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Iauea naaaeai

-+\y e oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai i?ioeanni?a
aaiaeaa-auaiaea E1810AI89

Iee?inoaia E1810AI89 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeiie?enoaeueiue 20-aeoiaue
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue i?ioeanni? aaiaea — auaiaea (NIAA),
auiieiaiiue ii aunieiea/anoaaiiie n-III -oaoiieiaee [4, 5, 15]. E?enoaee
iee?inoaiu ?acia?ii 5,5*5,5 ii iio?aaeyao iiuiinoue ia aieaa 2.5 Ao io
enoi/ieea ieoaiey iai?yaeaieai +5 A. Noaia auioneaaony a 40-auaiaeiii
ei?iona. Neio?iiecoaony iaeiioaciuie eiioeuenaie n /anoioie iiaoi?aiey
1—5 IAoe io aiaoiaai oaeoiaiai aaia?aoi?a.

I?ioeanni? E1810AI89 (iaicia/aaiue aeaeaa aeey e?aoeinoe AI89)
eniieuecoaony niaianoii n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii AI86\AI88, a oaeaea
E580AI80. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe nenoai ia
aaca IIE E1810 aeaaiaea?y inaiaiaeaeaieth OeI io oi?aaeaiey aaiaeii —
auaiaeii e inouanoaeaieth aunieinei?inoiuo ia?anueie n i?yiui aeinooiai
a iaiyoue (IAeI ia?anueie). E iniiaiui ooieoeeyi NIAA AI89 ioiinyony
eieoeeaeecaoeey e oi?aaeaiea eiio?ieea?aie aiaoieo ono?ienoa,
iaania/aiea aeaeeo e oieaa?naeueiuo ia?anueie n IAeI. I?ioeanni? iiaeao
?aaioaoue ia?aeeaeueii n OeI iaeiia?aiaiii ii aeaoi eaiaeai aaiaea —
auaiaea, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iaania/eaaao nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee aei 1,25 Iaaeo/n i?e noaiaea?oiie oaeoiaie /anoioa 5 IAoe.
I?aaiecaoeey nayce NIAA n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii /a?ac iaiyoue
iiauoaao aeaeinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey e iaeaa/aao nicaeaiea iiaeoeueiiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, /oi iiauoaao iaaeaaeiinoue ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
noai.

I?ioeanni? AI89 eiaao aeaa eaeaioe/iuo eaiaea aaiaea — auaiaea, eaaeaeue
ec eioi?uo niaea?aeeo 5 20-aeoiauo, 4 16-aeoiauo e iaeei 4-aeoiaue
?aaeno?. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eaiaeia i?e ia?aeeaeueiie ?aaioa inouanoaeyaony
iiae oi?aaeaieai ano?iaiiie eiaeee i?ei?eoaoia. I?ioeanni? iaania/eaaao
16-aeoiaoth oeio aeaiiuo aeey nayce n ICO e ii?oaie A\A. Oeia aae?ana
eiaao 20 eeiee, /oi iicaieyao iaiin?aaenoaaiii aae?aniaaoueny e iaiyoe
aieinoueth aei 1 Iaaeo. Aeey yeiiiiee /enea auaiaeia AEN ieaaeoea 16
aae?aniuo eeiee ioeueoeieaene?iaaiu ai a?aiaie n eeieyie aeaiiuo e
ninoaaeytho aaeeioth eieaeueioth oeio aae?ana/aeaiiuo. *aou?a noa?oea
aae?aniua eeiee aiaeiae/ii ioeueoeieaene?iaaiu n eeieyie ninoiyiey NIAA.
*oiau neaiaeu yoeo eeiee iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue a IIN, eo
iaycaoaeueii aeaioeueoeieaene?otho, eeai n iiiiuueth oao aea aiaoieo
noai, eioi?ua eniieuecothony OeI (a ianoiie eiioeao?aoeee), eeai n
iiiiuueth iacaaeneiuo noai (a oaeaeaiiie eiioeao?aoeee).

Nenoaia eiiaiae NIAA AI89 niaea?aeeo 53 iiaiieiaea, i?e/ai aiciiaeiinoe
e iaai? eiiaiae iioeiece?iaaiu niaoeeaeueii aeey aeaeie, yooaeoeaiie e
auno?ie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo i?e aaiaea — auaiaea. NIAA iicaieyao
nii?yaaoue 16- e 8-aeoiaua oeiu e ia?eoa?eeiua ono?ienoaa. I?e
eniieueciaaiee AI89 a oaeaeaiiii ?aaeeia iieueciaaoaeue i?ia?aiiii
iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue ?acee/iua ooieoeee oeiu NIAA, eaaei nii?yaay aa ni
noaiaea?oiie oeiie Multibus.

I?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua oneiaey yenieoaoaoeee AEN E1810AI89: oaiia?aoo?a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu 0…70 °N, iai?yaeaiea ia ethaii auaiaea
ioiineoaeueii ei?iona -0.3 …+7A. Iniiaiua oa?-ee ii iinoiyiiiio oieo
i?e- aaaeaiu a oaae. 1

Iacia/aiea auaiaeia AEN E1810AI89

Ia?aiao? Cia/aiea

ia?aiao?a Oneiaey Oneiaey

ecia?aiey

min iao

Iai?yaeaiea “0” ia aoiaea, A -0,5 +0,8

Iai?yoaiea “1” ia aoiaea, A 2,0 6,0

Iai?yaeaiea “0” ia auoiaea, A – 0,45 I=2,0 iA

Iai?yaeaiea “1” ia auoiaea, A 2,4

I=-0.4 iA

Oie enoi/ieea ieoaiey, iA – 350 O=25 N

Oie ooa/ee ia aoiaeao, ieA – ±10 Uao=5 A

Oie ooa/ee ia auoiaeao, ieA – ±10 0,45(U auo(5 A

Iai?yaeaiea “0” ia aoiaea oaeoiaie /anoiou, A -0,5 +0,6

Iai?yaeaiea “1” ia aoiaea oaeoiaie /anoiou, A 3,6 6,0

Aieinoue aoiaea (aeey anao au- aiaeia, e?iia ADO – AD15, RQ/GT), io –

F=1MAoe

Aieinoue aoiaea/auoiaea ADO – AD15, RQ/GT. io –

F=1MAoe

AD15-AD0 – aoiaeu \ auoiaeu aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aae?ania e ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo. Ooieoeee yoeo eeiee caaeathony neaiaeaie ninoiyiey aei S2, SI,
SO. Eeiee iaoiaeyony a aunieiiiiii ninoiyiee iinea iauaai na?ina, e
oiaaea, eiaaea oeia ia eniieuecoaony. Eeiee AD15—AD8 oi?ie?otho
noaaeeueiua (ia ioeueoeieaene?iaaiiua) neaiaeu i?e ia?anueeao ia
8-aeoiaoth oece/aneoth oeio aeaiiuo e ioeueoeieaene?othony n aeaiiuie
i?e ia?anueeao ia 16-aeoiaoth oece/aneoth oeio aeaiiuo (oaa 1).

A19/S6, A18/S5, A17/S4, A16/S3 – auoiaeu aeey oi?ie?iaaiey /aou?ao
noa?oeo ?ac?yaeia aae?ania e neaiaeia ninoiyiee. Neaiaeu aae?ania
oi?ie?othony a oa/aiea ia?aie /anoe oeeeea oeiu (O1), a inoaeueiie /anoe
oeeeea aeoeaiu neaiaeu ninoiyiee, eioi?ua eiaee?othony oae: S6=S5=1 –
icia/aao IAeI-ia?anueeo; S4=0, /oi icia/aao IAeI-ia?anueeo; S4=l— oeeee
oeiu aac IAeI; S3=0—?aaioaao eaiae 1; S3=l—?aaioaao eaiae 2. Iinea
oaeiai na?ina i?e ionoonoaee ia?auaiee e oeia yoe eeiee iaoiaeyony a
aunieiiiiii ninoiyiee.

AIA – auoiaeiie neaiae ?ac?aoaiey noa?oaai aaeoa oeiu aeaiiuo. Neaiae
ieceiai (aeoeaiiai) o?iaiy oi?ie?oaony i?ioeanni?ii, eiaaea aaeo
aeieaeai ia?aaeaaaoueny ii noa?oei eeieyi D15 — D8. Iinea iauaai na?ina
e. i?e ionoonoaee ia?auaiee e oeia yoio auoiae iaoiaeeony a aunieiiiiii
ninoiyiee. Neaiae AIA (a ioee/ea io aiaeiae/iiai neaiaea i?ioeanni?ia
AI86 e AI87) iiaeao ia oeene?iaaoueny a oeenaoi?a aae?ana, oae eae ii ia
ioeueoeieaene?iaai n ae?oaei neaiaeii.

S2-S0 – auoiaeu aeey eiaee?iaaiey noiyiey AI89, ii?aaeaeythuea aeaenoaey
i?ioeanni?a a eaaeaeii oeeeea ?aaiou n oeiie. Iie eiaee?othony
neaaeothuei ia?acii: S2S1S0=000—auai?ea eiiaiaeu ec aae?aniiai
i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea — auaiaea; 001-/oaiea aeaiiuo ec aae?aniiai
i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea—auaiaea; 010—caienue aeaiiuo a aae?aniia
i?ino?ainoai aaiaea-auaiaea; 100-auai?ea eiiaiaeu ec nenoaiiiai
i?ino?ainoaa aae?ania; 101-/oaiea aeaiiuo ec nenoaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa
aae?ania; 101 — /oaiea aeaiiuo ec nenoaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa aae?ania;
110-cuaienue aeaiiuo a nenoaiiia i?ino?ainoai aae?ania; 111 — ianneaiia
ninoiyiea. Eiae 01l—ia eniieuecoaony. N iiiiuueth yoeo neaiaeia
eiio?ieea? oeiu e a?aeo? oeiu oi?ie?otho eiiaiaeu oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth e
ono?ienoaaie aaiaea-auaiaea. Neaiaeu oi?ie?othony a oaeoa O4
i?aaeuaeouaai oeeeea, ii?aaeaeyy ia/aei iiaiai oeeeea. Ii ieii/aiee
oeeeea oeiu a oaeoa O3 eee OW neaiaeu aica?auathony a ianneaiia
ninoiyiea. Iinea iauaai na?ina e i?e ionoonoaee ia?auaiee e oeia auoiaeu
S2, SI, SO iaoiaeyony a aunieiiiiii ninoiyiee.

READY — aoiaeiie neaiae aioiaiinoe, iinooiathuee io aae?anoaiiai
ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia iiiaauaao NIAA i oii, /oi iii aioiai e ia?anueea
aeaiiuo. Neaiae neio?iiece?oaony a oaeoiaii aaia?aoi?a E1810AO84.

LOCK — auoiaeiie neaiae iiiiiieecaoeee (aeiee?iaee) nenoaiiie oeiu.
Eniieuecoaony a iiiaii?ioeanni?iuo nenoaiao e iiaeaaony ia iaeiieiaiiue
aoiae a?aeo?a oeiu E1810AA89, cai?auay aeinooi e nenoaiiie oeia ae?oaei
i?ioeanni?ai. Neaiae oi?ie?oaony onoaiiaeie niioaaonoaothuaai ?ac?yaea
?aaeno?a oi?aaeaiey eaiaea eeai eiiaiaeie TSL. Iinea iauaai na?ina e i?e
ionoonoaee ia?auaiee e oeia auoiae LOCK iaoiaeeony a aunieiiiiii
ninoiyiee.

RESET — aoiaeiie neaiae iauaai na?ina (ia/aeueiie onoaiiaee)
inoaiaaeeaaao ethaua aeaenoaey NIAA e ia?aaiaeeo aai a ianneaiia
ninoiyiea aei iieo/aiey neaiaea cai?ina aioiaiinoe eaiaea.

CLK — aoiae aeey iiaea/e eiioeuenia neio?iiecaoeee io aaia?aoi?a
oaeoiauo E1810AO84.

NA — aoiaeiie neaiae cai?ina aioiaiinoe eaiaea. Eniieuecoaony
oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii aeey eieoeeaeecaoeee NIAA e ii?aaeaeaiey
caaeaiey eaiaeai. Ii n?aco neaiaea NA ii?aoeaaaony ninoiyiea aoiaea SEL.

SEL – aoiaeiie neaiae, eioi?ue ii ia?aiio (iinea iauaai na?ina) neaiaeo
NA ii?aaeaeyao noaoon (aaaeouee/aaaeiiue) NIAA e caioneaao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eieoeeaeecaoeee. I?e iinooieaiee iineaaeothueo
neaiaeia NA neaiae SEL ii?aaeaeyao iiia? eaiaea (1 eee 2), eioi?iio
i?aaeiacia/aii niiauaiea io OeI.

DRQ1, DRQ2 – aoiaeu cai?inia i?yiiai aeinooia e iaiyoe io aiaoieo
ono?ienoa. Neaiaeu ia yoeo aoiaeao neaiaeece?otho NIAA, /oi aiaoiaa
ono?ienoai aioiai e iaiaio aeaiiuie n eniieueciaaieai eaiaea 1 eee 2
niioaaonoaaiii.

RQ/GT — aoiaeiie/auoiaeiie neaiae cai?ina/i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeiu, ii
eioi?iio inouanoaeyaony aeeaeia, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey a?aeo?aaea oeiu
iaaeaeo NIAA e OeI a ianoiie eiioeao?aoeee eee iaaeaeo aeaoiy NIAA a
oaeae?iiie eiioeao?aoeee.

SINTR1, SINTR2 – auoiaeiua neaiaeu cai?inia i?a?uaaiee io eaiaeia 1 e 2
niioaaonoaaiii. Iau/ii iie ia?aaeathony ia aoiae OeI /a?ac eiio?ieea?
i?a?uaaiee E1810AI59A. Eniieuecothony aeey neaiaeecaoeee i oii, /oi
i?iecioee caaeaaaaiua iieueciaaoaeai (i?ia?aiienoii) niauoey.

AOO1, AOO2 — aoiaeu neaiaeia aiaoiaai ieii/aiey i?yiiai aeinooia aeey
eaiaeia 1 e 2 niioaaonoaaiii. Iie aucuaatho ieii/aiea oaeouae IAeI-
ia?anueee a eaiaea, eioi?ue cai?ia?aiie?iaai aeey aiaeeca ieii/aiey IAeI
ii aiaoiaio neaiaeo.

No?oeoo?a NIAA

Aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a NIAA iiae/eiaia aai iniiaiiio iacia/aieth –
auiieiyoue ia?anueee aeaiiuo aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa OeI,
eioi?ue naycuaaaony n NIAA oieueei aeey eieoeeaeecaoeee e auaea/e
caaeaiey ia ia?aaioeo. A iaieo neo/ayo OeI i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aioiaeo
iaiaoiaeeiia niiauaiea a iaiyoe e caoai n iiiiuueth neaiaea cai?ina
aioiaiinoe eaiaea aeoeaece?oao NIAA AI89 ia auiieiaiea aeaenoaee,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo a niiauaiee. N yoiai iiiaioa NIAA ?aaioaao iacaaeneii io
OeI. A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey caaeaiey eee ii aai caaa?oaiee NIAA iiaeao
naycaoueny n OeI n iiiiuueth neaiaea cai?ina i?a?uaaiey.

