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Ana i?aaa ia ?ani?inoaiaiea aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa i?eiaaeeaaeao
Aaae?aoiaiiao ?oneaio ([email protected])- iiiiao
ea/anoaaiii iaa?aoue, ?ania/aoaoue Aao oaeno, iiaeuuo ioaeiue Aai,
aaoi?neee, ?aoa?ao, oae (095)503-8753, ?oneai, aa/a?.

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUE IACAAENEIUE

YEIEIAI-IIEEOIEIAE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

?AOA?AO

ii i?aaeiaoo

«EIOI?IAOeEIIIUA OAOIIEIAEE»

«AAAAeAIEA A EIOA?IAO–acaeyae i/aaeaeoea»

?aaioo auiieiee

AAAe?AOIAIIA ?.?.

nooaeaio 2 eo?na OAEOEUeOAOA

NIOe. INEOIEIAEE

(a?oiia 203)

Iineaa 1997

Aianoi aaaaeaiey

*oi oaeia «Eioa?iao»? Ieacuaaaony, ia yoio aii?in iiaeii iieo/eoue
niaa?oaiii ?aciua ioaaou. Aa?iiaeoeu e aia?eeaioeu, iaaa?iia ioaaoyo
niaa?oaiii ia caaeoiuaaynue: «Eioa?iao»- yoi oi, /oi noieo ia ?aai/eo
noieao e aeiiaoieo eooiyo, a aaoiiiaeeyo e naiieaoao… Iaeiaei
?inneyiei iaae oai aea aii?inii iiaeao iieiiaoue aieiao: «…iaaa?iia
yoi oi, i /ai oae /anoi ieooo a eiiiuethoa?iuo aeo?iaeao …a y nai-oi a
«Eioa?iaoa» ieeiaaea ia aue. N/anoeea/eeia eioi?ua oai «auee», a ?innee
iaiiiai; aeey inoaeueiuo iauaiea a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie ni anai ie?ii
eaaeaony /ai-oi caaaaei/iui e aaneiia/ii aeaeaeei. ?aaeoao, /oi /enei
iieueciaaoaeae Naoe aiae io aiaea a iaoae no?aia ?anoao (oioy iinea
oiai, eae iao aeia?ue IEINAssCUe aoaeao a?aoue iiieiooioth ieaoo ca
iieueciaaiea oaeaoiiii, ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu 1998 aiaea, /enei ?inneeneeo
iinaoeoaeae iaaa?ii niiaa iioaaaeony).

Iaeii ec aeaaiuo ioee/ee Eioa?iaoa io anaai inoaeueiiai, /oi naycaii n
eiiiuethoa?aie,–yoi oi, /oi aeey oniaoiie ?aaiou n iei, ia ioaeii
ieeaeeo eiea. Naia Naoue iiaeao neoaeeoue e ni?aai/ieeii, e o/aaieeii, e
yioeeeeiiaaeeae naiiai naay. Eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue ?aii eee iicaeii
iaoiaeeo naith yeieiae/aneoth ieoo a Eioa?iaoa.

Eioa?iao naaiaeiy–yoi ia oieueei ia?iiiia eiee/anoai eiiiuethoa?ia, ii e
iaaa?iyoiia eiee/anoai ethaeae, aeey eioi?uo naoue yaeyaony
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaui niiniaii iauaiey, ii/oe ia eiathuei aiaeiaia a
iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a. *aeiaae–nouanoai nioeeaeueiia, e iauaiea n naaa
iiaeiaiuie–iaeia ec ia?aaeoeo aai iio?aaiinoae. Aei neo ii? aua ie iaeii
oaoie/aneia ecia?aoaiea (ia n/eoay oaeaoiia) ia i?iecaiaeeei oaeiai
ia?aai?ioa a yoii ae?aaiai caiyoee–iauaiee /aeiaaea n /aeiaaeii.

I?aaeiieaaay, /oi ia yoo oaio e i?i oaoie/aneia ono?ienoai naiie Naoe
iaienaii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ?aaio e ?aoa?aoia, y iiiuoathnue
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue yoio oaiiiai eoeueoo?u n iiceoeee ?yaeiaiai
iieueciaaoaey, a ia nienuaay i?iieniua enoeiu ec iiiai/eneaiiuo eiea.
Iiaeao y aoaeo eiinoaoe?iaaoue ciaeiiua oaeou, eioi?ua aai oi?ioi
ecaanoiu, ii ana yoi y ociae nai, eiaaea «iiiaeny a naoue e ia niia
auiooaoueny». Yoo ?aaioo iiaeii aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoue eae acaoeo,
aaaaeaiea, aeey oao, eoi oieueei ia/ae iooaoanoaea ii aane?aeiaio
i?inoi?o yoiai ie?iaiai ae?ooaeueiiai ieaaia, iacaaiea
eioi?iio–EIOA?IAO.

