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Глобальная сеть Интернет: протоколы, системы доступа

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IAEAAEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 no?.

Enoi?ey naoe Eioaiao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 3 no?.

N?aaenoaa aeinooia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 4 no?.

I?ioeann noaiaea?oecaoeee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .10 no?.

I?ioieie TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 11 no?.

Iaeioi?ua oa?ieiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .13 no?.

Aoiae a Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 15 no?.

*oi e eae i?iaeaaony /a?ac Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .16 no?.

Yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey – cieioay eeoi?aaeea XX aaea . . . . 19 no?.

Iaeioi?ua iieaciua i?ia?aiiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.22 no?.

Oeiu na?aena Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .23 no?.

WWW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 28 no?.

Iiene eioi?iaoeee a Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 29 no?.

*oi aua aiciiaeii a Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 31 no?.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 32 no?.

1. AAAAeAIEA

Eioa?iao – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?. Ii
?aciui aeaiiui aeinooi a Eioa?iao eiatho io 15 aei 30 ieeeeiiia ethaeae
a aieaa /ai 150 no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7
– 10 i?ioeaioia. Eioa?iao ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue
?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi
ai anai ie?a, iaeia n ae?oaie. Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue
eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Eioa?iao, neoaeeaoee eiaaea-oi
eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu
i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana
aieueoa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a. Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa,
aeaoaaecia, oaeianoai aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua
i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay aaca aeaiiuo naoe Eioa?iao. I?e ieceie noieiinoe
oneoa iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieo/eoue aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e ia
eiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui neoaeaai NOA, Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao naiaiaeiiai aeinooia naoe Eioa?iao iiaeii
iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth ii ethaui noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ia/eiay n
iiauo iao/iuo ioe?uoee aei i?iaiica iiaiaeu ia caao?a.

2. Enoi?ey naoe EIOA?IAO

1961 aiaeo Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe –TCP/IP.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeinue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defense Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defense Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia caeii/eeinue, i?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standards (MIL STD), oi anoue a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkley (BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc TCP/IP e UNIX.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Eioa?iao aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay
noaea ioiineoueny e Defense Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Eioa?iao noaea eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Eioa?iao nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.

2.1 ?aaeiiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?iua naoe e Eioa?iao

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ethaay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, iaania/eaathuay
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie a ie?a ii i?ioieieo
TCP/IP, naia yaeyaony /anoueth Eioa?iao. A iaoae no?aia nouanoaoao e
oniaoii ?aaioaao ianeieueei ?aaeiiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae. Iiaeii
iacaaoue oaeea naoe, eae Relcom, Sprint, Glasnet, Rosnet e ae?oaea.
Auai? oie eee eiie naoe iiaeao caaenaoue io iiiaeo i?e/ei: aeecinoe ocea
nayce, n?ieia iiyaeaiey oneoa a eiie?aoiii ianaeaiiii ioieoa, i?inoi
ciaeiinoaii ni niaoeeaeenoaie aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. ?acee/athony e
oneoae, ieacuaaaiua yoeie naoyie. Ii a aieueoeinoaa naoae i?aaieciaai
iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n ae?oaeie eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie ii i?ioieieo
TCP/IP, yoa naoue naia noaiiaeony /anoueth Eioa?iao.

3. N?aaenoaa aeinooia

3.1. Iiaeaiu.

Iiaeai – yoi ono?ienoai, i?aia?acothuaa i?e ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo
aeene?aoiua (oeeo?iaua) neaiaeu eiiiuethoa?a a aiaeiaiaoth oi?io a
niioaaonoaee n i?eiyouie a oaeaoiiee noaiaea?oaie – i?ioieieaie,
aeeth/ay eae noaiaea?ou i?iaiaeiuo, oae e nioiauo ?aaeeinaoae. Neaaeoao
caiaoeoue /oi a eeoa?aoo?a oa?iei i?ioieie i?e iienaiee naoae e
eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo nenoai /anoi eniieuecoaony a ?acee/iii eiioaenoa.
Iaeiaei a ethaii neo/aa i?ioieie – yoi iienaiea niiniaa i?aia?aciaaiey
eioi?iaoeee aeey aa ia?aaea/e i?i naoyi, a oae aea aeae aeiiieieoaeueii
eniieuecoaiie neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee.

I?e iienaiee ?aaiou n iiaeaiii eniieuecothony neaaeothuea a?oiiu
i?ioieieia:

I?ioieieu ?aaiou iiaeaia, a oii /enea:

a) I?ioieieu aeiioneathuea iaiai aeaiiuie oieueei iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie.

a) I?ioieieu aeiioneathuea iaiai aeaiiuie eae iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie, oae

e iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?ii e ?acee/iuie oaeneieeueiuie
ono?ienoaaie.

I?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

I?ioieie aeinooia a Internet.

Iaaeeiiiuethoa?iue iaiai aeaiiuo n iiiiuueth iiaeaia iiaeao
i?iecaiaeeoueny

o?aiy niiniaaie:

I?yiie iaiai aeaiiuie iaaeaeo aeaoiy «iau/iuie» eiiiuethoa?aie,

eiiiuethoa?ii e BBS.

Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa Internet.

I?iiaaeooi/iay neooaoeey – iaiai /a?ac ii/oiaue na?aa?, eioi?ue iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue iaa yoe niiniaa.

Oaeaea iiaeaiu eniieuecotho i?ioieieu ei??aeoeee e iaia?oaeaiey ioeaie,
eioi?ua iicaieytho auyaeyoue eneaaeaiiua aeaiiua, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
aeaaea au/eneyoue enoiaeiua aeaiiua aac iiaoi?iie eo ia?aaea/e. Iinea
auai?a i?ioieiea iiaeoeyoeee aiaeiae/iui niiniaii iiaeeeth/athony
aeai?eoiu iaia?oaeaiey e ei??aeoeee ioeaie. Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo: MNP
o?iaiae 1,2,3 e 4; V.42 oaeaea ecaanoiue eae LAPM. Ii?yaeie
i?eiaiaiey yoeo i?ioieieia neaaeothuee: V.42, MNP4, MNP3, MNP2 e MNP1.
Eniieueciaaiea iiaeaiii i?ioieieia iaia?oaeaiey e ei??aeoeee ioeaie ia
iicaieyao ia aieaa aunieeo o?iaiyo nianai ioeacaoueny io i?eiaiaiey
i?ioieieia ei??aeoeee ioeaie.

3.2. Eeiee O1/O3.

Eeiee O1/O3 o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiythony aeey niaaeeiaiey aeaoo
cia/eoaeueii oaeaeaiiuo eieaeueiuo naoae. Aeaiiua ii O1 i?ioiaeyo ni
nei?inoueth 1,54 Iaeo/n, a ii O3 – 44,76 Iaeo/n. Eeiey O1 ninoieo ec 24
eaiaeia ii 64 Eaeo/n, eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aciuo oeaeae.
Iai?eia?, ii iaeiei iiaeao i?ioiaeeoue oeeo?iaay eioi?iaoeey, a ii
ae?oaei aieiniaoth eee eaeoth-eeai aua, a oii /enea a?aoeeo e aeaeai. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeiee O1 eniieuecothony aeey iiaeeeth/aiey na?aa?ia
Eioa?iaoa e iinoaaueeaie oneoa, iniaaiii iaaieueoeie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
niaea?aeauea naie nianoaaiiua Web-oceu.

3.3. Niooieee

Iiiuoee ?anoe?eoue eaiae aeinooia a Internet caoee aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei,
aoeaaeueii «aei iaaan». Oaoiieiaey niooieeiauo naoae «oaaioea» io
eaai?aoi?iuo ia?acoeia a eiiia?/aneeo naoae.

Eiiiaiey Hughes Systems caionoeea i?iaeo iiae iacaaieai DirectPC.
Nenoaia DirectPC o?aaoao iaaieueoie niooieeiaie aioaiiu, eioi?ay eaaaeai
iiaeeeth/aaony e aaeaioa?o, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai a ISA neio eiiiuethoa?a.
Iaania/eaaaiay nei?inoue i?eaia aeaiiuo – 11,7 Iaeo/n (i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue o?ainiiiaea?a). I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue, eioi?oth ?aaeueii
iieo/eo iio?aaeoaeue, ii?aaeaeyaony iiioey?iinoueth nenoaiu, o.a. /eneii
iieueciaaoaeae ia iaeei o?ainiiiaea?. Eiiiaiey Hughes ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
eo nenoaiu iaania/eaatho eaaeaeiio iieueciaaoaeth nei?inoue 400 Eaeo/n.
Aeey DirectPC eae e aeey iaeioi?uo eaaaeueiuo nenoai, iaiaoiaeeii
iaee/ea iau/iiai iiaeaia, /a?ac eioi?ue iinueathony cai?inu DirectPC.
?acoeueoao – aneiiao?e/iay naoue, aaea nei?inoue ia?aaea/e a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io ia?aoiie; iia iiaeoiaeeo aeey
aneiiao?e/iuo i?eeiaeaiee, iai?eia? iooaoanoaey ii Web. A i?ia?aiiu aeey
eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeia aunieay i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue a iaieo
iai?aaeaieyo, iai?eia? aeaeaieiioa?aioeee e aaciaua oneoae oaeaoiiee, ia
niiaoo ?aaioaoue n yoie nenoaiie. Noieiinoue oneoa caaeneo ia io
aeeeoaeueiinoe niaaeeiaiey, a io iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo.

3.3.1 Einie/aneia iaoanoaea (ec iiainoae).

AmericaOnLine eiaanoe?iaaea a eiiiaieth Hughes Electronics iieoi?a
ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia.

Hughes Electronics i?eiaaeeaaeeo neoaeaa niooieeiaiai oaeaaeaeaiey
DirectTV e nenoaia iiaeeeth/aiey e Eioa?iaoo DirectPC, a eioi?ie
o?aineyoeey ienoiaeyuaai o?aoeea inouanoaeyaony ii niooieeiaiio eaiaeo.

Hughes, aeaaiaea?y naeaeea, iieo/aao oain oaaee/eoue /enei aaiiaioia
DirectTV e DirectPC ca /ao i?eaea/aiey iieueciaaoaeae AOL.
AmericaOnLine, a naith i/a?aaeue, iieo/aao iiuiue eaiae aeey ?aaeecaoeee
iiaie oneoae – eioa?aeoeaiiai oaeaaeaeaiey AOL TV. Oaia?ue 16 ieeeeiiai
aia?eeaineeo iieueciaaoaeae AOL e CompuServe aoaeao i?aaeeiaeai
eiiieaeniue iaeao DirectTV/AOL TV. A /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo iiaeien/eeia
AOL TV aieaeoo e 7 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia DirectTV.

AmericaOnLine ieaie?oao oaeaea eniieueciaaoue e DirectPC. A i?ia?aiia
iiaeeeth/aiey e Eioa?iaoo ii aunieinei?inoiui eaiaeai nayce AOL-Plus
eniieuecothony nenoaiu DSL, naoe eaaaeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey, a oaia?ue,
iinea aeueyina n Hughes, e niooieeiaay naycue.

Ia?oia?noai n AmericaOnLine iicaieeo eiiiaiee Hughes caeii/eoue ia oae
aeaaii aiiine?iaaiiue i?iaeo niooieeiaie nenoaiu iiaiai iieieaiey
SpaceWay, eioi?ay aoaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeaoonoi?iiiee aunieinei?inoiie
aeinooi a Eioa?iao.