I?ioeanni? iiaeao ia?auaoueny e iaiyoe e ono?ienoaai aaiaea — auaiaea
(OAA), ?aciauaiiui a nenoaiiii i?ino?ainoaa aae?ania aieinoueth 1 Iaaeo
eee a i?ino?ainoai aaiaea – auaiaea ?ieinoueth 64 Eaaeo (?en 4.2). Oioy
NIAA ?aniieaaaao oieueei iaeiie oece/aneie oeiie aeaiiuo, oaeiaii
iieaaaoue, /oi a nenoaiiia i?ino?ainoai ii ia?auaaony ii nenoaiiie oeia
(NO) aeaiiuo,

.

?en 3. Eniieueciaaiea NO e OAA a ianoiie (a) e oaeae?iiie (a)
eiioeao?aoeee

No?oeoo?a i?ioeanni?a aaiaea — auaiaea (?en 4) aeeth/aao ianeieueei
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oceia, niaaeei?iiuo 20-aeoiaie aioo?aiiae oeiie aeey
iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe aioo?aiieo ia?anueie. (A ioee/ea io
16-aeoiaie aiaoiae oeiu ii aioo?aiiae oeia inouanoaeythony ia?anueee eae
16-, oae e 20- aeoiauo cia/aiee aae?ania e aeaiiuo.)

Iauaa ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey (OO) eii?aeeie?oao ?aaioo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
oceia i?ioeanni?a. Ana iia?aoeee (auiieiaiea eiiaiae, oeeeeu ia?anueee n
IAeI, ioaaou ia cai?in aioiaiinoe eaiaea e ae?.), auiieiyaiua NIAA,
?aniaaeathony ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe yeaiaioa?iuo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
iacuaathony aioo?aiieie oeeeeaie. Oeeee oeiu, iai?eia?, ninoaaeyao
iaeei aioo?aiiee oeeee; auiieiaiea eiiaiaeu iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue
ianeieueeeo aioo?aiieo oeeeeia. Anaai ian/eouaaaony 23 ?acee/iuo oeia
aioo?aiieo oeeeeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo caieiaao io aeaoo aei ainueie
oaeoia CLK (aac o/aoa aiciiaeiuo ninoiyiee iaeeaeaiey e a?aiaie ia
a?aeo?aae oei). Iauaa OO oeacuaaao aeey eaaeaeie iia?aoeee, eaeie
ooieoeeiiaeueiue ocae aoaeao auiieiyoue i/a?aaeiie aioo?aiiee oeeee.
Iai?eia?, eiaaea iaa eaiaea aeoeaiu, iauaa OO ii?aaeaeyao, eaeie eaiae
eiaao aieaa aunieee i?ei?eoao, eeai, anee eo i?ei?eoaou ?aaiu,
inouanoaeyao oi?aaeaiea iiia?aiaiiie ?aaioie eaiaeia. E?iia oiai, iauaa
OO inouanoaeyao ia/aeueioth eieoeeaeecaoeeth i?ioeanni?a, aeey /aai
eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiiii iaaeinooiiue ?aaeno? NN? — oeacaoaeue aeiea
ia?aiao?ia.

?en 4. Oe?oiiaiiay no?oeoo?iay noaia NIAA AI69

A?eoiaoe/aneia eiae/aneia ono?ienoai (AEO) iiaeao auiieiyoue aacciaeiaua
a?eoiaoe/aneea iia?aoeee iaae 8- e 16-aeoiauie aeaie/iuie /eneaie,
aeeth/athueie neiaeaiea, eie?aiaio e aeae?aiaio. ?acoeueoaoii
a?eoiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee iiaeao auoue 20 – aeoiaia /enei. Eiae/aneea
iia?aoeee, aeeth/ay E, EEE, IA, iiaoo auiieiyoueny iaae 8- e 16-aeoiauie
iia?aiaeaie.

?aaeno?u nai?ee — ?acai?ee o/anoaoao i?e ia?aaea/a anao aeaiiuo,
iinooiathueo a i?ioeanni?. Eiaaea ?ac?yaeiinoue enoi/ieea e i?eaiieea
aeaiiuo ?acee/athony, i?ioeanni? eniieuecoao yoe ?aaeno?u aeey
iaania/aiey iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe ia?aaea/e. Iai?eia?, i?e ia?anueea n
IAeI ec 8- aeoiaiai OAA a 16-aeoiaoth iaiyoue i?ioeanni? cao?a/eaaao
aeaa oeeeea oeiu ia i?eai aeaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo aaeoia, «niae?aao» eo
a iaeii 16-aeoiaia neiai e ia?aaeaao aai a iaiyoue ca iaeei oeeee oeiu.
I?e ia?aaea/a 16- aeoiauo aeaiiuo 8- aeoiaiio i?eaiieeo inouanoaeyaony
aai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay «?acai?ea» ia aaeou. Oaeei ia?acii, iaee/ea
?aaeno?ia nai?ee/?acai?ee yeiiiieo oeeeeu oeiu.

I/a?aaeue eiiaiae eniieuecoaony aeey iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
i?ioeanni?a i?e auai?ea eo ec iaiyoe. Ai a?aiy auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu
eaiaeii eiiaiaeu auae?athony ec iaiyoe neiaaie, ?aciau?iiuie ii /?oiiio
aae?ano

?en. 5. Auai?ea eiiaiae n eniieueciaaieai i/a?aaee

ieaaeoaai aaeoa. Ia iaeio oaeoth auai?eo cao?a/eaaaony iaeei oeeee oeiu.
Yoio i?ioeann iieacai ia ?en. 5. Anee iineaaeiee aaeo oaeouae eiiaiaeu O
i?eoiaeeony ia /?oiue aae?an, oi neaaeothuee aaeo ca iei aaeo ec
ia/?oiiai aae?ana (ii yaeyaony ia?aui aaeoii eiiaiaeu Y) ecaea/?iiiai
neiaa a i/a?aaee. Eiaaea eaiae ia/eiaao auiieiyoue eiiaiaeo Y, yoio aaeo
ec i/a?aaee ecaeaeaaony cia/eoaeueii auno?aa, /ai ec iaiyoe. Oaeei
ia?acii, i/a?aaeue eiiaiae ?acia?iinoueth anaai iaeei aaeo iicaieyao
i?ioeanni?o i?e auai?ea eiiaiae anaaaea /eoaoue neiaa, /oi nieaeaao
caa?oceo oeiu, oaaee/eaay aa i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue NIAA.

A aeaoo eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo i?e ecaea/aiee eiiaiae i?ioeanni?
/eoaao ec iaiyoe aaeou, a ia neiaa. Ai-ia?auo, eiaaea eiiaiaea ia?aaea/e
oi?aaeaiey (iai?eia?, JMP, JNZ, CALL) oeacuaaao ia ia/?oiue aae?an, ii
eioi?iio ?aciauaia eiiaiaea, o?aaothuay eniieiaiey. A yoii neo/aa ia?aue
aaeo eiiaiaeu ecaeaeaaony ioaeaeueii. Ai-aoi?uo, eiaaea ano?a/aaony
6-aaeoiaay eiiaiaea LPDI, eioi?ay ecaeaeaaony a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:
aaeo — neiai — aaeo — aaeo — aaeo, e i/a?aaeue ia eniieuecoaony. Eiaaea
eniieuecoaony 8-aeoiaay oeia aeey ia?aaea/e eiiaiae i?ioeanni?o,
/eoathony oieueei aaeou, a i/a?aaeue ia eniieuecoaony e eaaeaeay auai?ea
o?aaoao iaeiiai oeeeea oeiu.

Aeie oeiiiai eioa?oaena (AOE) inouanoaeyao oi?aaeaiea e ii?aaeaeyao
oeeeeu oeiu, naycaiiua n auai?eie eiiaiae e ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
NIAA e iaiyoueth eee OAA. Eaaeaeia ia?auaiea e oeia naycaii n aeoii
?aaeno?a yoeeaoie (?aaeno? TAG iaoiaeeony a eaaeaeii eaiaea), eioi?ue
oeacuaaao, e eaeiio i?ino?ainoao aae?ania (nenoaiiiio eee aaiaea —
auaiaea) ioiineony ia?auaiea. AOE aunoaaeyao oei oeeeea oeiu (auai?ea
eiiaiaeu ec i?ino?ainoaa aae?ania aaiaea — auaiaea, caienue aeaiiuo a
iaiyoue nenoaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa e o.ae.) a aeaea eiaea ninoiyiey ia
auoiaeao S2 — S0 (oaae. 2). Nenoaiiue eiio?ieea? E1810AA88
aeaeiaee?oao yoio eiae, auae?ay ioaeioth oeio (NO/ OAA) e oi?ie?oy
niioaaonoaothuoth eiiaiaeo (/oaiea, caienue e o.ae.). Caoai AOE
ii?aaeaeyao niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiae/aneie e oece/aneie oe?eiie NO e
LLIBB. Oece/aneay oe?eia eaaeaeie oeiu oeene?iaaia a nenoaia e
niiauaaony i?ioeanni?o eee aai eieoeeaeecaoeee.

Eiae ninoiyiey S2SISO Oei oeeeea oeiu

000

001

010

011

100

101

110

111 Auai?ea eiiaiaeu ec i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea – auaiaea

*oaiea aeaiiuo ec i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea – auaiaea

Caienue aeaiiuo a i?ino?ainoai aaiaea – auaiaea

Ia eniieuecoaony

Auai?ea eiiaiaeu ec nenoaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa

*oaiea aeaiiuo ec nenoaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa

Caienue aeaiiuo a nenoaiiia i?ino?ainoai

Ianneaiia ninoiyiea

Oaaeeoea 2.

A nenoaiiie eiioeao?aoeee iaa oeiu (NO e OAA) aeieaeiu eiaoue
iaeeiaeiaoth oe?eio: 8 eee 16 aeo, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii OeI
(AI86/AI88). A oaeaeaiiie eiioeao?aoeee NO i?ioeanni?a aaiaea — auaiaea
aeieaeia eiaoue oo aea oece/aneoth oe?eio, /oi e NO oeaio?aeueiiai
i?ioeanni?a nenoaiu. Oe?eia OAA i?ioeanni?a aaiaea — auaiaea iiaeao
auoue aua?aia iacaaeneii. Anee a i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea — auaiaea
eniieuecothony eaeea-eeai 16-aeoiaua OAA, aeieaeia eniieueciaaoueny 16-
aeoiaay OAA. Anee a i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea — auaiaea ana OAA 8-aeoiaua, oi
iiaeao auoue aua?aia 8- eeai 16-aeoiaay OAA. I?aeiouanoaaiii eiaao 16-
aeoiaay OAA, iineieueeo iia iicaieyao iiaeeeth/aoue e nenoaia
aeiiieieoaeueiua 16-aeoiaua OAA, a oaeaea iaania/eaaao aieaa
yooaeoeaioth auai?eo eiiaiae i?ia?aiiu, ?aciauaiiie a i?ino?ainoaa
aaiaea — auaiaea.

Aeey IAeI-ia?anueee a i?ia?aiia eaiaea caaeaaony eiae/aneay oe?eia NO e
OAA iacaaeneii aeey eaaeaeiai eaiaea. Eiae/aneay oe?eia 8-aeoiaie
oece/aneie oeiu iiaeao auoue oieueei 8- aeoiaie, a aeey 16- aeoiaie
oece/aneie oeiu eiae/aneay oe?eia iiaeao auoue caaeaia 8- eeai
16-aeoiaie. Yoi iicaieyao ianeoaeeaaoue 8- e 16-aeoiaua OAA n iiiiuueth
iaeiie 16-aeoiaie oece/aneie oeiu. A oaae. 3 ia?a/eneaiu ana aiciiaeiua
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiae/aneie e oece/aneie oe?eiie NO e OAA a ianoiie e
oaeaeaiiie eiioeao?aoeee.

Oaaeeoea 3

Eiioeao?aoeey Oe?eia NO Oe?eia OAA

oece/aneay eiae/aneay oece/aneay: eiae/aneay

Ianoiay 8:8 8: 8

16: (8/16) 16: (6/16)

Oaeaeaiiay 8:8 8: 8

16: (8/16) 16; (8/16)

8:8 16: (8/16)

16; (8/16) 8: 8

Eiae/aneay oe?eia oeiu o/eouaaaony oieueei i?e IAeI – ia?anueeao.
Ecaea/aiea eiiaiae, a oaeaea caienue e /oaiea iia?aiaeia inouanoaeythony
neiaaie eee aaeoaie oieueei a caaeneiinoe io oece/aneie oe?eiu oeiu.

Ia?yaeo n oi?aaeaieai ia?anueeaie eiiaiae e aeaiiuo aeie oeiiiai
eioa?oaena inouanoaeyao a?aeo?aae eieaeueiuo oei. A ianoiie
eiioeao?aoeee AOE

eniieuecoao eeieth RQ/GT aeey cai?ina oeiu o OeI e aa aica?auaiey iinea
eniieueciaaiey, a oaeaeaiiie eiioeao?aoeee — aeey eii?aeeiaoeee
niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey eieaeueiie OAA n ae?oaeie i?ioeanni?aie AI89
eee eieaeueiui OeI AI86, anee iie eiathony. A?aeo?aae NO a oaeaeaiiie
eiioeao?aoeee inouanoaeyaony a?aeo?ii E1810AA89. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
iaiaoiaeeii iiiiiieece?iaaoue NO, aeie oeiiiai eioa?oaena oi?ie?oao
ioeaaie aeoeaiue neaiae LOCK. Yoi auaaao a aeaoo neo/ayo: 1) eiaaea
eaiae auiieiyao eiiaiaeo TSL (Test and Set Lock — i?iaa?ea n
iiiiiieecaoeeae);

2) eiaaea a i?ia?aiia eaiaea anoue oeacaiea aeoeaece?iaaoue LOCK ia
a?aiy IAeI- ia?anueee.

No?oeoo?a eaiaeia i?ioeanni?a aaiaea — auaiaea. I?ioeanni?
AI 87 (ni. ?en. 4) aeeth/aao aeaa eaeaioe/iuo eaiaea. Eaaeaeue eaiae
iiaeao inouanoaeyoue IAeI- ia?anueeo, auiieiyoue i?ia?aiio, ioaa/aoue ia
cai?inu aioiaiinoe eee i?inoaeaaoue. Yoe aeaenoaey eaiaeu iiaoo
auiieiyoue iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa, /oi iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue NIAA
AI89 eae aeaa ono?ienoaa: eaiae 1 e eaiae 2. Eaaeaeue eaiae ninoieo ec
aeaoo iniiaiuo /anoae: ono?ienoaa oi?aaeaiey aaiaeii — auaiaeii e a?oiiu
?aaeno?ia, /anoue eioi?uo eniieuecoaony a i?ia?aiiao, a /anoue ec ieo
yaeyaony i?ia?aiiii- iaaeinooiiuie.