«Nia/aea auei neiai…»

A ia/aea 70-o aiaeia Ieienoa?noai iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e ?ac?aaioea
nenoaiu nayce, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea niaaeeieoue iaaeaeo niaie
eiiiuethoa?u anao oeaio?ia i?ioeai?aeaoiie iai?iiu no?aiu. E
iaaeaaeiinoe nenoaiu i?aaeuyaeyeenue aunieea o?aaiaaiey: auoiae ec no?iy
ethauo aa ninoaaeythueo (oi anoue eiiiuethoa?ia e eeiee nayce) ia
aeieaeai aue neacaoueny ia ea/anoaa e nei?inoe nayce iaaeaeo inoaeueiuie
o/anoieeaie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia. Oae iiyaeeanue naoue ARPAnet
(Advanced Research Projects Agency–Ath?i ia?niaeoeaiuo enneaaeiaaiee
Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA). Ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe aeanyoe eao ?acaeoea
naoaauo oaoiieiaee oei iaeicaiaoii aeey oe?ieie ioaeeee: oneoaaie naoe
iieueciaaeenue a iniiaiii i?ia?aiienou e aiaiiua. Ii caoai, iie?aynue ia
eo iiuo, iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee noaee nicaeaaaoue nenoaiu eiiiuethoa?iie
nayce iaaeaeo naieie iiae?acaeaeaieyie, i?aaei?eyoeyie, ?acianaiiuie ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey. E i?eia?o, a eiioea 80-o aiaeia Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iao/iue oiiae NOA i?aaieciaae 5 au/eneeoaeueiuo oeaio?ia, aace?othueony
ia noia?-YAI, e nioiyi iao/iuo eaai?aoi?ee e oieaa?neoaoia, eioi?ui
iio?aaiaaeny aeinooi e yoei eiiiuethoa?ai, i?eoeinue iauaaeeieoueny a
iaeio naoue.

«Eioa?iao» ia yaeyaony ioaeaeueiie naoueth: ia naiii aeaea yoi
niiauanoai naoae–«naoue naoae», a eioi?oth nae/an aoiaeeo aieaa 2
ieeeeiiia eiiiuethoa?ia ai anai ie?a. Aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi auoue
iiaeeeth/aiiui e /anoe Naoe, /oiau eiaoue aeinooi e ?ano?nai ethaiai
eiiiuethoa?a.

Naoue «ecioo?e»

«Eioa?iao»– ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi aai iiyaeaiea iciaiaiiaaei iiaoth
yiioo a ?acaeoee eiiioieeaoeee,–iicaieeei /aeiaa/anoao aaneiia/ii
?anoe?eoue naie iiciaiey a ethaie, aeaaea naiie iaiuneeiie, noa?a
aeayoaeueiinoe eee enneaaeiaaiee. A oae eae ?acaeoeth «Eioa?iaoa», n
iaeiie noi?iiu niinianoaiaaee eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, oe?iu,
eniieuecothuea naoue aeey iaiaia aeaeiaie eioi?iaoeee e ioaeeeaoeee
?aeeaiu, n ae?oaie–nooaeaiou, iiiauathuea ia anaiauaa iaic?aiea
iiiaeanoai iaoa?eaeia ?acaeaeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, oi caeanue iiiai
iieaciiai iaeaeoo naaa e aecianiaiu, e i?inoi ethaeoaee ni aeonii
ioaeioiooue.

E ianoiyuaio iiiaioo niaeo? aiciiaeiinoae Naoe ?anoao n eaaeaeui aiaeii,
caeanue aea y ?anneaaeo i naiuo ecaanoiuo e aeinooiiuo na?aenao.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa

Iaeia ec ioeaie iauaaoaeae ninoieo a oii, /oi iiiaea aeoiatho, /oi
«Eioa?iao»–yoi e anoue yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa. Ia naiii aeaea /aeiaae iiaeao
i?aainoiaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a Naoe e eiaoue aanueia ooiaiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea e-mail eee aea, iaiai?io, aanoe yeaeo?iiioth ia?aieneo,
aiana ia yaeyynue iieueciaaoaeai.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa a iaueo /a?oao iaiiieiaao iau/ioth. Au ieoaoa ienueii,
caiieiyaoa «eiiaa?o» (aae?an iieo/aoaey, ioi?aaeoaey, oaio) e iii
ono?aieyaony ii iacia/aieth auno?aa ethaiai naiieaoa. ss, iai?eia?,
iieo/ath ienueia ec Oaaa?ianea ca 2-4 ieioou. Oaeei ia?acii, yoa oneoaa
yooaeoeaiaa, auno?aa, eiioeaeaioeeaeueiaa, /ai iau/iay. Eae oi?ioi
iaienae Nae?eaeaiei: «Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi i?inoi
yeaeo?iiiay caiaia aoiaaeiie ii/ou, eiiaa?oia, ii/oaeueiiia, iaoeia n
ienueiaie, a n ae?oaie–niaa?oaiii iiaay, caia/aoaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue
iia?aoeaiiai iauaiey i?aeoe/anee aac a?aieoe e ?annoiyiee» (2).

Oaeaeiioa?aioeee (Newsgroupe).

Oaeaeiioa?aioeee ii ioi?ieaieth e niiniao ?aaiou i/aiue iioiaee ia
yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo–n oai eeoue ioee/eai, /oi aaoa ienueii iiaeao
i?i/eoaoue ia?iiiia eiee/anoai /aeiaae, a au a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeaoa
iieioa?aniaaoueny oai, /oi ieooo aai niaa?oaiii iaciaeiiua ethaee. E
aeinoieinoaai oaeaeiioa?aioeee iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe iia?aoeaiinoue
nayce, eniieueciaaiey ethauo iaoa?eaeia (a?aoeeia,
aeeaa?aii, oaenoia), ia?iiiia /enei o/anoieeia (2).

Eiioa?aioeee iiae?acaeaeythony ii oaiai; iacaaiea ninoieo ec
ianeieueeeo neia, ?acaeaeaiiuo oi/eaie, eaaeaeia iineaaeothuaa ec
eioi?uo noaeaao oaio. Iau/ii oaeeie neiaaie neoaeao:
comp–oaeaeiioa?aioeee, aaea ianoaeaeaaony ana, /oi naycaii n
eiiiuethoa?aie e i?ia?aiie?iaaieai (iiiaea aeaiiua aeey yoiai ?aoa?aoa y
acye eae ?ac ec oaeie eiioa?aioeee); news–iaiai iiainoyie, aii?inu
?acaeoey nenoai oaeaeiioa?aioeee; rec–ioaeuo, oiaae, oaea/aiey; sci– ana
/oi eanaaony iaoee; soc–aii?inu iauanoaaiiie aeecie; talk – yoa a?oiia
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ethaeoaeae iinii?eoue, aea e i?inoi iiaiai?eoue ia
eaeoth-eeai oaio; misc–oaiu, ia aoiaeyuea ie a iaeio ec
auoaia?a/eneaiiuo a?oii eee ioiinyueany n?aco e ianeieueeei.
Ioaeaeueioth a?oiio ninoaaeytho eiioa?aioeee alt–aeueoa?iaoeaiua. N?aaee
ieo anoue e eiioa?aioeee, iaoiaeyueany, ia a nianai ei??aeoiuo
ioiioaieyo n caeiiii: a oaeeo a?oiiao iiaeii iaeoe ii?iia?aoeth, aanaaeu
oaea?ia. Aeey i?eia?a oaeaeiioa?aioeey alt.security.pgp iinayuaia
ianoaeaeaieth anaai, /oi eiaao ioiioaiea e iiioey?iiio iiuiiio
aeai?eoio oeo?iaaiey PGP, eee oaeaeiioa?aioeey alt.drug.sur iiioey?ii
?anneacuaaao i anao ia?eioeeao e anai /oi n ieie naycaii.