3.4. Ia naeaaaeoa iaaeue ia eii.

Oaiiu ?acaeoey naoaauo e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee naaiaeiy
oaeiau, /oi iai?oaeiaaiea iiaeao ii?aeueii onoa?aoue aei enoa/aiey n?iea
aa?aioee i?iecaiaeeoaey ia iaai. Iio?aaiinoe caeac/eeia e iieueciaaoaeae
a i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe e i?inoi a iiaeeeth/aiee e eieaeueiui e
aeiaaeueiui naoyi ?anooo n eaaeaeui aeiai. Aeey eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi i?eoiaeeony aeoeaii eneaoue ?aoaiey, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo
ia oieueei iicaieeei au i?aaeinoaaeoue iio?aaeoaeyi iaiaoiaeeiua
?ano?nu, ii e aieaa eioaineaii eniieueciaaoue oaea eiathueany. Iiae/an
ieacuaaaony, /oi ne?uoua ?aca?au ia aeaea iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai iiaeii
auei iaeeaeaoue, e oaeea ?aoaiey, iicaieythuea yeiiiieoue ia
iiaea?iecaoeee eio?ano?oeoo?u, iieuecothony aieueoei ni?inii e aeoeaii
?acaeaathony. ss?eee i?eia? oiio – ISDN, SMDS, oaoiieiaee xDSL, ?acaeoea
eioi?uo eaeao oaeeie oaiiaie, /oi nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi
?ac?aaio/eee ana?ueac caaeaeenue oeaeueth iiaei?aaoue aecian
«iioe/aneeo» eiiiaiee.

3.4.1. ISDN.

Oe?iei i?eiaiyaiua iia?aoi?aie iauanoaaiiie oaeaoiiiie nayce. Oeeo?iaay
naoue eioaa?e?oaiuo oneoa – yoi naiaenoai nicaeaiiuo CCITT i?ioieieia,
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia nicaeaiea iieiinoueth oeeo?iaie anaie?iie naoe
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Eeiey io iiaeien/eea aei ianoiie eiiioieeaoeeiiiie
noaioeee, iaaeno?aeueiua eeiee iaaeaeo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuie noaioeeyie e
ianoiay eeiey e aae?anaoo – oeeo?iaua, iiyoiio ISDN ia o?aaoao ie
iaeiiai aiaeiai-oeeo?iaiai i?aia?aciaaiey. E?iia oiai naoue ISDN
iaania/eaaao aieueooth iieino i?iioneaiey, /ai iau/iay (aiaeiaiaay)
oaeaoiiiay naoue, e iicaieyao iaeiia?aiaiii ia?anueaoue oeeo?iaua e
ae?oaea aeaiiua (iai?eia?, eiiiuethoa?iua, iocueo eee aeaeai). Aua iaeii
i?aeiouanoai naoe ISDN – aunieay nei?inoue onoaiiaeaiey niaaeeiaiey, iia
a 5 eee 6 ?ac auoa, /ai ia iau/iuo oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo.

Iineieueeo ISDN eniieuecoao oeeo?iaoth oaoiieiaeth iia iiaeao
ia?aiineoue ethaie oei eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/ay ia?aaea/o ?a/e aunieiai
ea/anoaa e auno?oth e ei??aeoioth ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo io iieueciaaoaey e
iieueciaaoaeth.

3.4.1.1. Iaiiiai ec enoi?ee

Oaoiieiaey ISDN iiyaeeanue aeinoaoi/ii aeaaii – ii/oe 20 eao iacaae.

Aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi ni noi?iiu ETSI (European Telecommunications
Standards Institute) oaeoe/aneei noaiaea?oii a Aa?iia noaiiaeony
EuroISDN, eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaatho aieueoeinoai aa?iiaeneeo
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?iaaeaea?ia e i?iecaiaeeoaeae iai?oaeiaaiey. A
?innee oaeaea aaaeoony ?aaiou ii noaiaea?oecaoeee e iaania/aieth
niaianoeiinoe no?iyueony a ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao naoae ISDN. Aeey yoiai
ianeieueei eao iacaae auea nicaeaia e oaia?ue ?anoe?yaony iiuoiay ciia
oanoe?iaaiey oaoiieiaee ISDN, aeeth/athuay a naay ?yae e?oiiuo ai?iaeia
?innee.

3.4.1.2. Ioia?aoeey naoe ISDN

I/aiue /anoi eeeaiou a na?aenoeaio?a caaeatho aii?in, a eaeie o iaiy
aoaeao iiia?? Aeey ISDN eniieuecoaony ioia?aoeey nouanoaothuae
oaeaoiiiie naoe. A aeiiieiaiea e iiia?o aaiiaioa ISDN i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e iiaeaae?ana ISDN. Iiaeaae?an ISDN neoaeeo aeey
ooi/iaiiie aae?anaoeee aioo?aiieo ono?ienoa iieueciaaoaey, aua?aiiiai n
iiiiuueth iiaeaae?ana ISDN. Aeey i?enaiaiey ISDN oa?ieiaeai iiaeaae?ania
iieueciaaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii iiaeienaoueny ia oneoao «Iiaeaae?anaoeey».
Anee Au oioeoa iieo/eoue ianeieueei iiia?ia ia iaeio ISDN eeieth, Au
aeieaeiu iiaeienaoueny ia aeiiieieoaeueiua iiia?a. Iiia?a Aai niiauao a
na?aen-oeaio?a, anaai iiieii iniiaiiai. iiia?a Au iiaeaoa eiaoue
aeiiieieoaeueii 7 iiia?ia. Iieaoa ca oneoae nayce aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny
ia iniiaiie iiia?

3.4.1.3. I?aeiouanoaa aeey iieueciaaoaey

Aeaeiaua aaiiaiou iieo/atho i?aeiouanoai io aiciiaeiinoe ?aaioaoue a
?aaeeia ?acaeaeaiey iieinu, o.a. eniieuecoy ianeieueei i?eeiaeaiee
iaeiia?aiaiii. A /anoiinoe yoi aeaoaaay ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo.

Nouanoaothuee niaeo? nia?aiaiiuo oneoa ia?aaea/e ?a/e iieacai e
yeiiiie/anee auaiaeai eae aeey aeaeiauo, oae e aeey iau/iuo aaiiaioia.

ISDN i?aaeeaaaao iiiai iiauo aiciiaeiinoae, oaeea eae ianoieueiay
aeaeaioaeaoiiey e yeaeo?iiiua aacaou. ?a/ue, aeaiiua, ecia?aaeaiey e
aeaeai iiaoo auoue caeiaee?iaaiu oa?ieiaeii iieueciaaoaey e ia?aaeaiu a
oeeo?iaii aeaea, aac ioeaie, ii iieiinoueth oeeo?iaie naoe.

I?e iauaaeeiaiee oaeaeaiiuo LAN, i?e aeinooia a ei?ii?aoeaioth LAN,
Internet eee eioa?aeoeaiua neoaeau ii eaiaeai ISDN /anoi eniieuecoaony
iiaeeeth/aiea n iia?aiaiiie iieaoie. A yoii neo/aa iaeaieueoee eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao iai?oaeiaaiea, iicaieythuaa inouanoaeyoue naeaoea
ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oiaiueoaoue a?aiy
eniieueciaaiey eeiee ia aaeeieoeo ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. E oiio aea,
eiii?anney ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo yaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiie caueoie,
nieaeay aa?iyoiinoue ?anoeo?iaee eioi?iaoeee i?e ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiii
iiaeeeth/aiee e eeiee.

Aaaeiui n?aaenoaii, iaania/eaathuei yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eeiee,
yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea niaaeeiaiey ii o?aaiaaieth (Connect on demand) –
oieueei ia a?aiy naaina ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Ii aai caaa?oaieth oece/aneia
niaaeeiaiea ?ac?uaaaony. A ioee/ea io a?aiaeiaaiiuo eaiaeia
eniieueciaaiea eaiaeia nayce ii o?aaiaaieth iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue
aeinooi e naoe eee, iaiai?io, i?a?uaaoue naycue a caaeneiinoe io
caaeaiiuo oneiaee eee i?iecioaaeoeo a naoe niauoee.

Iau/ii iinou eee ia?o?ooecaoi?u eiatho oaaeeoeo oaeaoiiiuo iiia?ia
(ISDN). Yoi iicaieyao, iai?eia?, caieaie?iaaoue onoaiiaeo niaaeeiaiey n
eaaeaeui ioenii ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy eee aeaiue iaaeaee. Oaeay noaia
onoaiiaee niaaeeiaiee iiaeoiaeeo aeey ?aaiou n iaiiiaeie i?eeiaeaieyie.
Aaaeiui yaeyaony oi, /oi iiaeii iieiinoueth cai?aoeoue eee ia?aie/eoue
aeinooi ecaia a LAN eiiiaiee ii auoiaeiui eee i?acaeie/iui aeiyi.

Aaaeiie ooieoeeae yaeyaony e onoaiiaeaiea i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ii
o?aaiaaieth (Bandwidth on demand). I?e i?aauoaiee iieinu i?iioneaiey
iaeiiai B-eaiaea aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeeeth/aaony aoi?ie. Aeey oaaee/aiey
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ii i?ioieieo PPP, eioi?ue iau/ii eniieuecoaony
aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e naoe Internet, ?ac?aaioai noaiaea?o Multilink PPP
(MPPP). Ii iicaieyao iauaaeeiyoue ianeieueei A-eaiaeia e nicaeaaaoue
iaeei eiae/aneee eaiae c oaaee/aiiie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth.

N?aaenoaa ISDN ” i?ic?a/iu” aeey ethaiai aeaea eioi?iaoeee, aoaeue oi
o?aoee aeaeaioaeaoiiee, eiiiuethoa?iua aeaiiua, ?a/ue, a?aoe/aneea
ecia?aaeaiey e o.ae.

Eeieth ISDN iiaeii i?eia?anoe o ianoiie oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee, ii iie
(eeiee) aeinooiiu ia a eaaeaeii ?aaeiia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu ISDN niiniaia
?aaioaoue e ia iau/iuo iaaeiuo i?iaiaeao. Oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee inoaaony
oieueei i?ioanoe?iaaoue eiathueeny eaaaeue e, anee ii niioaaonoaoao
ii?iai, onoaiiaeoue iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea o caeac/eea e ia
oaeaoiiiie noaioeee.

Oeaiu ii a. Ia?ie:

Iiaeeeth/aiea e naoe ISDN Oeaia (?oa)

Iiaeeeth/aiea e naoe ISDN ii iiaie oaeaoiiiie eeiee 4200

Iiaeeeth/aiea aoi?ie e neaaeothueo eeiee e naoe ISDN 3800

Ia?aeeth/aiea ia naoue ISDN n nouanoaothuae eeiee 1000

I?aaiecaoeey noaaae?ana aeey iiia?a ISDN – ioeueoeieaene?iaaiiue iiia?
aaiiaioa (i?enaiaiea aei 8 iiia?ia) 50

Au iiaeaoa iieiioeaiii eniieueciaaoue iau/iue oaeaoii, ia?aeeaeueii
?aaioay a Eioa?iaoa. Yoi i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea ISDN-niaaeeiaiey io
oaeaoiiiiai aeinooia (dial-up). A i?e eniieueciaaiee oaeaoiia
iaeiia?aiaiii n aeinooiii a eioa?iao ii oiio aea ISDN-eaiaeo nei?inoue
aeinooia nieaeaaony aei 64 Eaeo/n, /oi oai ia iaiaa cia/eoaeueii auno?aa
iiaeaiiiai niaaeeiaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu iai?oaeiaaiea, onoaiaaeeaaaiia
o caeac/eea, iiaeieouaaao ISDN e auaeaao neaiaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth.
Iiyoiio, i?e ioeeth/aiee yeaeo?iyia?aee e ionoonoaee aeiiieieoaeueiie
oaeaoiiiie eeiee aai ia oaeanony aeaaea i?inoi iicaiieoue.