Ono?ienoai oi?aaeaiey aaiaeii — auaiaeii oi?aaeyao aeaenoaeyie eaiaea ai
a?aiy IAeI- ia?anueee. I?e auiieiaiee neio?iiiie ia?anueee iii iaeeaeaao
iinooieaiey neaiaea neio?iiecaoeee ia aoiaea DRQ, i?aaeaea /ai
auiieieoue i/a?aaeiie oeeee /oaiey — caiene. Eiaaea IAeI- ia?anueea
aeieaeia caeai/eaaoueny ii aiaoiaio neaiaeo, ono?ienoai neaaeeo ca aai
iiyaeaieai ia aoiaea EXT. Iaaeaeo oeeeeaie /oaiey e caiene (iiea aeaiiua
iaoiaeyony a NIAA) eaiae iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue iiaen/?o /enea ia?aaeaiiuo
aeaiiuo, ia?aeiaee?iaaoue eo e n?aaieoue n caaeaiiui eiaeii.
Iniiauaaynue ia ?acoeueoaoao yoeo aeaenoaee, OO aaiaeii — auaiaeii
iiaeao i?ae?aoeoue IAeI- ia?anueeo.

A i?ioeanna auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu ii eiiaiaea SINTR ono?ienoai aaia?e?oao
cai?in i?a?uaaiey a OeI. *anoi cai?in eniieuecoaony aeey oiai, /oiau
niiaueoue OeI i caaa?oaiee i?ia?aiiu eaiaea.

?aaeno?u eaiaea eniieuecothony NIAA eae i?e IAeI- ia?anueeao, oae e i?e
auiieiaiee i?ia?aiiu. Ana ?aaeno?u eaiaea (?en. 6), ca eneeth/aieai TAG,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eieiatho o/anoea a oeacaiiuo i?ioeannao.
Eniieueciaaiea eaaeaeiai ?aaeno?a iienaii a oaae. 4.

Oaaeeoea 4

?aaeno? Eniieueciaaiea

a i?ia?aiia i?e IAeI-ia?anueea

GA Iaiaai iacia/aiey Oeacaoaeue enoi/ieea

eee aaciaue eee i?eaiieea

GB Oi aea Oeacaoaeue i?eaiieea

eee enoi/ieea

GC >> Oeacaoaeue oaaeeoeu

ia?aeiaee?iaee

TP Oeacaoaeue eiiaiae Oeacaoaeue i?e/eiu

ieii/aiey

?? Aaciaue Ia eniieuecoaony

IX Iauaai iacia/aiey Oi aea

eee eiaeaeniue

AN Iauaai iacia/aiey N/ao/ee aaeoia

IN Iauaai iacia/aiey O/anoaoao a ianee-

eee ianee?iaaiiiai ?iaaiiii n?aaiaiee

n?aaiaiey

NN Ia?aie/aiiiai Ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey

eniieueciaaiey ia?anueee

?aaeno? iauaai iacia/aiey GA neoaeeo a aieueoeinoaa eiiaiae a ea/anoaa
iia?aiaea. A ea/anoaa aaciaiai ii eniieuecoaony aeey oeacaiey aae?ana
iia?aiaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a iaiyoe. Ia?aae ia/aeii IAeI- ia?anueie
i?ia?aiia eaiaea caa?oaeaao a GA aae?an enoi/ieea eee i?eaiieea aeaiiuo.

?aaeno? iauaai iacia/aiey GB ooieoeeiiaeueii acaeiicaiaiyai n ?aaeno?ii
GA. Anee GA caa?oaeai aae?anii enoi/ieea IAeI- ia?anueee, oi GB aeieaeai
auoue caa?oaeai aae?anii i?e?iieea, e iaiai?io.

?aaeno? iauaai iacia/aiey GC eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiiie eaiaea eae
iia?aiae eee aaciaue ?aaeno?. Eniieuecoaony i?e auiieiaiee IAeI –
ia?anueie, eiaaea inouanoaeyaony ia?aeiaee?iaea aeaiiuo. A yoii neo/aa,
ia?aae ia/aeii ia?anueee, i?ia?aiia eaiaea caa?oaeaao a GC ia/aeueiue
aae?an oaaeeoeu ia?aeiaee?iaee. A i?ioeanna ia?anueee aai niaea?aeeiia
ia eciaiyaony.

Oeacaoaeue eiiaiae O? caa?oaeaaony ia/aeueiui aae?anii i?ia?aiiu a
i?ioeanna eieoeeaeecaoeee eaiaea iauei OO ia auiieiaiea caaeaiey. Ai
a?aiy auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu (caaeaiey io OeI) O? ea?aao ?ieue n/ao/eea
eiiaiae. Oae eae AI89 ia niaea?aeeo oeacaoaey noaea e ia iiaeao
auiieiyoue noaeiauo iia?aoeee, aica?ao ec i?ia?aiiu inouanoaeyaony ioo?i
caa?ocee a TP aae?ana aica?aoa, eioi?ue caiiieiaaony a iaiyoe ii
eiiaiaea CALL. Oeacaoaeue caaeaiey yaeyaony iieiinoueth
i?ia?aiiii-aeinooiiui (a ioee/ea io ?aaeno?a IP a AI86) e iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny i?ia?aiiie eae ?aaeno? iauaai iacia/aiey eee aaciaue.

Iaeiaei aeaeaoue yoi ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony, oae eae i?ia?aiia noaiiaeony
o?oaeiie aeey iiieiaiey.

Oeacaoaeue aeiea ia?aiao?ia ?? caa?oaeaaony iauei OO ia/aeueiui aae?anii
aeiea ia?aiao?ia a i?ioeanna eieoeeaeecaoeee eaiaea ia auiieiaiea
caaeaiey. A iiaeaioiaeaiiii niiauaiee ?aniieiaeaiea aeiea ia?aiao?ia a
iaiyoe ii?aaeaeyao oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni? (ni. oaae. 4). I?ia?aiia
eaiaea ia iiaeao eciaieoue niaea?aeeiia ?aaeno?a PP. Aai oaeiaii
eniieueciaaoue eae aaciaue aeey ia?anueee aeaiiuo a aeie ia?aiao?ia.
Aeey IAeI- ia?anueie ?aaeno? ?? ia eniieuecoaony.

Eiaeaeniue ?aaeno? IX eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiiie eaiaea eae ?aaeno? iauaai
iacia/aiey. Ii iiaeao oaeaea eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa eiaeaeniiai
?aaeno?a aeey aae?anaoeee iia?aiaeia, iaoiaeyueony a iaiyoe. A ea/anoaa
?aciiaeaeiinoe eiaeaeniie aae?anaoeee, n iiiiuueth IX iiaeii caaeaoue
eiaeaenioth aae?anaoeeth n aaoieie?aiaioiii, eioi?ay i/aiue oaeiaia i?e
ia?aaioea ianneaia aeaiiuo. Aeey IAeI – ia?anueie ?aaeno? IX ia
eniieuecoaony.

N/ao/ee aaeoia AN a i?ia?aiia eaiaea neoaeeo ?aaeno?ii iauaai
iacia/aiey. I?e IAeI- ia?anueea iiaen/eouaaao /enei ia?aneaiiuo aaeoia
ioo?i aeae?aiaioe?iaaiey cia/aiey, caa?oaeaiiiai ia?aae aa ia/aeii. Anee
ia?anueea aeieaeia caeai/eaaoueny ii caaeaiiiio /eneo ia?aneaiiuo
aaeoia, oi OO aaiaeii — auaiaeii caeii/eo a?, eiaaea niaea?aeeiia AN
noaiao ?aaiui ioeth.

?aaeno? ianee?iaaiiiai n?aaiaiey IN a i?ia?aiia eaiaea iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny eae ?aaeno? iauaai iacia/aiey eee aeey ianee?iaaiiiai
n?aaiaiey. I?e IAeI- ia?anueea eniieuecoaony aeey ianee?iaaiiiai
n?aaiaiey. Ianee?iaaiiia n?aaiaiea iicaieyao n?aaieoue auaeaeaiiua
?ac?yaeu aaeoa (iia?aiaea eiiaiaeu eee ia?anueaaiiai aaeoa) n caaeaiiui
ca?aiaa cia/aieai. Aeey yoiai a noa?oee aaeo IN caa?oaeaaony ianea,
auaeaeythuay eioa?anothuea ?ac?yaeu, a a ieaaeoee—n?aaieaaaiia cia/aiea
(?en. 7). A i?ia?aiia, i?e auiieiaiee eiiaiaeu oneiaiiai ia?aoiaea ii
ianee?iaaiiiio n?aaiaieth (eeai i?e IAeI- ia?anueea), ii?aaeaeaiiue a
iae iia?aiae (eeai ia?anueaaiue aaeo) n?aaieaaaony n caianee?iaaiiui
cia/aieai.

?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey eaiaeii NN eniieuecoaony a iniiaiii i?e IAeI-
ia?anueeao. Ii neoaeeo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oneiaee ia?anueee e oeacuaaao
niinia a? ieii/aiey. No?oeoo?a e iaicia/aiea oi?aaeythueo iieae NN
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en. 8. Iyoue noa?oeo iieae ii?aaeaeytho oneiaea IAeI-
ia?anueee:

F (ia?anueea) ii?aaeaeyao, ioeoaea e eoaea ia?anueathony aeaiiua;

TR (ia?aeiaee?iaea) — neaaeoao ee ia?anueaaiua aeaiiua ia?aeiaee?iaaoue;

SYN (neio?iiecaoeey) — niinia neio?iiecaoeee ia?anueee;

S (enoi/iee) — a eaeii ?aaeno?a (GA eee GB) iaoiaeeony aae?an
enoi/ieea;

L (iiiiiieecaoeey) — neaaeoao ee aeoeaece?iaaoue neaiae ai a?aiy
ia?anueee.

*aou?a ieaaeoeo iiey caaeatho niinia ieii/aiey ia?anueee:

TS oeacuaaao, /oi ia?anueea ninoieo a ia?aaea/a oieueei iaeiiai
aeaiiiai;

OO—/oi ia?anueea aeieaeia caeai/eaaoueny ii aiaoiaio neaiaeo (AOO);

OAN — ii ioeth a n/ao/eea aaeoia (AN);

TMC — ii ?acoeueoaoai ianee?iaaiiiai n?aaiaiey.

Iiea N ia eniieuecoaony aeey IAeI-ia?anueie, a neoaeeo oaeiaiui
n?aaenoaii oi?aaeaiey i?ei?eoaoii i?ia?aiiu eaiaea.

Oaaeeoea 5

Oi?aaeythuaa iiea Eiae iiey Oneiaea IAeI-ia?anueee

F (ooieoeey 00 Ec ii?oa aaiaea a ii?o auaiaea

ia?anueee) 01 Ec iaiyoe a ii?o auaiaea

10 Ec ii?oa aaiaea a iaiyoue

11 Ec iaiyoe a iaiyoue

TR (ia?aeiaee?iaea) 0 Iao ia?aeiaee?iaee

1 Anoue ia?aeiaee?iaea

SYN (neio?iiecaoeey) 00 Ia?anueea aneio?iiiay

01 Neio?iiecaoeey io enoi/ieea ea

10 Neio?iiecaoeey io i?eaiieea

11 Ca?aca?ae?iaaiiue eiae

S (enoi/iee) 0 Aae?an enoi/ieea a ?aaeno?a GA

1 Aae?an enoi/ieea a ?aaeno?a 0A

L(iiiiiieecaoeey) 0 Neaiae LOCK ia aeoeaai

1 Neaiae LOCK aeoeaai

N (i?ei?eoao 0 Iau/iue i?ei?eoao i?ia?aiiu

i?ia?aiiu) 1 Iiauoaiiue i?ei?eoao i?ia?aiiu

TS ( iaeeii/iay 0 Ia?anueea ia iaeeii/iay

ia?anueea) 1 Ia?anueea iaeiiai aeaiiiai

OO (ieii/aiea ii 00 Ia aiaoiaa ieii/aiea

aiaoiaio neaiaeo) 01 Ii neaiaeo AOO ni niauaieai 0

10 Ii neaiaeo AOO ni niauaieai 4

11 Ii neaiaeo AOO ni niauaieai 8

OAN (ieii/aiea ii 00 Ieii/aiea ia ii ioeth a n/ao/eea

ioeth a n/ao/eea) 01 Ieii/aiea ii (AN)=0 ni niauaieai 0

10 Ieii/aiea ii (AN)=0 ni niauaieai 4

11 Ieii/aiea ii (AN)=0 ni niauaieai 8

OIN ( ieii/aiea ii 000 Ia ii ?acoeueoaoai ianee?iaaiiiai

?acoeueoaoai ianee-

n?aaiaiey

?iaaiiiai n?aaia- 001 Ii niaiaaeaieth ni niauaieai 0

iey) 010 Ii niaiaaeaieth ni niauaieai 4

oil Ii niaiaaeaieth ni niauaieai 8

100 Ia ii ?acoeueoaoai ianee?iaaiiiai

n?aaiaiey

101 Ii ianiaiaaeaieth ni auaieai 0

110 Ii ianiaiaaeaieth ni niauaieai 4

III Ii ianiaiaaeaieth ni niauaieai 8

Eiaee?iaaiea iieae OO, OAN e OIN iicaieyao aua?aoue niauaiea 0, 4 eee 8
ii ieii/aieth IAeI-ia?anueee. Aua?aiiia cia/aiea aeiaaaeyaony e
niaea?aeeiiio n/ao/eea eiiaiae O? e ii?aaeaeyao o?e ?acee/iuo oi/ee
i?ia?aiiu, a eioi?ua ia?aaeaaony oi?aaeaiea iinea ieii/aiey ia?anueee
(?en.9). Ieii/aiea ii iaeeii/iie ia?anueea TS == 1 anaaaea i?eaiaeeo e
ioeaaiio niauaieth.

A ?aaeno?a OAG eaaeaeue aeo niioaaonoaoao iaeiiio ec 4-o ?aaeno?ia: GA,
GB, GC e O? (ni. ?en. 6). Eiaaea iie eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa aaciauo
eee oeacaoaeae (ni. oaae. 5), oi aeo TAG ii?aaeaeyao, e eaeiio
i?ino?ainoao aae?ania (nenoaiiiio eee a\a) ioiineony aae?an, ?aciauaiiue
a niioaaonoaothuai ?aaeno?a. Cia/aiea aeoa TAG=0 iieacuaaao, /oi aae?an
ioiineony e nenoaiiiio i?ino?ainoao (20-aeoiaue aae?an); TAG=1 oeacuaaao
ia i?ino?ainoai a\a (16-aeoiaue aae?an); Iauaa OO onoaiaaeeaaao eee
na?anuaaao aeo ?aaeno?a TAG, niioaaonoaothuee O?, a caaeneiinoe io oiai,
a eaeii aae?aniii i?ino?ainoaa ?aciauaia i?ia?aiia eaiaea.

Eiaaea GA, GB e GC eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa ?aaeno?ia iauaai
iacia/aiey, niioaaonoaothuee aeo ?aaeno?a TAG onoaiaaeeaaaony ii-?aciiio
i?e auiieiaiee ?acee/iuo a?oii eiiaiae (ni. oaae. 5).

