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Инструмент OLE

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CONTEST:

1.Task for the laboratory work

2.Theory part

2.1. Build-in FoxProw commands

2.2. OLE

Task for the laboratory work.

The aim of this work is to show our ability to work with different
Microsoft applications & to produce the data exchange between them,
using build-in commands, OLE instruments & other possible facilities.

In the practical examples we will show the data transfer process using
the following Microsoft Applications: FoxPro, Excel & Word.

Also it is necessary to present the theory about the data transfer for
it is impossible to use all of them in the examples.

2. Theory part.

There are several different ways to transfer data from FoxPro to
different Microsoft Applications & vice versa.

Built-in FoxPro commands.

Operator can use several built-in commands of FoxPro such as Export,
Import, Copy and Append from.

Now we would like to present some helpful information about these
operands.

The format of EXPORT is:

EXPORT TO

[FIELDS ]

[]

[FOR ]

[WHILE ]

[NOOPTIMIZE]

[[TYPE] DIF | MOD | SYLK | WK1 | WKS | WR1 | WRK | XLS]]

Remarks

Use EXPORT to use FoxPro data in other software packages.

If the table/.DBF you are exporting from is indexed, the new file
created is created in the indexed order.

Clauses

Include the name of the file to which FoxPro exports data. If you do
not include an extension with the file name, the default extension for
the specified file type is assigned.

FIELDS

Include FIELDS to specify which fields are copied to the
new file. If the FIELDS clause is omitted, all fields are copied to the
new file. Memo and general fields are not copied to the new file even
if their names are included in the field list.

The scope clauses are: ALL, NEXT , RECORD , and REST.
These are explained in the Overview of the FoxPro Language chapter in
the FoxPro Language Reference. Commands which include operate
only on the table/.DBF in the active work area.

You can specify a scope of records to copy to the new file. Only the
records that fall within the range of records specified by the scope are
copied to the new file.

The default scope for EXPORT is ALL records.

FOR

If the FOR clause is included, only records that satisfy the logical
condition are copied to the new file. Including the FOR clause
lets you conditionally copy records, filtering out undesired records.

Rushmore optimizes an EXPORT … FOR command if is an
optimizable expression. For best performance, use an optimizable
expression in the FOR clause. A discussion of Rushmore optimizable
expressions appears in the Optimizing Your Application chapter in the
FoxPro Developer’s Guide.

WHILE

If the WHILE clause is included, records are copied to the new file for
as long as the logical expression evaluates to true (.T.).

NOOPTIMIZE

To cause Rushmore not to optimize EXPORT, include NOOPTIMIZE. For more
information, see SET OPTIMIZE and the Rushmore discussion in the
Optimizing Your Application chapter of the FoxPro Developer’s Guide

.

TYPE

You must specify the type of file to be created. The TYPE key word is
optional, but you must specify one of the following file types.

DIF

When you specify DIF, each field from a FoxPro table/.DBF becomes a
vector (column) and each record becomes a tuple (row) in a DIF (Data
Interchange Format) file, used by VisiCalc. The new file name is
assigned a .DIF extension if an extension isn’t included in .

MOD

Use the MOD clause to export to a file in Microsoft Multiplan version
4.01 MOD format. The new file name is assigned an .MOD extension if you
don’t include an extension in .

SYLK

A SYLK file is a Symbolic Link interchange format (used by Microsoft
Multiplan) in which each field from a FoxPro table/.DBF becomes a column
in the spreadsheet and each record becomes a row. By default, SYLK file
names have no extension.

WK1

Include this option to create a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet from a FoxPro
table/.DBF. A .WK1 extension is assigned to the spreadsheet file name
for use with Lotus 1-2-3 revision 2.x. Each field from the table/.DBF
becomes a column in the new spreadsheet, and each record in the
table/.DBF becomes a spreadsheet row.

WKS

A Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet can be created from a FoxPro table/.DBF with
this option. A .WKS extension is assigned to the spreadsheet file name
for use with Lotus 1-2-3 revision 1-A. Each field from the table/.DBF
becomes a column in the new spreadsheet, and each record becomes a row
in the spreadsheet.