3.4.2. SMDS

SMDS – yoi aunieinei?inoiay neoaeaa n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia, niiniaiay
ia?aiineoue aieueoea iauaiu aeaiiuo ni nei?inoyie io 56 Eaeo/n aei 34
Iaeo/n. Iia oe?iei aiaae?yaony iia?aoi?aie oaeaoiiee iauanoaaiiiai
iieueciaaiey. SMDS ia onoaiaaeeaaao eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey, o.a. iia ia
iniiaaia ia ae?ooaeueiuo eaiaeao. Iaeei ii?o SMDS naycuaaaony n ae?oaei,
aucuaay aai i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiue aae?an, a ia?o?oo eioi?iaoeee ca?aiaa ia
ecaanoai. Iauanoaaiiua iia?aoi?u nayce i?aaeeaaatho aeiiieieoaeueiua
oneoae, iai?eia? aiciiaeiinoue oeeueo?iaaiey niaaeeiaiey SDMS.
Noieiinoue niaaeeiaiey SMDS neeaaeuaaaony ec oeene?iaaiiie iany/iie
?aiou e iieaou ca eniieueciaaiea. Ia?aay caaeneo io auaeaeaiiie
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe, aoi?ay io iauaia ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo, ii ieeae
io aaia?aoe/aneie oaeaeaiiinoe ii?oia.

3.4.3. xDSL

Iacia/aiea DSL i/aaeaeii – i?aaeinoaaeaiea iieueciaaoaeyi, eae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui, oae e ei?ii?aoeaiui, aunieinei?inoiiai niaaeeiaiey ii
iaaeiui i?iaiaeai. Caoai – i?iaeeaiea aeecie yoeo naiuo i?iaiaeia, eae
aiieia aeooaeueiie n?aaeu ia?aaea/e. AEaeaiea yoi aucaaii ia
i?aaeoaaaeaeaieai i?ioea aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eeiee, a aiieia iauynieiui
no?aieaieai nio?aieoue eiaanoeoeee.

Oaoiieiaey DSL iicaieyao oaaee/eaaoue nei?inoue ia nouanoaothueo
oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo, i?iaaaeaiiuo ii n?aaenoaai iaaeiuo eaaaeae. No?iai
aiai?y naia eeiey DSL ia yaeyaony oeeo?iaie – yoi iau/iue iaaeiue
i?iaiae, ia iaieo eiioeao eioi?iai onoaiiaeaiu oeeo?iaua iiaeaiu.
I?aeiouanoai xDSL a oi, /oi aeaaea i?e ioeeth/aiee yeaeo?iyia?aee a
aeiia eee ioena, eeiey xDSL i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue, o.e. yoi iau/iay
oaeaoiiiay eeiey.

Ca nie?auaieai xDSL a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ne?uaaaony aieaa aeanyoea
?acee/iuo oaoiieiaee, e, noaey ii anaio, eo /enei aua eaeia-oi a?aiy
aoaeao oaaee/eaaoueny.

I?e/eiu oaeie “?aciioa?noiinoe” aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeiu. Ianiio?y ia
oi?iaeueiue 11-eaoiee aic?ano, oaoiieiaee oeeo?iauo aaiiaioneeo eeiee
iiea iaoiaeyony ia ?aiiae noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey, a i?ioeann eo
noaiaea?oecaoeee caiouai nianai iaaeaaii (eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho HDSL e
ADSL). E?iia oiai, ia DSL nae/an aiceaaathony aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu a
?acee/iuo naeoi?ao eioi?iaoeeiiiie e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie eiaeono?ee. A
?acoeueoaoa a aeiiieiaiea e /aou?ai aaciaui ?aciiaeaeiinoyi DSL (ADSL,
HDSL, IDSL e SDSL) ioaeaeueiua eiiiaiee eee eo iauaaeeiaiey niaoao
i?aaeeiaeeoue nianoaaiiua ?ac?aaioee, eioi?ua niaoeeaeueii
iioeiece?iaaiu aeey eiie?aoiuo caaea/ e n eaaeie ?oee naieo aaoi?ia
iiiieiytho e aac oiai aeeeiiue nienie aaa?aaeaoo? n caaaoiuie aoeaaie
DSL. Iaeiiaoe, iiaeiaii anyeie (a oai aieaa n?aaieoaeueii iieiaeie)
oaoiieiaee DSL ia naiaiaeia io iaaeinoaoeia, e anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea
ecaaaeoueny io ieo ii?iaeaeaao ana iiaua aa?eaiou. A oaaeeoea iienaiu
oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acee/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae naiaenoaa xDSL.

nei?inoue i?eaia nei?inoue ia?aaea/e iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey

DSL 160 Eaeo/n 160 Eaeo/n Oneoae ISDN, ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo e aieina

HDSL 1,54 Iaeo/n

ii 2 aeoui ia?ai 1,54 Iaeo/n

ii 2 aeoui ia?ai T1, LAN, WAN, aeinooi e na?aa?ai

HDSL 2,05 Iaeo/n

ii 3 aeoui ia?ai 2,05 Iaeo/n

ii 3 aeoui ia?ai E1, WAN, LAN, aeinooi e na?aa?ai

ADSL 1,5-9 Iaeo/n 16-640 Eaeo/n Aeinooi a Internet, LAN, oaeaeaiiue
aeinooi, eioa?aeoeaiia aeaeai

VDSL 13-52 Iaeo/n 1,5-2,3 Iaeo/n Aeinooi a Internet, LAN, oaeaeaiiue
aeinooi, eioa?aeoeaiia aeaeai, HDTV

Oeaiu a Raid-Internet Oeaia (aeie)

Iiaeeeth/aiea ii oaoiieiaee MSDSL (aei 2,3 Iaeo/n a iaa noi?iiu) 80

Iiaeeeth/aiea ii oaoiieiaee ADSL 80

3.5. World Water Web (ec iiainoae).

Eco/ay ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaca?iiai eo/a a ica?a Aeoaieii (Deep Lake), ooao
Iaaaaea, niaoeeaeenou ianoiiai ioaeaeaiey aiaeieaiaea i?aaeeiaeeee
eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa n?aaeu aeey iioe/aneie nayce aiaeo. Ei
oaeaeinue iiaeia?aoue ?aaeei ?aaiou eaca?a, i?e eioi?ii i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaoao caoooaiea neaiaea i?e ia?aaea/a ii aiaeii?iaiaeo, i?e/ai ca
n/ao iieiiai aioo?aiiaai io?aaeaiey eo/ iiaoi?yao ana ecaeau o?oa.

Iineieueeo aiaeii?iaiaeiay naoue yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?acaeoie
eio?anooeoo?ie ai anai ie?a, iiaue niinia caeioa?aniaae e?oiiaeoeo
iia?aoi?ia nayce. *a?ac nenoaiu aiaeicaai?ia aiaeii?iaiaeiua naoe
naycaiu n ioe?uouie aiaeiaiaie, /oi nieceo cao?aou ia nicaeaiea
aeiaaeueiie aiaei-iioe/aneie naoe. Oaea nicaeai ia?acaoe eioa?oaeniiai
ono?ienoaa, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie ianaaeeo ia aiaeii?iaiaeiue e?ai,
eioi?ay i?e iiiiue aeaeiai oeaiaa niaaeeiaia n eiiiuethoa?ii, eiathuei
noaiaea?oioth naoaaoth ea?oo. Iaeiaei ?acaeoeth iiaiai n?aaenoaa nayce
iaoatho aunooieaiey «caeaiuo», i?ioanoothueo i?ioea oaaee/aiey
iio?aaeaiey aiaeu (aeey oiaiueoaiey iiiao aiaeii?iaiaeiue e?ai a ?aaeeia
on-line aeieaeai auoue ioe?uoui). Ii iauanoaaiiinoue iiaeao e
i?ieaii?e?iaaoue iiaiea «caeaiuo», iineieueeo eaca?iia eceo/aiea
iiaeaaeyao ?yae aieaciaoai?iuo aaeoa?ee, naeyueony a aiaeii?iaiaeiuo
naoyo, e, iiauoay aeanoeinoue aiaeu, i?eaeaao ae aioeea?eaniua naienoaa,
/oi iaoiaeeo iiaeaea?aeeo cae?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

4. I?ioeann noaiaea?oecaoeee Eioa?iaoa.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iauanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, eiaioaiay niiauanoaii
Internet (Internet Society, ISOC), oi?aaeyao ?acaeoeai naiaenoaa
i?ioieieia TCP/IP. Noaiaea?ou aeey TCP/IP ioaeeeothony a na?ee
aeieoiaioia, iacuaaaiuo RFC (Reguest For Comments). Oioy Eioa?iao ia
yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth ie iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee, iaeioi?ua ec ieo
ioaa/atho ca oi?aaeaiea ei.

Niiauanoai Internet (ISOC) ia?aciaaiii a 1992 aiaeo e ioaa/aao ca
oaoiieiaee naoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey e eniieueciaaiey naoe. Iineieueeo
iniiaiay oeaeue Niiauanoaa – ?acaeoea e aeinooiiinoue Eioa?iaoa, iia
?aaoee?oao au?aaioeo noaiaea?oia e i?ioieieia, iicaieythueo aio
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue.

A?oeoaeoo?iay a?oiia Internet (IAB, Internet Architecture Board) aoiaeeo
a ninoaa ISOC. Yoa a?oiia ioaa/aao ca onoaiiaeo noaiaea?oia Internet,
ioaeeeaoeeth RFC e iaaethaeaiea ca i?ioeannii noaiaea?oecaoeee naoe.
A?oiia IAB ?oeiaiaeeo a?oiiaie IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force),
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), IRTF (Internet Research
Task Force). A?oiia oaoie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee Internet (IETF)
?ac?aaaouaaao noaiaea?ou e i?ioieieu Internet, ?aoaao oaoie/aneea
i?iaeaiu ii ia?a eo aicieeiiaaiey a naoe. IANA iaaethaeaao e
eii?aeeie?oao iacia/aiea eaaeaeiai oieeaeueiiai eaeaioeoeeaoi?a
i?ioieiea, i?eiaiyaiiai a Internet. A?oiia IRTF eii?aeeie?oao ana
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?iaeou a iaeanoe TCP/IP.

na?ey aeieoiaioia RFC. Noaiaea?ou aeey i?ioieiea TCP/IP ioaeeeothony a
aeaea aeieoiaioia «Cai?in eiiiaioa?eaa» (Request For Comments). Iie
iienuaatho ono?ienoai Internet. Noaiaea?ou TCP/IP anaaaea ioaeeeothony a
RFC.

Noaiaea?ou i?ioieieia TCP/IP ?ac?aaaouaathony ia niaoeeaeueiie a?oiiie,
a nei?aa, anai niiauanoaii. Ethaie /eai ISOC iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue ia
?anniio?aiea aeieoiaio aeey aai ioaeeeaoeee a RFC. Iinea yoiai aeieoiaio
?anniao?eaaaony oaoie/aneei yenia?oii, a?oiiie ?ac?aaio/eeia eee
?aaeaeoi?ii RFC, a caoai eeanneoeoee?oaony (assigned a classification).
A eeanneoeeaoeee oeacuaaaony, ianoaeaeaaony ee aeieoiaio a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, eee ii oaea i?eiyo a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa. Nouanoaoao iyoue oeiia
RFC:

Required (o?aaoaony) – noaiaea?o aeieaeai auoue ?aaeeciaai ia anao
iniiaaiiuo ia TCP/IP oceao e oethcao.

Recommended (?aeiiaiaeoaony) – I?aaeeaaaaony ?aaeeciaaoue RFC ia anao
iniiaaiiuo ia TCP/IP oceao e oethcao. ?aeiiaiaeoaiua RFC iau/ii
?aaeecothony.

Elective (ecae?aoaeueii) – ?aaeecaoeey iaiaycaoaeueia. I?eiaiaiea
niaeaniaaiii, ii eniieuecoaony iaoe?iei.

Limited Use (ia?aie/aiiia eniieueciaaiea) – Ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeey
anaiauaai eniieueciaaiey.

Not recommended – ia ?aeiiaaeoaony.

5. I?ioieie TCP/IP

5.1. Enoi?ey nicaeaiey TCP/IP.

I?ioieie TCP/IP aue nicaeai a ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee naoae n
eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia, i?iaiaeeiuo ieienoa?noaii DARPA Ieienoa?noaa
iai?iiu NOA a eiioea 60-o – ia/aea 70-o aiaeia. A yaiethoeee i?ioieiea
TCP/IP iiaeii ioiaoeoue ianeieueei aaaeiuo yoaiia.

