aae?an ?aai/ae iaoeiu mx.

Ia naiii aeaea, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe, iiene ia/eiaaony ia n
naiiai aa?oa, a n iaeiaiueoaai aeiiaia, a eioi?ue aoiaeeoa e au, e
eiiiuethoa?, eiy eioi?iai au cai?ineee. Iai?eia?, anee aao eiiiuethoa?
eiaao eiy nonlin.mipt.su, oi ii?in ia/iaony (anee eiy ia auynieony
n?aco) ia ni anaie?iiai na?aa?a, /oiau ociaoue aae?an na?aa?a a?oiiu su,
a n?aco n a?oiiu su, /oi n?aco nie?auaao iiene e ii iauaio, e ii
a?aiaie.

Yoio iiene aae?ana niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/ai iieneo iooe ienueia aac
iaaeienaiiiai ii/oiaiai eiaeaena. Eae ii?aaeaeyaony yoio eiaeaen? Ana
?aaeiiu i?iioia?iaaiu – yoi ia?aua oeeo?u eiaeaena. Ienueii ia?anueaaony
ia oeaio?aeueiue ii/oaio yoiai ?aaeiia, aaea eiaaony ni?aai/iee n
ioia?aoeeae ?aeiiia yoiai ?aaeiia – yoi neaaeothuea oeeo?u eiaeaena.
Oaia?ue ienueii eaeao ia oeaio?aeueiue ii/oaio niioaaonoaothuaai ?aeiia,
aaea oaea ciatho ana ii/oiaua ioaeaeaiey a iiaeiia/iii ?aeiia. Oaeei
ia?acii ii aaia?aoe/aneiio aae?ano ii?aaeaeyaony ii/oiaue eiaeaen, aio
niioaaonoaothuee. Oaeaea ii?aaeaeyaony e aae?an eiiiuethoa?a a Internet,
ii iooaoanoaoao ia iineaiea, a cai?in aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a ia yoii
aae?ana. E a ioee/ea io neo/ay n ii/oie, eioi?iaoeey ia aae?ana
aeioiaeeo aei aan, eae anee au ?aeiiiue ii/oaio ianoa iacia/aiey
ioi?aaeye aai ienueii, ethaacii oaaaeiieyy aan ia aoaeouaa ia eiaeaena,
eioi?iai au ia ecaieeee ciaoue.

Iaeioi?ua eiiiuethoa?u (anoue aua oaeea aeeiicaa?u) ana aua ?aaioatho ii
noa?eiea, o.a. eniieuecoy host-oaeeu. Anee au aae?oa i/ooeoanue ia
iaeiii ec ieo, aai iaaei aoaeao i?ineoue aaeieieno?aoi?a, eeai naiiio
a?o/ioth ?acuneaoue ioaeiue aai aae?an, a aaeieieno?aoi? aeieaeai aoaeao
iioii aeeth/eoue niioaaonoaothuoth caienue a ianoiue host-oaee.
Iiaeneaaeeoa aaeieieno?aoi?o, /oi oae aeaaii ii?a au onoaiiaeoue
i?ia?aiiu aeey iiaeaea?aeee DNS, oae /oiau aieaa aai yoei iieneii
caieiaoueny ia i?eoeinue.

Nenoaia aae?ania X.400

X.400 – iauee noaiaea?o, ?ac?aaioaiiue ISO e CCITT, aeey oi?aaeaiey
niiauaieyie. Yoio noaiaea?o ieaie?otho i?eiyoue iiiaea naoe. Iaeioi?ua
oaea eniieuecotho aai.

Aeiiieieoaeueii e iau/iiio oaenoo, niiauaiey X.400 iiaoo niaea?aeaoue e
ae?oaea oi?iaou (oaenu, caiene caoeia ?a/e, iocuee, ?acee/iua
ecia?aaeaiey e o.ae.). Aae?anaoeey a iieueciaaiee oaeaea i/aiue i?inoa,
neaaea iaiiieiaao naiae eaeaae DNS. Oieueei caeanue eniieuecothony ia
iacaaiey a?oii, naoae, ii aieaa i?eau/iua a iaeoiaea iiiyoey:

Eiae no?aiu -oio aea, /oi a RFC822;

ADMD – Administration Management = aeiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey
. Ii?aaeaeyao iauanoaaiiue iineoaeue X.400.Aeaaeaeueoeai ADMD iau/ii
yaeyaony eiiiaiey ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth oneoa aeaeueiae nayce eee
ainoaea?noaaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea nayce. Aeey niaaeeiaiey ADMD ae?oa n
ae?oaii eo aeaaeaeueoeu caeeth/atho aeaonoi?iiiea niaeaoaiey, e,
anoanoaaiii, ia ana ADMD niaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Naiua e?oiiua
aeaaeaeueoeu ADMD: AT&T, MCI, Sprint

PRMD -Private Management Domain = aeiiai /anoiiai oi?aaeaiey.
Ii?aaeaeyao eniieuecoaiue /anoiue iineoaeue X.400. Yoi iiaeao auoue
EUnet, BITN e o.ae. eee aea /anoiay i?aaiecaoeey;

I?aaiecaoeey – Oeacuaaao i?aaiecaoeeth iieo/aoaey. Ath iiaeao auoue,
iai?eia?, eiiiaiey eee o/aaiia caaaaeaiea IOOE Oxford, Cambridge, MIT e
o.ae.;

I?a.aaeeieoea – Ii?aaeaeyao iiae?acaeaeaiea. Eo iiaeao auoue ianeieueei.
Iai?eia? ia i?inoi physics, ii lab_1 eee lab_2;

Oaieeey – Ieioieeia;

Eiy – Ieaa. O?aaoaony, anee oaieeey aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?ai?iiay.

Iiaeii i?aia?aciaaoue noa?ue aae?an a X.400 oi?iao, ii ia anaaaea yoi
aoaeao i?inoi. Oai ia iaiaa, aiieia iiaeao noaoueny, /oi aan in/anoeeayo
ienueiii a oi?iaoa X.400 . *oiau iineaoue ioaao ioi?aaeoaeth, i?inoi
aicueieoa aai aae?an ec iiey “From:” iieo/aiiiai ienueia.
Niioaaonoaothuee oethc n yoei ?acaa?aony.

E n/anoueth eiaaony eino?oeoeey (RFC 987) ii ia?aaiaeo aae?ania e
oaenoiauo niiauaiee X.400 a oi?iao RFC 822, eiaaony niioaaonoaothuaa
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea. Ii, oau, aaeeiie nenoaiu ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey
oaeeo aae?ania ia nouanoaoao; ?aciua ii/oiaua noaioeee ?aaioatho n ieie
iaiiiaeei ii-?aciiio, /oi iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e iaaei?acoiaieyi. Oaeaea
ia nouanoaoao aaeeiiai noaiaea?oa aeey caiene X.400 aae?ana, iiyoiio
iiea iaaiciiaeii aaeeiiia?acii e ynii iaaeienaoue oaeiaie, iai?eia?, ia
aecian -ea?oa.

Caia/aiey ii ?aaeiiaeueiie nenoaia eiai

?ani?ino?aiaii ianeieueei caaeoaeaeaiee, n eioi?uie au iiaeaoa
noieeiooueny, eiay aeaei n eiaiaie. I?eaaaeai ianeieueei aa?iuo
ooaa?aeaeaiee a ea/anoaa iii?iuo, /oiau auaanoe aan ec caaeoaeaeaiee,
eee i?aaeinoa?a/ue io ieo:

*anoe aeiiaiiiai eiaie aiai?yo i oii, eoi ioaaonoaaiai ca iiaeaea?aeeo
yoiai eiaie, oi anoue a /ueai iiae/eiaiee-aaaeaiee iii iaoiaeeony. Iie
iiaoo aiiaua ie/aai ia niiauaoue i aeaaeaeueoea eiiiuethoa?a,
niioaaonoaothuaai yoiio IP-aae?ano, eee aeaaea (ianiio?y ia eiaeu
no?ai), aaea aea yoa iaoeia iaoiaeeony. Aiieia iiaeii eiaoue a
Aioa?eoeaea iaoeio n eiaiai inr.msk.su (EssE ?AI, a.O?ieoee iiae
Iineaie). Yoi niaa?oaiii iaii?iaeueii, ii ieeaeei caeiiai ia
i?ioeai?a/eo. Aio ?aaeueii nouanoaothuee i?eia?: a Einoeoooa Oeie/aneie
Oeceee (iin. *a?iiaieiaea Iineianeie iaeanoe) noieo iaoeia n eiaiai
lle.icp.chg.free.net, ioiinyueiny e aeiiaio net, ?aniieiaeaiiiio, ii
eaeaa, a NOA.

*anoe aeiiaiiiai eiaie aeaaea ia anaaaea oeacuaatho eieaeueioth naoue, a
eioi?ie ?aniieiaeai eiiiuethoa?. *anoi aeiiaiiua eiaia e naoe
ia?ae?uaathony, e aeanoeeo naycae iaaeaeo ieie iao: aeaa iaoeiu iaeiiai
aeiiaia iiaoo ia i?eiaaeeaaeaoue iaeiie naoe. Iai?eia?, nenoaiu
mx.decnet.ihep.su e ms.decnet.ihep.su iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a niaa?oaiii
?aciuo naoyo. E aua ?ac: aeiiaiiua eiaia oeacuaatho ia ioaaonoaaiiiai ca
aeiiai.

O iaoeiu iiaeao auoue iiiai eiai. A /anoiinoe, yoi aa?ii aeey iaoei,
i?aaeinoaaeythueo eaeea-eeai oneoae, eioi?ua a aoaeouai iiaoo auoue
ia?aiauaiu iiae iiaeo ae?oaie iaoeiu. Eiaaea yoe neoaeau aoaeoo
ia?aiauaiu, oi eiy, iiae eioi?ui yoa iaoeia aunooiaea a ea/anoaa oaeiai
na?aa?a, aoaeao ia?aaeaii iiaie iaoeia-na?aa?o aianoa n oneoaaie, – aeey
aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae ie/aai ia eciaieony. O.a. iie aoaeoo
i?iaeieaeaoue iieueciaaoueny yoie neoaeaie, cai?aoeaay aa ii oiio aea
eiaie, iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeie eiiiuethoa? ia naiii aeaea caieiaaony
ianeoaeeaaieai. Eiaia, ii niuneo ioiinyueany e neoaeaa, iacuaathony
“eaiiie/aneeie eiaiaie” eee “eeiaiaie” (cnames). A Internet iie
ano?a/athony aeiaieueii /anoi.