WR1

Include this option to create a Lotus Symphony spreadsheet from a FoxPro
table/.DBF. A .WR1 extension is assigned to the spreadsheet for use
with Symphony version 1.01. Each field from the table/.DBF becomes a
column in the new spreadsheet, and each record in the table/.DBF becomes
a row in the spreadsheet.

WRK

A Lotus Symphony spreadsheet can be created from a FoxPro table/.DBF
with this option. A .WRK extension is assigned to the spreadsheet file
name for use with Symphony version 1.10. Each field from the table/.DBF
becomes a column in the new spreadsheet, and each record in the
table/.DBF becomes a row in the spreadsheet.

XLS

Include XLS to create a spreadsheet you can use in Microsoft Excel.
Each field in the +selected table/.DBF becomes a column in the
spreadsheet; each table/.DBF record becomes a row in the spreadsheet.
An .XLS file name extension is assigned to the newly created spreadsheet
file unless you specify a different extension.

The format of IMPORT is:

IMPORT FROM

[TYPE]

FW2 | MOD | PDOX | RPD | WK1 | WK3 | WKS | WR1 | WRK | XLS

As it shown in format (TYPE) there are many possible Microsoft
applications to import from to FoxPro but the meaning of these
properties, description of which you can see in the previous chapter,
that’s why it’s not necessary to list all of them again. So we will
mention those most common used.

Remarks

Most software packages store their data in a file format that cannot be
opened directly in FoxPro. IMPORT creates a new FoxPro table/.DBF from
data stored in file formats that FoxPro cannot read.

A new table/.DBF is created with the same name as the file the data is
imported from. A .DBF extension is assigned to the newly created
table/.DBF.

Clauses

is the name of the file to import data from. If you don’t
include an extension with the file name, the default extension for the
specified file type is assumed.

TYPE

The key word TYPE is optional, but you must include one of the following
file types described below.

PDOX

Include PDOX to import Paradox files. Database files in Paradox
versions 3.5 and 4.0 by Borland can be imported by including the PDOX
option.

XLS

Include XLS to import data from Microsoft Excel spreadsheets versions
2.0, 3.0 and 4.0. Columns from the spreadsheet become fields in the
table/.DBF, and the spreadsheet rows become records in the table/.DBF.
Spreadsheet files created in Microsoft Excel have an .XLS extension.

The format of COPY is:

COPY TO

[FIELDS ]

[]

[FOR ]

[WHILE ]

[[WITH] CDX] | [[WITH] PRODUCTION]

[NOOPTIMIZE]

[[TYPE] [FOXPLUS | DIF | MOD | SDF | SYLK| WK1 | WKS | WR1 | WRK | XLS
|

DELIMITED [WITH WITH BLANK | WITH TAB]]]

Remarks

If an index order is set, records are copied in master index order.

Clauses

The name of the new file to which COPY TO copies data is specified with
. If you do not include an extension with the file name, the
default extension for the specified file type is assigned. If you do
not specify a file type, COPY TO creates a new table/.DBF and assigns
the table/.DBF file name the default extension .DBF.

FIELDS

If you include FIELDS and a field list, you can specify which fields are
copied to the new file. If the FIELDS clause is omitted, all fields are
copied to the file. If the file you are creating is not a database,
memo fields aren’t copied to the new file even if memo field names are
included in the field list.

The scope clauses are: ALL, NEXT , RECORD , and REST.
These are explained in the Overview of the FoxPro Language chapter in
the FoxPro Language Reference. Commands which include operate
only on the table/.DBF in the active work area.

You can specify a scope of records copied to a file. Only the records
that fall within the range of records specified by the scope are copied.

The default scope for COPY TO is ALL records.

FOR

If the FOR clause is included, only the records for which the
logical condition evaluates to true (.T.) are copied to the
file. Include FOR to conditionally copy records, filtering out
undesired records.

Rushmore optimizes COPY TO with a FOR clause if is an
optimizable expression. For best performance, use an optimizable
expression in the FOR clause. A discussion of Rushmore
optimizable expressions appears in the Optimizing Your Application
chapter in the FoxPro Developer’s Guide.

WHILE

If WHILE is included, records are copied as long as the logical
expression evaluates to true (.T.).