1970 a. Oceu naoe ARPANet ia/aee eniieueciaaoue i?ioieie NCP
(Network Control

Protocol).

1972 a. Ia?aay niaoeeoeeaoeey. Telnet ioi?ieaia eae RFC 318.

1973 a. Aaaeai i?ioieie FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

1974 a. I?aaenoaaeaia i?ia?aiia Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

1981 a. Iioaeeeiaai noaiaea?o i?ioieiea IP.

1982 a. Aaaionoai DSA (Defense Communication Agency) e aaaionoai
ARPA iauaaeeieee

i?ioieie TCP e i?ioieie IP a iaai? TCP/IP.

1983 a. Naoue ARPANet ia?aeeth/eeanue n i?ioieiea NCP ia i?ioieie
TCP/IP.

1984 a. Aaaaeaia aeiiaiiay nenoaia eiai (DNS).

5.2. TCP/IP aue ?ac?aaioai ii eieoeeaoeaa Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA
aieaa 20 eao iacaae aeey nayce yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ARPANet n
ae?oaeie naoyie eae iaai? iaueo i?ioieieia aeey ?acii?iaeiie
au/eneeoaeueiie n?aaeu. Aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea TCP/IP, aian
oieaa?neoao Aa?eee, ?aaeeciaaa i?ioieie a naiae aa?nee iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiu Unix. Iiioey?iinoue yoie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?eaaea e
oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth i?ioieieia TCP/IP. Naaiaeiy yoio i?ioieie
eniieuecoaony aeey nayce eiiiuethoa?ia anaie?iie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe
Internet a oaeaea a ia?iiiii /enea ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae.

TCP/IP ia ieaeiai o?iaia iiaeaea?aeeaaao ana iiioey?iua noaiaea?ou
oece/aneiai e eaiaeueiiai o?iaiae: aeey eieaeueiuo naoae – yoi Ethernet,
Token Ring, FDDI, aeey aeiaaeueiuo – i?ioieieu ?aaiou ia aiaeiaiauo e
auaeaeaiiuo eeieyo SLIP, PPP, i?ioieieu oa??eoi?eaeueiuo naoae X.25 e
ISDN. I?ioieie IP iaania/eaaao i?iaeaeaeaiea iaeaoa, a TCP aa?aioe?oao
iaaeaaeiinoue aai aeinoaaee.

Ca aeieaea aiaeu eniieueciaaiey a naoyo ?acee/iuo no?ai e
i?aaiecaoeee TCP/IP aia?ae a naay aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ioieieia
i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy. E iei ioiinyony oaeea iiioey?iua i?ioieieu, eae
i?ioieie ia?anueee oaeeia FTP, ii/oiaue i?ioieie SMTP, eniieuecoaiue a
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa naoe Internet, aeia?oaenoiaua na?aenu neoaeau WWW e
iiiaea ae?oaea.

Naaiaeiy TCP/IP i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo
o?ainii?oiuo i?ioieieia au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oieueei
a naoe Internet iauaaeeiaii ieiei 10 ieeeeiiia eiiiuethoa?ia ii anaio
ie?o, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii n iiiiuueth i?ioieiea
TCP/IP.

No?aieoaeueiue ?ino iiioey?iinoe Internet i?eaae e eciaiaieyi a
?annoaiiaea nee a ie?a eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia – i?ioieieu TCP/IP,
ia eioi?uo iino?iai Internet, noaee auno?i oanieoue aannii?iiai eeaea?a
i?ioeuo eao – IPX/SPX eiiiaiee Novell. Naaiaeiy a ie?a iauaa eiee/anoai
eiiiuethoa?ia, ia eioi?uo onoaiiaeai i?ioieie TCP/IP, n?aaiyeinue n
iauei eiee/anoaii eiiiuethoa?ia, ia eioi?uo ?aaioaao i?ioieie IPX/SPX, e
yoi aiai?eo i ?aceii ia?aeiia a ioiioaiee aaeieieno?aoi?ia eieaeueiuo
naoae e i?ioieieai, eniieuecoaiui ia ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao. I?ioeann
noaiiaeaiey i?ioieiea TCP/IP a ea/anoaa i?ioieiea iiia? iaeei a ethauo
oeiao naoae i?iaeieaeaaony, e nae/an ethaay i?iiuoeaiiay iia?aoeeiiiay
nenoaia iaycaoaeueii aeeth/aao i?ia?aiiioth ?aaeecaoeeth yoiai i?ioieiea
a naiai eiiieaeoa iinoaaee.

Oioy i?ioieieu TCP/IP ia?ac?uaii naycaiu n Internet e eaaeaeue ec
iiiai ieeeeiiiie a?iaaeu eiiiuethoa?ia Internet ?aaioaao ia iniiaa yoiai
i?ioieiea, nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai eieaeueiuo, ei?ii?aoeaiuo e
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo naoae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia yaeythueony /anoyie
Internet, a eioi?uo oaeaea eniieuecothony i?ioieieu TCP/IP. *oiau
ioee/aoue eo io Internet, yoe naoe iacuaatho naoyie TCP/IP eee i?inoi
IP-naoyie.

Iineieueeo i?ioieie TCP/IP ecia/aeueii nicaeaaaeny aeey aeiaaeueiie
naoe Internet, ii eiaao iiiai iniaaiiinoae, aeathueo aio i?aeiouanoai
ia?aae ae?oaeie i?ioieieaie, eiaaea ?a/ue caoiaeeo i iino?iaiee naoae,
aeeth/athueo aeiaaeueiua nayce. A /anoiinoe, i/aiue iieaciui naienoaii,
aeaeathuei aiciiaeiui i?eiaiaiea yoiai i?ioieiea a aieueoeo naoyo,
yaeyaony aai niiniaiinoue o?aaiaioe?iaaoue iaeaou. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
aieueoay ninoaaiay naoue /anoi ninoieo ec naoae, iino?iaiiuo ia
niaa?oaiii ?aciuo i?eioeeiao. A eaaeaeie eo yoeo naoae iiaeao auoue
onoaiiaeaia nianoaaiiay aaee/eia iaeneiaeueiie aeeeiiu aaeeieoeu
ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo (eaae?a). A oaeii neo/aa i?e ia?aoiaea ec iaeiie
naoe, eiathuae aieueooth iaeneiaeueioth aeeeio, a naoue n iaiueoae
iaeneiaeueiie aeeeiie iiaeao aicieeiooue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeaiey
ia?aaeaaaaiiai eaae?a ia ianeieueei /anoae. I?ioieie IP yoaeoeaii ?aoaao
yoo i?iaeaio.

6. Iaeioi?ua oa?ieiu aeiaaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae

6.1. Aeiiaiiay i?aaiecaoeey naoe

Eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa?, iiaeeeth/aiiue e Eioa?iao, aeieaeai auoue
oieeaeueii iienai a aeiaaeueiie naoe. Yoa no?oeoo?a iiaeiaia no?oeoo?a
eaoaeiaia a eiiiuethoa?a: anoue aeiiaiu naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy, anoue
aeiaeaiiua a ieo aeiiaiu, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaoo niaea?aeaoue
ae?oaea aeiiaiu. Eiaia aeiiaiia naiiai aa?oiaai o?iaiy no?iai
?ani?aaeaeaiu. Nouanoaoao aeaa oeia oaeeo eiai: ii oeio i?aaiecaoeee e
ii no?aia. Eiaia ii oeio i?aaiecaoeee (com – eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey,
edu – o/aaiay, gov – i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay e o.ae.), auee enoi?e/anee
ia?auie, nae/an i?aeoe/anee ia i?enaaeaathony e, a iniiaiii oa?aeoa?iu
aeey i?aaiecaoeee a NOA. Iau/ii aae?an, i?enaaeaaaiue eiiiuethoa?o,
aoaeao aeeth/aoue a naay a ea/anoaa eiaie naiiai “ aa?oiaai” aeiiaia
neiaieu, ii?aaeaeythuea no?aio i?aauaaiey. ?inneeneea eiiiuethoa?u
eiatho aae?ana, caeai/eaathueany ia ru eee su. Aeaeaa, oaea a ?aieao
aeaiiie no?aiu, i?iaaeaea?u ?aaeno?e?otho naie a?oiiu eiai – aeiiaiu.
Eiy eaaeaeiai aeiiaia ioaeaeyaony i?e iaienaiee io ae?oaiai eiaie
oi/eie, i?e/ai eiy aeiiaia aa?oiaai o?iaiy ieoaony ni?aaa. Oae, aae?an
na?aa?a aacaou “O?aeueneee ?aai/ee” – yoi ur.etel.ru. A yoii aae?ana ru
– iaicia/aiea no?aiu, etel – aeiiai, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue i?iaaeaea?ii
(Aeaoa?eiao?aneei oaeaa?aoii), ur – eiy eiiiuethoa?a a aacaoa. Anee
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa inouanoaeyaony /a?ac ianeieueei i?aaiecaoeee, oi
eiy eiiiuethoa?a iiaeao ninoiyoue ec aieueoaai /enea a?oii neiaieia,
oioy ia i?aeoeea ?aaeei ano?aoeoue eiaia, aeeth/athuea a naay aieueoa
iyoe a?oii. Aeiiaiiia eiy a eiiiuethoa?a oieeaeueii. Ii iii aua ie/aai
ia aiai?eo i ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee eiiiuethoa?a. Au iiaeaoa
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue ia naay iiaue aeiiai e a aeaeueiaeoai, i?e ia?aacaea
ec ai?iaea a ai?iae nio?aiyoue ca niaie yoe eiaia. Aoaeao iaiyoueny
oieueei i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho aao auoiae a Eioa?iao,
?aaeno?e?oy yoe eiaia a aeiaaeueiie naoe.

6.2. IP aae?an

Aoi?ie ia?aiao?, eioi?ue aoaeao oieeaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue aao eiiiuethoa?
a ie?a – yoi IP aae?an. IP aae?an – yoi /aou?a /enea, eaaeaeia ec
eioi?uo iiaeao i?eieiaoue cia/aiea io 0 aei 255. Iai?eia? IP – aae?an
ftp-na?aa?a oe?iu Microsoft ( oi anoue na?aa?a, n eioi?iai iiaeii
iieo/eoue oaeeu ii naoe ) 189.105.232.1. Nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua
i?aaeea, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aae?an, i?enaaeaaaiue eiiiuethoa?o. Ia
aaeaaaynue a iaioaeiua iiae?iaiinoe, ioiaoei oieueei, /oi yoio oeeo?iaie
aae?an oieeaeai, oi anoue a ie?a iao aoi?iai eiiiuethoa?a n oaeei aea
aae?anii. A /ai i?e/eia nouanoaiaaiey aeaoo oeiia aae?ania? Ai-ia?auo,
/aeiaaeo i?iua ?aaioaoue n neiaieueiui aae?anii, /ai caiiieiaoue
ni/aoaiey oeeo?. Iau/ii eiaia aeiiaiia aeathony ii eiaie i?aaiecaoeee,
oae /oi – aeaaea ia ciay oeeo?iaiai aae?ana oe?iu – iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue i aeiiaiiii aae?ana. E?iia oiai, nio?aiaiea «ca niaie»
iicaieyao ia aaniieieoueny, /oi a neo/aa aiciiaeiuo ia?aacaeia i?eaeaony
i?aaieciauaaoue iiaoth ?aeeaio aeiiaiiiai aae?ana. Ai-aoi?uo, IP aae?ana
iau/ii iieo/atho ia naay oe?iu, i?aaeinoaaeythuea oneoae auoiaea a
Eioa?iao.