Aeey nayce eiaia iaiaycaoaeueiu. Eae-ieaoaeue aai i?eaeao niiauaiea:
“aae?anao iaecaanoai”, /oi icia/aao, /oi Internet ia iiaeao
i?aia?aciaaoue eniieueciaaiiia aaie eiy a /enei, – eiy aieaa
iaaeaaniiniaii a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii aai ciaao aao eiiiuethoa?.
Iaeiaaeaeu caiieo/ea /eneiaie yeaeaaeaio eiaie, aaoa nenoaia ia?anoaao
eniieueciaaoue aeey nayce ia iaoeiiii o?iaia aeiiaiioth oi?io aae?ana.

Caiiieiaoue eo/oa eiaia, a ia /eneiaua aae?ana. Iaeioi?ui eaaeaony, /oi
nenoaia eiai yoi “aua iaeii caaii a oeaie, eioi?ia iiaeao aueoe ec
no?iy”. Ii aae?ana i?eaycaiu e eiie?aoiui oi/eai naoe. Anee
eiiiuethoa?, i?aaeinoaaeythuee iaeea oneoae, ia?aiineony ec iaeiiai
caeaiey a ae?oaia, aai naoaaia ?aniieiaeaiea, a cia/eo e aae?an, nei?aa
anaai eciaiyony. Eiy aea iaiyoue ia iaaei e ia neaaeoao. Eiaaea
aaeieieno?aoi? i?enaaeaaao iiaue aae?an, aio ioaeii oieueei iaiiaeoue
caienue eiaie a aaca aeaiiuo oae, /oiau eiy oeacuaaei ia iiaue aae?an.
Oae eae eiy ?aaioaao ii-i?aaeiaio, aan niaa?oaiii ia aeieaeii caaioeoue
oi, /oi eiiiuethoa? ?aniieiaeai oaea a ae?oaii ianoa.

?aaeiiaeueiay nenoaia eiai, aiciiaeii, e auaeyaeeo neiaeii, ii yoi iaeia
ec oao ninoaaeythueo, aeaeathueo iauaiea n naoueth aieaa i?inoui e
oaeiaiui. Ianiiiaiiia i?aeiouanoai aeiiaiiie nenoaiu ninoieo a oii, /oi
iia ?acaeaaao a?iiaaeuea Internet ia iaai? aiieia iaic?eiuo e
oi?aaeyaiuo /anoae. Oioy naoue aeeth/aao ieeeeiiu eiiiuethoa?ia, ana iie
iieiaiiaaiu, e eiaiiaaiea yoi i?aaieciaaii a oaeiaiie ?aoeeiiaeueiie
oi?ia, /oi oi?iuaao ?aaioo.

Aeicaieaiiia a Internet

Quod licet Jovi non licet bovi

*oi aeicaieaii a Internet – aii?in i/aiue neiaeiue. Ia yoi aeeytho
caeiiu, yoeea e iieeoeea. Eae iie niioiinyony e /oi ec ieo
ia?ainoaiaiii, caaeneo io eiie?aoiiai ianoa.Internet – ia i?inoi naoue,
iia – naoue naoae, e eaaeaeay ec yoeo naoae iiaeao eiaoue naie
nianoaaiiua i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey e iau/ae. I?aaeea yoe aeiaieueii iaue e
ana aoaeao a ii?yaeea, anee au aoaeaoa iiiieoue iaeioi?ua iauea
iieiaeaiey. E n/anoueth, yoe oeacaiey ia i/aiue no?iae. Anee au
aea?aeeoanue a ioaaaeaiiii eie i?ino?ainoaa, au iiaeaoa aeaeaoue ana,
/oi oaiaeii. Eiaaea aea au oa?yaoa oaa?aiiinoue a i?aaioa naieo
iinooieia, /oanoaoaoa, /oi iiaeoiaeeoa aeecei e e?ath, nayaeeoanue n
aaoei iinoaaueeii naoe e auynieoa oi/ii, aeicaieaii yoi eee iao. Iiaeao
auoue, au oioeoa aiieia caeiiiiai, ii aeiiiaeeeiiia auyniaiea caeiiiinoe
anaaaea inoaaony iiae aaoae ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. Iaciaiea caeiia, eae
ecaanoii, ia inaiaiaeaeaao io ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Eaaaeueiia eniieueciaaiea

Ia caeiiu Internet aeeytho o?e iniiaiuo iieiaeaiey:

Ainoaea?noai noaneaee?oao aieueoea /anoe Internet . Yoe noaneaeee
eneeth/atho eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea;

Internet – ia oieueei iaoeeiiaeueiay naoue, ii naiay ianoiyuay
aeiaaeueiay naoue. I?e ia?aaea/a /aai au oi ie auei /a?ac iaoeeiiaeueiua
a?aieoeu ia/eiatho aeaenoaiaaoue yenii?oiua caeiiu; ainoaea?noaaiiua
caeiiu a ?aciuo ianoao iiaoo nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoueny;

I?e ia?anueea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (eee eaeae aeey oiai) ec iaeiiai
ianoa a ae?oaia, au aeieaeiu n/eoaoueny n eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth e eeoeaiceiiiuie ia?aie/aieyie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioaoeee

Iiiaea naoe Internet iaoa?eaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaathony ainoaea?noaii. Ii
caeiio o/?aaeaeaiea iiaeao o?aoeoue aeaiueae ec naiaai athaeaeaoa
oieueei ii aai i?yiiio iacia/aieth. Anee Aeaaeaiey Iaoe oeiaine?oao
naoue, oi aa iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oieueei a oeaeyo iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee. Au eae iieueciaaoaeue iiaeaoa nianai ia ciaoue, ii eaeei
naoyi ia?anueathony aaoe oaeeu, a iie iiiaaeatho a noa?u aeeyiey
aaaeiinoa, niaea?aeaueo eaaeaeoth ec yoeo naoae. Iiyoiio, ?acoiiaa auei
au nouanoaiaaoue iaeiiio aieueoiio aaaeiinoao, eioi?ia ?anii?yaeaeinue
au ainoaea?noaaiiuie noaneaeeyie e oeaio?aeeciaaii niaea?aeaei ana
aeioe?oaiua naoe, aaaeue niaea?aeaiea iiiaeanoaa ia?aeeaeueiuo naoae,-
yoi ionoay o?aoa aeaiaa. Eo/oa nicaeaoue naoue – /anoue Internet –
iai?eia?, aeey enneaaeiaaiey e ia?aciaaiey (RE: Research and Education),
eioi?oth, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii auei au eniieueciaaoue a ethauo
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo e ia?aciaaiee, eee aeey eo
iiaeaea?aeee, /ai eiaoue iiiaeanoai aiaeiae/iuo naoae iiiaeue/a, ii
aieaa niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo, iai?eia?, aeey iiaeaea?aeee aa?ioeie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee, ieaaiieiaee e o.ae.

Cia/aiea noaouee ?anoiaeia «a iiaeaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiee eee
ia?aciaaiey» iaaiciiaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Aa iaee/ea ocaeiieaaao aaaeiua
iooe eniieueciaaiey aeioe?oaiie naoe, eioi?ua, eacaeinue au, ia
niioaaonoaotho aa iacia/aieth. Iai?eia?, i?iaeaaaoe i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey, eniieuecothuaainy a enneaaeiaaieyo eee ia?aciaaoaeueiii
i?ioeanna, iiaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey eee ioaa/aoue ia
aii?inu iieueciaaoaeae ii e-mail. Oaeia eniieueciaaiea n/eoaaony “a
iiaeaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiee eee ia?aciaaiey” (RE). A oi aea a?aiy ii ia
iiaeao eniieueciaaoue oaeoth naoue a aeciana aeey, iai?eia?, ?aaiou n
?uieii, i?aaeuyaeaiey n/aoia, io/aoiinoe, a oaeaea o/aoa. Aeey oaeeo
oeaeae aeieaeii eniieueciaaoue eiiia?/aneoth /anoue Internet.

Eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea

I?aaiecaoeey i?e iiaeaioiaea e aeeth/aieth a Internet aeieaeia niiaueoue
iinoaaueeo naoe oeaeue niaaeeiaiey: aoaeao ee iii eniieueciaaoueny a
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eee aea eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo. Anee au ?aoeoa, /oi
aaoa iiaeeeth/aiea aoaeao oeia “RE”, oi aao naoaaie o?aoee aoaeao
i?aeiouanoaaiii eaeoe ii ia?o?ooai, noaneaee?oaiui a yoeo oeaeyo. Anee
aea i?aaiecaoeey eiiia?/aneay, oi aeaiiua aoaeoo eaeoe ii eiiia?/aneei
ia?o?ooai. Eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, ieaoa ca naoaaia iieueciaaiea
aaoae iaueiie caaeneo io yoiai ?aoaiey: eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea
iau/ii iaiiiai aei?iaea, /ai “RE”, o.e. iii ia aeioe?oaony. Oieueei
aaeieieno?aoeey aaoae naoe iiaeao niiaueoue oi/ii, aeiionoeii ee
eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea ia yoii niaaeeiaiee. I?iaa?ueoa yoi ia?aae
oai, eae ia/aoue iieueciaaoueny naoueth.