[WITH] CDX | [WITH] PRODUCTION

If the table/.DBF you copy from has a structural index file, you can
create a structural index file for the new table/.DBF. Including CDX or
PRODUCTION creates an identical structural index file for the new
table/.DBF. The tags and index expressions from the original structural
index file are copied to the new structural index file. The CDX and
PRODUCTION clauses have the same effect.

Do not include CDX or PRODUCTION if you are copying to a file other than
a new FoxPro table/.DBF.

NOOPTIMIZE

Include NOOPTIMIZE to cause Rushmore to not optimize COPY TO. For more
information, see SET OPTIMIZE or consult the discussion of Rushmore
optimization in the Optimizing Your Application chapter in the FoxPro
Developer’s Guide.

TYPE

If the file you are creating isn’t a FoxPro table/.DBF, you must specify
its file type. Although you must specify a file type, you need not
include the key word TYPE. You can create a wide variety of different
file types including DELIMITED ASCII text files in which you can specify
a field delimiter.

FOXPLUS

FoxPro memo files have a different structure than FoxBASE+ memo files.
If your source FoxPro table/.DBF contains a memo field, include the
FOXPLUS clause to create a table/.DBF that can be used in FoxBASE+. The
FoxPro memo field cannot contain binary data because FoxBASE+ does not
support binary data in memo fields.

SDF

An SDF (System Data Format) file is an ASCII text file in which records
have a fixed length and end with a carriage return and line feed.
Fields aren’t delimited. The SDF file name is assigned a .TXT file
extension if you do not include an extension.

SYLK

A SYLK file is a Symbolic Link interchange format (used in Microsoft
MultiPlan) in which fields from the FoxPro table/.DBF become columns in
the spreadsheet and records become rows. SYLK file names have no
extension.

DELIMITED [WITH | WITH BLANK | WITH TAB]

A DELIMITED file is an ASCII text file in which each record ends with a
carriage return and line feed. The default field separator is a comma.
Since character data may include commas, character fields are
additionally delimited with double quotation marks.

In the following example there are 2 character fields (“Smith” and
“TELEPHONE”) delimited with double quotation marks. There is one
numeric field which is not delimited since numeric data does not contain
commas. The 3 fields are separated with commas.

“Smith”, 9999999, “TELEPHONE”

The DELIMITED WITH option can be used to replace the double
quotation marks with one of your choice.

The comma is not truly a delimiter. However, the DELIMITED WITH BLANK
or DELIMITED WITH TAB clauses allow you to replace the comma field
separator with either a space or a tab. The data should not contain
embedded spaces or tabs.

You cannot combine the WITH clause with either the WITH
BLANK or WITH TAB clauses.

Unless you specify otherwise, a .TXT extension is assigned to all newly
created DELIMITED files.

The format of APPEND is:

APPEND FROM | ?

[FIELDS ]

[FOR ]

[[TYPE] [DELIMITED [WITH TAB | WITH | WITH BLANK] |

DIF | FW2 | MOD | PDOX | RPD | SDF | SYLK | WK1 | WK3 | WKS |

WR1 | WRK | XLS]]

Remarks

The file you are appending from is assumed to be a FoxPro table with a
.DBF extension. If the file you want to append from is a FoxPro table
and doesn’t have a .DBF extension, you must specify its extension. If
the file is a not a FoxPro table, you must specify the type of file you
append from.

Before you can append from a table created in dBASE IV that contains a
memo field, you must first open the table in FoxPro with USE. You are
prompted with “Convert MEMO file to FoxPro Format?” Choose Yes.

If you append from a FoxPro table, the table you append from can be open
in another work area. You can also append from a table that isn’t open
but is available on disk and a shared table opened when SET EXCLUSIVE is
OFF. When the table you append from contains records marked for
deletion, the records are not marked for deletion after they are
appended.

If you include the ? clause instead of including a table name, the Open
dialog appears so you can choose a table to append from.

Clauses

Specify the name of the file to append from with . If you don’t
include a file name extension, the default extension .DBF is assumed.

FIELDS

APPEND FROM supports an optional . Data is only appended to
the fields specified in the field list.

FOR

The entire source file is appended to the table unless you include the
FOR clause. If the FOR clause is included, a new record is appended for
each record in the file source for which evaluates to a logical
true (.T.). Records are appended until the end of the file is reached.