Yoe aae?ana (iaeei eee ianeieueei) iie cae?aieytho ca eiie?aoiui
iieueciaaoaeai, eioi?ue iiaeao eiaoue «naia», nianoaaiiia aeiiaiiia eiy.
Iinea ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u ?aaeno?aoeee iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao
ia/eiaoue ?aaioo a Eioa?iao. I?ioeaaeo?a iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaia,
ii iaiaoiaeeii iaeioi?ia a?aiy (ieiei nooie), /oiau na?aa?a ai anai ie?a
i?iecaaee ioaeiua caiene i iieueciaaoaea. I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia
eiiiuethoa?ao, i?aaeinoaaeythueo oneoae Internet, iaania/eaaao
iaoiaeaeaiea ii IP-aae?ano eiaie eiiiuethoa?a e iaiai?io

Caiaoei oieueei, /oi ia ana eiiiuethoa?u, eiathuea IP-aae?an, eiatho
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia a aeiaaeueiie naoe naia aeiiaiiia eiy.

6.3. Ianea naoe

Aeey i?aaeeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?ioieiea IP iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie aeeaiacii IP-aae?ania i?enaiai Aaoae eieaeueiie
naoe. Aeey yoeo oeaeae eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiay ianea naoe: /aou?a
o?ieee oeeo?, eiathueo cia/aiea io 0 aei 255. Eiia/iue iieueciaaoaeue
iau/ii eiaao ianeo 255.255.255.???, aaea aianoi ciaeia aii?ina noiyo
oeeo?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ?acia? naoe. Yoe ia?aiao?u aeieaeiu auoue
niiauaiu Aai i?iaaeaea?ii.

6.4. Gateway (oethc)

Aeey i?aaeeueiie ?aaiou a iano?ieeao aeieaeai auoue oeacai IP-aae?an
ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao naycue n aiaoiae naoueth. Yoi oae aea
iiaeao auoue naeaeaii yaii eee aaoiiaoe/anee — a caaeneiinoe io
onoaiiaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

6.5. DNS-na?aa?

Aeey oiai, /oiau Au iiaee oeacuaaoue ia oieueei oeeo?iaua IP-aae?ana, ii
e eiaia eiiiuethoa?ia, ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue IP-aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, aaea
onoaiiaeaii i?ia?aiia, iaania/eaathuay oaeia i?aia?aciaaiea (domain name
service).

6.6. Proxy

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iaeioi?ay eioi?iaoeey iieuecoaony iniaie
iiioey?iinoueth: aa cai?aoeaatho iiiaea iieueciaaoaee, eiiaaea aeaaea ia
ii iaeiiio ?aco ca aeaiue. *oiau nieceoue iaa?oceo ia naoe, noaee
onoaiaaeeaaoue oae iacuaaaiua proxy-na?aa?a. Ia yoii na?aa?a
aaoiiaoe/anee nio?aiyaony ia iaeioi?ue n?ie any eioi?iaoeey, i?ioiaeyuay
/a?ac iaai. Anee aoaeao iaia?oaeai cai?in eioi?iaoeee, oaea iaoiaeyuaeny
a eiiee ia na?aa?a, oi eiaiii yoa eiiey e aoaeao iai?aaeaia
iieueciaaoaeth. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eioi?iaoeey ia proxy-na?aa?a iiaeao
iaiiaeaia ii cai?ino i?ia?aiiu i?iniio?a iieueciaaoaey.

?aaioa /a?ac proxy-na?aa? ia iaycaiiinoue, a i?aai. Proxy-na?aa? iiaeao
auoue oeacai a iano?ieeao i?ia?aii, inouanoaeythueo i?iniio? Eioa?iao
(iai?eia?, MS Internet Explorer). Ia i?aeoeea ?aaioa /a?ac i?iene –
na?aa? iau/ii nouanoaaiii auno?aa ?aaiou «iai?yiee».

6.7. «Ca?eaeueiue» na?aa? (mirror)

Eioi?iaoeey n iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo na?aa?ia aeoaee?oaony ia na?aa?ao a
ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a. Yoi iicaieyao nieceoue iauai eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aaeaaaaiie iaaeaeo no?aiaie, e onei?eoue ?aaioo iieueciaaoaey n
eioa?anothueie aai no?aieoeaie.

6.8. URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

Oae, iau/ii, iacuaatho aae?an aeieoiaioa (eee na?aa?a) a Eioa?iao.
I?eia?u URL:

ftp://ur.etel.ru/distr/index.txt file //ur.etel.ru/distr/index.txt http
//ur.etel.ru/default.htm news alt.hypertext telnet://dra.corn

URL ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae: neaaa (aei aeaiaoi/ey) oeacuaaaony niinia
aeinooia e ?ano?no (file e ftp — aeinooi ii i?ioieieo FTP, http —
aeieoiaio iaiaoiaeeii i?iniao?eaaoue i?ia?aiiaie oeia MS Internet
Explorer eee Netscape Navigator, news oeacuaaao ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
oaeaeiioa?aioeeyi, a telnet — ia eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aiiu telnet).

Ni?aaa ieoaony aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony ?ano?n, e
eaoaeiae (ioaeaeythony einuie /a?oi/eaie), a eioi?uo ?aniieiaeai
aeieoiaio. Anee ia oeacaii eiy aeieoiaioa, oi Au iieo/eoa aeinooi e
aeieoiaioo «ii oiie/aieth», eioi?ue iacia/ai iano?ieeaie
niioaaonoaothuaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai na?aa?a.

6.9. Eiaee?iaee neiaieia a Eioa?iao

I?iaeaia nouanoaiaaiey ?acee/iuo eiaee?iaie neiaieia ?onneiai ycuea
aieueoa anaai aeaao i naaa ciaoue eiaiii i?e ?aaioa n aeiaaeueiuie
eiiiuethoa?iuie naoyie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu eiaee?iaee EIE-8 e 1251.
Eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue e ?onneea oaenou, iaa?aiiua eaoeineeie
aoeaaie.

?ani?ino?aiaiea Windows-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo i?ia?aii ?aaiou n Eioa?iao
noeioee?oao iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae ia eiaee?iaeo N?1251, iiaua na?aa?a
eiatho /anoi oieueei oaeea oaenou.

Iiiaea na?aa?a iicaieytho ia?aeeth/eoue auaiae eioi?iaoeee ia oo eee
eioth eiaee?iaeo (iau/ii yoa iioeey i?aaeeaaaaony ia ia?aie no?aieoea
na?aa?a). A oi aea a?aiy iineaaeiea aa?nee i?ia?aii aeey ?aaiou n
Eioa?iao i?aaeinoaaeytho aiciiaeiinoue /oaiey aeieoiaioia ethaie
eiaee?iaee, i?e yoii iicaieyy eiie?iaaoue oaenou ia eiiiuethoa? a
ioaeiie eiaee?iaea e eniieueciaaoue oaeea aeieoiaiou a ae?oaeo
i?ia?aiiao. E niaeaeaieth, ia anaaaea ia?aeeth/aiea eiaee?iaee
inouanoaeyaony aaoiiaoe/anee, oae /oi iieueciaaoaeth i?eoiaeeony
aeaeaoue oaeia ia?aeeth/aiea a?o/ioth: anee aeieoiaio auaiaeeony ia
ye?ai iaiiiyoiuie neiaieaie, oi inoaiiaeoa caa?oceo aeieoiaioa e niaieoa
a iaith i?ia?aiiu i?iniio?a eiaee?iaeo.

7. Auoiae a Internet

Aeey ?aaiou a Internet ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai onoaiiaeoue naycue ii IP
i?ioieieo n i?aaiecaoeeae, i?aaeinoaaeythuae oneoae ?aaiou a aeiaaeueiie
eiiiuethoa?iie naoe (oaeoth i?aaiecaoeeth iacuaatho
Internet-i?iaaeaea?ii). Nouanoaoao aeaa aiciiaeiinoe. Yoi auaeaeaiea
iinoiyiiiai eaiaea e ?aaioa a ?aaeeia oaeaoiiiuo caiieia (dial-up).
?aaioa ii auaeaeaiiiio eaiaeo aieaa onoie/eaa, Au iiea/eaaaoa eaiae
iieiinoueth e caa?oaeaaoa aai ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Aa?eaio aei?iaie,
iacaaeneii io eiie?aoiuo ?anoeaiie Internet-i?iaaeaea?ia a ?aaeiiao.

?aaioa ii iau/iiio oaeaoiiiiio eaiaeo aieaa aeaoaaa, ii neeueii caaeneo
io ea/anoaa eiie?aoiie oaeaoiiiie eeiee. Eiiaaea i?eoiaeeony ia ii
iaeiiio ?aco aeicaaieaaoueny ii oaeaoiiiiio iiia?o e iuoaoueny aieoe a
naoue. Eiia/ii e nei?inoue ?aaiou ii oaeiio eaiaeo iau/ii ?aaeueii ieaea
ec-ca ooaeoaai ea/anoaa eiiiooe?oaiie oaeaoiiiie eeiee.

8. *OI E EAE I?IAeAAONss *A?AC EIOA?IAO.

Oioei iu oiai eee iao, ii ?inneeneee Eioa?iao naieieeueiuie oaaaie
aeaeaeaony e eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee ?ano?nia. A aeaeaeii i?ioeii inoaeinue
oi a?aiy, eiaaea iiea/aiiue aaia?, aenyuee ia no?aieoea, aucuaae
iaiiieiaiea eee yaeiaeooth e e?iie/ioth oniaoeo iaeneooaiiiai
iieueciaaoaey, a eiaoa?iao-iaaacei i?aaenoaaeyeny /ai-oi aaneiia/ii
aeaeaeei e iaiinoeaeeiui.

Oio eieanaeueiue ?ino eiee/anoaa iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ue ia/aeny a
1998 aiaeo e i?ienoiaeeo aei neo ii?, iieiinoueth eciaiee eeoei iaoae
Naoe, e ec i?ino?ainoaa aeey i?ia?aiienoia-iaeeii/ae iia i?aa?aoeeanue a
iiaia iann-iaaeea, ?aaiuo eioi?iio ii naiaio eiiia?/aneiio iioaioeeaeo
ia iaeoe.

A ?oiaoa ?acaeaathony ?acee/iua aeaeu naoaaie eiiia?oeee. Naaiaeiy ia
?inneeneii ?uiea eioa?iao-oneoa ?aaioatho ianeieueei naoaauo ?aeeaiiuo
aaaionoa (http://www.promo.ru, http://www.system.ru e ae?.), a iaaeaaii
nicaeaii niaoeeaeueiia naoaaia iaaeea-aaeiaiaia aaaionoai IMHO,
iiyaeyaony ana aieueoa e aieueoa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eiioaio-i?iaeoia,
?oeiaiaenoai eioi?uo ieaie?oao ni a?aiaiai ecaea/ue ec ieo i?eaueue. Ii
iaeaieaa y?ei au?aaeaiiie eiiia?/aneie oi?iie a ?oiaoa yaeythony naoaaua
iaaaceiu. ?aioaaaeueiu ee iie naaiaeiy? Eoi iieuecoaony eo oneoaaie? *oi
iieoiatho iaoe iieueciaaoaee? Eaeiau ia?niaeoeau on-line-oi?aiaee a
?innee?

Yeaeo?iiioth eiiia?oeeth a Naoe o?aaeeoeeiiii ?acaeaeytho ia aeaa
aeaea: aeaeiaia ia?oia?noai e ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth. Anee ia?aue oaea
iieo/ee o ian aeiaieueii oe?ieia ?acaeoea, oi aoi?ie aei neo ii?
iaoiaeeony anee ia ia caaeai?eao ?oiaoa, oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aaea-oi
?yaeii, aucuaay eioa?an i/aiue iacia/eoaeueiiai /enea iieueciaaoaeae.

Aei 1998 aiaea a ?inneeneie /anoe Naoe i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaee
i?ioanneiiaeueiua eioa?iao-iaaaceiu, eioi?ua au i?aaeinoaaeyee oaeiaioth
oi?io iieaou e aeinoaaee caeacia. Eeoue a i?ioeii aiaeo iiyaeeenue
oaoiieiaee iieaou, aaeaioe?iaaiiua iie ?inneeneee ?uiie (i?aaeaea anaai,
nenoaia iieaeiiauo ieaoaaeae CyberPlat, http://www.cyberplat.ru), e eae
neaaenoaea, ia?aua iaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?iao-iaaaceiu.