Ainueieaeoiaue ?aaeno? PSW, eiathueeny a eaaeaeii eaiaea, o?aieo
neiai-ni/aoaiea i?ia?aiiu A ?aaeno?a ?SW caiineony eioi?iaoeey i oaeouai
ninoiyiee eaiaea (?en. 10). Eiae/aneay oe?eia oeiu i?eaiieea ?aaia 8 aeo
i?e D = 0 e 16 aeo i?e D= 1. Eiae/aneay oe?eia oeiu enoi/ieea ?aaia 8
aeo onoaiaaeeaaaony a aaeeieoeo. I?e oi?aaeaiee auaea/ae cai?ina
i?a?uaaiey 1N onoaiaaeeaaaony a ioeue, eiaaea i?a?uaaiea cai?auaii, e a
aaeeieoeo, eiaaea iii ?ac?aoaii. Anee eaiae auaeae cai?in i?a?uaaiey, oi
IS=1, anee ia auaeae -IS=0. Aeo A=1 caaeaao ?aaeei i?aaeaeueiie caa?ocee
oeiu. Aeo XF=1, eiaaea eaiae auiieiyao IAeI-ia?anueeo. Aeo ? caaeaao
i?ei?eoao eaiaea. Yoa eioi?iaoeey iicaieyao a ethaie iiiaio
i?einoaiiaeoue ?aaioo eaiaea, caienaa cia/aiea PSW e O? a iaiyoue, a
caoai aiciaiiaeoue aai ?aaioo, n/eoaa PSW e O?.

Aaia?aoi? oaeoiauo eiioeuenia E1810 AO84

Aaia?aoi? oaeoiauo eiioeuenia (AOE) E?1810AO84 i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
oi?aaeaiey OeI E? 1810AI86 e ia?eoa?eeiuie ono?ienoaaie, a oaeaea aeey
neio?iiecaoeee neaiaeia READY n oaeoiauie neaiaeaie OeI e neaiaeia
eioa?oaeniie oeiu Multibus. Aaia?aoi? oaeoiauo eiioeuenia (?en. 11, 12)
aeeth/aao noaiu oi?ie?iaaiea oaeoiauo eiioeuenia (OSR, CLK, CLK) ,
neaiaea na?ina (RESET) e neaiaea aioiaiinoe (READY);

Coaia oi?ie?iaaiey oaeoiauo eiioeuenia au?aaaouaaao neaiaeu:
CLK,-oaeoiaie /anoiou aeey oi?aaeaiey ia?eoa?eeiuie AEN, OSC — oaeoiaie
/anoiou caaeathuaai aaia?aoi?a, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oi?aaeaiey
ono?ienoaaie, aoiaeyueie a nenoaio, e aeey neio?iiecaoeee. Neaiaeu
neio?iiiu, eo /anoiou naycaiu niioiioaieai: Eefi = 3FCLK= 6Fpclk
?aaeeia aioo?aiiaai aaia?aoi?a.

Neaiaeu iiaoo oi?ie?iaaoueny ec eieaaaiee iniiaiie /anoiou eaa?oeaaiai
?aciiaoi?a, iiaeeeth/aaiiai e aoiaeai XI, O2, eee o?aoueae aa?iiieee
eaa?oeaaiai ?aciiaoi?a, auaeaeyaiie AeN-oeeueo?ii eee io aiaoiaai
aaia?aoi?a, iiaeeeth/aaiiai ei aoiaeo EFI.

Auai? ?aaeeia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony iioaioeeaeii ia aoiaea
F/C. Anee yoio aoiae iiaeeeth/ai e «caiea», oi AOE ?aaioaao a ?aaeeia
oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaeia io aioo?aiiaai aaia?aoi?a (SGN),anee ia F/C
iiaeaaony aunieee iioaioeeae – oi a ?aaeeia oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaeia io
aiaoiaai aaia?aoi?a.

Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaea na?ina RESET eiaao ia aoiaea o?eaaa?
Oieaeoa, a ia auoiaea — o?eaaa?, oi?ie?othuee o?iio neaiaea RESET ii
n?aco CLK. Iau/ii ei aoiaeo RES iiaeeeth/aaony RC-oeaiue,
iaania/eaathuay aaoiiaoe/aneia oi?ie?iaaiea neaiaea i?e aeeth/aiee
enoi/ieea ieoaiey (?en. 13).

Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey oaeoiauo eiioeuenia eiaao niaoeeaeueiue aoiae
neio?iiecaoeee (CSYNC), n iiiiuueth eioi?iai aiciiaeii neio?iiece?iaaoue
?aaioo ianeieueeeo AOE, aoiaeyueo a nenoaio. Oaeay neio?iiecaoeey
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aeaoo D-o?eaaa?ia ii aoiaeai NSYNC e EFI
(?en. 14). Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi anee AOE ?aaioaao a ?aaeeia aiaoiaai
aaia?aoi?a, oi aioo?aiiee aaia?aoi? iiaeao ?aaioaoue iacaaeneii (aoiae
OSC iacaaenei io CLK e PCLK e aneio?iiai ei).

Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaea aioiaiinoe (READY). Aoiaeiie neaiae READY
OeI E?1810AI86 eniieuecoaony aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aioiaiinoe e iaiaio.
Aunieee o?iaaiue iai?yaeaiey ia aoiaea oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea aeaiiuo a
OAe. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey yoiai neaiaea a AOE iino?iaia oae, /oiau
oi?inoeoue aeeth/aiea nenoaiu a eioa?oaenioth oeio noaiaea?oa Multibus,
e eiaao aeaa ia?u eaeaioe/iuo neaiaeia RDY1, AEN1, e RDY2, AEN2,
iauaaeeiaiiuo noaiie EEE. Neaiaeu RDY oi?ie?othony yeaiaioaie,
aoiaeyueie a nenoaio, e naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia eo aioiaiinoe e iaiaio.
Neaiaeu AEN ?ac?aoatho oi?ie?iaaiea neaiaea READY ii neaiaeai RDY,
iiaeoaa?aeaeay aae?anaoeeth e aae?anoaiiio yeaiaioo. Auoiaeiie yeaiaio
(F) noaiu oi?ie?oao o?iio neaiaea READY ii n?aco NLK, /ai inouanoaeyaony
i?eaycea neaaea READY e oaeoaie OeI. A?aiaiiay aeeaa?aiia ?aaiou AOE
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 14.

?en. 14 A?aiaiiay aeeaa?aiia AOE

Eiio?ieea? iaeiieoaey ia aeaeii iaaieoiii aeenea E580AA72

Eiio?ieea? iaeiieoaey ia aeaeii iaaieoiii aeenea (EIAIAe) E? 580AA72
?aaeecoao ooieoeeth oi?aaeaiey 4 iaeiieoaeyie ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo
aeeneao, iaania/eaay ?aaioo a oi?iaoa n iaeeia?iie FM e n aeaieiie MFM
ieioiinoueth, aeeth/ay aeaonoi?iiithth caienue ia aeeneaoo. Ii eiaao
noaio nii?yaeaiey n i?ioeanni?ii, i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia nenoaiioth oeio
iee?ii?ioeanni?ia na?ee E580, E1810, E1821; iaania/eaaao iiiainaeoi?ioth
e iiiaieaiaeueioth ia?aaea/o iauaiia aeaiiuo, caaeaaaaiuo i?ia?aiiii eae
a iau/iii ?aaeeia, oae e a ?aaeeia IAeI; eiaao ano?iaiiue aaia?aoi? e
noaio, oi?iuathuoth iino?iaiea eiioo?a oaciaie aaoiiiaeno?ieee.

Iacia/aiea auaiaeia.

RESET — na?in. Auoiaeiie neaiae, onoaiaaeeaathuee eiio?ieea? a enoiaeiia
ninoiyiea.

RD- /oaiea. Neaiae RD=0 ii?aaeaeyao iia?aoeeth /oaiey aeaiiuo ec
eiio?ieea?a.

WR-caienue. Neaiae WR=0 ii?aaeaeyao iia?aoeeth caiene aeaiiuo a
eiio?ieea?.

CS-auai? e?enoaeea. ?ac?aoaiea ia?auaiey e eiio?ieea?o. Neaiae CS=0
?ac?aoaao aeaenoaea neaiaeia RD e WR.

A0-auoiaeiie neaiae, ?ac?aoathuee ia?auaiea eeai e ?aaeno?o ninoiyiee
(A0=0), eeai e ?aaeno?o aeaiiuo (A0=1).

DB7 — DBO — aeaoiai?aaeaiiay oeia aeaiiuo.

DRQ – cai?in ia IAeI. Neaiae DRQ=1 ii?aaeaeyao cai?in ia IAeI OeI.

DACK — iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea IAeI. Neaiae io OeI, niiauathuee eiio?ieea?o i
oii, /oi oeiu OeI iaoiaeyony a z-ninoiyiee.

ON — ieii/aiea IAeI. Neaiae ON= 1 niiauaao eiio?ieea?o ia ieii/aiee
oeeeeia IAeI.

IDX — eiaeaen, i?eciae iaia?oaeaiey ia/aea aei?iaeee.

INT — neaiae cai?ina i?a?uaaiey OeI io eiio?ieea?a.

CLK — aoiae, iiaeeeth/aaiue e aaia?aoi?o (4 eee 8 IAoe).

WR CLK — neio?ieiioeuenu caiene. Aoiae, iiaeeeth/aaiue e aaia?aoi?o
/anoioie F=500 EAoe i?e iaeeia?iie ieioiinoe e F=l IAoe i?e aeaieiie, n
aeeeoaeueiinoueth iieiaeeoaeueiiai iieoia?eiaea 250 in a iaieo neo/ayo.
Neaiaeu aeieaeiu auoue eieoeee?iaaiu aeey ?aaeeiia eae caiene, oae e
/oaiey.

DW —- eioi?iaoeeiiiia ieii, au?aaaouaaaony noaiie oaciaie
aaoiiiaeno?ieee e eniieuecoaony aeey auai?a aeaiiuo n aeeneiaiaea.

RD DATA — eeiey i?eaia aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo n aeeneiaiaea a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii eiaea.

VCO — neio?iiecaoeey, auoiaeiie neaiae eiio?ieea?a, o/anoaothuee a
oi?ie?iaaiee «ieia» a noaia oaciaie aaoiiiaeno?ieee.

WE — ?ac?aoaiea caiene, neaiae caiene aeaiiuo ia aeeneaoo.

MFM — auai? ?aaeeia ieioiinoe caiene. Neaiae MFM=1 ii?aaeaeyao
aeaieioth ieioiinoue, MFM=0—iaeeia?ioth.

HD SEL—auai? aieiaee. Neaiae HD SEL=1 ii?aaeaeyao ?aaioo n aieiaeie 1;
HD SEL = 0 — ?aaioo n aieiaeie 0.

DSI, DSO— auai? ono?ienoaa, auoiaeiua neaiaeu, iaania/eaathuea
aae?anaoeeth e iaeiiio ec /aou?ao aeeneiaiaeia.

WR DATA — eeiey auaiaea aeaiiuo a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii eiaea.

PSI, PSO—i?aaeeiiiainaoeey, auoiaeiua eeiee, ia?aaeathuea eiae
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai naeaeaa a ?aaeeia MFM

FLT/TRKO — ioeac/aei?iaeea 0, oeacuaaao ia naie i?e iia?aoeeyo
iaiaia eee auai?a aei?iaeee 0 a ?aaeeia iienea.

WP/TS — caueoa caiene/aeaonoi?iiiee, aoiaeiie neaiae,
ii?aaeaeythuee ?aaeei caiene i?e iia?aoeeyo iaiaia eee ?aaeei iienea
eioi?iaoeee n aeaoo noi?ii aeeneaou.

RDY — neaiae aioiaiinoe aeeneiaiaea.

HDL — caa?ocea aieiaee, auoiaeiie neaiae ia/aeueiie onoaiiaee
aieiaee aeeneiaiaea.

FD/STP – na?in ioeaca/oaa, inouanoaeyao na?in ioeaee a ?aaeeia iaiaia e
iaania/eaaao ia?aoiae aieiaee ia neaaeothuee oeeeeiae?.

LCT/DIR – iaeue oie / iai?aaeaiea, ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey
aieiaee.

RW/SEEK – caienue//oaiea/iiene, ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey
aieiaee a ?aaeeia iienea, aaeeie/iue neaiae icia/aao oaaee/aiea, ioeaaie
— oiaiueoaiea.

Ucc – oeia ieoaiey.

GND — iauee.

No?oeoo?iay noaia eiio?ieea?a (?en 15,16) aeeth/aao o?e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
aeiea: aooa? oeiu aeaiiuo, iaania/eaathuee naycue eiio?ieea?a n OeI e
au?aaaouaathuee cai?inu ia i?a?uaaiea e IAeI; aeie oi?aaeaiey
iaeiieoaeyie ia IAIAe, i?eieiathuee e au?aaaouaathuee neaiaeu aeey
oi?aaeaiey iaeiieoaeyie, e aeie oi?aaeaiey eiio?ieea?ii.

Aeie oi?aaeaiey eiio?ieea?ii aeeth/aao ianeieueei ?aaeno?ia
niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey.

?aaeno? aoiaeiuo/auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo RIO aae?anoaony i?e A0=1 e aeinooiai
aeey /oaiey e caiene ni noi?iiu OeI. N iiiiuueth yoiai ?aaeno?a
inouanoaeyaony iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo eiio?ieea?ii e OeI, a oaeaea
neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeeae — caa?oceie eiiaiaeu e /oaieai ec ?aaeno?ia
ninoiyiee e oeacaoaeae. Caienue e /oaiea neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee
inouanoaeyaony a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a niioaaonoaee ni
no?oeoo?ie eiiaiae.

Iniiaiie ?aaeno? ninoiyiey RS aeinooiai oieueei aeey iia?aoeee /oaiey e
niaea?aeeo ?ac?yaeu, ii?aaeaeythuea ninoiyiea eiio?ieea?a ii
acaeiiaeaenoaeth n IAIAe e OeI. Oi?iao neiaa ninoiyiey RS iieacai ia
?en. 17. Niaea?aeeiia aai iiaeii i?i/eoaoue a ethaia a?aiy ii eiiaiaea
aaiaea n aae?anii, oi?ie?othuei neaiae A0=0. ?ac?yaeu D3 — DO oeacuaatho
ia auiieiaiea eiiaiaeu iienea; D4 — ia auiieiaiea eiio?ieea?ii iia?aoeee
/oaiey/caiene; D5 eniieuecoaony aeey ?aaeeia i?a?uaaiey e oeacuaaao ia
caaa?oaiea iia?aoeee iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo eiio?ieea?ii e OeI, D6
ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiea ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo (io OeI eee e OeI); D7
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e aioiaiinoe ?aaeno?a aeaiiuo RIO i?eiyoue eee
ia?aaeaoue aeaiiua.

Aoiaeiie ?aaeno? RI e auoiaeiie ?aaeno? RO – ?aaeno?u i?eaia/ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii eiaea. I?ia?aiiii iie iaaeinooiiu. I?e
i?eaia aeaiiuo io iaeiieoaey aeaiiua ioaeaeythony io eiioeuenia
neio?iiecaoeee n iiiiuueth «ieia aeaiiuo» DW, eioi?ia oi?ie?oaony n
iiiiuueth aiaoiae noaiu oaciaie aaoiiiaeno?ieee e neaiaea neio?iiecaoeee
VCO. I?e auaea/a aeaiiuo eniieuecothony neaiae ?ac?aoaiey caiene WE e
eeiey oi?aaeaiey oieii caiene. E?iia oiai, aeey neio?iiecaoeee ?aaiou
auoiaeiuo ?aaeno?ia n ?aaioie aeeneiaiaea eniieuecoaony aiaoiee
aaia?aoi?, oi?ie?othuee eiioeuenu caiene WR CLK. Nei?inoue
i?eaia/ia?aaea/e aaeoa ninoaaeyao 32 ien (ii 4 ien ia aeo).