Iiiaea ei?ii?aoeee, eiia/ii aea, i?aaeii/eoatho aoiaeeoue a Internet eae
“RE”-iaueiu, /oi a iauai-oi niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae
oeaeueth i?eniaaeeiaiey /anoi yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea. Iai?eia?, eiiiaiey
ii i?iecaiaenoao ca?ia oi/ao i?iaanoe niaianoiua n oieaa?neoaoii ei.
I.N. O?ouaaa enneaaeiaaiey ii eoeo?oca. Oai ia iaiaa iiiaea ei?ii?aoeee
iauyaeytho naie niaaeeiaiey eiiia?/aneeie. Yoi aeaao oaa?aiiinoue a oii,
/oi a aoaeouai ia aicieeiao i?aaiauo iiiao, anee eo neoaeauee
ainiieuecoaony naycueth a eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo. Iiiaea aeaeiaua ethaee
n/eoatho, /oi oaeianoai e iaaeaaeiinoue aiieia caneoaeeaatho
aeiiieieoaeueiie ieaou.

Yenii?oiua caeiiu

Ethaie yenii?o iiaeiaaeaao iiae ioaaonoaaiiinoue e eiio?ieue
niioaaonoaothuaai ioaeaea ii yenii?oiui ia?aie/aieyi. Yenii?o aeaiiuo –
oiaea. A Internet , iineieueeo iia oeaeinoia ( io, eae au) e aeiaaeueia,
aeiaieueii i?inoi iiaeii auaiceoue eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?iaeoeou aac aaaeiia
aeaaeaeueoea eee oaiiaeaiieeia. Aeey eiie?aoiiai e ianoiyoaeueiiai
?acaiai?a nayaeeoanue n th?enoii. Oiiiyiai eeoue iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey,
auiieiaiea eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ia eiaoue i?iaeai n caeiiii.

Yenii?oiua caeiiu iniiaaiu ia aeaoo ioieoao:

1.Yenii?o /aai au oi ie auei o?aaoao eeoeaicee.

2.Yenii?o oneoa i?eia?ii yeaeaaeaioai yenii?oo eiiiiiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey oaeeo oneoa.

Ia?aue ioieo aiieia i/aaeaeai: ia?anueea oaeea e aiiaua /aai-eeai
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie e eae oaiaeii aua ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu aeieaeii auoue
i?ee?uoi yenii?oiie eeoeaiceae. E n/anoueth eiaaony eacaeea, iacuaaaiay
“iauay eeoeaicey”, eioi?ay ono?aiyao aieueoeinoai i?aa?aae. Iauay
eeoeaicey ?ac?aoaao auaiceoue ana, /oi ia cai?auaii yaii e iiaeii
au/eoaoue a ioaee/iuo aeaeeioaeao. Oae /oi ana, /oi au iiaeaoa ociaoue
ia eiioa?aioeee eee ia caiyoeyo a eeanna e ia /oi ia iaeiaeaiu
ia?aie/aiey ec niia?aaeaiee aaciianiinoe, nei?aa anaai, iiaeiaaeaao iiae
iauoth eeoeaiceth.

Iaeiaei, nienie cai?auaiiuo ioieoia oaeo iiiaeanoai nth?i?ecia e
aeeth/aao iaeioi?ua aaue, eioi?ua iiaeii naiaiaeii ociaoue, iao/aynue a
oieaa?neoaoa. Iai?eia?, ai a?aiy aieiu a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa, ieacaeinue
iaiaeeaeaiii o?oaeii ioai?iaeeoue naoe E?aeneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey: iie eniieueciaaee eiiia?/aneea IP-ia?o?ooecaoi?u, eioi?ua
i/aiue auno?i e oi?ioi iaoiaeyo iaoiaeiua iooe. E aio, yenii?o ethaiai
naoaaiai ocea, niiniaiiai ecuneeaaoue aeueoa?iaoeaiua ia?o?oou, oaia?ue
cai?auai. Noieo aieiaoaeueii iciaeiieoueny n yoei nieneii ai ecaaaeaiea
iaaei?acoiaiee e noieeiiaaiee n caeiiii.

Aoi?ie ioieo aua i?iua. Anee yenii?o eaeiai-eeai iai?oaeiaaiey, neaaeai
noia?eiiiuethoa?a, ia ?ac?aoai, oi cai?auai e oaeaeaiiue aeinooi e yoiio
iai?oaeiaaieth ecaia yoie no?aiu. Oae /oi aoaeueoa inoi?iaeiu n
?acaea?eaaieai aeinooia e “iniaui” ?ano?nai (eae noia?eiiiuethoa?u)
eieeaaai ec ae?oaeo no?ai. I?e?iaea yoeo ia?aie/aiee caaeneo,
ianiiiaiii, io eiino?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa e, eae iieacaee niauoey
iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey, iiaeao i/aiue auno?i eciaiyoueny.

I?aaeinoa?aaeai aan e io caaeoaeaeaiee ioiineoaeueii i?aaiaie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iia?aoi?a oceiaiai eiiiuethoa?a: iauaaeeiaiea,
aaaeathuaa Bitnet, iinea eco/aiey aiciiaeiuo i?aaiauo iiiao, i?eoei e
neaaeothuei caeeth/aieyi:

iia?aoi? naoe ioaaonoaaiai ca iacaeiiiue yenii?o, oieueei anee ii ciae i
ia?ooaiee e ana aea ia eioi?ie?iaae ia yoii eiiiaoaioiua i?aaiu;

iia?aoi? naoe ia ioaaonoaaiai ca iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue aaoaai
eniieueciaaiey e ii?aaeaeaiea aai caeiiiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?niiae iaoeeiiaeueiuo naoae, nei?aa anaai, ia
i?iaeyaeuaaao aaoe iaeaou, auniao?eaay, /oi aea au auaiceoa (oioy, ca
?aciiai ?iaea AIA, EAA, IA, MI, o?oaeii ii?o/eoueny.). Iaeiaei, anee
naoaaie iia?aoi? aeaeeo aaoe iaeaou, e a ieo niaea?aeeony yaiia
ia?ooaiea eaeeo-eeai eino?oeoeee, oi ii iaycai iinoaaeoue a ecaanoiinoue
?oeiaiaenoai.

I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe

I?e ia?aaea/a /aai-eeai eiio-eeai nii? iiaeao ?acai?aoueny aie?oa i?aa
nianoaaiiinoe. Iaee/ea iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aieoe, ia?anaeathueo eeieth
nayce, aiineo a neooaoeeth aua aieueoa nioou. Aaoi?neea e iaoaioiua
i?aaa neeueii iaiythony io no?aiu e no?aia. Au iiaeaoa iaeoe a naoe
eioa?aniue oii iicaauoie oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, aaoi?neea i?aaa ia
eioi?ia o aan a no?aia oaea ia aeaenoaeoaeueiu ca aeaaiinoueth eao.
Ia?anueea yoeo oaeeia a NOA iiaeao iinoaaeoue aan aia eo oaaea?aeueiiai
caeiia. ?acociaeoa, eoi eiaao i?aaa ia oi, /oi au auaiceoa ii naoyi, /oi
au oi ie auei. Anee yoi ia aaoa, ia?aae oai eae aunueaoue, oaaaeeoanue,
/oi au eiaaoa ia oi ?ac?aoaiea.

Caeii ia yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo ia iiniaaaao ca i?ia?annii
oaoiieiaee. Anee o aan anoue eieaa, aeo?iae eee /anoiia ienueii, ii/oe
ethaie th?eno eee aeaeeioaea?ue neaaeoo aai oi/ii, iiaeaoa ee au yoi
eiie?iaaoue, eee aea /uea ?ac?aoaiea aai neaaeoao aeey yoiai iieo/eoue.
Ii i caiaoea ia naoaaie aeinea iauyaeaiee, i niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou
eee i oaeea n aeieeaaeii, aeinooiiii a naoe, iie iaei /oi niiaoo
neacaoue a?acoieoaeueiiai. Aeaaea anee au ciaaoa, /ueaai ?ac?aoaiey aai
aeiaeaaoueny e au aai aeiaeeenue ii e-mail, nianai aua ia ynii, a aeaao
ee iineaiea yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou eaeoth-eeai ?aaeueioth caueoo.

E eiaeoa, iiaeaeoenoa, a aeaeo, /oi i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe iiaoo noaoue
i?iaeaiie aeaaea i?e eniieueciaaiee iaueo (public, publicly available)
oaeeia. Iaeioi?ua i?ia?aiiu, aeinooiiua a Internet aeey eniieueciaaiey,
aeieaeiu auoue eeoeaice?iaaiu i?iaeaaoeii. Iai?eia?, iinoaauee ?aai/eo
noaioeee iiaeao iaiiaeyoue eo iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio e i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea /a?ac aiiieiiue ftp. Oae /oi au eaaei iiaeaoa caiieo/eoue
yoe i?ia?aiiu, ii aeey oiai, /oiau eniieueciaaoue eo caeiiii, au
aeieaeiu iieo/eoue eeoeaiceth ia eniieueciaaiea, iai?eia?, ioeoeeaeueii
eoieoue yoe aea i?ia?aiiu o i?iaeaaoea.

Internet e iieeoeea

Iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu iiiaei naoaaui iieueciaaoaeyi aeaeyony
iaeiia?aiaiii e eae aeaai, e eae aaaenoaea. Aeaai ninoieo a aeaiueaao.
Noaneaeee i?aaeinoaaeytho iiiaei ethaeyi aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uo iie eia/a
auee au eeoaiu. Aaaenoaea aea a oii, /oi eo aeaenoaey iaoiaeyony iiae
iaonuiiui ieii iaaeci?a. Eoi-ieaoaeue ec aieueoeo iieeoeeia aae?oa
iiaeao ?aoeoue, /oi eia-/oi ec oiai, /oi au iaoai?eee, iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii a iieeoe/aneie ea?a, e oiaaea au eeoeoanue ia oieueei
iieiy, ii, aiciiaeii, e /anoiiai eiaie. Yoi aiieia iiaeao caaeaoue ia
oieueei aaoeo aeeaeaeoeo ni?aoieeia, ii e anth aaoo iaueio.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua ioaee, a eo i/aiue iiiai, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo aeioaoeee
Internet , iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?acaeoea e niaea?aeaiea naoe iioiio, /oi yoi
ia iieueco no?aia, yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiii?aaii o/anoaiaaoue a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo enneaaeiaaieyo e oi?aiaea, ?acaeaaoue oaoiieiaee e o.i.
Onei?aiea ia?aaea/e niiauaiee iicaieyao onei?eoue enneaaeiaaiey e
ia?aciaaoaeueiue i?ioeann. Aeaaiaea?y Internet enneaaeiaaoaee, nooaeaiou
e eo eieeaae ii anae no?aia e ca ?oaaaeii iiaoo iaoiaeeoue eo/oea
oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey.