Eaeie eiaiii eioa?iao-iaaacei aue ieiia?ii, naaiaeiy neacaoue oaea
a?yae ee aiciiaeii. Ai-ia?auo i?inoi iioiio, /oi naii iiiyoea naoaaiai
iaaaceia aeinoaoi/ii ?aciuoi e ii?aaeaeeoue, eiaaea naeo, i?aaeeaaathuee
oneoae ii aeinoaaea oiaa?ia, i?aa?aoeeny a on-line-iaaacei, i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii. Ai-aoi?uo, eae /anoi auaaao, e oiio anoue iiiaeanoai
i?eia?ia a enoi?ee, iiyaeeinue n?aco ianeieueei on-line-iaaaceiia.

Aea, ii ia naiii-oi aeaea naaiaeiy oaea ia noieue aaaeii, eoi aue
ia?aui. Nei?aa, neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ae?oaia: niaeanii naiiio
aieueoiio eaoaeiao eioa?iao-iaaaceiia a ?oiaoa ia naeoa «Iaaeaaoi?
yeaeo?iiii eiiia?oeee», a ?innee e aeeaeiai ca?oaaaeuea naaiaeiy
ca?aaano?e?iaaiii ieiei 400 yeaeo?iiiuo iaaaceiia.

Iiiai yoi eee iaei? ss au ia ?eneioe aeaoue iaeiicia/ioth ioeaieo. Ia
iie acaeyae, yoa oeeo?a aiieia io?aaeaao ninoiyiea ?uiea yeaeo?iiiie
oi?aiaee a ?inneeneii Eioa?iaoa. Io?aaeaao e aiai?eo ia a aai iieueco,
iioiio /oi n?aaee yoeo /aou?ao nioai iaaaceiia anaai 10-20
aeaenoaeoaeueii ?aaioatho, iinoiyiii iaiiaeythony e eiatho aieaa-iaiaa
caiaoiue iai?io. A ca/ai aea ioaeiu inoaeueiua 380 iaaaceiia, ni?ineoa
au. Ana i?inoi. Eo nouanoaiaaiea iauyniyaony eeai iiaeie ia Eioa?iao,
eeai o?aaiaaieyie e eieaeaeo eiiiaiee. Iiaoi?th aua ?ac: aieueoeinoai
iaaaceiia nouanoaotho iiieiaeueii, ia i?eiiny ie oauoeia, ie i?eaueae.

8.1. *oi iiaeaaony a eioa?iao-iaaaceiao?

E niaeaeaieth ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeee ?aeoeiaa eioa?iao iaaaceiia,
ianeieueei iia ecaanoii, ia nouanoaoao. Ii noa?u iaeaieueoaai
iieoiaoaeueneiai eioa?ana auyaeythony eaaei, e, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue eo,
ia ioaeii eiiaoue eiiee, a caoai iaaeoaaoue uaee e a?inaoue oo?aaeeo,
?ac?acay aicaeoo iiaaaeiui eee/ai a?oaieiaa, iaoaaeoaai ae?aaiee eeaae.
I?aaeaea anaai, yoi i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, eieae, aeaeai, iocueaeueiua
CD e eannaou. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iinoiyiiia eeaea?noai iaaaceiia
i?iaeathueo oeacaiiua oiaa?u, a ?acee/iuo ?aeoeiaao (Rambler Top 100,
TopList e i?i/ea).

O?oaeii iacaaoue naiue iiioey?iue eioa?iao-iaaacei, ii ianeieueei
eeaea?ia ioa/anoaaiiie on-line-oi?aiaee iiaeii oeacaoue niaei, ia aiynue
ioeaeoueny.

«iCii», http://www.o3.ru

«ACT DIRECT», http://www.buy.ru HYPERLINK http://www.buy.ru Ioeaea!
Caeeaaeea ia ii?aaeaeaia.

«Nenoaia WEBMARKET», http://www.webmarket.ru

«MegaShop», http://www.megashop.ru

Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi iaiaeeaeaiii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eea i?iaeaaea /a?ac Naoue eioeiiuo oneoa. Eioa?iao eae aiiieiiue
niinia iauaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?iaeaaee yecioe/aneeo aauae. Eiaiii iiyoiio i/aiue
aeoeaiu a Naoe aeaaeaeueoeu naen-oiiia e i?iaeaaoeu eioeiiuo oneoa.

«Aieiaiea! Au iinauaaoa iao iaaacei aiiieiii! – neacaii ia no?aieoea
iaeiiai ec naen-oiiia. – Caeacaiiue oiaa? aoaeao ioi?aaeai ia aao aae?an
a aacee/iie, iaeo?aeueiie oiaeiaea. Iu aa?aioe?oai, /oi ia oiaeiaea ia
aoaeao ieeaeeo eiii?iiaoe?othueo iaaeienae oeia: «naen-oii» e o.ae. ( Au
iieo/eoa caeac, oiaeiaea eioi?iai ii aiaoiaio aeaeo ie /ai ia aoaeao
ioee/aony io iau/iie aaiaea?iee. Yoio aea i?eioeei aeaenoaoao e ai a?aiy
iieo/aiey oiaa?a a ioieoa auaea/e caeacia. A aio ii aae?ano
http://www.incom.ru/misc/ y i?i/eoae aiiaua i/aiue caaaaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea: «Au iiaeaoa caeacaoue aeaiiino?aoeeth iii?aaeaoaainy
ecaeaeey o aan a ioena eee aeiia». (

Naaiaeiy a ?oiaoa iiaeii iaeoe aeanyoee naeoia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
i?iaeaeaeaiea naen-oneoa. Ia aoaeai ia?a/eneyoue aae?ana oaeeo no?aieoe
– yoi ia aienuaaaony a oi?iao iaoaai ?aoa?aoa. I?e aeaeaiee eaaeaeue
iiaeao iaeoe oaeea iaaaceiu n iiiiuueth iieneiauo nenoai.

Yoi iiaeao iieacaoueny oaeeaeoaeueiui e ia?aaeienaeueiui, ii
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioa?iao-iaaaceiia iiyaeeanue iinea e?ecena 1998
aiaea. Inaiueth i?ioeiai aiaea iiiaea eiiiaiee, iniaaiii ?aaioathuea a
noa?a eiiiuethoa?iiai e eieaeiiai aeciana, ?aoeee, /oi eioa?iao-iaaacei,
ia o?aaothuee cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao ia nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeeo, iiaeao
i?eianoe ?aaeueioth ioaea/o. Naaiaeiy iu iiaeai oaea oaa?aiii aiai?eoue,
/oi iaeeaeaiey aieueoeinoaa ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Ii yoi e ia naiia aeaaiia.
Ca?aaioae iaoaieci on-line-oi?aiaee. Iiiaea off-line-no?oeoo?u iiiyee,
ianeieueei ia?niaeoeaiu i?iaeaaee /a?ac Eioa?iao, e naaiaeiy iu yaeyainy
naeaeaoaeyie ana aic?anoathuaai eioa?ana e yoie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.

8.2. *oi iaoaao ?acaeoeth eioa?iao-iaaaceiia?

I/aaeaeii, /oi eioa?iao-iaaaceiu iiaee au oaea naaiaeiy i?eia?anoe
aieueoaa cia/aiea e aan, /ai oio, eioi?ue iie eiatho. Ii aei neo ii?
yoiai ia i?iecioei. I?e/ei oiio ianeieueei. Iacaaai iniiaiua:

1.Iaaieueoia eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae e ieceay iieoiaoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue.

Ii naiui iioeienoe/iui i?iaiicai (http://www.monitoring.ru), naaiaeiy
a ?oiaoa oanoue ieeeeiiia iieueciaaoaeae, ii iaeaieaa ?aaeueiui – ieiei
iieooi?a. I?e yoii, oioy aeioiae iieueciaaoaeae Naoe a oeaeii auoa, /ai
n?aaeiee ii ?innee, aieueoeinoai ana aea ia iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa
i?eia?aoaoue oiaa?u /a?ac Eioa?iao.

Niaeanii ii?ino, i?iaaaeaiiiio n?aaee iieueciaaoaeae ia naeoa
«Eioa?iao-iaaaceiu ?innee» (http://www.virtualave.ne/ishops/index.htm ia
aii?in «Neieueei ?ac au aeaeaee iieoiee a eioa?iao-iaaaceiao?» 49%
ioaaoeee «ie ?aco», 13% – «iaeei ?ac», 16% – «ia?o ?ac», 16% –
«ianeieueei ?ac», 4% – «i/aiue /anoi».

2.Iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey nenoai.

Ii?inu iieacuaatho, /oi iiiaea iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee iianathony
iieoiaoue a eioa?iao-iaaaceiao ec-ca aiycie auoue iaiaioouie. Yoi iaeia
ec naiuo na?ueaciuo i?iaeai ?oiaoa, eioi?ay oi?iiceo ?acaeoea naoaaie
eiiia?oeee a i?eioeeia. Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea aa, aa?iyoii, ia aoaeao
iaeaeaii a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy, oioy oaea naaiaeiy a Naoe ?aaioatho
ieaoaaeiua iaoaieciu.

3.Ionoonaea iaaei?iaie e iaaeaaeiie nenoaiu aeinoaaee.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai eioa?iao-iaaaceiia yaeyaony ionoonoaea
iaaei?iaie e iaaeaaeiie nenoaiu aeinoaaee. A ioee/ea io, neaaeai
Aia?eee, aaea iieoiea oiaa?ia ii n?aaenoaai ii/oiauo caeacia
inouanoaeyaony ia iaeei aeanyoie eao, o ian iao aeinoieiia ii/oiaie
neoaeau. Iaoa ?inneeneay ii/oa n aa «ea/anoaaiiie aeinoaaeie» a oa/aiea
aeanyoe aeiae, ?acoiaaony, ia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe eae ?oeiaiaenoai
eioa?iao-iaaaceiia, oae e eo iieoiaoaeae.

Ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea eioa?iao-iaaaceiu ?anniao?eaaee aiciiaeiinoue
aeinoaaee oiaa?ia iieoiaoaeyi n iiiiuueth caiaaeiuo eo?uea?neeo neoaea,
eioi?ua ?aaioatho a ?innee. Iaeiaei yoio aa?eaio oiaea ia yaeyaony
iioeiaeueiui: aeinoaaea eiiiaieae DHL aaiaea?iee aioo?e Iineau
iaoiaeeony a iyoiaaeoeaoue, a ii?ie e a aeaaaeoeaoue aeieea?ia.

Eae aea naaiaeiy inouanoaeyaony aeinoaaea eoieaiiiai oiaa?a eeeaioai?
Eieaeiue iaaacei «iCii» i?aaeeaaaao naiei iieoiaoaeyi ia auai? aeaa
oi?iu aeinoaaee iieoiie: eo?uea?neoth e o?aaeeoeeiiioth ii/oiaoth.

Iieueciaaoaee Iineau, ?acoiaaony, i?aaeii/eoatho ia?aoth, iieoiaoaee ec
ae?oaeo ai?iaeia – aoi?oth. Iiaeiaiui ia?acii ?aoaaony aii?in e ae?oaeie
eioa?iao-iaaaceiaie.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi cia/eoaeueiue i?ioeaio iieoiaoaeae aieony
auoue iaiaioouie. E eioa?iao-iaaceiu, ii?ie a oua?a naaa, auioaeaeaiu
eaeoe ia ia eiathuea aiaeaaia onooiee iieoiaueaeyi. Oae , neaaeai ,
http://www.dostavka.ru ioeoeeaeueii cayaeyao: «Iu oioaee au iaiiiieoue
anai, /oi: aeaeay caeac o ian, au aua ia niaa?oaaoa iieoieo. Yoi anaai
eeoue aeiaiai? i iaia?aieyo; ieeoi ia iiaeao (e ia aoaeao) canoaaeyoue
aan i?eia?aoaoue oiaa?, eioi?ue aai ia iiaeoiaeeo, aeaaea anee aai aai
oaea i?eaacee; au eiaaoa i?aai aa?iooue eee iaiaiyoue oiaa?, eioi?ue
aan ia ono?aeaaao».