I?eai/ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eiio?ieea?ii a aeaoo
?aaeeiao: IAeI e i?a?uaaiey. A ?aaeeia IAeI iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoaeueii
eniieueciaaoue eiio?ieea? IAeI E1810AA37, au?aaaouaathuee neaiae cai?ina
ia

IAeI DRQ e i?eieiathuee neaiaeu iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey DACK e eiioea IAeI
(ON). A ?aaeeia i?a?uaaiey eiio?ieea? oi?ie?oao neaiaeu cai?ina ia
i?a?uaaiea INT i?e ia?anueea eaaeaeiai aaeoa iaaeaeo eiio?ieea?ii e OeI,
i?aaeinoaaeyy aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey iaiaiii iiaei?ia?aiia OeI.

E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aaeno?ia eiio?ieea? eiaao aeie ?aaeno?ia BRC aeey
o?aiaiey eiaea eiiaiaeu e neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee (ao?eaooia),
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey auiieiaiey eiiaiae. A aeiea BRC iiaeii auaeaeeoue
/aou?a ?aaeno?a (ST3 — STO), ianouea eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee
eiio?ieea?a e aeeneiaiaea i?e auiieiaiee eiiaiae. E?iia oiai, eiio?ieea?
eiaao noaio iaia?oaeaiey aae?aniiai ia?ea?a, /oi oi?iuaao ?aaeecaoeeth
eiioo?a oaciaie aaoiiiaeno?ieee.

Iiaeaiu

1.Aaaaeaiea

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiaeaiu noaiiayony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
eiiiuethoa?a. Onoaiiaea iiaeai ia naie eiiiuethoa?, au oaeoe/anee
ioe?uaaaoa aeey naay iiaue ie?. Aao eiiiuethoa? i?aa?auaaony ec
iainiaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a a caaii aeiaaeueiie naoe.

Iiaeai iicaieeo aai, ia auoiaey ec aeiia, iieo/eoue aeinooi e aacai
aeaiiuo, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue oaeaeaiu io aan ia iiiaea ouny/e
eeeiiao?ia, ?acianoeoue niiauaiea ia BBS (yeaeo?iiiie aeinea
iauyaeaiee), aeinooiiie ae?oaei iieueciaaoaeyi, neiie?iaaoue n oie aea
BBS eioa?anothuea aan oaeeu, eioaa?e?iaaoue aeiiaoiee eiiiuethoa? a
naoue aaoaai ioena, i?e yoii (ia n/eoay ieceie nei?inoe iaiaia aeaiiuie)
nicaeaaony iieiia iuouaiea ?aaiou a naoe ioena. E?iia oiai,
ainiieueciaaaoenue aeiaaeueiuie naoyie (RelCom, FidoNet) iiaeii
i?eieiaoue e iinueaoue yeaeo?iiiua ienueia ia oieueei aioo?e ai?iaea,
ii oaeoe/anee a ethaie eiiaoe caiiiai oa?a. Aeiaaeueiua naoe aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue ia oieueei iaiaieaaoueny ii/oie, ii e o/anoaiaaoue ai
anaaiciiaeiuo eiioa?aioeeyo, iieo/aoue iiainoe i?aeoe/anee ii
ethaie eioa?anothuae aan oaiaoeea.

Nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo niiniaa niaaeeiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia aeey iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae:

iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue, /a?ac aneio?iiiue ii?o;

naycue n eniieueciaaieai iiaeaia;

naycue /a?ac eieaeueiua naoe.

A ?aoa?aoa ?anniao?eaaaony ia?aua aeaa oeia niaaeeiaiee –
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia e niaaeeiaiea /a?ac iiaeai.

2.Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aneio?iiiue aaeaioa?

I?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? iai?oaeiaai oioy au iaeiei
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aneio?iiiui aaeaioa?ii. Iau/ii ii i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ioaeaeueioth ieaoo eee aea ?aniieiaeai i?yii ia iaoa?eineie
ieaoa eiiiuethoa?a. Aai iieiia iacaaiea – RS-232-C. Eaaeaeue aneio?iiiue
aaeaioa? iau/ii niaea?aeeo ianeieueei ii?oia, /a?ac eioi?ua e
eiiiuethoa?o iiaeii iiaeeeth/aoue aiaoiea ono?ienoaa. Eaaeaeiio oaeiio
ii?oo niioaaonoaoao ianeieueei ?aaeno?ia, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ia?aiia
iieo/aao e iaio aeinooi, e ii?aaeaeaiiay eeiey IRQ (eeiey cai?ina
i?a?uaaiey) aeey neaiaeecaoeee eiiiuethoa?o ia eciaiaiee ninoiyiey
ii?oa. Eaaeaeiio ii?oo i?enaaeaaaony eiae/aneia eiy (COM1,COM2,e
o.ae.).

Eioa?oaen RS-232-C ?ac?aaioai annioeeaoeeae yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (
EIA ) eae noaiaea?o aeey niaaeeiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia e ?acee/iuo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa.

Eiiiuethoa? IBM PC iiaeaea?aeeaaao eioa?oaen RS-232-C ia a iieiie ia?a;
nei?aa ?acuai, iaicia/aiiue ia ei?iona eiiiuethoa?a eae ii?o
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, niaea?aeeo iaeioi?ua ec
neaiaeia, aoiaeyueo a eioa?oaen RS-232-C e eiathueo niioaaonoaothuea
yoiio noaiaea?oo o?iaie iai?yaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?o iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo
eniieuecoaony i/aiue oe?iei. Aio aeaeaei ia iieiue nienie i?eiaiaiee:

iiaeeeth/aiea iuoe;

iiaeeeth/aiea a?aoiiino?ieoaeae, neaia?ia, i?eioa?ia, aeeaeoaeca?ia;

naycue aeaoo eiiiuethoa?ia /a?ac ii?ou iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueiiai eaaaey e oaeeo i?ia?aii,
eae FastWire II eee Norton Commander;

iiaeeeth/aiea iiaeaiia aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii oaeaoiiiui eeieyi;

iiaeeeth/aiea e naoe ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia;

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua ia?aaeathony
ii aaeeinoaaiiie eeiee. I?e yoii aeou aaeoa aeaiiuo ia?aaeathony ii
i/a?aaee n eniieueciaaieai iaeiiai i?iaiaea. Aeey neio?iiecaoeee a?oiia
aeoia aeaiiuo iau/ii i?aaeoanoaoao niaoeeaeueiue noa?oiaue aeo, iinea
a?oiiu aeoia neaaeotho aeo i?iaa?ee ia /aoiinoue e iaeei eee aeaa
noiiiauo aeoa. Eiiaaea aeo i?iaa?ee ia /aoiinoue iiaeao ionoonoaiaaoue.

Eniieueciaaiea aeoa /aoiinoe, noa?oiauo e noiiiauo aeoia ii?aaeaeytho
oi?iao ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. I/aaeaeii, /oi ia?aaeao/ee e i?eaiiee
aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoue iaeei e oio aea oi?iao aeaiiuo, eia/a iaiai ia
aiciiaeai.

Ae?oaay aaaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea – nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Iia oaeaea aeieaeia auoue iaeeiaeiaie aeey ia?aaeao/eea e i?eaiieea.

Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iau/ii ecia?yaony a aiaeao ( ii oaieeee
o?aioeocneiai ecia?aoaoaey oaeaa?aoiiai aiia?aoa Emile Baudot –
Y.Aiaei). Aiaeu ii?aaeaeytho eiee/anoai ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeoia a naeoiaeo.
I?e yoii o/eouaathony e noa?o/noiiiua aeou, a oaeaea aeo /aoiinoe.

3. Aiia?aoiay ?aaeecaoeey

Eiiiuethoa? iiaeao auoue iniauai iaeiei eee aeaoiy ii?oaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Yoe ii?ou ?aniieiaeaiu eeai ia
iaoa?eineie ieaoa, eeai ia ioaeaeueiie ieaoa, anoaaeyaiie a neiou
?anoe?aiey iaoa?eineie ieaou.

Auaatho oaeaea ieaou, niaea?aeauea /aou?a eee ainaiue ii?oia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Eo /anoi eniieuecotho aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey ianeieueeeo eiiiuethoa?ia eee oa?ieiaeia e iaeiiio,
oeaio?aeueiiio eiiiuethoa?o. Yoe ieaou eiatho iacaaiea «ioeueoeii?o».

A iniiaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ii?oa ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo eaaeeo
iee?inoaia INTEL 8250 eee aa nia?aiaiiua aiaeiae – INTEL
16450,16550,16550A. Yoa iee?inoaia yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui
aneio?iiiui i?eaiiia?aaeao/eeii ( UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter). Iee?inoaia niaea?aeeo ianeieueei aioo?aiieo ?aaeno?ia,
aeinooiiuo /a?ac eiiaiaeu aaiaea/auaiaea.

Iee?inoaia 8250 niaea?aeeo ?aaeno?u ia?aaeao/eea e i?eaiieea aeaiiuo.
I?e ia?aaea/a aaeoa ii caienuaaaony a aooa?iue ?aaeno? ia?aaeao/eea,
ioeoaea caoai ia?aienuaaaony a naeaeaiaue ?aaeno? ia?aaeao/eea. Aaeo
«auaeaeaaaony» ec naeaeaiaiai ?aaeno?a ii aeoai.

I?ia?aiia eiaao aeinooi oieueei e aooa?iui ?aaeno?ai, eiie?iaaiea
eioi?iaoeee a naeaeaiaua ?aaeno?u e i?ioeann naeaeaa auiieiyaony
iee?inoaiie UART aaoiiaoe/anee.

E aiaoiei ono?ienoaai aneio?iiiue iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ii?o
iiaeeeth/aaony /a?ac niaoeeaeueiue ?acuai. Nouanoaoao aeaa noaiaea?oa ia
?acuaiu eioa?oaena RS-232-C, yoi DB-25 e DB-9. Ia?aue eiaao 25, a
aoi?ie 9 auaiaeia.

?acaiaeea ?acuaia DB25

Iiia? | Iacia/aiea eiioaeoa | Aoiae eee

eiioaeoa | (ni noi?iiu eiiiuethoa?a) | auoiae

—————————————————————

1 Caueoiia cacaieaiea (Frame Ground,FG) –

2 Ia?aaeaaaaiua aeaiiua (Transmitted Data,TD) Auoiae

3 I?eieiaaiua aeaiiua (Received Data,RD) Aoiae

4 Cai?in aeey ia?aaea/e (Request to send,RTS) Auoiae

5 Na?in aeey ia?aaea/e (Clear to Send,CTS) Aoiae

6 Aioiaiinoue aeaiiuo (Data Set Ready,DSR) Aoiae

7 Neaiaeueiia cacaieaiea (Signal Ground,SG) –

8 Aeaoaeoi? i?eieiaaiiai n eeiee neaiaea

(Data Carrier Detect,DCD) Aoiae

9-19 Ia eniieuecothony

20 Aioiaiinoue auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo

(Data Terminal Ready,DTR) Auoiae

21 Ia eniieuecoaony

22 Eiaeeeaoi? auciaa (Ring Indicator,RI) Aoiae

23-25 Ia eniieuecothony

?acaiaeea ?acuaia DB9

– Iiia? | Iacia/aiea eiioaeoa | Aoiae eee

eiioaeoa | (ni noi?iiu eiiiuethoa?a) | auoiae

—————————————————————

1 Aeaoaeoi? i?eieiaaiiai n eeiee neaiaea

(Data Carrier Detect,DCD) Aoiae

2 I?eieiaaiua aeaiiua (Received Data,RD) Aoiae

3 Ia?aaeaaaaiua aeaiiua (Transmitted Data,TD) Auoiae

4 Aioiaiinoue auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo

(Data Terminal Ready,DTR) Auoiae

5 Neaiaeueiia cacaieaiea (Signal Ground,SG) –

6 Aioiaiinoue aeaiiuo (Data Set Ready,DSR) Aoiae

7 Cai?in aeey ia?aaea/e (Request to send,RTS) Auoiae

8 Na?in aeey ia?aaea/e (Clear to Send,CTS) Aoiae

9 Eiaeeeaoi? auciaa (Ring Indicator,RI) Aoiae

Eioa?oaen RS-232-C ii?aaeaeyao iaiai iaaeaeo ono?ienoaaie aeaoo
oeiia : DTE (Data Terminal Equipment – oa?ieiaeueiia ono-?ienoai) e
DCE (Data Communication Equipment – ono?ienoai nayce). A aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa, ii ia anaaaea, eiiiuethoa? yaeyaony oa?ieiaeueiui
ono?ienoaii. Iiaeaiu, i?eioa?u, a?aoiiino?ieoaee anaaaea yaeythony
ono?ienoaaie nayce.

Neaiaeu eioa?oaena RS-232-C

Aoiaeu TD e RD eniieuecothony ono?ienoaaie DTE e DCE ii-?aciiio.
Ono?ienoai DTE eniieuecoao aoiae TD aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, a aoiae RD
aeey i?eaia aeaiiuo. E iaiai?io, ono?ienoai DCE eniieuecoao aoiae TD
aeey i?eaia, a aoiae RD aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Iiyoiio aeey
niaaeeiaiey oa?ieiaeueiiai ono?ienoaa e ono?ienoaa nayce auaiaeu eo
?acuaiia iaiaoiaeeii niaaeeieoue iai?yioth.

Oaoie/aneea ia?aiao?u eioa?oaena RS-232-C

I?e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey aac eniieueciaaiey
niaoeeaeueiie aiia?aoo?u ec-ca iiiao, iaaiaeeiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuie
iieyie, aiciiaeii aicieeiiaaiea ioeaie. Aneaaenoaea yoiai
iaeeaaeuaathony ia?aie/aiey ia aeeeio niaaeeieoaeueiiai eaaaey iaaeaeo
ono?ienoaaie DTR-DTR e DTR-DCE.

Ioeoeeaeueiia ia?aie/aiea ii aeeeia aeey niaaeeieoaeueiiai eaaaey ii
noaiaea?oo RS-232-C ninoaaeyao 15,24 iao?a. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea yoi
?annoiyiea iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueii aieueoa. Iii iaiin?aaenoaaiii
caaeneo io nei?inoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

110aiae – 1524i / 914,4i

300aiae – 1524i / 914,4i

1200aiae – 914,4i / 914,4i

2400aiae – 304,8i / 152,4i

4800aiae – 304,8i / 76,2i

9600aiae – 76,2i / 76,2i

Ia?aia cia/aiea – nei?inoue ia?aaea/e a aiaeao, aoi?ia –
iaeneiaeueiay aeeeia aeey ye?aie?iaaiiiai eaaaey, o?aouea –
iaeneiaeueiay aeeeia aeey iaye?aie?iaaiiiai eaaaey.

O?iaie iai?yaeaiey ia eeieyo ?acuaia ninoaaeytho aeey eiae/aneiai ioey
-15..-3 aieueoa, aeey eiae/aneie aaeeieoeu +3..+15 aieueo.
I?iiaaeooie io -3 aei +3 aieueo niioaaonoaoao iaii?aaeaeaiiiio
cia/aieth.