Naoue naiae ioe?uoinoueth e aeinooiiinoueth, a oaeaea onoie/eainoueth e
ioeeth/aieyi, niinianoaoao aieueoae ioe?uoinoe, aeaniinoe e
eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe a iauanoaa, iniaaiii iia?aoeaiie eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe.
Iai?eia?, a aaaonoa 1991 e a ieoya?a 1993 iiiaea oaeaeiiioieeaoeee noaee
“aa?aoeeoue” ii oeacaieth naa?oo, iaaiciiaeii auei iieo/eoue
iia?aoeaii aeinoiaa?ioth eioi?iaoeeth ii iau/iui naoyi: oaeaoiiiui,
oaeaa?aoiui, ?aaeei. Naoe Internet (Relcom, Finnet, e ae?.) ?aaioaee
onoie/eai e iicaieyee niiauaoueny n ei??aniiiaeaioaie e ?aaeaeoeeyie eae
ii anae no?aia, oae e ca ?oaaaeii.

Ii anoue e ia?aoiay noi?iia oaeiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa iieeoeee: iiaeaea?aeea
yoa oe?iea, ii ioiineoaeueii o?oiea e oiiea. Ethaia aeaenoaea naoe,
eioi?ia iiaeao aucaaoue iieeoe/aneia aieiaiea, iiaeao e iieiinoueth
eciaieoue yoo neooaoeeth, nei?aa anaai, a ooaeooth noi?iio.

Naoaaay yoeea

O naaaeaenia/aiiiai iieueciaaoaey naoe eaaeouaany ionoonoaea yoeee
aucuaaao aaniieienoai. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naoue anoue iauanoai i/aiue
yoe/iia (ni. ii yoeea RFC 1087), i?inoi yoeea aai neaaea ioee/aaony io
iau/iie. *oiau iiiyoue yoi, ?anniio?ei “caeiiu ia?aii?ioiaeoeaa”. Ai
a?aiaia aaeeeeo ia?anaeaiee ia iainaiaiiua caiee (iai?eia?, Aeeeee
Caiaae) onoaa, i?eiyoue ia enoiaeiuo oa??eoi?eyo, anaaaea eciaiyeny e
iiaeno?aeaaeny e ianoiui oneiaeyi iieoei/aaiai ia?aca aeecie e o.ae.,
/oi i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi ii ioee/aeny e io enoiaeiiai, e io ninaaeieo.
Oae e naoue, yaeyynue ia?aaeiei e?aai aiaae?aiey iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e
eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, iieuecoaony i?aaii eciaiaiey e
iiaiaaaaeaiey.

Eiaaony aeaa ia?anaeathueany iinueee naoaaie yoeee:

i?iyaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe oaaaeaaony e iiiu?yaony;

naoue – aauue oi?ioay e aa neaaeoao caueuaoue.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua aiciiaeiinoe Internet

?anniio?ei naiua iiioey?iua aiciiaeiinoe Internet . Yoe oneoae
iiaeaea?aeeaathony noaiaea?oii. Aeey aieaa eiie?aoiiai iienaiey eiiaiae
neaaeoao niio?aoue aeieoiaioaoeeth niioaaonoaothuaai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey. Ai?i/ai, aieueoeinoao aeinoaoi/ii oie eioi?iaoeee e
?acuyniaiee, eioi?ua iiaeii iaeoe a eioa?aeoeaiuo nenoaiao iiaeneacie
(help-ao) eee oaeeao iienaiey.

I?eaaaeaiiay caeanue noaoenoeea acyoa ec [10] e [11]. Noaoenoe/aneee
aiaeec aue i?iaaaeai ii eiee/anoao iaeaoia, a ia ia?anueaaiuo iauaiia.
?acia?u aea iaeaoia iiaoo ioee/aoueny ia ii?yaeee: iaeaou iiaoo auoue io
20 aaeo aei i?eia?ii 15 KB (i?eioeeieaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee ia nouanoaoao,
eiathueany ia?aie/aiey naycaiu n yooaeoeaiinoueth ia?anueee eioi?iaoeee
i?e iaee/ee eneaaeaiee e caaea?aeae ia iiaoi?ioth ia?anueeo.) Noaoenoeea
ii iaeaoai iieacuaaao ia caa?oaeaiiinoue naoe, ii /anoioo eniieueciaaiey
aeaiiiai i?ioieiea, a iaeioi?ii ?iaea, aai iiioey?iinoue.

Oaeaeaiiue aeinooi (telnet)

Remote Login – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi – ?aaioa ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a a
?aaeeia, eiaaea aao eiiiuethoa? yioee?oao oa?ieiae oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a, o.a. au iiaeaoa aeaeaoue ana oi aea (eee ii/oe ana), /oi
iiaeii aeaeaoue n iau/iiai oa?ieiaea oie iaoeiu. O?aoee, ioiinyueeny e
yoiio aeaeo ?aaiou a naoe, a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao ieiei 19% anaai
naoaaiai o?aoeea. Ia/aoue naain oaeaeaiiiai aeinooia iiaeii a UNIX,
iiaeaa eiiaiaeo telnet e oeacaa eiy iaoeiu, n eioi?ie au oioeoa
?aaioaoue. Anee iiia? ii?oa iionoeoue, oi aao eiiiuethoa? ii oiie/aieth
yioee?oao oa?ieiae oie iaoeiu e au aoiaeeoa a nenoaio eae iau/ii.
Oeacaiea iiia?a ii?oa iicaieyao naycuaaoueny n ianoaiaea?oiuie
na?aa?aie, eioa?oaenaie.

telnet – i?ioieie yioeyoeee oa?ieiaea, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao iiaeaea?aeeo
oaeaeaiiiai aeinooia a Internet .

telnet – oae aea iacuaaaony i?ia?aiia a UNIX, eioi?ay ianeoaeeaaao yoe
naainu ?aaiou; telnet eiaao e naie nianoaaiiue iaai? eiiaiae, eioi?ua
oi?aaeytho nianoaaiii yoie i?ia?aiiie, o.a. naainii nayce, aai
ia?aiao?aie, ioe?uoeai iiauo, cae?uoeai e o.ae.; yoe eiiaiaeu iiaeathony
ec eiiaiaeiiai ?aaeeia telnet, a eioi?ue iiaeii ia?aeoe, iaaeaa oae
iacuaaaioth escape-iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eeaaeo, eioi?ay aai niiauaaony
i?e aeinoeaeaiee oaeaeaiiie iaoeiu.

Naain iaania/eaaaony niaianoiie ?aaioie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
oaeaeaiiie YAI e aaoae. Iie onoaiaaeeaatho TCP-naycue e iauathony /a?ac
TCP e UDP iaeaou. Acaeiiaeaenoaea yoi i/aiue ia i?inoia, ii ?acoeueoao
caia/aoaeai. Neaey, iai?eia?, a Oaaeoea?ee, iiaeii ?aaioaoue ia iaoeia a
NOA oae, eae anee au iia noiyea ?yaeii.

Aeey iieueciaaiey yoie caia/aoaeueiie aiciiaeiinoueth naoe iaiaoiaeeii
eiaoue aeinooi a Internet eeanna ia ieaea dial-up aeinooia.

Ia?aaea/a oaeeia (ftp)

ftp – File Transfer Protocol – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia – i?ioieie,
ii?aaeaeythuee i?aaeea ia?aaea/e oaeeia n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
ae?oaie.

ftp – oaeaea iacaaiea i?ia?aiiu ec i?eeeaaeiiai iaania/aiey. Eniieuecoao
i?ioieie ftp aeey oiai, /oiau ia?anueaoue oaeeu.

A aniaeoa i?eiaiaiey ftp ai iiiaii aiaeiae/ia telnet. O.a. aeey ?aaiou n
ftp ioaeii eiaoue aeinooi ia oo oaeaeaiioth iaoeio, n eioi?ie au oioeoa
ia?aea/aoue naaa oaeeu, o.a. eiaoue aoiaeiia eiy e ciaoue
niioaaonoaothuee ia?ieue. Aeinooi aeieaeai auoue eae ieieioi oeia
dial-up (ii auciao). Aeey eniieueciaaiey ftp, ioaeii iiaeaoue eiiaiaeo
ftp n oeacaieai eiaie ?aai/ae iaoeiu, ia eioi?ie au oioeoa i?iaanoe
naain. ftp oaeaea iicaieyao (o iaai naie iaai? eiiaiae) i?iecaiaeeoue
iiene oaeea ia oaeaeaiiie iaoeia, oi anoue ia?aoiaeeoue ec aee?aeoi?ee a
aee?aeoi?eth, i?iniao?eaaoue niaea?aeeiia yoeo aee?aeoi?ee, oaeeia.
Iicaieyao ia?anueaoue eae oaeeu, oae e eo a?oiiu, a oaeaea oeaeeeii
aee?aeoi?ee, iiaeii aianoa ni anaie aeiaeaiiuie ia ethaoth aeoaeio
iiaeaee?aeoi?eyie. Iicaieyao ia?anueaoue aeaiiua a oaeeao eeai eae
aeaie/ioth eioi?iaoeeth, eeai eae ASCII (o.a. oaeno). ASCII-ia?anueea
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaoiiaoe/aneiai ia?aeiaee?iaaiey aeaiiuo i?e
ia?anueea oaenoa ia eiiiuethoa? n ae?oaie eiaee?iaeie aeoaaeoa e o.ae.,
/oi nio?aiyao i?aaeiee /eoaaiue aeae oaenoa. Eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue
naeeiaoue aeaiiua i?e ia?anueea e iinea eo ?acaeeiaoue a i?aaeiee aeae.