E niaeaeaieth, oaeea ia?u ia ?aoatho i?iaeaiu, e iieueciaaoaee
ii-i?aaeiaio iianathony i?eaaaaoue e neoaeaai aeinoaaee, i?aaeii/eoay a
aieueoeinoaa naiai o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaaaceiu e ?uiee. E, oau, iie?ue
ceiiee niaa ia ?uieao, a?ycue iiae iiaaie e enoioiua e?eee iiaeeeuo aeai
a oa?noyiuo ieaoeao: «Ie-e-e-e-e-e-e-?IAEee !!!» – a?yae ee canoaayo eo
ia?aniio?aoue naie acaeyaeu a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy.

8.3. ?acthia

Ia oiia noianoaaeoaai oniaoa aia?eeaineie iieaeiiaie oi?aiaee ai aeaaa
n oaea iaaeaoae ineiieio Amazon.com ?acaeoea yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee a
?oiaoa auaeyaeeo aieaa /ai ne?iiii. Ana oa oeeo?u, eioi?ua
oa?aeoa?ecotho iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie eioa?iao-oi?aiaee, noieue iaaaeeee,
/oi ia eaeoo ie a eaeia n?aaiaiea n iauaiaie i?iaeaae caiaaeiuo
iaaaceiia. ssnii, /oi ieeeeiiia e ieeeea?aeia a ?oiaoa iao e a
aeeaeaeoaa aeaa-o?e aiaea ia i?aaeaeaeeony. Oioy iaaeaaeaea ia /oaei
anaaaea anoue.

A iiea iaoe iaaaceiu ii nooe aeaea oieueei iaeaouaatho ?uiie, aeaeyo
ieoe e oi?ie?otho no?aoaaeth iiaaaeaiey.

9. YEAEO?IIIAss EIIIA?OeEss – Cieioay eeoi?aaeea eiioea OO aaea.

N?aaiaiea yoi y i?eaae ia neo/aeii: e o cieioie eeoi?aaeee i?ioeiai
aaea, e o yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee ianoiyuaai anoue iiiai iaueo /a?o. Yoi
e aaeeioaae, n eioi?ui ana a?ineeenue oiaaea ia iienee cieioa, a nae/an
ionoeeenue a ae?ooaeueioth eiiia?oeeth, e niioiioaiea oao, eoi i?iai?ae.
E ?acee/iua aiciiaeiinoe ca?aaioea ia cieioie eeoi?aaeea: eoi-oi
ioneaeny ia iienee cieioa, a eoi-oi ca?aaaouaae oi?aiaeae
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai e eino?oiaioaie aeey noa?aoaeae. Iineaaeiaa auei oioue
e ia noieue i?eaueueii, caoi oae aieaa noaaeeueii e cia/eoaeueii iaiaa
?eneiaaiii. Ii anoue iaeia aieueoay ?acieoea iaaeaeo yeaeo?iiiie
eiiia?oeeae e cieioie eeoi?aaeeie i?ioeiai aaea: cieioay eeoi?aaeea
ia/aeanue e caeii/eeanue, a yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey i?eoea, /oiau,
iioiaea, inoaoueny iaanaaaea…

9.1. Aoaeouaa – ca yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeeae.

Eoi-oi ioiineony e yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee ainoi?aeaiii, eoi-oi
neaioe/anee. Ii i?eniao?eaaoueny, eco/aoue ia/eiatho e oa e ae?oaea. *oi
aea oaeia yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey?

Yoi iiiyoea iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue ioaeaeueii io Eioa?iaoa. Anee
acyoue iiaeaeue ethaiai nia?aiaiiiai aeciana, oi oaeaeei, /oi aai
iniiaie yaeythony oa eee eiua n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee. I?e/ai ia anao
yoaiao aai ?acaeoey: ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey (oaeaoii, oaen),
?aeeaia (i?anna, oaeaaeaeaiea, ?aaeei, aee?aeo-iaee, oaen, oaeaoii),
aeinoaaea, iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea (oaeaoii, oaen, yeaeo?iiiay
ii/oa). Eioa?iao naaiaeiy – oaeia aea n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee, eae
oaeaaeaeaiea, ?aaeei, aacaoa, ii iaeaaeathuaa i?e yoii iaaeinooiiie aeey
ae?oaeo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee aieinoueth, eioa?aeoeaiinoueth e oe?ioie
ioaaoa. Oaeei ia?acii, anee aacaoa auoiaeeo oaeei-oi oe?aaeii a oaeii-oi
?aaeiia, a oaeaaeaeaiea ioaaouaaao no?aio eee aeaaea ianeieueei no?ai,
oi Eioa?iao – yoi n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee aac a?aieoe!

Naaiaeiy a?yae ee eoi-oi, ciaeiiue n aiciiaeiinoyie Naoe, ia
aini?eieiaao aa a ana?ueac, oioy anaai aeaa-o?e aiaea iacaae Eioa?iao
n/eoaeny o ian ia aieaa /ai aei?iaie ea?ooeie… E anee a eaeii-oi
eiie?aoiii neo/aa (ioaeaeueii acyoie no?aia, oaeie, neaaeai, eae
Oe?aeia) aua eiaaony iaaeinoaoie iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae
eioa?iao-iaaaceiia, oi yoi eeoue aii?in a?aiaie, i?e/ai iaaieueoiai.
Eioa?iao no?aieoaeueii ?acaeaaaony e aeaoaaaao, noaiiaynue ana aieaa
aeinooiiui aeey eaaeaeiai. A aneaae ca iei – yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey.

Yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey – yoi iieiinoueth naoaaay (iieaeiiaay) iiaeaeue
aaaeaiey aeciana, eniieuecothuay Eioa?iao eae iniiaiia (a /aua
aaeeinoaaiiia) n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio eiia/iue
iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao eiaoue eioi?iaoeeth, a aua caeacuaaoue, iiea/eaaoue
e aeaaea iieo/aoue oiaa?. Au oieueei i?aaenoaaueoa naaa, eaeea
oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, eaeie iioaioeeae niaea?aeeo a naaa Eioa?iao
aeey aeciana! ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec ieo.

9.2. Oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey aeciana.

1. Ioiineoaeueiay aeaoaaecia.

Nicaeaoue no?aie/eo eee iaaieueoie naeo, iaicia/ea, oaeei ia?acii, naia
i?enoonoaea a Naoe, iiae neeo naaiaeiy aeaaea oeieueieeo, ia aiai?y oaea
i oe?ia, – auei au aeaeaiea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue oaeiai
i?enoonoaey ioaeii ianoaeaeaoue aeey eaaeaeiai neo/ay a ioaeaeueiinoe,
ii yoi oaea oaia ae?oaiai ?acaiai?a. Oaeie oaeoi?, eae aeaoaaecia,
iniaaiii i?eaeaeaoaeai aeey iaeiai aeciana: Naoue iicaieyao aio
yooaeoeaii eiieo?e?iaaoue n aieueoei aecianii. Ae?ooaeueiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai iaeaiueeie oe?iu iiaeao auoue ?ineioiaa, /ai o
aieueoie, iia?aoeaiinoue ?aaae?iaaiey ia cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae –
cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieie, oeaiu aieaa ieceeie, a oneiaey aeinoaaee –
aieaa oaeiaiuie. *oiau au ioeaieee oaiiu ?acaeoey Naoe i?eaaaeo eeoue
iaeei i?inoie i?eia?: a aaaeouae oe?aeineie ?aeoeiaiaie nenoaia PING
(http://www.topping.com.ua) aaeaaeiaaii ?aaeno?e?othony aei aeanyoea (!)
iiauo naeoia.

2. Iacaaeneiinoue io a?aieoe e iaeiaia ainoaea?noaa.

A /anoiinoe, yoi eanaaony eioaeeaeooaeueiiai e oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea
iaoae no?aiu, eioi?ue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n eaaeaeui aiaeii i?eoiaeee
ana a aieueoee oiaaeie. Naaiaeiy Eioa?iao iicaieee i?aaeeaaaoue
«eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo» a ie?iaii ianooaaa. E ii ieacaeny
aino?aaiaaiiui! E i?eia?o, iooi?iia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea naaiaeiy
?acaeaaaony no?aieoaeueiuie oaiiaie: oieueei a iaoae no?aia oaea
aeanyoee i?ia?aiienoneeo eieeaeoeaia ia 90% ?aaioatho ca ?oaaae e,
ianeieueei y ciath, aac caeacia ia neaeyo. Ia inoaeenue a noi?iia e
ioaeaeueiua i?ia?aiienou, a oae aea aeecaeia?u, ieoouea aeo?iaeenou,
i?i/ea eaoaai?ee «i?ieaoa?eaa oinoaaiiiai o?oaea». E yoi eanaaony ia
oieueei eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Nicaeaiea eioa?iao-iaaaceia n
eniieueciaaieai io?aaioaiiuo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eaiaeia iinoaaie iicaieyao
oi?aaeyoue naiei aecianii a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ianooaaa ec ethaie no?aiu.

3. E?oaeinoo/iinoue i?iaeaae.

Aao eioi?iaoeeiiiue naeo eee eioa?iao-iaaacei ?aaioatho aac ia?a?uaia e
auoiaeiuo. Iiea au nieoa – i?iaeaaee eaeoo!

4. Eioa?aeoeaiinoue iauaiey n iieoiaoaeai.

A ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee, a Eioa?iaoa au
iiaeaoa iieo/aoue ioeeee io iieoiaoaeae iaiiaaiii e oaeei ia?acii
auno?aa ?aaae?iaaoue ia ni?in. Aeaaea io naiuo ianneaiuo iinaoeoaeae au
niiaeaoa iieo/eoue iieueco: iiae?iaiay noaoenoeea, eioi?ay aoaeao
niae?aoueny ia aaoai eioa?iao-?ano?na, iicaieeo ioneaaeeaaoue, ioeoaea
i?eoiaeyo e eoaea ooiaeyo iinaoeoaee naeoa, eaeei ia?o?ooii
iooaoanoaotho ii aai no?aieoeai, eaeeie oiaa?aie aieueoa eioa?anothony e
iiiaia ae?oaia. Iiaeiaiay noaoenoeea iaaeinooiia ie a iaeiie ae?oaie
o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiaeaee aeciana.

Iiae?iaiay eioi?iaoeey i oiaa?ao e oneoaao.

Anee a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoaao au anaaaea ia?aie/aiu
iaeioi?ui iauaiii ?aeeaiiie ieiuaaee eee yoe?iiai a?aiaie, a naoe
Eioa?iao oaeea ia?aie/aiey ionoonoaotho. Au niiaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoue
eioi?iaoeeth i aaoeo oiaa?ao ianoieueei iiae?iaii, ianeieueei ni/oaoa
oeaeaniia?aciui.

6. Aiciiaeiinoue iiiaioaeueiie iieaou – ia iooiaey io
eiiiuethoa?a, ia auoiaey ec aeiia.

Anth enoi?eth oi?aiaee i?iaeaaoeu no?aiyony e noeioee?iaaieth oae
iacuaaaiuo «eiioeueneaiuo» i?iaeaae, eiaaea iieoiea niaa?oaaony iiae
aeeyieai iiiaioa: caoioae – eoiee. Oaee i?iaeaaee aeinoeaathony ?aciuie
niiniaaie: aeecaeiii oi?aiaiai caea, iniaui ?aniieiaeaieai oiaa?a ia
aeo?eia, ae?oaeie ineoieiae/aneeie o?theaie. Eioa?iao a yoii ieaia
i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oaiey iieoiie, ia iooiaey
io naiaai eiiiuethoa?a. Oaeei oiaa?ii iiaeao auoue, e i?eia?o,
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, eiinaeeiaiaua, eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae, iocuea,
i?i/aa.