4. I?ia?aiie?iaaiea aaeaioa?a

Ii?ou aneio?iiiiai aaeaioa?a

Ia yoaia eieoeeaeecaoeee nenoaiu, iiaeoeue POST BIOS oanoe?oao
eiathueany aneio?iiiua ii?ou RS-232-C e eieoeeaeece?oao eo. A
caaeneiinoe io aa?nee BIOS eieoeeaeece?othony ia?aua aeaa eee /aou?a
ii?oa. Eo aaciaua aae?ana ?aniieaaathony a iaeanoe aeaiiuo BIOS
ia/eiay n aae?ana 0000:0400h.

Ia?aue aaeaioa? COM1 eiaao aaciaue aae?an 3F8h e caieiaao aeeaiacii
aae?ania io 3F8h aei 3FFh. Aoi?ie aaeaioa? COM2 eiaao aaciaue aae?an
2F8h e caieiaao aae?ana 2F8h..2FFh.

Aneio?iiiua aaeaioa?u iiaoo au?aaaouaaoue i?a?uaaiey:

COM1,COM3 – IRQ4

COM2,COM4 – IRQ3

Eiaaony 7 iniiaiuo ?aaeno?ia aeey oi?aaeaiey ii?oaie:

a) ?aaeno? aeaiiuo

?aaeno? aeaiiuo ?aniieiaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii aaciaiio aae-

?ano ii?oa RS-232-C e eniieuecoaony aeey iaiaia aeaiiuie e aeey caaeaiey
nei?inoe iaiaia.

Aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a yoio ?aaeno? iaiaoiaeeii caienaoue
ia?aaeaaaaiue aaeo aeaiiuo. Iinea i?eaia aeaiiuo io aiaoiaai
ono?ienoaa i?eiyoue aaeo iiaeii i?i/eoaoue ec yoiai aea ?aaeno?a.

A caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey noa?oaai aeoa oi?aaeythuaai ?aaeno?a (
?aniieiaeaiiiai ii aae?ano base_adr+3, aaea base_adr niioaaonoaoao
aaciaiio aae?ano ii?oa RS-232-C) iacia/aiea yoiai ?aaeno?a iiaeao
eciaiyoueny. Anee noa?oee aeo ?aaai ioeth, ?aaeno? eniieuecoaony aeey
caiene ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo. Anee aea noa?oee aeo ?aaai aaeeieoea,
?aaeno? eniieuecoaony aeey aaiaea cia/aiey ieaaeoaai aaeoa
aeaeeoaey /anoiou oaeoiaiai aaia?aoi?a. Eciaiyy niaea?aeeiia aeaeeoaey,
iiaeii eciaiyoue nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Noa?oee aaeo aeaeeoaey
caienuaaaony a ?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey i?a?uaaieyie ii aae?ano base_adr+1.

Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?oth iiaeii
aeinoe/ue i?e eniieueciaaiee aneio?iiiiai aaeaioa?a, aeinoeaaao
115200 aiae, /oi i?eia?ii niioaaonoaoao 14 Eaaeo a naeoiaeo.

a) ?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey i?a?uaaieyie

Yoio ?aaeno? eniieuecoaony eeai aeey oi?aaeaiey i?a?uaaieyie

io aneio?iiiiai aaeaioa?a, eeai (iinea auaiaea a oi?aaeythuee ?aaeno?
aaeoa n onoaiiaeaiiui a 1 noa?oei aeoii) aeey auaiaea cia/aiey noa?oaai
aaeoa aeaeeoaey /anoiou oaeoiaiai aaia?aoi?a.

a) ?aaeno? eaeaioeoeeaoeee i?a?uaaiey

N/eouaay aai niaea?aeeiia, i?ia?aiia iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/e-

io i?a?uaaiey

a) Oi?aaeythuee ?aaeno?

Oi?aaeythuee ?aaeno? aeinooiai ii caiene e /oaieth. Yoio ?a-

aeno? oi?aaeyao ?acee/iuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie UART : nei?inoueth
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, eiio?ieai /aoiinoe, ia?aaea/ae neaiaea BREAK,
aeeeiie ia?aaeaaaaiuo neia(neiaieia).

ae) ?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey iiaeaiii

?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey iiaeaiii oi?aaeyao ninoiyieai auoiaeiuo

eeiee DTR, RTS e eeiee, niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey iiaeaiia – OUT1 e OUT2,
a oaeaea caioneii aeeaaiinoeee i?e niaaeeiaiiuo aianoa aoiaea e auoiaea
aneio?iiiiai aaeaioa?a.

a) ?aaeno? ninoiyiey eeiee

?aaeno? ninoiyiey eeiee ii?aaeaeyao i?e/eio ioeaie, eioi?ua

iiaoo aicieeiooue i?e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?ii e
iee?inoaiie UART.

ae) ?aaeno? ninoiyiey iiaeaia

?aaeno? ninoiyiey iiaeaia ii?aaeaeyao ninoiyiea oi?aaeythueo

neaiaeia, ia?aaeaaaaiuo iiaeaiii aneio?iiiiio ii?oo eiiiuethoa?a.

5.Oeiu iiaeaiia

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy auioneaaony ia?iiiia eiee/anoai anaaiciiaeiuo
iiaeaiia, ia/eiay io i?inoaeoeo, iaania/eaathueo nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
ieiei 300 aeo/nae, aei neiaeiuo oaen-iiaeaiiuo ieao, iicaieythueo aai
iineaoue n aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a oaen eee caoeiaia ienueii a ethaoth
oi/eo ie?a.

A ?aoa?aoa aoaeao ?anneacaii oieueei i oae iacuaaaiuo
hayes-niaianoeiuo iiaeaiia. Yoe iiaeaiu iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?ac?aaioaiiue
oe?iie Hayes iaai? AO-eiiaiae oi?aaeaiey iiaeaiaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
oaeea iiaeaiu oe?iei eniieuecothony ai anai ie?a aeey nayce
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia IBM PC/XT/AT, PS/2 /a?ac oaeaoiiiua eeiee.

Aiia?aoii iiaeaiu auiieiaiu eeai eae ioaeaeueiay ieaoa,
anoaaeyaiay a neio ia iaoa?eineie ieaoa eiiiuethoa?a, eeai a aeaea
ioaeaeueiiai ei?iona n aeieii ieoaiey, eioi?ue iiaeeeth/aaony e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio aneio?iiiiio ii?oo eiiiuethoa?a. Ia?aue ec iec
iacuaaaony aioo?aiiei iiaeaiii, a aoi?ie – aiaoiei.

Oeie/iue iiaeai niaea?aeeo neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou: niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue
iee?ii?ioeanni?, oi?aaeythuee ?aaioie iiaeaia, iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue,
o?aiyuoth cia/aiey ?aaeno?ia iiaeaia e aooa?ecothuea
aoiaeioth/auoiaeioth eioi?iaoeeth, iinoiyiioth iaiyoue, aeeiaiee,
iicaieythuee auiieiyoue caoeiaie eiio?ieue nayce, a oaeaea ae?oaea
aniiiiaaoaeueiua yeaiaiou ( o?ainoi?iaoi?, ?acenoi?u, eiiaeainaoi?u,
?acuaiu). Anee o aan aeinoaoi/ii nia?aiaiiue iiaeai, oi ii nei?aa anaai
aeiiieieoaeueii niaea?aeeo yeaeo?e/anee ia?ai?ia?aiie?oaioth
iinoiyiioth iaiyoue, a eioi?ie iiaeao auoue nio?aiaia eiioeao?aoeey
iiaeaia aeaaea i?e aueeth/aiee ieoaiey.

*oiau iiaeaiu iiaee iaiaieaaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii eioi?iaoeeae, iaaei,
/oiau iie eniieueciaaee iaeeiaeiaua niiniau ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii
oaeaoiiiui eeieyi. Aeey ?ac?aaioee noaiaea?oia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aue
nicaeai niaoeeaeueiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiinoeueoaoeaiue eiieoao ii
oaeaa?aoee e oaeaoiiee (CCITT) e i?eiyou neaaeothuea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

CCITT V.21 – 300 bps. Iiaeai, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiue aeaiiie
?aeiiaiaeaoeeae, i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii auaeaeaiiui e
eiiiooe?oaiui eeieyi.

Ii ?aaioaao a aneio?iiiii aeoieaeniii ?aaeeia. Aeey ia?aaea/e e i?eaia
aeaiiuo eniieuecoaony niinia /anoioiie iiaeoeyoeee.

CCITT V.22 – 1200 bps. Iiaeai, ?aaioathuee a niioaaonoaee n aeaiiie
?aeiiaiaeaoeeae, eniieuecoao aneio?iiii-neio?iiiue aeoieaeniue
?aaeei ia?aaea/e. Aneio?iiii-neio?iiiue ?aaeei icia/aao, /oi
eiiiuethoa? ia?aaeaao iiaeaio aeaiiua a aneio?iiiii ?aaeeia. Iiaeai
oaeaeyao ec iioiea aeaiiuo eiiiuethoa?a noa?oiaua e noiiiaua aeou. E
oaea a neio?iiiii aeaea ia?aaeaao eo oaeaeaiiiio eiiiuethoa?o. Aeey
iiaeoeyoeee ia?aaeaaaaiiai neaiaea i?eiaiyaony iaoiae
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie oaciaie iiaeoeyoeee.

CCITT V.22bis – 2400 bps. Aeoieaeniue iiaeai, ni nei?inoueth ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo 2400 bps. I?e ia?aaea/a ni nei?inoueth 2400 bps eniieuecoaony
iaoiae eaaae?aoo?iie iiaeoeyoeee, a i?e nei?inoe 1200 – iaoiae
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie oaciaie iiaeoeyoeee. Ia nei?inoe 1200 bps iiaeai
CCITT V.22bis niaianoei n CCITT V.22.

CCITT V.23 – 600/1200 bps. Aneio?iiiue iiaeai, eniieuecothuee iaoiae
/anoioiie iiaeoeyoeee. Iiaeai iiaeao ?aaioaoue a aeoieaeniii ?aaeeia
ni nei?inoueth ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii i?yiiio eaiaeo – 600/1200
bps, a ii ia?aoiie – oieueei 75 bps. Yoio noaiaea?o ia niaianoei n
CCITT V.21, V.22, V.22bis.

6. I?ia?aiie?iaaiea iiaeaiia

Iinea auionea aia?eeaineie oe?iie Hayes iiaeaiia na?ee Smartmodem,
nenoaia eiiaiae, eniieueciaaiiay a iae, noaea iaeei noaiaea?oii,
eioi?iai i?eaea?aeeaathony inoaeueiua oe?iu – ?ac?aaio/eee iiaeaiia.
Nenoaia eiiaiae, i?eiaiyaiay a yoeo iiaeaiao, iineo iacaaiea
hayes-eiiaiae, eee AT-eiiaiae.

Ni a?aiaie auionea ia?auo AT-niaianoeiuo iiaeaiia iaai? eo eiiaiae
ianeieueei ?anoe?eeny, ii ana iniiaiua eiiaiaeu inoaeenue aac
eciaiaiey.

Ana eiiaiaeu, ia?aaeaaaaiua eiiiuethoa?ii iiaeaio, iaaei ia/eiaoue
i?aoeenii AT (ATtention – aieiaiea) e caeai/eaaoue neiaieii aica?aoa
ea?aoee ( ). Oieueei eiiaiaea A/ e Escape-iineaaei-aaoaeueiinoue
«+++» ia o?aaotho aeey naay i?aoeena AT.

Iinea i?aoeena AT iiaoo eaeoe iaeia eee n?aco ianeieueei eiiaiae. Aeey
yniinoe yoe eiiaiaeu iiaoo auoue ioaeaeaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa neiaieaie
i?iaaea, oe?a, neiaeaie. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eiiaiaeu iiaoo auoue
iaienaiu eae caaeaaiuie, oae e no?i/iuie aoeaaie.

I?e ia?aaea/a iiaeaio eiiaiae iie nia/aea caiinyony ai aioo?aiiee
aooa?, eioi?ue, eae i?aaeei, eiaao ?acia? 40 neiaieia. Eiiaiaeu,
caienaiiua a aooa? iiaeaia, eniieiythony iinea iinooieaiey neiaiea
aica?aoa ea?aoee. Aneaaenoaea ia?aie/aiiinoe ?acia?a aooa?a ia
neaaeoao ia?aaeaaaoue iiaeaio neeoeii aeeeiiua eiiaiaeu ( aieueoa
?acia?a aooa?a). Aeeeiiua eiiaiaeu iiaeii ?acaeaaoue ia /anoe e
ia?aaeaaaoue a ianeieueei caoiaeia. I?e yoii eaaeaeay /anoue aeieaeia
ia/eiaoueny i?aoeenii AO e caeai/eaaoueny neiaieii aica?aoa ea?aoee.

MR Modem Ready – Iiaeai aioia e iaiaio aeaiiuie. Anee yoio eiaeeeaoi?
ia ai?eo, oi iaaei i?iaa?eoue eeieth ieoaiey iiaeaia.

TR Terminal Ready – Eiiiuethoa? aioia e iaiaio aeaiiuie n iiaeaiii. Yoio
eiaeeeaoi? ai?eo, eiaaea iiaeai iieo/ee io eiiiuethoa?a neaiae DTR.

CD Carrier Detect – Eiaeeeaoi? caaeeaaaony, eiaaea iiaeai iaia?oaeee
ianouoth /anoioo ia eeiee. Eiaeeeaoi? aeieaeai ai?aoue ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai naaina nayce e aaniooue, eiaaea iaeei ec iiaeaiia inaiaiaeeo
eeieth.

SD Send Data – Eiaeeeaoi? ieaaao, eiaaea iiaeai iieo/aao aeaiiua io
eiiiuethoa?a.

RD Receave Data – Eiaeeeaoi? ieaaao, eiaaea iiaeai ia?aaeaao

aeaiiua e eiiiuethoa?o

HS High Speed – Iiaeai ?aaioaao ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie aeey iaai
nei?inoe.

AA Auto Answer – Iiaeai iaoiaeeony a ?aaeeia aaoiioaaoa. Oi anoue
iiaeai aaoiiaoe/anee aoaeao ioaa/aoue ia i?eoiaeyuea caiiee. Eiaaea
iiaeai iaia?oaeeo caiiie ia oaeaoiiiie eeiee, yoio eiaeeeaoi? caieaaao.

OH Off-Hook – Yoio eiaeeeaoi? ai?eo, eiaaea iiaeai niye o?oaeo (
caieiaao eeieth).

Iniiaiua eiiaiaeu iiaeaia

AT – Ia/aei (i?aoeen) eiiaiaeiie no?iee. Iinea iieo/aiey yoie eiiaiaeu
iiaeai aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeno?aeaaao nei?inoue ia?aaea/e e oi?iao
aeaiiuo e ia?aiao?ai eiiiuethoa?a.

A – Aaoiioaao. Anee ?aaeei aaoiiaoe/aneiai ioaaoa aueeth/ai (S0=0),
eiiaiaea eniieuecoaony aeey ioaaoa ia caiiie io oaeaeaiiiai iiaeaia.
Eiiaiaea canoaaeyao iiaeai niyoue o?oaeo ( iiaeeeth/eoueny e eeiee ) e
onoaiiaeoue naycue n oaeaeaiiui iiaeaiii.