Fine Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Ec iacaaiey aeaeii, /oi yoio na?aen i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaiaia oaeeaie
iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie. Ia iiiaeanoaa FTP–na?aa?ia iiaeii iaeoe iieaciua
ooeeeou, aeaiiino?aoeeiiiua aa?nee i?ia?aii, ioeueoeiaaeeeiua ?ieeee,
ea?oeiee e o.ae. Aeinooi e aieueoeinoao oaeeo na?aa?ia naiaiaeiue,
eiiaaea a ea/anoaa aoiaeiiai ia?iey aai aeinoaoi/ii iaa?aoue aao aae?an
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Iaaa?ii o?oaeii iiaeia?aoue i?aaeeueiue ia?aaiae e yoiio iacaaieth.
Iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie iiaeii oneuoaoue iacaaiey–«aieoaeiaea»,
«ia?aeeth/aaiue o?ai». Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeii ee aaea aua i?aaenoaaeoue
aeanyoee ouny/ ethaeae eioi?ua nia?aeenue aianoa i?inoi iiaieoaoue. N
ae?ocueyie e iaciaeiiuie ethaeueie. Ianoaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oaiu e
i?inoi iio?aiaoueny. Iioee?oiaaoue e iiacaei?ie/aoue. I?eoii ana yoi
aeeeony e?oaeua nooee. Eaaeaeay oaaaeathuay naay eiiiaiey, auioneathuay
aunieiiiioey?iua i?ia?aiiu eee ea?u eiaao naie IRC, aaea iiaeii ociaoue
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i oii eee eiii auiouaiiii i?iaeoeoa (iai?eia?
WESTWOOD-CHAT, aaea y iai?eia? iaia?oaeee, /oi ?onneiycu/iuo ethaeoaeae
ea?u «RED ALERT» i niauoeyo aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, iaiiiai aieueoa).

Aeey oiai /oiau iio/anoaiaaoue a aanaaea, ioaeii eeoue iiaeeeth/eoueny e
aua?aiiiio eaiaeo. Eaaeaeue eaiae eiaao naia iacaaiea, ec?aaeea
io?aaeathuay oaio. Ai a?aiy iauaeaiaeueiie aanaaeu iiaeii iaiaieaaoueny
privat–niiauaieyie, iaaeaeeiuie aeey ie?oaeathueo. IRC–yoi naie aieueoie
ie?, naiy aeeciue, iienaieth eioi?ie iiaeii iinayoeoue ioaeaeueioth
eieao,–eieao n aaneiia/iui i?iaeieaeaieai.

Gopher

Yoa i?ia?aiia iicaieyao ?aaioaoue n eioi?iaoeeiiiuie ?ano?naie
«Eioa?iaoa», /a?ac nenoaio aeiaeaiiuo iaith. Iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai
Gopher ninoieo a oii, /oi ia ioaeii caiiieiaoue aae?an eee iacaaiea
?ano?na e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eiiaiae, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeinooia e
?ano?no: aeaeaaynue ii iaith, ia naiii aeaea iieueciaaoaeue ia?aiauaaony
ii ?acee/iui eiiiuethoa?ai, iiaeeeth/aiiui e Naoe.

Ianeieueei neia i iacaaiee i?ia?aiiu. Iia nicaeaaaeanue a oieaa?neoaoa
Ieiianiou aeey ioaeae ianoiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe, e n a? iiiiuueth,
eaaeaeue, aeaaea ia i/aiue naaaeouee a eiiiuethoa?ao /aeiaae iia
iieo/eoue aeinooi e ethaiio eioi?iaoeeiiiiio ?ano?no ia ethaii ec
na?aa?ia–go for resources. E?iia oiai a oieaa?neoaoneii ie?a NOA
o/aueany e auioneieee oieaa?neoaoa Ieiianiou ecaanoiu eae Golden
Gophers–«cieioenoua no?ee». E eiaaea ia/aeinue oe?ieia aiaae?aiea yoie
?ac?aaioee a «Eioa?iao», ec-ca nicao/ey (gopher-go for) e
i?ienoiaeaeaiey n ?iaeeiu «no?eia» eiy i?enoaei e i?ia?aiia n?aco e
iaaeieai.

Iaeiaei naaiaeiy Gopher aeiaeeaaao iineaaeiea aeie, iineieueeo iiyaeeny
iiaue na?aen, ai?acaei aieaa oaeiaiue e neiiaoe/iue.

Anaie?iay iaooeia (World Wide Web–WWW)

Ia oaeouee aeaiue yoi iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiay e eioa?aniay
eioi?iaoeeiiiay oneoaa–aeia?oaenoiaay nenoaia iaaeaaoeee a «Eioa?iaoa».
Io iau/iiai aeia?oaenoa WWW ioee/aaony aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi
iicaieyao onoaiaaeeaaoue nnueee ia oieueei ia ninaaeiee oaee, ii e ia
oaee, iaoiaeyueeny ia eiiiuethoa?a a ae?oaii iieooa?ee Caiee. Io
iieueciaaoaey ia o?aaoaony ieeaeeo oneeee–eiiiuethoa? onoaiiaeo naycue
naiinoiyoaeueii.