Eiaao ianoi iiaeaeae ftp, oae iacuaaaiia aiiieiiia ftp. Aiiieiiinoue
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anee ia ftp, aiiaua aiai?y, o?aaoaony aeey
ia/aea ?aaiou i?aaeeueii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue naay, aaanoe aoiaeiia eiy
e, aiciiaeii, ia?ieue, oi ia iaoeiao, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo yoio aeae ftp,
aeey aoiaea e ia/aea ?aaiou yoiai ia o?aaoaony.

ftp i?ioieieu aeaeyony ia i?ioieieu eiiaiae e naieo ia?aea/eaaaiuo
aeaiiuo. Aeaiiua caieiatho a n?aaeiai ieiei 40% anaai naoaaiai o?aoeea,
a oi a?aiy eae eiiaiaeu – oieueei 4%. (Caeanue noaoenoeea ii
ia?anueaaiui iauaiai!)

Eiaaony oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey ftp a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia ii
e-mail ia iaeioi?uo na?aa?ao, ii ionoonoaea i?yiiai aeeaeiaa i/aiue
iaoaeiaii e neeueii caiaaeeyao ?aaioo, – ca iaeiaieai eo/oaai yoi aiieia
niinii.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa (e-mail)

Yoi naiia iiioey?iia ia naaiaeiy eniieueciaaiea Internet o ian a no?aia.
Ioeaiee aiai?yo, /oi a ie?a eiaaony aieaa 50 ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou. A oeaeii aea a ie?a o?aoee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou
(i?ioieie smtp) caieiaao oieueei 3.7% anaai naoaaiai. Iiioey?iinoue aa
iauyniyaony, eae ianouiuie o?aaiaaieyie, oae e oai, /oi aieueoeinoai
iiaeeeth/aiee – iiaeeeth/aiey eeanna “aeinooi ii auciao” (n iiaeaia),
a o ian a ?innee, aiiaua, a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa – aeinooi
UUCP. E-mail aeinooiia i?e ethaii aeaea aeinooia e Internet .

E-mail (Electronic mail) – yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa (i?inoiia?iaei. –
yeaeo?iiiue aiaeia iau/iie ii/ou. N aa iiiiuueth au iiaeaoa iinueaoue
niiauaiey, iieo/aoue eo a naie yeaeo?iiiue ii/oiaue yuee, ioaa/aoue ia
ienueia aaoeo ei??aniiiaeaioia aaoiiaoe/anee, eniieuecoy eo aae?ana,
enoiaey ec eo ienai, ?annueaoue eiiee aaoaai ienueia n?aco ianeieueeei
iieo/aoaeyi, ia?ai?aaeyoue iieo/aiiia ienueii ii ae?oaiio aae?ano,
eniieueciaaoue aianoi aae?ania (/eneiauo eee aeiiaiiuo eiai) eiae/aneea
eiaia, nicaeaaaoue ianeieueei iiae?acaeaeia ii/oiaiai yueea aeey ?aciiai
?iaea ei??aniiiaeaioeee, aeeth/aoue a ienueia oaenoiaua oaeeu,
iieueciaaoueny nenoaiie «io?aaeaoaeae ii/ou» aeey aaaeaiey aeeneonnee n
a?oiiie aaoeo ei??aniiiaeaioia e o.ae. Ec Internet au iiaeaoa iinueaoue
ii/oo a nii?aaeaeueiua naoe, anee au ciaaoa aae?an niioaaonoaothuaai
oethca, oi?iao aai ia?auaiee e aae?an a oie naoe.

Eniieuecoy e-mail, au iiaeaoa iieueciaaoueny ftp a aneio?iiiii ?aaeeia.
Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai na?aa?ia, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo oaeea oneoae. Au
iinueaaoa e-mail a aae?an oaeie neoaeau, niaea?aeauoth eiiaiaeo yoie
nenoaiu, iai?eia?, aeaoue eenoeia eaeie-oi aee?aeoi?ee, eee ia?aneaoue
oaee oaeie-oi e aai, e aai i?eoiaeeo aaoiiaoe/anee ioaao ii e-mail n
yoei eenoeiaii eee ioaeiui oaeeii. A oaeii ?aaeeia aiciiaeii
eniieueciaaiea ii/oe anaai iaai?a eiiaiae iau/iiai ftp. Nouanoaotho
na?aa?u, iicaieythuea iieo/aoue oaeeu ii ftp ia oieueei n ieo naieo, ii
n ethaiai ftp-na?aa?a, eioi?ue au oeaaeaoa a naiai iineaiee e-mail.
(Iiae?iaiaa niio?eoa ieaea a yoii aea ?acaeaea.)

E-mail aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue oaeaeiioa?aioeee e aeeneonnee.
Aeey yoiai eniieuecothony, onoaiiaeaiiua ia iaeioi?uo oceiauo ?aai/eo
iaoeiao, mail reflector-u. Au iinueaaoa ooaea niiauaiea n oeacaieai
iiaeienaoue aan ia oaeie-oi ?aoeaeoi? (aeeneonneth, eiioa?aioeeth,
etc.), e au ia/eiaaoa iieo/aoue eiiee niiauaiee, eioi?ua ooaea iinueatho
o/anoieee ianoaeaeaiey. ?aoeaeoi? ii/ou i?inoi ii iieo/aiee yeaeo?iiiuo
ienai ?annueaao eo eiiee anai iiaeien/eeai.

E-mail aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey a aneio?iiiii ?aaeeia ia
oieueei ftp, ii e ae?oaeo neoaea, eiathueo iiaeiaiua na?aa?a,
i?aaeinoaaeythuea oaeea oneoae. Iai?eia?, naoaauo iiainoae, Archie,
Whois.

Ia?anueaoue ii e-mail iiaeii e aeaie/iua oaeeu, ia oieueei oaenoiaua. A
UNIX, iai?eia?, aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiiu UUENCODE e UUDECODE.

I?e iieueciaaiee e-mail, ec-ca aa iia?aoeaiinoe, iiaeao neiaeeoueny
iuouaiea oaeaoiiiie nayce, ii anaaaea neaaeoao iniciaaaoue, /oi yoi ana
aea ii/oa. Ana niiauaiey ienueiaiiu, iiyoiio ii/oe aeieoiaioe?iaaiu.
I?eaea?aeeaaeoanue yoeeaoa, i?eiyoiai a iau/iie ei??aniiiaeaioeee. A
aeiiieiaiea e yoiio iiiieoa, /oi e-mail ia iaeaaeaao oie noaiaiueth
i?eaaoiinoe, eae iau/iay ii/oa, ieeiaaea ia ieoeoa a iineaieyo e-mail
ie/aai, /aai aai au ia oioaeinue oaeaeaoue aunoaaeaiiui ia anaiauaa
iaic?aiea. Aiiieiiinoue oaeaea eneeth/aia: enoi/iee i?ineaaeeaaaony aac
o?oaea. Ia noieo iieueciaaoueny oaoie/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie aaoaai
oa?ieiaea.

Oa e-mail iiae?iaiaa iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a [6]. I oii, eae iineaoue ii/oo
iaciaeiiui ethaeyi ia ianeuoaiiuo naoyo, noieo i?i/anoue a [8].
Oaoie/aneea aeaoaee iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a [5] (oi?iaou, o?ainii?oe?iaea
). Iiiai iieaciaeoae eioi?iaoeee iaoiaeeony a RFC-aeieoiaioao.
Eiie?aoii i e-mail (i?ioieie smtp) iiaeii i?i/eoaoue, iai?eia?, a RFC
821, 822.

Eniieueciaaiea aiiieiiiai ftp ii e-mail

Inoaiiaeiny ia yoie aiciiaeiinoe iiae?iaiaa. Eniieueciaaiea yoie oneoae
aanueia aeooaeueii a iaoeo oneiaeyo.

Nouanoaoao o?e aeaea neoaea, i?aaeinoaaeythueo aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey
oaeeia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa:

1.Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua «Internet-style» na?aa?u, i?aaeinoaaeythuea
aeinooi e eiie?aoiiio iiiaeanoao oaeeia ia yoii aea na?aa?a;

2.Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua listserv-na?aa?u, i?aaeinoaaeythuea aeinooi e
eiie?aoiiio iaai?o oaeeia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia yoii aea na?aa?a;

3.Iauea FTP-mail oethcu (ftpmail). Yoe na?aa?u ?aaioatho eae eniieieoaee
eiiaiaeiuo oaeeia iieueciaaoaeae. Oaeie na?aa? i?aaiecoao naain ?aaiou
ia oeacaiiii aiiieiiii ftp-na?aa?a niaeanii iienaieth iieueciaaoaey, a
iioii ionueaao iieueciaaoaeth ?acoeueoaou yoiai naaina.

Ia?aua aeaa oeia na?aa?ia ooieoeeiiaeueii yeaeaaeaioiu, ii a neeo
enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei iie ?aaioatho ii-?aciiio. Na?aa?u listserv
i?ienoiaeyo ec Bitnet,- a Bitnet iao aiaeiaa FTP, ia?aaea/a oaeeia oai
i?aaieciaaia /a?ac yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo. O?aoee oei na?aa?ia
i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io aeaoo ia?auo, eioi?ua niiniaiu ?aaioaoue
oieueei ni naieie oaeeaie: ftpmail-na?aa? iiaeao acyoue e ia?aneaoue
iieueciaaoaeth ethaie ioaee/ii aeinooiiue ii aiiieiiiio ftp oaee, aaea
au oio ie iaoiaeeeny a Internet .

Anee aao eiiiuethoa? aeeth/ai a Internet (o aan aeinooi
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue, SLIP eee PPP, dial-up), oi, eiia/ii aea, yoio niinia
aai ie e /aio. Aai i?iua e auno?aa (e oaeiaiaa!) ia?anueaoue oaeeu ii
ii?iaeueiiio FTP.