A/ – Iiaeai iiaoi?yao iineaaeithth aaaaeaiioth eiiaiaeo. Eiiaiaea
ia?aaeaaony ia iiaeai aac i?aoeena AT e eniieiyaony iiaeaiii
iaiaaeeaiii, ia iaeeaeay i?eoiaea neiaiea aica?aoa ea?aoee. Anee au
ia?aaeaaeeoa iiaeaio no?ieo AT A/ , oi iiaeai oeaaeao ia ioeaeo e
aa?iao neiai ERROR.

Bn – Eiiaiaea i?iecaiaeeo auai? noaiaea?oa, niaeanii eioi?iio aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo iiaeaiaie. I?e nei?inoe
ia?aaea/e 300 aeo/n i?ienoiaeeo auai? iaaeaeo noaiaea?oaie BELL 103 e
CCITT V.21, i?e nei?inoe 1200 bps – iaaeaeo BELL 212A e CCITT V.22bis.
I?e nei?inoe 2400 bps yoa eiiaiaea eaii?e?oaony e eniieuecoaony
noaiaea?o CCITT V.22. Anee n=0, onoaiaaeeaathony noaiaea?ou CCITT
V.21/V.22, a anee n=1 – noaiaea?ou BELL 103/212A.

Ds – Eiiaiaea eniieuecoaony aeey iaai?a iiia?a. Iinea iieo/aiey yoie
eiiaiaeu iiaeai ia/eiaao iaai? iiia?a e i?e onoaiiaeaiee nayce
ia?aoiaeeo a ?aaeei ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Eiiaiaea ninoieo ec i?aoeena
AT, neiaiea D e oaeaoiiiiai iiia?a, a ninoaa eioi?iai iiaoo aoiaeeoue
neaaeothuea oi?aaeythuea iiaeeoeeaoi?u: P eee T. Yoe iiaeeoeeaoi?u
i?iecaiaeyo auai? iaaeaeo eiioeueniie e oiiiaie nenoaiie iaai?a ( a
iaoae no?aia eniieuecoaony eiioeueniay nenoaia).

, – Neiaie caiyoie aucuaaao iaoco i?e iaai?a iiia?a. Aeeeoaeueiinoue
iaocu ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeeiui ?aaeno?a S8.

; – Neiaie oi/ee n caiyoie, anee ii iaoiaeeony a eiioea eiiaiaeiie
no?iee, ia?aaiaeeo iiaeai iinea iaai?a iiia?a a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei.

@ – Iiaeai iaeeaeaao iyoenaeoiaeiie oeoeiu ia eeiee a oa/aiea
caaeaiiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie. I?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
iiaeai iaeeaeaao oeoeiu, caaeaaony a ?aaeno?a S7. Anee a oa/aiea yoiai
a?aiaie iaocu oeoeiu ia auei, iiaeai ioeeth/aaony e ioaa/aao NO ANSWER.

S – Iiaeai iaae?aao oaeaoiiiue iiia?, caienaiiue a aai iaiyoe. Yoa
eiiaiaea auiieiyaony oieueei aeey iiaeaiia, eiathueo ano?iaiioth
yia?aiiacaaeneioth iaiyoue e aiciiaeiinoue caiene a iaa iiia?ia
oaeaoiiia.

R – Iinea iaai?a iiia?a ia?aaiaeeo iiaeai a ?aaeei aaoiioaaoa. Yoio
iiaeeoeeaoi? aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny a eiioea iaae?aaiiai iiia?a.

W – Ia?aae aeaeueiaeoei iaai?ii oaeaoiiiiai iiia?a iiaeai iaeeaeaao
aeeeiiue aoaeie ec eeiee. I?e/ai a?aiy iaeeaeaiey aoaeea niaea?aeeony a
?aaeno?a S7. Anee a ioaaaeaiiia a?aiy aoaeie ia iiyaeeny, iiaeai
i?ae?auaao iaai? iiia?a e aica?auaao niiauaiea NO DIALTONE. Yoio
ia?aiao? iiaeao auoue iieacai i?e iaai?a iaaeaeoai?iaeieo iiia?ia.

Fn – Ia?aeeth/aiea iaaeaeo aeoieaeniui/iieoaeoieaeniui ?aaeeiaie. I?e
n=0 ia?aoiae a iieoaeoieaeniue ?aaeei, a i?e n=1 – a aeoieaeniue.

Hn – Yoa eiiaiaea eniieuecoaony aeey oi?aaeaiey oaeaoiiiie eeieae.
Anee n=0, oi i?ienoiaeeo ioeeth/aiea iiaeaia io eeiee, anee n=1,
iiaeai iiaeeeth/aaony e eeiee.

Ln – Onoaiiaea a?iieinoe neaiaea aioo?aiiaai aeeiaieea:

n=0,1 niioaaonoaoao ieceie a?iieinoe, n=2 – n?aaeiae e n=3 –
iaeneiaeueiie.

Mn – Oi?aaeaiea aioo?aiiei aeeiaieeii. I?e n=0 aeeiaiee aueeth/ai. I?e
n=1 aeeiaiee aeeth/ai oieueei ai a?aiy iaai?a iiia?a e aueeth/ai iinea
iaia?oaeaiey ianouae. I?e n=2 aeeiaiee aeeth/ai ana a?aiy. I?e n=3
aeeiaiee aeeth/aaony iinea iaai?a iineaaeiae oeeo?u iiia?a e
aueeth/aaony iinea iaia?oaeaiey ianouae ioaa/athuaai iiaeaia.

Qn – Oi?aaeaiea ioaaoii iiaeaia ia AT-eiiaiaeu. I?e n=0 ioaao ?ac?aoai,
i?e n=1 ioaao cai?auai. Iacaaeneii io ninoiyiey Q0 eee Q1 iiaeai
anaaaea niiauaao niaea?aeaiea S-?aaeno?ia, naie eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue
eiae, eiio?ieueioth noiio iaiyoe e ?acoeueoaou oanoa.

Sr? – *oaiea niaea?aeeiiai ?aaeno?a iiaeaia, eiathuaai iiia? r.

Sr=n – Caienue a ?aaeno? iiaeaia n iiia?ii r /enea n. *enei

n iiaeao eiaoue cia/aiey io 0 aei 255. Ana eiiaiaeu iiaeeoeoee?otho
niaea?aeeiia iaeiiai eee aieaa S-?aaeno?ia. Iaeioi?ua S-?aaeno?u
niaea?aeao a?aiaiiua ia?aiao?u, eioi?ua iiaeii iiiaiyoue oieueei
eiiaiaeie S.

Vn – I?iecaiaeeo auai? aeaea ioaaoa iiaeaia ia AT-eiiaiaeu.

I?e n=0 ioaao i?ienoiaeeo oeeo?iaui eiaeii, a i?e n=1 iiaeai ioaa/aao a
neiaieueiii aeaea ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. Eniieueciaaiea oeeo?iaie oi?iu
ioaaoa iaeaa/aao ia?aaioeo ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu i?e
iaienaiee nianoaaiiuo i?ia?aii oi?aaeaiey iiaeaiii.

Yn – Niinia ioeeth/aiey iiaeaia io eeiee. Nouanoaotho aeaa niiniaa
ioeeth/aiey iiaeaia io eeiee: noaiaea?oiue, eiaaea iiaeai iieo/aao
iaaeoeaiue neaiae DTR io eiiiuethoa?a, e i?eioaeeoaeueiue, eiaaea iiaeai
iieo/aao io oaeaeaiiiai iiaeaia neaiae ia?a?uaa BREAK. Eiiaiaea
ATH0 iai?aaeyao oaeaeaiiiio iiaeaio neaiae i?a?uaaiey BREAK, eioi?ue
aeeeony 4n. I?e n=0 iiaeai ioeeth/aaony noaiaea?oii, i?e n=1 iiaeai
ioeeth/aaony iinea iieo/aiey ec eeiee neaiaea BREAK.

Z – Na?anuaaao eiioeao?aoeeth iiaeaia. I?e yoii ai ana ?aaeno?u
caa?oaeathony cia/aiey, i?eiyoua ii oiie/aieth. Cia/aiey ?aaeno?ia,
i?eiyoua ii oiie/aieth aa?oony ec yia?aiiacaaeneiie iaiyoe iiaeaia
eee, anee iiaeai oaeie iaiyoe ia eiaao, ec iinoiyiiie iaiyoe eee
ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec ia?aeeth/aoaeae ia ieaoa iiaeaia.

+++ – Escape-iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, eniieuecoaiay aeey ia?aoiaea a
eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei ?aaiou iiaeaia. Aeaaiaea?y yoie eiiaiaea iiaeii
ia?aeoe ec ?aaeeia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iiaeaiii a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei ?aaiou
aac ?ac?uaa nayce. Iiaeai o?aaoao oeoeiu ia?aae e iinea iai?aaeaiey yoie
Escape-iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Aaee/eia yoiai i?iiaaeooea oeoeiu
ii?aaeaeaia a ?aaeno?a S12.

&F – iiaeai onoaiaaeeaaao eiioeao?aoeeth, caienaiioth a iinoiyiioth
iaiyoue.

&Gn – Aeeth/aiea/aueeth/aiea caueoiie /anoiou. n=0 – caueoiay /anoioa
aueeth/aia, n=1 – iiaeai aaia?e?oao caueoioth /anoioo 550 Hz, n=2 –
iiaeai aaia?e?oao caueoioth /anoioo 1800 Hz. Eniieueciaaiea
aeaiiie eiiaiaeu caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae oaeaoiiiie eeiee.

&Ln – Aeae eeiee nayce. I?e n=0 ia?aaea/a ii iau/iui (eiiiooe?oaiui)
eeieyi nayce, n=1 ia?aaea/a ii auaeaeaiiui eaiaeai.

&Mn – Onoaiiaea aneio?iiii/neio?iiiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou. I?e n=0
onoaiaaeeaaaony aneio?iiiue ?aaeei, i?e n=1,2,3 onoaiaaeeaaaony
neio?iiiue ?aaeei.

&Pn – Onoaiiaea eiioeueniiai eiyooeoeeaioa iaai?a iiia?a a
niioaaonoaee n ?acee/iuie noaiaea?oaie. I?e n=0 – eiyooeoeeaio
caiieiaiey caiueaiea/eioa?aae 39/61 (Aia?eea), i?e n=1 – 33/67
(Aiaeey).

&Sn – Oi?aaeaiea neaiaeii DSR ii?oa RS-232-C. I?e n=0 neaiae DSR
aeoeaai anaaaea, a i?e n=1 neaiae DSR aeoeaece?oaony oieueei iinea
ieii/aiey yoaia onoaiiaeaiey nayce iaaeaeo iiaeaiaie.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee aeey onoaiiaeaiey nayce

a)Eieoeeaeecaoeey COM-ii?oa

I?iaiaeei eieoeeaeecaoeeth COM-ii?oa, e eioi?iio iiaeeeth/ai ii-

aeai. Aeey yoiai i?ia?aiie?oai ?aaeno?u iee?inoaiu UART, caaeaaay
oi?iao aeaiiuo e nei?inoue iaiaia. Caiaoei, /oi iiaeai aoaeao
i?iaiaeeoue niaaeeiaiea n oaeaeaiiui iiaeaiii eae ?ac ia yoie nei?inoe.
*ai nei?inoue auoa, oai auno?aa aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai aeaiiuie n
oaeaeaiiui iiaeaiii.

Iaeiaei i?e oaaee/aiee nei?inoe ia ieioeo oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo neeueii
aic?anoaao eiee/anoai ioeaie.

a)Eieoeeaeecaoeey iiaeaia

Ia?aaeaaay iiaeaio AT-eiiaiaeu /a?ac NII-ii?o, i?iecaiaeei aai

eieoeeaeecaoeeth. I?e iiiiue AO-eiiaiae iiaeii onoaiiaeoue ?acee/iua
?aaeeiu ?aaiou iiaeaia – aua?aoue i?ioieie iaiaia, onoaiiaeoue iaai?
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo niiauaiee iiaeaia e o.ae.

a)Niaaeeiaiea n oaeaeaiiui iiaeaiii

Ia?aaeaai iiaeaio eiiaiaeo iaai?a iiia?a (ATD). A yoii neo/aa

iiaeai iaae?aao iiia? e iuoaaony onoaiiaeoue naycue n oaeaeaiiui
iiaeaiii. Eee ia?aaeaai iiaeaio eiiaiaeo AT S0=1 aeey ia?aaiaea aai a
?aaeei aaoiioaaoa. Iinea yoiai iiaeai iaeeaeaao caiiea io oaeaeaiiiai
iiaeaia, a eiaaea ii i?eoiaeeo, iuoaaony onoaiiaeoue n iei naycue.

a)Iaeeaeaai ioaao io iiaeaia

A caaeneiinoe io ?aaeeia, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony iiaeai, ii ii-

aeao ia?aaeaaaoue eiiiuethoa?o ?acee/iua niiauaiey. Iai?eia?, anee
iiaeai i?iecaiaeeo aucia oaeaeaiiiai iiaeaia (AO-eiiaiaea ATD), oi
iiaeai iiaeao auaeaoue neaaeothuea niiauaiey:

CONNECT Oniaoiia niaaeeiaiea

BUSY Iiia? caiyo

NO DIALTONE Ia eeiee ionoonoaoao neaiae eiiiooaoi?a

NO ANSWER Aaiiaio ia ioaa/aao

NO CARRIER Iaoaea/iay iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue naycue

Eiaaea i?eoiaeeo caiiie, iiaeai ia?aaeaao eiiiuethoa?o niiauaiea RING,
anee ?aaeno? iiaeaia S0 ?aaai ioeth. A yoii neo/aa aeey ioaaoa ia
caiiie iaaei iineaoue iiaeaio eiiaiaeo AOA. Anee iiaeai iaoiaeeony a
?aaeeia aaoiioaaoa e ?aaeno? iiaeaia S0 ia ?aaai ioeth, oi iiaeai
aaoiiaoe/anee iuoaaony ioaaoeoue ia caiiie e iiaeao auaeaoue neaaeothuea
niiauaiey:

CONNECT Oniaoiia niaaeeiaiea

NO DIALTONE Iao ianouae /anoiou oaeaeaiiiai iiaeaia

NO CARRIER Iaoaea/iay iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue naycue

Anee iiaeai ia?aaeae eiiiuethoa?o niiauaiea CONNECT ,cia/eo, ii
oniaoii i?iecaae niaaeeiaiea e oaia?ue ?aaioaao a ?aaeeia ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo. Oaia?ue ana aeaiiua, eioi?ua au ia?aaeaaeeoa iiaeaio /a?ac
NII-ii?o, aoaeoo i?aia?aciaaiu iiaeaiii a oi?io, i?eaiaeioth aeey
ia?aaea/e ii oaeaoiiiui eeieyi, e ia?aaeaiu oaeaeaiiiio iiaeaio. E
iaiai?io, aeaiiua, i?eiyoua iiaeaiii ii oaeaoiiiie eeiee, ia?aaiaeyony
a oeeo?iaoth oi?io e iiaoo auoue i?i/eoaiu /a?ac NII-ii?o, e
eioi?iio iiaeeeth/ai iiaeai.

