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Графика на ПЭВМ

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A?aoeea ia IE

?ano?iaay e aaeoi?iay a?aoeea.

A?aoe/aneea ?aaeaeoi?u.

Oi?iaou oaeeia aeey o?aiaiey ?ano?iauo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee.

Ana nicaeaaaaiua n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a ecia?aaeaiey iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aieueoea /anoe – ?ano?iaoth e aaeoi?ioth a?aoeeo.
?ano?iaua ecia?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeiineieioth naoeo oi/ae,
iacuaaaiuo ieenaeaie, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iiaeao eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
oeaao. Aeeaiacii aeinooiiuo oeaaoia ii?aaeaeyaony oaeouae iaeeo?ie. Oae
iai?eia? aeey /a?ii-aaeiai ecia?aaeaiey a iaeeo?a aeaa oeaaoa – /a?iue e
aaeue, aeey oeaaoiuo ecia?aaeaiee iaeeo?a iiaeao ninoiyoue ec 16, 256,
65536, 16777216 o.a. 21,24,28,216,224 a oaeaea 232.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio aaeoi?iia ecia?aaeaiea iiiaineieii. Eaaeaeue
yeaiaio yoiai ecia?aaeaiey – eeiey, i?yiioaieueiee, ie?oaeiinoue eee
o?aaiaio oaenoa – ?aniieaaaaony a naiai nianoaaiiii neia, ieenaeu
eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaathony niaa?oaiii iacaaeneii io ae?oaeo nei?a.
Eaaeaeue yeaiaio aaeoi?iiai ecia?aaeaiey yaeyaony iauaeoii, eioi?ue
iienuaaaony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai ycuea (iao. o?aaiaiey eeiee,
aeoa, ie?oaeiinoe e o.ae.). E?iia oiai, neiaeiua iauaeou (eiiaiiua
eeiee, ?acee/iua aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u) iienuaathony eae niaieoiiinoue
yeaiaioa?iuo a?aoe/aneeo iauaeoia (eeiee, aeoa e o.ae.).

Oaeia aaeoi?iia ecia?aaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue neiaa
niaea?aeaueo ?acee/iua a?aoe/aneea iauaeou. Neie iaeeaaeuaaynue ae?oa ia
ae?oaa oi?ie?otho oeaeueiia ecia?aaeaiea.

Iauaeou aaeoi?iiai ecia?aaeaiey, iiaoo i?iecaieueii aac iioa?e ea/anoaa
eciaiyoue naie ?acia?u.

I?e eciaiaiee ?acia?ia iauaeoia ?ano?iaiai ecia?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo
iioa?y ea/anoaa. Iai?eia? i?e oaaee/aiee ?ano?iaiai ecia?aaeaiey
oaaee/eaaaony ca?ienoinoue.

A?aoe/aneea ?aaeaeoi?u.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaaony iiiaeanoai i?ia?aii aeey ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey
a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee. Yoe i?ia?aiiu a niioaaonoaee n aeaeaieai
a?aoeee ia ?ano?iaoth e aaeoi?ioth iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
eeanna:

I?ia?aii aeey ?aaiou n ?ano?iaie a?aoeeie.

I?ia?aii aeey ?aaiou n aaeoi?iie a?aoeeie.

Oaeaea eiathony i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua niaiauatho aiciiaeiinoe i?ia?aii yoeo
aeaoo eeannia. O.a. iicaieytho nicaeaaaoue ecia?aaeaiey ninoiyuea ec
?ano?iaie e aaeoi?iie a?aoeee.

N?aaee i?ia?aii ia?aiai eeanna ioiaoei :

A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? Paint — i?inoie iaeiiieiiiue a?aoe/aneee
?aaeaeoi?, eioi?ue iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue e ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeiua ?enoiee.

Photoshop oe?iu Adobe iiiaiieiiiue a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? iicaieyao
nicaeaaaoue e ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue neiaeiua ?enoiee, a oaeaea ia?aaaouaaoue
a?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey (oioia?aoee). Niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai oeeueo?ia
aeey ia?aaioee oioia?aoee (eciaiaiea y?einoe, eiio?anoiinoe e o.ae.).

N?aaee i?ia?aii aoi?iai eeanna ioiaoei:

I?ia?aiia Microsoft Draw — aoiaeyuay a eiiieaeo MS Office. Yoa i?ia?aiia
neoaeeo aeey nicaeaiey ?acee/iuo ?enoieia, noai. Iau/ii aucuaaaony ec MS
Word.

Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw — i?ia?aiiu eniieuecothony a
ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea, iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue neiaeiua aaeoi?iua
ecia?aaeaiey.