Na?aa? ftpmail: [email protected]

Oaei yeaeo?iiiiai ienueia aeieaeii niaea?aeaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
eiiaiae yoiai na?aa?a ftpmail. Iiea “Subject:” ia ?anniao?eaaaony,
iiaeaoa ienaoue ooaea i?eia/aiey (NB). Aeey cai?ina iienaiey eiiaiae
ftpmail iioeeoa ooaea ienueii n aaeeinoaaiiie eiiaiaeie: help.

Aeinee iauyaeaiee (USENET news)

Yoi oae iacuaaaiua naoaaua iiainoe eee aeeneonneiiiua eeoau. Iie aeatho
aai aiciiaeiinoue /eoaoue e iinueaoue niiauaiey a iauanoaaiiua
(ioe?uoua) aeeneonneiiiua a?oiiu. Ia naiii aeaea, iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie naoaaie aa?eaio aeinie iauyaeaiee (BBS: Bulletin Board System),
ecia/aeueii ?aaioaaoeo ia iaoeiao n iiaeaiiui aeinooiii. “Iiainoe”
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niiauaiey aae?anoaiua oe?ieie ioaeeea, a ia
eiie?aoiiio aae?anaoo. Niiauaiey yoe iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiii ?aciiai
oa?aeoa?a: io niiauaiey i oieueei /oi i?iecioaaeoai aaeeeii niauoee, aei
aii?ina i ao?eaeaiiaii inea. Oceu naoe, caieiathueany ianeoaeeaaieai
nenoaiu iiainoae, ii iieo/aiee iaeaoa iiainoae ?annueatho aai naiei
ninaaeyi, anee oa aua ia iieo/eee oaeie iiainoe. Iieo/aaony
eaaeiiia?aciia oe?ieiaauaiea, iaania/eaathuaa auno?oth ?annueeo
iiainoiiai niiauaiey ii anae naoe.

Yoa caia/aoaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue Internet, oau, iaaeinooiia ii e-mail
oe?iei (niioaaonoaothueo na?aa?ia nouanoaotho aaeeieoeu), ii aneio?iiiue
?aaeei eiaaony. Aeey iieueciaaiey yoie neoaeaie eo/oa eiaoue aeinooi a
Internet, iicaieythuee i?iaiaeeoue naainu ?aaio ia naoaauo ?aai/eo
iaoeiao, o.a. aeinooi eeanna ia ieaea aeinooia ii auciao e
eaeie-ieaoaeue aeaenoaeoaeueii naoaaie iaoeia. UUCP oaeaea iicaieyao
eiaoue aeinooi e aeineai iauyaeaiee, ii a oaeii aeaea na?aen ana-oaee
ooaea.

Naoaaie o?aoee iiainoae i/aiue ooiiue, /anoue e ei?ioeee: na?aa?
iinueaao cai?in ia aao eiiiuethoa? i aai aeaeaiee caiieo/eoue i/a?aaeiie
ioieo ec ia?iiiiai nienea a?oii iiainoae, a oio eaaeaeue ?ac ioaa/aao:
aea eee iao. E oae ieiei iieooi?a ouny/ ?ac, iioii eaeao oaeie aea
?acaiai? i iineaieyo a aua?aiiuo a?oiiao ianoaeaeaiee. Oaeie o?aoee
aianoa n naiie ia?anueeie iiainoae ninoaaeyao ieiei 1% io iauaai.

I?e onoaiiaea eeeaio- i?ia?aiiu ia aaoai eiiiuethoa?a, au nicaeaaoa
nienie oao aeeneonneiiiuo e?oaeeia, a eioi?uo oioeoa o/anoaiaaoue e /uee
iauyaeaiey (atheeaoaie) au aoaeaoa iinoiyiii iieo/aoue, a oaeaea
nienie-oeeueo? oao a?oii e iiaea?oii, eioi?uo aai nianai ia oi/aony,
aianoa ni anaie eo aiciiaeiuie iiaea?oiiaie, iiaeiiaea?oiiaie e o.ae.
Eiaaony naiue iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee:

comp – au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea e ana n iae naycaiiia;

news – ?ac?aaio/eee nenoaiu iiainoae e iiainoe a yoeo ?ac?aaioeao;

rec – oiaae, ioaeuo, ?acaea/aiea e o.ae.;

sci – iaoea;

soc – nioeeaeueiua oaiu;

talk – iai anai e ie i /ai (caeanue aea i ?aeeaee, ia eneonnoaa);

misc – ana inoaeueiia.

Iiene aeaiiuo e i?ia?aii (Archie)

Archie – nenoaia iienea e auaea/e eioi?iaoeee i ?aniieiaeaiee
iauaaeinooiiuo oaeeia ii aiiieiiiio ftp. Nenoaia, iiaeaea?aeeaathuay
yoio aeae oneoa, ?aaoey?ii niae?aao ni naieo iiaeiia/iuo (aiiieiiuo
ftp-na?aa?ia) eioi?iaoeeth i niaea?aeaueony oai oaeeao: nienee oaeeia ii
aee?aeoi?eyi, nienee aee?aeoi?ee, a oaeaea oaeeu n e?aoeei iienaieai
oiai, /oi anoue /oi. Iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue iiene ii iacaaieyi oaeeia
(aee?aeoi?ee) e ii iienaoaeueiui oaeeai, a eiaiii ii neiaai, oai
niaea?aeaueiny. Iai?eia?, au aeaaoa oeacaiea (eiiaiaeo) iaeoe oaee n
eiaiii oaeei iacaaieai eee n iacaaieai, iiaeoiaeyuei iiae oeacaiiue
oaaeii, e Archie auaeaao aai a ioaao, aaea oaeiaie anoue. Eee aea iiaeii
eneaoue ii niuneiaui neiaai, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny a e?aoeii
iienaiee yoiai oaeea eee i?ia?aiiu, ninoaaeaiiii eo nicaeaoaeai.
Eiia/ii, ninoaaeaiea aeinoieiiai (e?aoeiai, oi/iiai, oiiiai,
aaeaeaaoiiai) iienaiey naiaai aeaoeua oeaeeeii inoaaony ia niaanoe
nicaeaoaey i?iaeoeoa, /oi ii?iaeaeaao iaeioi?oth naiaiaeo, a iioiio, a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, aiciiaeiu ceioiio?aaeaiey aeiaa?eai iieueciaaoaeae
eee i?inoi i?aiaa?aaeaiea ei. Aeinooi e Archie inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
Archie-na?aa?u (iai?eia?, archie.doc.ic.ac.uk (yoi a Aaeeeia?eoaiee)). A
iieiie?iaiii aeaea eniieueciaaiea Archie o?aaoao iaee/ea
Internet-aeinooia ii e?aeiae ia?a eeanna aeinooia ii caiieo. Aiciiaeai
einaaiiue aeinooi ii e-mail (!). Eiie?aoiaa ni. help a naiii Archie.
Help oaeaea aeinooiai ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa. Iioeeoa e-mail ia eiy
[email protected]?aa?a, niaea?aeauoth aaeeinoaaiioth no?i/eo:
help. Iieo/eoa ioaao, niaea?aeauee e?aoeia iienaiea nenoaiu eiiaiae.

Anoue aua aieea iaeeea a?oiiu, eioi?ua oaeaea aeeth/aiu a nienie USENET,
iai?eia?, alt – “aeueoa?iaoeaiua acaeyaeu ia ie?oaeathuaa”. Aei/a?iea
a?oiiu iacuaathony i?eniaaeeiaieai /a?ac oi/eo ni?aaa io ?iaeeoaeueneiai
iacaaiey iiaea?oiiu, iai?eia?, alt.sex e o.ae.

A neio?iiiii ?aaeeia ?aaioo n iiainoyie i?aaeinoaaeyao i?ia?aiia nn (net
news), oae aea iacuaaaony niioaaonoaothuay eiiaiaea UNIX: nn.
Iieuecoynue nn ec UNIX, iai?eia?, au iiaeaoa i?iniao?eaaoue auienaiiua
e?oaeee, /eoaoue yoo ii/oo, ioaa/aoue ia iauyaeaiey ioaee/ii eee
i?eaaoii ii e-mail, caienuaaoue iauyaeaiey e naaa ia eiiiuethoa?,
iiaeienuaaoueny ia iiaua e i?ae?auaoue iiaeieneo, aaoiiaoe/anee
eaii?e?iaaoue iauyaeaiey, eiathuea a naaa eeth/aaua neiaa, eie aai
i?ioeaiu, eee aea iaiai?io, i?eaeeaae?iaaoue e auaeaeyoue ec iannu oa ec
ieo, a eioi?uo anoue eioa?anothuea aan neiaa; e, eiia/ii, iinueaoue naie
iauyaeaiey, aeeth/aoueny a ianoaeaeaiea, ia/eiaoue iiaua e o.ae.

Eae e a ethaii iauanoaaiiii ianoa, caeanue iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue naie
yoeeao e i?iyaeyoue aeaaiainieoaiiinoue. Ia ooiaoue, ia aunoaaeyoueny,
ia aoceoue, ia aoyieoue, ia neaa?iineiaeoue, ia ni?eoue e o.ae.

Iiene ethaeae (Eoi anoue Who)

Ethaee ia?aacaeatho n ianoa ia ianoi, iaiytho ianoi ?aaiou, o ieo iiaeao
auoue ianeieueei iano i?iaeeaaiey e o.ae. Ethaee anaaaea euoo ae?oa
ae?oaa, anaaaea nouanoaiaaea e nouanoaoao i?iaeaia iienea aaeeinoaaiiiai
/aeiaaea a ie?a. Nicaeaoue aeey oaeiai iienea ioe?uoue oaee – aiaeia
oaeaoiiiie eieae? Cia/eo ioaeii nicaeaoue noaiaea?o, i?eaeoiaoue eae aai
iaiiaeyoue aac i?yiiai anaiauaai aeinooia (iianii!) e o.ae. E oiio aea
oaeie oaee – ni?aai/iee n ia?a/eneaieai anao aoiaeyueo eiai ia ?aai/eo
iaoeiao, oaeiio ni?aai/ieeo aoaeoo ?aaeu e oaea?, e ?yeaoe?. E iioii,
iaeioi?ui ethaeyi oi/aony oi?aaeyoue aiciiaeiinoueth aeinooia e iei,
aicieeaao i?iaeaia i?aaa ia /anoioth aeeciue.