Anee iiaeai ia?aaeae eiiiuethoa?o niiauaiey BUSY, NO DIALTONE, NO
ANSWER, NO CARRIER cia/eo, i?iecaanoe niaaeeiaiea n oaeaeaiiui iiaeaiii
ia oaeaeinue e iaaei iiiuoaoueny iiaoi?eoue niaaeeiaiea.

ae)Iiaeeeth/aiea iiaeaia a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei

Iinea ieii/aiey ?aaiou eiiioieeaoeeiiiay i?ia?aiia aeieaeia

ia?aaanoe iiaeai a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei e ia?aaeaoue aio eiiaiaeo
iieiaeeoue o?oaeo (ATH0). Aeey ia?aaiaea iiaeaia a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei
iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny Escape-iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth «+++». Iinea
oiai eae iiaeai ia?aoae a eiiaiaeiue ?aaeei, iiaeii iiyoue ia?aaeaaaoue
aio AO-eiiaiaeu.

a)Na?anuaaai neaiaeu ia eeieyo DTR e RTS

Ieceee o?iaaiue neaiaeia DTR e RTS niiauaao iiaeaio, /oi eiiiuethoa?
ia aioia e i?eaio aeaiiuo /a?ac COM-ii?o.

I?e ?aaioa n aneio?iiiui iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aaeaioa?ii au iiaeaoa
eniieueciaaoue iaoaieci i?a?uaaiee. Oae eae ia?aaea/a e i?eai aeaiiuo
iiaeaiii i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, oi i?eiaiaiea
i?a?uaaiee io ii?oa iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue i?ioeanni?iia a?aiy aeey
ae?oaeo ioaeae.

7.I?ioieieu iaiaia aeaiiuie

I?e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo ii caooieaiiui oaeaoiiiui eeieyi anaaaea
nouanoaoao aa?iyoiinoue, /oi aeaiiua, ia?aaeaaaaiua iaeiei iiaeaiii,
aoaeoo i?eiyou ae?oaei iiaeaiii a eneaaeaiiii aeaea. Iai?eia?,
iaeioi?ua ia?aaeaaaaiua aaeou iiaoo eciaieoue naia cia/aiea eee aeaaea
i?inoi en/aciooue.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iieueciaaoaeue eiae aa?aioee, /oi aai aeaiiua ia?aaeaiu
aac ioeaie, eniieuecothony i?ioieieu ei??aeoeee ioeaie.

Iauay oi?ia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii i?ioieieai n ei??aeoeeae ioeaie
neaaeothuay: aeaiiua ia?aaeathony ioaeaeueiuie aeieaie (iaeaoaie) ii
16-20000 aaeo, a caaeneiinoe io ea/anoaa nayce. Eaaeaeue aeie
niaaaeaaony caaieiaeii, a eioi?ii oeacaia i?iaa?i/iay eioi?iaoeey,
iai?eia? eiio?ieueiay noiia aeiea. I?eieiathuee eiiiuethoa?
naiinoiyoaeueii iiaen/eouaaao eiio?ieueioth noiio eaaeaeiai aeiea e
n?aaieaaao aa n eiio?ieueiie noiiie ec caaieiaea aeiea. Anee yoe
aeaa eiio?ieueiue noiiu niaiaee, i?eieiathuay i?ia?aiia n/eoaao, /oi
aeie ia?aaeai aac ioeaie. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa i?eieiathuee eiiiuethoa?
ia?aaeaao ia?aaeathuaio cai?in ia iiaoi?ioth ia?aaea/o yoiai aeiea.

I?ioieieu ei??aeoeee ioeaie iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu eae ia aiia?aoiii
o?iaia, oae e ia i?ia?aiiiii. Aiia?aoiue o?iaaiue ?aaeecaoeee aieaa
yooaeoeaai. Auno?iaeaenoaea aiia?aoiie ?aaeecaoeee i?ioieiea MNP
i?eia?ii ia 30% auoa, /ai i?ia?aiiiie.

8. I?ioieieu ia?aaea/e oaeeia

A ioee/ea io i?ioieieia ieaeiaai o?iaiy aeaiiua i?ioieieu iicaieytho
i?aaieciaaoue i?eai e ia?aaea/o oaeeia.

ASCII.

Yoio i?ioieie ?aaioaao aac ei??aeoeee ioeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa i?e
ia?aaea/a oaeeia ii oaeaoiiiui eaiaeai ec-ca ooia i?eiyoue oaee
neeueii ioee/aaony io ia?aaeaaaaiiai. Anee au ia?aaeaaoa auiieiyaiue
oaee, oi ioeaee i?e ia?aaea/a iiaoo noaoue ?ieiauie – iieo/aiiay
i?ia?aiia ia aoaeao ?aaioaoue. Anee au ia?aaeaaoa ei?ioeea oaenoiaua
niiauaiey, oi ioeaee eaaei iiaoo auoue eni?aaeaiu.

XModem.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu o?e ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ioieiea XModem:

i?eaeiaeueiue i?ioieie Xmodem

Xmodem c CRC

1K Xmodem

I?eaeiaeueiue i?ioieie Xmodem ?ac?aaioae Aa?ae E?enoainai (Ward
Christensen) a 1977 aiaeo. Aa?ae E?enoainai aue iaeiei ec ia?auo
niaoeeaeenoia ii i?ioieieai iaiaia aeaiiuie. A /anoue iaai yoio
i?ioieie eiiaaea iacuaatho oaeaea i?ioieieii E?enoainaia.

I?e ia?aaea/a oaeeia n iiiiuueth i?ioieieia Xmodem oi?iao aeaiiuo
aeieaeai auoue neaaeothuei: 8-aeoiaua aeaiiua, iaeei noiiiaue aeo e
ionoonoaea i?iaa?ee ia /aoiinoue. Aeey ia?aaea/e eniieueco-aony
iieoaeoieaeniue iaoiae, o.a. aeaiiua iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny a eaaeaeue
iiiaio a?aiaie oieueei a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

I?ioieie Xmodem Cheksum ia?aaeaao aeaiiua iaeaoaie ii 128 aaeo.
Aianoa n iaeaoii ia?aaeaaony aai eiio?ieueiay noiia. I?e iieo/aiee
iaeaoa eiio?ieueiay noiia au/eneyaony niiaa e n?aaieaaaony n noiiie,
au/eneaiiie ia ia?aaeathuae iaoeia. Iaeao ia?aaeai aac ioeaie, anee
noiiu niaiaaeatho.

Yoio iaoiae iaania/eaaao aeinoaoi/ii oi?iooth caueoo io ioeaie. Oieueei
iaeei ec 256 iaeaoia iiaeao niaea?aeaoue ioeaee, aeaaea anee
eiio?ieueiay noiia i?aaeeueiay.

Xmodem c CRC. Aieaa caueuaiiui io ioeaie yaeyaony i?ioieie Xmodem CRC
(Cyclic Redundancy Check). Xmodem CRC – i?ioieie n i?iaa?eie
oeeeee/aneei ecauoi/iui eiaeii. A iai 8-aeoiaay eiio?ieueiay noiia
caiaiaia ia 16-aeoiaue oeeeee/aneee ecauoi/iue eiae. Yoio i?ioieie
aa?aioe?oao aa?iyoiinoue iaia?oaeaiey ioeaie, ?aaioth 99,9984%. Oieueei
iaeei ec 700 aeeeeiiia ieioeo iaeaoia aoaeao eiaoue i?aaeeueiue
CRC-eiae. I?ioieie Xmodem CRC oaeaea ia?aaeaao aeaiiua iaeaoaie ii 128
aaeo.

1K Xmodem. Anee ia?aaea/a eaeao aac ioeaie, i?ioieie 1E Xmodem
oaaee/eaaao ?acia? iaeaoa n 128 aei 1024 aaeo. I?e oaaee/aiee /enea
ioeaie ?acia? iaeaoa niiaa oiaiueoaaony. Oaeia eciaiaiea aeeeiu iaeaoa
iicaieyao oaaee/eoue nei?inoue ia?aaea/e oaeeia. A inoaeueiii i?ioieie
1K Xmodem niaiaaeaao n i?ioieieii Xmodem CRC.

Ymodem.

I?ioieie Ymodem ?ac?aaioae *ae Oi?naa?a a 1984-1985 aiaeao.

I?ioieie Ymodem iioiae ia i?ioieie 1K Xmodem, ii eiaao iaeii ioee/ea:
i?ioieie Ymodem iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue eee i?eieiaoue ca iaeei caoiae
ianeieueei oaeeia.

Nouanoaoao iiaeeoeeaoeey i?ioieiea Ymodem – Ymodem G. I?ioieie Ymodem G
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eniieueciaaiey n iiaeaiaie, aaoiiaoe/anee
inouanoaeythueie ei??aeoeeth ioeaie ia aiia?aoiii o?iaia. Iai?eia?,
MNP-iiaeaiu n aiia?aoiie ?aaeecaoeeae MNP. A yoii i?ioieiea oi?iuaia
caueoa io ioeaie, o.e. aa auiieiyao nai iiaeai. Ia eniieuecoaoa yoio
i?ioieie, anee aao iiaeai ia inouanoaeyao aiia?aoioth ei??aeoeeth
ioeaie.

9. Oaen-iiaeaiiua ieaou

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia ?uiea iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai oaeneieeueiuo e
oaen-iiaeaiiuo ieao. Anee au iiaeeeth/eoa yoo ieaoo e aaoaio
eiiiuethoa?o, oi au iieo/eoa oaeneieeueiue aiia?ao. Aeaaiaea?y yoei
ieaoai au iiaeaoa ia?aaeaoue oaen ia ethaie oaeneieeueiue aiia?ao eee
ia ethaoth oaen-iiaeaiioth ieaoo a ie?a.

Oaen-iiaeaiiua ieaou iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e eae iau/iua iiaeaiu.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, ianeoaeeaathuaa Oaen-iiaeaiiua ieaou, iicaieyao
i?aia?aciauaaoue aeaiiua a ?acee/iuo oi?iaoao e oi?iaoo oaeneieeueiuo
aiia?aoia. Iai?eia?, i?ia?aiia Quick Link II Fax iicaieyao
ia?aaeaaaoue ia oaen-iaoeiu e ae?oaea oaen-iiaeaiu neaaeothuea aeaiiua:
oaeno, oaeeu a oi?iaoao TIFF, IMG iiaeaioiaeaiiua i?ia?aiiie GEM
Artline eee Ventura Pablisher, BMP ec Microsoft Windows, CUT ec Dr.Halo
e PCX ec Paintbrush.

Iaeioi?ua iiaeaiu iicaieytho aeaaea iineaoue caoeiaia ienueii.

Iie iaania/eaatho caienue e iineaaeothuaa aini?iecaaaeaiea ?a/aaiai
neaiaea n iiiiuueth ano?iaiiuo aiaeiaiai-oeeo?iaiai e oeeo?iaiaeiaiaiai
i?aia?aciaaoaeae.

AOEaeAOO

Eaoaae?a IAI e NO

EAEOeEss ?19

Oaia:

Eioa?oaeniua AEN,

ia?aeeaeueiue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiue a/a,

nii?ioeanni? a/a,

iaeaieaa ecaanoiua AEN,

Iiaeaiu, i?ioieieu iaiaiaie aeaiiuo.

Auiieiee : no. a?. Ae-861 E?aniia A. A.

I?iaa?ee : i?ai. Eaaiia A. A.

Aioeeine

1996

NIAeA?AEAIEA:

Nii?ioeanni? a/a E1810 AI89

Aaia?aoi? oaeoiauo eiioeuenia E1810 AO84

Eiio?ieea? iaeiieoaey ia aeaeii iaaieoiii aeenea E580AA72.

4.Iiaeaiu

Aaaaeaiea

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aneio?iiiue aaeaioa?

Aiia?aoiay ?aaeecaoeey

I?ia?aiie?iaaiea aaeaioa?a

Oeiu iiaeaiia

I?ia?aiie?iaaiea iiaeaiia

I?ioieieu iaiaia aeaiiuie

I?ioieieu ia?aaea/e oaeeia

Oaen-iiaeaiiua ieaou

a a i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea — auaiaea ii oeia aaiaea—auaiaea (OAA) aeaiiuo.
?acee/ea iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy oeiaie ninoieo a oii, /oi NO oi?aaeyao
neaiaeaie /oaiey e caiene a iaiyoue, a OAA — neaiaeaie /oaiey (aaiaea) e
caiene (auaiaea) a OAA. Oaeei ia?acii, ono?ienoai aaiaea –auaiaea,
?aciauaiiua a nenoaiiii i?ino?ainoaa, ieacuaathony ioia?aaeaiiuie ia
iaiyoue (?aaae?otho ia 20– aeoiaua aae?ana, cae?aie?iiua ca ieie ii
eiiaiaeai /oaiey e caiene a iaiyoue), a iaiyoue, ?aciauaiiay a
i?ino?ainoaa aaiaea — auaiaea, — ioia?aae?iiie ia OAA (aae?anoaiie 16 –
aeoiauie aae?anaie e ?aaae?othuee ia eiiaiaeu /oaiey e caiene a OAA).

?en. 2 Aeaa i?ino?ainoaa aae?ania i?ioeanni?ia aaiaea-auaiaea.

Oeacaiiua oeiu ooieoeeiie?otho ii -?aciiio, a caaeneiinoe io
eiioeao?aoeee, a eioi?ie eniieuecoaony NIAA. A ianoiie eiioeao?aoeee
(?en. 3 ) NIAA eniieuecoao NO e OAA niaianoii n oeaio?aeueiui
i?ioeanni?ii. A?aeo?aae ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth oeiu eiie?aoiiio i?ioeanni?o
inouanoaeyaony neaiaeii cai?ina/i?aaeinoaaeaiey RQ/GT. A oaeaeaiiie
eiioeao?aoeee, i?inoaeoee aa?eaio eioi?ie ecia?aaeai ia ?en. 3,a, NIA

A aac?acaeaeueii eniieuecoao OAA, iia yaeyaony a? eieaeueiie oeiie.
Aeinooi e NO iaania/eaaaony eiie?aoiiio i?ioeanni?o iooai a?aeo?aaea n
i?eaea/aieai a?aeo?a oei E1810AA89

?en 6. ?aaeno?u eaiaea ?en. 7 Eniieueciaaiea i?ioeanni?a
a\a ?aaeno?a IN aeey ian-

ee?iaaiiiai n?aaiaiey

?en 8. ?aaeno? oi?aaeaiey eaiaeii

?en. 9 Eniieueciaaiea niauaiey ?en. 10 ?aaeno? aaeoa-

ii ieii/aiee IAeI-ia?anueee. ninoiyiey i?ia?aiiu.

?en 11 No?oeoo?a AOE.

?en. 13 Noaia iiaeeeth/aiey e AOE eaa?oeaaiai ?aciiaoi?a

?en.12 Oneiaiia a?aoe/aneia iaicia/aiea AOE.

?en. 14. Noaia oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaea CSYNC.

?en 15. No?oeoo?iay noaia eiio?ieea?a IAIAe AA72

?en. 16. Oneiaiia a?aoe/aneia iaicia/aiea EIAIAe

?en 17. Oi?iao neiaa – ninoiyiey.

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