Eae i?aaeei i?ia?aiiu ia?aiai eeanna iicaieytho nio?aiyoue ecia?aaeaiey
a oaeeao noaiaea?oiuo oi?iaoia: bmp, pcx, gif, tif, a i?ia?aiiu aoi?iai
eeanna eniieuecotho aeey yoeo oeaeae naie oi?iaou.

Oi?iaou oaeeia aeey o?aiaiey ?ano?iauo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee.

Eae i?aaeei oaeeu aeey o?aiaiey ?ano?iauo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee
eiae/anee ninoiyo ec aeaoo /anoae: caaieiaea e iaeanoe aeaiiuo. A
caaieiaea oeacaiu aeaiiua i oi?iaoa oaeea, ecia?aaeaiey ii ai?eciioaee,
ii aa?oeeaee: eiee/anoai oeaaoia, iaeeo?a e o.ae. A iaeanoe aeaiiuo
caeeaaeuaathony oeaaoa ieenaeia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua neaaeothuea oi?iaou oaeeia.

bmp (bit map) — aeoiaay ea?oa. Oi?iao ?ani?ino?aiai a Windows (Paint). A
yoii oi?iaoa oaee ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae.

1- caaieiaie a eioi?ii oeacuaaaony ?ac?aoaiea ecia?aaeaiey e eiee/anoai
aeo eioi?uie eiaee?oaony oeaao ieenaea.

2- iaeanoue aeaiiuo (aeoiaay ea?oa) a eioi?ie o?aiyony a aeaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeo oeaaoa ieenaeia ecia?aaeaiee.

pcx. Oi?iao pcx eniieuecoao i?inoaeoee niinia naeaoey ecia?aaeaiee,
iicaieythuee auiieiyoue auno?oth ia?acaienue ecia?aaeaiey ec oaeea a
aeaeaiiaiyoue e ia?aoii. Aeaiiue oi?iao eniieuecoao a naiae ?aaioa
iiiaea a?aoe/aneea ?aaeaeoi?u, a /anoiinoe Paint. Aianoa n oi?iaoii tif
oi?iao pcx yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiuo oi?iaoia,
eioi?ua eniieuecotho neaia?u.

A caaieiaea oaeeia yoiai oi?iaoa oeacuaaaony eioi?iaoeey i aa?nee
oi?iaoa pcx, eioi?iaoeey i oii — eniieuecoaony naeaoea eioi?iaoeee eee
iao, eioi?iaoeey i oeaaoao ecia?aaeaiey, ?acia?ao ecia?aaeaiey,
?ac?aoaiey neaia?a, ?ac?aoaiea aeenieay.

Aeey naeaoey a oaeea ecia?aaeaiey oi?iaoa Pcx eniieuecoaony iaoiae
a?oiiiaiai eiaee?iaaiey, a eioi?ii a?oiia iiaoi?ythueony aaeo caiaiyaony
aeaoiy aaeoiauie: aaeoii iiaoi?eoaeai e iiaoi?ythueiny aaeoii.

Aaeo iiaoi?eoaeue eiaao oieeaeueiue eiae e niaea?aeeo a naaa /enei
iiaoi?ythueony aaeo.

Oi?iao GIF, i?e aeinoaoi/ii i?inoie no?oeoo?a oaeea e iaee/ee
iaeaieueoaai /enea ao?eaooia ecia?aaeaiey eniieuecotho aieaa yooaeoeaiue
/ai a pcx aeai?eoi naeaoey. Yoio oi?iao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony
i?e ?aciauaiee a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a aeia?oaenoiauo aeieoiaioao
Internet.]

TIF (Tiff – Tag Image File Format). Iniiaiie iaeanoueth i?eiaiaiey
aeaiiiai oi?iaoa yaeyaony ianoieueiay ecaeaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue e
naycaiiua n iae i?eeiaeaiey. Yoio oi?iao eiaao iiiaeanoai ao?eaooia,
iicaieythueo oi/ii iienaoue neiaeaiea ecia?aaeaiey. *anoi yoio oi?iao
eniieuecoaony, aeey o?aiaiey ioneaie?iaaiiuo ecia?aaeaiee.

Oi?iaou GIF e TIF a iniiaiii eniieuecotho lzw naeaoea. Iacaaiea yoiai
aeai?eoia i?iecioei io oaieeee aai ?ac?aaio/eeia Lampel, Ziv e Welch.

jpg – oi?iao, eioi?ue eniieuecoao niaoeeaeueiue aeai?eoi naeaoey
ecia?aaeaiey, iicaieythuaa naeaoue ecia?aaeaiea aei o?aaoaiiai ?acia?a e
ea/anoaa. I?e yoii ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey oa?yaony. Oi?iao ?ani?ino?aiai
aeey ?aciauaiey a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a aeia?oaenoiauo aeieoiaioao
Internet.

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