TYPE

If the file you are appending from isn’t a FoxPro table, you must
specify the file TYPE. Although you must specify the file type, you
need not include the key word TYPE. You can append from a wide variety
of different file types including DELIMITED ASCII text files in which
you can specify a field delimiter.

If the file you are appending from doesn’t have the usual default file
extension for that type of file, the source file name must include the
file’s extension. For example, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets normally
have an .XLS file name extension. If the spreadsheet you are appending
from has an extension other than the expected .XLS, be sure to specify
the extension.

Caution When appending from a spreadsheet, the data in the spreadsheet
must be stored in a row major order rather than a column major order.
This allows the appended spreadsheet data to match the table structure.

DELIMITED [WITH TAB | WITH | WITH BLANK]

A DELIMITED file is an ASCII text file in which each record ends with a
carriage return and line feed. Field contents are by default assumed to
be separated from each other by commas, and character field values to be
additionally delimited by double quotation marks. For example:

“Smith”, 9999999, “TELEPHONE”

The DELIMITED WITH TAB option can be used to specify files which contain
fields separated from each other by tabs rather than commas. The
DELIMITED WITH option can be used to indicate that character
fields are delimited by a character other than the quotation mark. The
DELIMITED WITH BLANK option can be used to specify files which contain
fields separated by spaces instead of commas. The file extension is
assumed to be .TXT for all delimited files.

You can import dates from delimited files if the dates are in proper
date format. The date format defaults to ‘mm/dd/yy’. Including the
century portion of a date is optional. FoxPro will import a date that
includes the century. If the century isn’t included in a date (for
example ’12/25/92′), the Twentieth century is assumed. Date delimiters
can be any non-numeric character except the delimiter that separates the
fields in the delimited file.

Dates in other formats can be imported if their format matches a date
format available in SET DATE. To import dates that are not in the
default format, issue SET DATE with the proper date format before using
APPEND FROM. To test if a date format can be successfully imported, use
it with CTOD( ). If the date is acceptable to CTOD( ), the date will
import properly.

FW2

FW2 files are created by Framework II. FW2 file names are assumed to
have a .FW2 extension.

RPD

RPD files are created by RapidFile version 1.2. RPD file names are
assumed to have an RPD extension.

SDF

An SDF (System Data Format) file is an ASCII text file in which records
have a fixed length and end with a carriage return and a line feed.
Fields are not delimited. The file name extension is assumed to be .TXT
for SDF files.

WK3

Data from a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. Each column from the spreadsheet
becomes a field in the table; each spreadsheet row becomes a record in
the table. A .WK3 file name extension is assigned to a spreadsheet
created in Lotus 1-2-3 revision 3.x.

2.2. OLE.

Another method of data exchange between not only FoxPro but between all
Windows based applications is OLE (OBJECT LINKING AND EMBEDDING)

First you can use a FoxPro built in command Append General.

APPEND GENERAL FROM

[LINK]

[CLASS ]

APPEND GENERAL is supported in FoxPro for Windows only.

If an OLE object already exists in the general field, it is replaced
with the OLE object from the file.

Clauses

Include to specify the name of the general field the OLE
object is placed in. You can specify a general field in a table open in
a noncurrent work area by including the table alias with the field name.

Include to specify the file containing the OLE object. You must
include the entire file name, including its extension. If the file is
located in a directory other than the current default directory, include
the path with the file name.

LINK

If LINK is included, a link is created between the OLE object and the
file that contains the object. The OLE object appears in the general
field but the object’s definition remains in the file. If LINK is
omitted, the OLE object is embedded in the general field.

CLASS

Include the CLASS clause to specify an OLE class for an OLE object other
than the default class.

Tip To determine the class for an OLE object, run REGEDIT and
double-click on the OLE object. The class name is listed under
Identifier.

You can specify a class name when the file extension for the file
containing the OLE object is different than the default extension and
you want to force the behavior for the class. If the default extension
can be used by multiple OLE servers, include the class to specify a
particular server.

3. Practical usage of data of data transfer.

In applications you can find the examples of the above mentioned
commands usage and their results in different Microsoft Applications
(FoxPro, Word & Excel).

From FoxPro to 1st Word & 2nd – Excel

FoxPro base in Excel

Word (.sdf) file from FoxPro in Excel

From FoxPro to Word (.sdf)

Excel object in Word

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