Iiyoiio auea nicaeaia neoaeaa ni?aai/iie eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaeyo.
Iieueciaaoaey ia ecaanoiie iaoeia, aaea ii anoue, iiaeii iouneaoue a
UNIX-nenoaiao n iiiiuueth finger. Oai aea iiaeii iieo/eoue nienie
iieueciaaoaeae, ?aaioathueo a aeaiiue iiiaio ia ecaanoiie iaoeia. O?aoee
i?ioieiea finger ninoaaeyao 0.41% io iauaai.

Eiaaony aee?aeoi?ey “aaeuo no?aieoe” Whois, a oaeaea iaeiieiaiiay
i?ia?aiia aeey iienea ethaeae. Aee?aeoi?ey whois (eoi anoue who)
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony DDN (Defense Data Network) Naoaaui Eioi?iaoeeiiiui
Oeaio?ii (Network Information Center – NIC) e niaea?aeeo aieaa 70000
caienae. Eiiaiaea ec UNIX: whois – i?inoaeoee niinia ia?aoeoueny e oaeei
oneoaai NIC DDN. N iiiiuueth whois eiy(eiae/aneia) iiaeii iieo/eoue
eioi?iaoeeth i iieueciaaoaea. Oaeaea iiaeii aieoe a yoo neoaeao a telnet
ii eiaie nic.ddn.mil e oai oaea iiaeaoue eiiaiaeo whois. *oiau
eniieueciaaoue yoo aiciiaeiinoue, o?aaoaony iaee/ea eae ieieioi dial-up
aeinooia. Ii cai?in iiaeii naeaeaoue oaeaea e einaaiii ii e-mail ia
[email protected] , a “Subject:” iiianoea eiiaiaeo, i?e yoii oaei
naiiai niiauaiey (oaeno ienueia e-mail) iaaei inoaaeoue ionoui. O?aoee
whois ninoaaeyao 0.02% io iauaai.

Nouanoaoao iiiai ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo neoaea. Ia?a/eneei iaeioi?ua
e?aoei:

– iiaeii ii e-mail cai?ineoue [email protected], iaienaa a
“Subject:”

send usenet-addresses/no?iea-iienea aeey iienea iieueciaaoaeae;

– eiaaony neoaeaa X.500, eioa?oaen e iae iaania/eaaaony i?ia?aiiie fred,
aeinooiiie ia wp.psi.com e wp2.psi.com ii telnet e ii e-mail, n
eiae/aneei eiaiai whitepages. Eiiaiaea ai fred oaeaea iacuaaaony, eae e
aacaea, whois.

Eiaaony iauaaeeiythuee ana yoe ni?aai/ieee eioa?oaen KIS (Knowbot
Information Service). Ii nai ciaao ana aae?ana e i?ioieieu iauaiey ni
neoaeaaie Whois, finger, fred e o.ae., nai eo ii?aoeaaao, a aai auaeaao
?acoeueoao aeiaaeueiiai iienea. KIS aeinooiai ii telnet /a?ac 185 ii?o
ia iaoeia nri.reston.va.us.

Oaiei/ea Gopher

Gopher – yoi eioaa?aoi? aiciiaeiinoae Internet. Ii a oaeiaiie oi?ia
iicaieyao iieueciaaoueny anaie oneoaaie, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie Internet.
I?aaieciaaia iaiei/ea a aeaea iiiaeanoaa aeiaeaiiuo ia ?acioth aeoaeio
iaith, oae /oi aai inoaaony oieueei auae?aoue ioaeiue ioieo e iaaeeiaoue
aaiae. Aeinooiii a oaeie oi?ia ana, /oi aeooa oaiaeii: e naainu telnet,
e ftp, e e-mail e o.ae. e o.i. Oaeaea aeeth/aiu a yoo iaiei/eo
eioa?oaenu n oaeeie na?aa?aie, n eioi?uie a?o/ioth iauaoueny i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii ec-ca eo iaoeiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai i?ioieiea. Gopher-na?aa?u
iieo/atho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. O?aoee ninoaaeyao 1.6% io iauaai a
naoe. N iaeiiai na?aa?a iiaeii aieoe a ae?oaea, aaea oaiaeii, i?inoioa
iauaiey io yoiai ia iaiyaony. Oae iiaeii oiu?youe ii anae naoe ia
eniuouaay aieiaiie aiee io iaiythueony nenoai eiiaiae e no?oeoo? aeaiiuo
e ?ano?nia. Aeaaiia ia caauoue aanue yoio iooue, ia naiiia?anaeaoueny
i?e iooaoanoaeyo, a ii ieii/aiee ana aeeo?aoii i?ieoe iacaae, cae?uaay
ia/aoua naainu ?aaiou. Gopher iiaeii iaeoe a aee?aeoi?ee pub/gopher ia
box.micro.umn.edu ii aiiieiiiio ftp. Gopher aeieaeai auoue onoaiiaeai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aaoae naoaaie ?aai/ae iaoeia e ii noaoai
eioa?aeoeaai. Aao aeinooi a Internet aeieaeai auoue ia ooaea aeinooia ii
auciao.

Iiiea/oo ii yoiio na?aeno iaoe iaaeaeaiiua iieueciaaoaee, /oi e UUCP
?aaeu aacia?ii, io, iiiea/oo !

Iiene aeaiiuo ii eeth/aaui neiaai (WAIS)

WAIS – aeeaeiaiaay nenoaia n ieiiiui eioa?oaenii aeey iienea aeaiiuo ii
eeth/aaui neiaai a eiioaenoa. Noaoai eioa?aeoeaia, iiyoiio aeinooi e iae
aiciiaeai oieueei a naaina ?aaiou i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii aeinooia, o.a.
o?aaoaony, eae ieieioi, dial-up aeinooi. Aeinooi e iae aiciiaeai e /a?ac
Gopher. Iaeoe i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, /oiau aai iinoaaeoue naaa ia
naoaaoth ?aai/oth iaoeio, iiaeii n iiiiuueth Archie. Iiiai aa?nee (aeey
?acee/iuo oa?ieiaeia, iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e iaoei) iiaeii iouneaoue a
aee?aeoi?ee wais ia iaoeia think.com. Aeaaeei eii?aeeiaou iaeiiai ec
WAIS-na?aa?ia: quake.think.com, aoiae ii eiaie wais.

?aaioay a WAIS, iiaeii auae?aoue enoi/ieee, eneeth/aoue eo,
i?eniaaeeiyoue; eneaoue ii eeth/aaui neiaai, ana aieaa noaeay iiene
i?eiaiaieai iineaaeiaaoaeueii ana aieaa niaoeeoe/aneeo neia;
i?iniao?eaaoue oaeno iaeaeaiiuo oaeeia; aeiaaaeyoue oaeeu, eneeth/aoue e
o.ae. Eiaaony eioa?aeoeaiay iiaeneacea.

*oi oaeia eeth/aaua neiaa e eae n iiiiuueth ieo iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue
iiene ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee? Eeth/aaua neiaa – yoi neiaa iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iua aeey aeaiiiai oaenoa eee eioa?anothuae aan oaiaoeee.
Noaiaea?oiua iaai?u eeth/aauo neia ninoaaeaiu aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa
?acee/iuo oaiaoee e iaeanoae ciaiee: io ineoiaiaeeca e oeceee
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe aei ieaoaiey eaioae e ei?cei. Nienee eeth/aauo neia
ii noaiaea?oiui oaiaoeeai iau/ii ioaeeeothony ai anaaiciiaeiuo
oacao?onao. Ni. iai?eia?, [16]. Anee aeaiiue aeieoiaio ia iiaeoiaeeo ie
e iaeiie ec noaiaea?oiuo oai, oi iiene e auai? naieo eeth/aauo neia
aueeaaaony a ioaeaeueioth i?iaeaio; auai? neia – caaea/a
eioaeeaeooaeueiay, oai?/aneay. Iai?eia?, aeey iienea neacie i?i
Ciay-Ai?uiu/a eo/oa anaai eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa eeth/aaiai neiaa
naiiai Ciay-Ai?uiu/a, caeanue ana i?inoi. A aeey iienea eioi?iaoeee i
o?oaeiuo iiae?inoeao – aeacaaeaioic. Ia naiii aeaea o?oaeiaa anaai
noaeaoue iiene, a eiaiii aaiaeeoue ana aieaa oa?aeoa?iua neiaa, o.e.
aua?aiiiai iaeiiai neiaa iau/ii iaaeinoaoi/ii, – neeoeii aieueoie e?oa
oaenoia ieacuaaaony ioaa/aiiui. WAIS i?inoi i?iniao?eaaao a oeacaiiuo
aacao aeaiiuo e a?oeaao ana oaenou ia i?aaeiao ano?a/aaiinoe eeth/aauo
neia e iiaen/eouaaao /anoioo ano?a/aaiinoe, iinea /aai aeieeaaeuaaao aai
i ?acoeueoaoao oaeiai iienea – auaeaao nienie aeieoiaioia, a eioi?uo
eeth/aaua neiaa ano?a/athony iaeaieaa eee aeinoaoi/ii /anoi, n oeacaieai
/anoio ano?a/aaiinoe. Any aea oai?/aneay /anoue ?aaiou ii-i?aaeiaio
eaaeeo ia aan. *aeiaaea a yoii i?ioeanna iiaeiaieoue iaaiciiaeii.