?acoiaaony, /oi a WWW, eae e a Gopher, e ?ano?nai iiaeii ia?auaoueny,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeacuaay eo aae?an. A yoii neo/aa ca/anooth i?eoiaeeony
noaeeeaaoueny n nie?auaieai URL–Uniform Resource Locator, ia naiui
oaeiaiui, ii caoi oieaa?naeueiui niiniaii iaicia/aiey ?ano?nia Internet.

Iaicia/aiey URL ninoiyo ec aeaoo /anoae: ia?aay oeacuaaao oei nayce,
eioi?ue neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue n ioaeiui aai enoi/ieeii, aoi?ay–eiy
o?aaoaiiai na?aa?a. Oeiu nayce niioaaonoaotho noaiaea?oiui oneoaai
Internet. E iniiaiui ec ieo ioiinyo: http–HyperText Transfer Protocol,
iniiaa WWW,–oei nayce iaiaoiaeeiue i?e ia?auaiee e ethaiio WWW-na?aa?o;
ftp–eniieuecoaony i?e ia?auaiee e ftp-na?aa?ai; gopher–i?aaeiacia/ai
aeey acaeiiaeaenoaey n Gopher; telnet–auae?aaony i?e eniieueciaaiee
telnet; news–ioe?uaaao aeinooi e oaeaeiioa?aioeeyi.

Iaaeaeo oeiii nayce e eiaiai eiiiuethoa?a a URL iaycaoaeueii aeieaeia
noiyoue eiiaeiaoeey neiaieia: //. Eiy na?aa?a oeacuaaaony ia oieueei eae
a aeaea aaniethoiiai IP-aae?ana, oae e a aeiiaiiii oi?iaoa (iai?eia?
www.ru). E?iia oiai, a URL iiaeii oeacaoue n?aco e o?aaoaiua eiaia
aee?aeoi?ee e oaeea, i?aaaea eiiaaea i/aiue aeeeiiua.

Oaeno WWW iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay ?enoiee, ioeueoeiaaeeeiua ?ieeee,
oaaeeoeu e iiiaia-iiiaia ae?oaia. Aeaaiaea?y naiei oe?ieei
aiciiaeiinoyi, e?anioa e i?inoioa a eniieueciaaiee «anaie?iay iaooeia»
caaiaaaea ia?iiioth iiioey?iinoue ai anai ie?a.

Caeeth/aiea

Eiia/ii, ?anneacaoue i anai Ieaaia, ieuay ia iaeiii noaeia iaaiciiaeii.
I/aiue o?oaeii ioaaoeoue ana aiciiaeiinoe Naoe, eioi?ua ?anooo aeaiue
ioi aeiy. Iiyaeythony ana iiaua aiciiaeiinoe e na?aenu. ss iinoa?aeny
eeoue e?aoei inoaiiaeony ia iniiaiuo ec ieo, eioi?ua i?eaeaeee iia
aieiaiea. ia aaeaaaynue a /enoi oaoie/aneia iieueciaaiea ?ano?naie.

Iiiai/eneaiiua i?iaiicu aiai?yo i oii, /oi oaea e ia/aeo neaaeothuaai
aaea Eioa?iao ia oieueei i?aa?aoeo noaaoea oaea i?eau/iuie ia?niiaeueiua
eiiiuethoa?u a ia/oi i?eioeeieaeueii eiia, ii e eciaieo oai naiui ia?ac
aeecie aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey Caiee. Aeaaiia, iai?aaeoue ?acaeoea yoiai
iiuiiai i?oaeey iauaiey a ioaeiia ?onei, naeaeaoue aai i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa
aieueoei iannai ethaeae e aeinooiiui ii oeaia ia oiia ia?anoathuae
caieiooinoe a?aieoe, naieo ethaeae, eioi?ua ana aieueoa a?aiaie
i?iaiaeyo ia iauaynue n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, a caiueaynue a naaa.
Eioa?iao aoaeao oi?ioei iiaenii?ueai a ?aoaiee yoie ineoieiae/aneie
i?iaeaiu…

AEAEEIA?AOEss

EE?NAIIA Aei. «Iiiyoiue Eioa?iao», NIa, 1996

NAE?EAeAIEI N.N. «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe», I., IIYIO, 1995

AEO?IAE «Computer Direct» ? 3-4, 1996

EE*IUE IIUO

IEAI

Aianoi aaaaeaiey.

Iaiiiai enoi?ee

NAOUe «ecioo?e»

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa

Oaeaeiioa?aioeee

FTP

IRC

Gopher

WWW

Caeeth/aiea

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