Aeiaaeueiua aeia?oaenoiaua no?oeoo?u: WWW

World Wide Web – “Anaie?iay iaooeia”. (Ei?i/a: Web eee W3)

Aeia?oaeno – oaeno ni anoaaeaiiuie a iaai neiaaie (eiiaiaeaie) ?aciaoee,
nnueathueieny ia ae?oaea ianoa yoiai oaenoa, ae?oaea aeieoiaiou,
ea?oeiee e o.ae. Ai a?aiy /oaiey oaeiai oaenoa (a niioaaonoaothuae
i?ia?aiia, aai ia?aaaouaathuae e auiieiythuae niioaaonoaothuea nnueee
eee aeaenoaey) au aeaeeoa iiaenaa/aiiua (auaeaeaiiua) a oaenoa neiaa.
Anee iaaoaoue ia ieo eo?ni?ii e iaaeaoue eeaaeoo eee ia eiiieo (aeac)
iuoee, oi aunaaoeony oi, ia /oi nnueaeinue yoi neiai, iai?eia?, ae?oaie
ia?aa?ao oie aea aeaau yoiai aea oaenoa. A WWW ii eeth/aaui neiaai
iiaeii iiianoue a niaa?oaiii ae?oaie oaeno ec ae?oaiai aeieoiaioa, aieoe
a eaeoth-ieaoaeue i?ia?aiio, i?iecaanoe eaeia-eeai aeaenoaea e o.ae. A
Internet a eiioaenoa WWW iiaeii iieo/aoue aeinooi e /aio oaiaeii, e
telnet, e-mail, ftp, Gopher, WAIS, Archie, USENET News e o.i. A WWW
iiaeii nnueaoueny ia aeaiiua ia ae?oaeo iaoeiao a ethaii ianoa naoe,
oiaaea i?e aeoeaaoeee yoie nnueee yoe aeaiiua aaoiiaoe/anee
ia?aaeaaeoony ia enoiaeioth iaoeio e au oaeaeeoa ia ye?aia oaeno,
aeaiiua, ea?oeieo, a anee i?iaanoe a aeeciue eaeath ioeueoeiaaeea, oi e
caoe oneuoeoa, iocueo, ?a/ue. Yoi neaaea iaiiieiaao Gopher, ii
oaeoe/anee yoi i?eioeeieaeueii ae?oaia e iiaia. A Gopher eiaaony
aeanoeay no?oeoo?a iaith, ii eioi?ue au aeaeaaaoanue, eae aai oaiaeii.
Yoa no?oeoo?a ia caaeneo io oiai, /oi au aeaeaaoa, eaeie aeieoiaio
iieuecoaoa e o.ae. A WWW au aeaeaaaoanue ii aeieoiaioo, eioi?ue iiaeao
eiaoue eaeoth oaiaeii aeia?oaenoiaoth no?oeoo?o. Au naie iiaeaoa
i?aaieciaaoue no?oeoo?u iaith a aeia?oaenoa. Eiay ?aaeaeoi?
aeia?oaenoia, au iiaeaoa nicaeaoue ethaoth no?oeoo?o ?aai/ae n?aaeu,
aeeth/ay aeieoiaioaoeeth, oaeeu, aeaiiua, ea?oeiu, i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea e o.ae., e yoi ia aoaeao iiaia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, a
i?inoi aeia?oaeno. Oau, nicaeaiea aeia?oaenoiauo ?aaeaeoi?ia n
/aeiaa/aneei eeoeii (ae?oaeanoaaiiui eioa?oaenii, ioeaae/eeii e o.ae.)
caaea/a ia ec i?inouo e aua ia ?aoaiiay.

Oae eae «/eoaoue» aeia?oaeno i?eyoiaa (e aiiaua eiaao niune) a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea ia aicieeaao caaea?aeae i?e aeoeaaoeee nnueie (iiaeea/ea
oaenoa n ae?oaiai na?aa?a eee i?inoi n na?aa?a, ii ii ianoiie naoaaie
eeiee, ia?anueea ecia?aaeaiee, aac aeaiiuo e o.ae.), oi WWW neaaeoao
onoaiaaeeaaoue ia auno?ua eeiee. Ia iaaeeaiiuo eeieyo eniieueciaaiea WWW
i?aa?aoeony a nieioiia io/aiea, iaeeaeaiea, caaenaiea, ana i?aeanoe e
nai niune oa?ythony. Oaeaea ia?aoeeiiaeueii ?aaioaoue, iai?eia?, ii
telnet a WWW ia i/aiue aeaeaei ?aniieiaeaiiie iaoeia, – yoi aeaoeo aai a
aeia?oth eiiaa/eo. Eiaiii iiyoiio oi/aony eiaoue oaeie na?aa? o naay a
no?aia, oioy au iaeei.

WWW o?aaoao iaee/ey ii e?aeiae ia?a aeinooia ii auciao.

Yoio niinia no?oeoo?e?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee aeinooia e iae
i?aaeeiaeai e ?acaeo a CERN, ia yoii iiae?iaiaa iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a
[12]. Ii?aaioaoue a WWW iiaeii ii telnet ia iaoeia info.cern.ch. O?aoee
WWW ninoaaeyao iiea 0.31% io anaai.

I ae?oaeo iiaeoiaeao e oaeei ioeueoeiaaeea (eniieuecothuei iaeiia?aiaiii
?acee/iua eioi?iaoeeiiiua n?aaeu) nenoaiai a naoyo iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a
[13],[14]. Iineaaeiaa i?aaenoaaeyao iiia? aeo?iaea, iinayuaiiiai
iieiinoueth oaeei nenoaiai.

Ianeieueei neia ia eiuo aiciiaeiinoyo

B (Berkley) BSD UNIX eiaaony eeann R-eiiaiae (Remote). Yoi naoaaua
aiaeiae iau/iuo eiiaiae UNIX. Eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aaiou n
oaeaeaiiie iaoeiie (rlogin, rcp e o.ae.) aianoi telnet, ftp e o.ae.

A naoe eiaaony neoaeaa a?aiaie, eioi?ay caieiaaony neio?iiecaoeeae e
ei??aeoeeae /ania ii anae naoe. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony niaoeeaeueiua
na?aa?u e oiiiaua i?ia?aiiu ia naoaauo iaoeiao. A UNIX oaeay i?ia?aiia
iacuaaaony timed. Aeey nayce e ?aaiou eniieuecoaony i?ioieie ntp
(network time protocol); ii aue niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioai aeey
neio?iiecaoeee oaeaeaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa iaoei.

Eiaaony oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?anueaoue ii naoe oaenu a eaeii-eeai
oi?iaoa ecia?aaeaiee (GIF, TIF, PCX e o.ae.). Taeia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony /a?ac eiiia?/aneea enoi/ieee. Ii anee
iieneaoue, iiaeii iaeoe e iaeiiia?/aneea aa?nee a Naoe aanieaoii.
Iieueoa, iai?eia?, ia transit.ai.mit.edu a pub/systems/fax-3.2.1.tar.Z .

Aeey aanaae n ae?oaeie iieueciaaoaeyie nouanoaotho ooeeeou talk e chat.
Talk iicaieyao iauaoueny aeeaeiaii n ae?oaei iieueciaaoaeai (ioaeai
e-mail aae?an). Chat – yoi iaiauaiea talk. Caeanue aaaeaony iiee-eia,
?acaiai? a e?oao eeoe.

Eiaaea aieiaa oaea nianai ia niia?aaeaao io iaooae, anoue aiciiaeiinoue
ioaea/ueny e iiea?aoue a ?acee/iua naoaaua ea?u. Ea?u n iaeiei ia?oia?ii
e ni iiiaeie. Ea?u auaatho ?aciua. Io niieieiuo oaenoiauo aei yioeyoeee
o?aoia?iuo iauaeoia e aeaeaeaiee a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie (oeia F-16, F-19 e
o.ae.), /oi iiaaeaao ianno ?ano?nia. Iiyoiio aoaeueoa o/oeau, ia
aoenoaoeoa, iao oaeiai i?aaa /aeiaaea – ea?aoue a Internet a ea?ooee ca
/oaeie n/ao.

Eaeao ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea eiioeaioeee “Knowbot” (“Yioeeee?ii”).
Iiaeaeueth Yioeeee?iia yaeyaony oiiue ni?aai/iue aeaeeioaea?ue, o
eioi?iai au iiaeaoa ni?ineoue i oii, eae e aaea iaeoe eioa?anothuoth aan
eioi?iaoeeth, a ii aai aeano a ioaao aeaeeia?aoe/aneea e aeaeeioa/iua
nnueee. I?e/ai, aai ia iaaei ciaoue iacaaiea eiea eee noaoae, ii oieueei
i /ai yoi. Ni?aai/iua aeaeeioaea?e iao/aiu ianeoaeeaaoue oaeea cai?inu,
iie iaeaaeatho yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeie ciaieyie: iai anai iiiaiiiao.
?iaioece?oeoa yoo iiaeaeue e au iieo/eoa Yioeeeeiia.

Yioeeeeiiu caaeoiaiu a aeaea naoaauo /a?aae (naoaauo aiaeiaia
eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia), caieiathueony iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoueth –
nai?ii eioi?iaoeee a naieo iooaoanoaeyo. Iie aeieaeiu ii oeacea
iieueciaaoaey ?aniiecaoueny ii naoe, ii ?ano?nai e eneaoue, e eneaoue, e
eneaoue anee iie iaoiaeyo ?acaaoaeaiey nnueie, iie iinueatho ii aaoayi
«iiae- /a?ay/eia», eioi?ua a ea/anoaa oicyeia ?anniao?eaatho aieueoiai
“/a?ayea-?iaeeoaey”, eioi?ue neaeeo ia ?acaeeea e aeaeao eo
aica?auaiey n eioi?iaoeeae. Ii en/a?iaieth anao iooae iienea /a?ay/ie
aica?auaaony e naiaio ainiiaeeio e auaeaao nia?aiioth eioi?iaoeeth.
Aeiaieueii oaioanoe/ii, ii oaea eiathony i?iaeou e ia?aua
yenia?eiaioaeueiua ia?acoeu, aaaeoony enneaaeiaaiey a yoii iai?aaeaiee.
Yoi aeaei aoaeouaai.

E?aoeia enoi?e/aneia aaaaeaiea

*oi ninoaaeyao Internet

?aaioa a Internet

O?iaie ?aaiou naoe

No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiuo eiai

No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiuo eiai

Aeicaieaiiia a Internet

WWW

Ae?oaea aiciiaeiinoe

Ae?oaea aiciiaeiinoe

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