9.3. «A ia a?aoue?»

Aeey iieiiou ea?oeiu y ia?a/eneee aieueoeinoai i?ae?aniuo aiciiaeiinoae,
eioi?ua aeinooiiu n eniieueciaaieai yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee, ii yoi ia
cia/eo, /oi au niiaeaoa iieo/eoue eo ana iaiaaeeaiii. Eiia/ii, aieueoay
/anoue eo oaea aiieia ?aaeueia a auniei?acaeouo no?aiao. Iu aea
nionoeiny n iaaan ia caieth. Aaaeii iiieiaoue, /oi a iaoae no?aia
yeaeo?iiiay eiiia?oeey oieueei ia/eiaao naia ?acaeoea. I iieiioeaiiii
eniieueciaaiee anao aiciiaeiinoae iiea ia iiaeao eaeoe ?a/e.

Iniiaiua naea?aeeaathuea oaeoi?u:

aeiaieueii ?aaeeia iiea n?aaenoai ieaoaaea aeey iieoiaoaey (ai anai
ie?a oaeiaui yaeyaony e?aaeeoiay ea?oi/ea);

neaaia ?acaeoea eio?ano?oeoo?u aeey i?eaia oaeeo n?aaenoa (iaaeinoaoie
aaieianeie nenoaiu);

aeinoaoi/ii ieceee i?ioeaio ianaeaiey, eiathuee aeinooi a Eioa?iao.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiea iu ia iiaeai aiai?eoue i iieiioeaiiie ?icie/iie
oi?aiaea a ioa/anoaaiiii Eioa?iaoa. Ii ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou oaoiieiaee
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oaea naaiaeiy e iieo/aoue i?e yoii ?aaeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. Eoae, eaeiau aea iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiua iaeanoe
i?eiaiaiey yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee a iaoae no?aia?

1. Aaoiiaoecaoeey iioiaie oi?aiaee.

Eiiiaieyi n ?acaaoaeaiiie aeeea?neie naoueth eee e?oiiuie ei?ii?aoeaiuie
eeeaioaie a?aiioii iino?iaiiue eioa?iao-iaaacei iicaieeo cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeoue a?aiy e noieiinoue oi?aiaie o?ainaeoeee (i?ioeann io
iciaeiieaiey aei caeaca e iieaou oiaa?a), oaaee/ea, oaeei ia?acii,
eiee/anoai o?ainaeoeee e ?aioaaaeueiinoue iai?ioa. Eiio, eae ia e?oiiui
oi?aiaui eiiiaieyi, oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi 80% anao ioeaie niaa?oaaony
iia?aoi?aie ia yoaia ia?aaioee caeaca. Eioa?iao-iaaacei iicaieeo
eneeth/eoue /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? ec i?ioeanna oi?aiaie iia?aoeee,
cia/eoaeueii iiaunea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Eioa?iao-iaaacei aeaao neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe i?e ?aaioa n
eiio?aaaioaie e eiia/iuie iio?aaeoaeyie:

aiciiaeiinoue o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeeth i iieoiaoaeyo e eo aeeneiioiuo
noaiao, /oi iicaieeo oi?ie?iaaoue aeey eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue
i?aen-eeno e ia?niiaeece?iaaoue auieneo n/aoa;

aiciiaeiinoue ioia?aaeaiey ?aaeueiiai ninoiyiey neeaaea, /oi aaaeii
aeey aeeea?ia, aeaeathueo ca?aca?ae?iaaoue eee caeacaoue ia eiathueeny
ia neeaaea oiaa?;

aiciiaeiinoue aaaeaiey aaeaina aeey eaaeaeiai iieoiaoaey e eiio?aaaioa.
Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeue iieoiaoaeue niiaeao i?iniio?aoue i?aaeuaeouaa
ninoiyiea naieo iieoiie eee iaee/ea n?aaenoa ia n/aoo, eiio?iee?iaaoue e
o/eouaaoue ethaua oeiainiai-oi?aiaua iia?aoeee. Yoi iicaieyao
inouanoaeyoue iieaoo oiaa?a ia oieueei a noaiao n i?aaeiieaoie, ii
oaeaea a e?aaeeo e ae?oaeie niiniaaie.

1. Iaaeei?ii?aoeaiay oi?aiaey.

Iineieueeo naiui iiioey?iui niiniaii iieaou a ioa/anoaaiiii
eioa?iao-iaaaceia iiea /oi inoaaony aaciaee/iay iieaoa ii
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio n/aoo-oaeoo?a, iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi
aeaaiuie eeeaioaie ioa/anoaaiiuo eioa?iao-iaaaceiia aoaeoo th?eaee/aneea
eeoea. Iie aea ia naaiaeiy yaeythony e iaeaieaa ieaoaaeaniiniaiie
eaoaai?eae eeeaioia, eiathueo aeinooi a Eioa?iao, eioi?ue a aeaiiii
neo/aa i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue oaeiaiiai e auno?iai aeinooia e
eioi?iaoeee i aaoeo oiaa?ao e oneoaao, ioi?ieaiey caeaca (aieueoae
/anoueth aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiiai), iieaou e aeinoaaee (aeey e?oiiuo
ei?ii?aoeaiuo eeeaioia iiaeii i?aaeeaaaoue e oaeoth oneoao).

2. ?icie/iay oi?aiaey.

Ia cia/eoaeueiua ?icie/iua i?iaeaaee a iaoae no?aia iiea ?ann/eouaaoue
ia i?eoiaeeony. Caoi iiaeii i?aaieciaaoue yooaeoeaioth ?icie/ioth
oi?aiaeth oiaa?ii, ?ann/eoaiiui ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie. Iaeaieaa
iiioey?iuie oiaa?aie oaeiai ?iaea a iaoae no?aia iaauatho a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue noaoue ana eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu
ii Eioa?iaoo. Oioy oaea anoue i?eia?u aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii
i?aaieciaaiiie oi?aiaee eieaaie, eiiiaeo-aeeneaie eee noaaie?aie.
Iniiaiie i?iaeaiie caeanue iiaeao noaoue niinia aeinoaaee eo eiia/iiio
iieoiaoaeth.

Oaoiieiaee ia noiyo ia ianoa: naaiaeiy aaieaie oaea aeoeaii aioiaeony
eio?ano?oeoo?a aeey ioa/anoaaiiie yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee. I?ieaeao aua
iaeneioi aiae-aeaa – e ana noaiao ia naie ianoa: oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiyaony
e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee o iieueciaaoaeae, oniaa?oainoaothony oaoiieiaee ii
i?eaio eioa?iao-ieaoaaeae o aaieia, iiyayony oaeiaiua neoaeau
yeni?ann-aeinoaaee oiaa?ia ii no?aia. A oii, /oi yoi i?iecieaeao, iao
ieeaeeo niiiaiee. E i?e/eia yoiai e?iaony a nouiinoe naoe Eioa?iao –
oieeaeueiii e ?aaiethoeeiiiii n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee, ia eniieueciaaoue
eioi?ua a aeciana auei au i?inoi aeoii. Eiaiii iiyoiio yeaeo?iiiie
eiiia?oeeae ioaeii ia/eiaoue caieiaoueny a ana?ueac iaiaaeeaiii, iiea ia
iicaeii, iioiio /oi caiyoue naia ianoi ia yoii ?uiea noaiiaeony ana
neiaeiaa e neiaeiaa.

10. Iaeioi?ua iieaciua i?ia?aiiu

Iaeiia?aiaiii n onoaiiaeie a Windows i?ioieiea IP, aoaeoo aeiaaaeaiu
iaeioi?ua iieaciua i?ia?aiiu.

WINIPCFG-yoa i?ia?aiia iieacuaaao iano?ieeo IP-i?ioieiea ia
eiiiuethoa?a. Iia (aeey i?iaa?ee iano?iae) iniaaiii a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea ia?aiao?u i?ioieiea caaeathony n na?aa?a (aaoiiaoe/anee).

PING. Yoa eiiaiaea iicaieyao iieo/eoue «ioaao» io oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a e oaeei ia?acii i?iaa?eoue ?aaioiniiniaiinoue eaiaea nayce.
Auciaeoa eiiaiaeiia ieii Windows e iaaa?eoa yoo eiiaiaeo n ia?aiao?ii a
aeaea aae?ana, iai?eia?, aeeaeaeoaai eiiiuethoa?a i?iaaeaea?ia. Au
aeieaeiu iieo/eoue ioaao i aai aeinoeaeeiinoe a aeaea cia/aiey a?aiaie,
ca eioi?ia yoio eiiiuethoa? ioaaoee.

TRACERT- yoa eiiaiaea IP-i?ioieiea iicaieyao iiniio?aoue iooue
i?ioiaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee io Aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a e ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o
a Eioa?iao. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaa?aoue aa n ia?aiao?ii a aeaea
eiaie oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Eiiaaea iiaeii aeaeaoue, eae naycue n
eiiiuethoa?ii a ninaaeiai aeiia i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac aeanyoie
eiiiuethoa?ia, a oii /enea ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao…

11. Oeiu na?aena Internet

Ia/eiay ?aaioo a Internet, eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue oi/ao iieo/eoue aeey
naay eaeoth-oi eioi?iaoeeth: neiie?iaaoue iaiiaeaiey i?ia?aii, ociaoue
iiainoe a ie?a, i?inoi iiiauaoueny n eieeaaaie ii eioa?anai. Nouanoaoao
ianeieueei iniiaiuo niiniaia ?aaiou n eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth. Yoi:

• iaiai yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie;

• nienee ?annueee;

• ?aaioa n oaeaeiioa?aioeeyie;

• eiie?iaaiea oaeeia ii i?ioieieo FTP;

• ?aaioa a WWW.

11.1. Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa

Iaiai yeaeo?iiiie ei??aniiiaeaioeeae — iaeei ec naiuo i?inouo na?aenia,
ii e i/aiue eioaineaii eniieuecoaiue.

11.2. Ii/oiaay i?ia?aiia

Aeey ioi?aaee ienueia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau a) iii auei ioi?ieaii a
niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothueie i?aaeeaie, a) iiiaei ia eiiiuethoa?,
iinoiyiii eiathuee naycue n Eioa?iao e niiniaiue i?aaieciaaoue
aeaeueiaeooth ia?aaea/o ienueia ii niaoeeaeueiui i?ioieieai.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei ia/aoue iieueciaaoueny ii/oiaie i?ia?aiiie,
ioaeii eiaoue ia iaeiii ec eiiiuethoa?ia i?iaaeaea?a Aao ee/iue ii/oiaue
yuee. Iacaaiey ii/oiaiai na?aa?a, ee/iiai ii/oiaiai yueea e ia?ieue
aeinooia e iaio aeieaeiu auoue oeacaiu a iano?ieeao i?ia?aiiu.

Yeaeo?iiiua ienueia iiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue caaeaaia?aiaiii, a caoai, iinea
onoaiiaeaiey nayce n Eioa?iao, inouanoaeoue iaiai ii/oie, auiieiea
niioaaonoaothuoth eiiaiaeo. I?e yoii a iaeiii naaina aoaeoo eae
ii?aaeaiu iiaeaioiaeaiiua ienueia, oae e iieo/aia any aoiaeyuay
ei??aniiiaeaioeey.

11.3. Eae eaeao ienueii

Ianeieueei naeoiae, e yeaeo?iiiia ienueii niiniaii aeinoe/ue aaiiaioa
a ethaie oi/ea caiiiai oa?a. Ii oaeea n?iee aeinoaaee ienueia aiciiaeiu
oieueei iaaeaeo ii/oiauie yueeaie, iinoiyiii (on-line) iiaeeeth/aiiuie e
Eioa?iao. ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa iooue yeaeo?iiiie ei??aniiiaeaioeee aeey
iaeaieaa /anoiai neo/ay IP-niaaeeiaiey ii iau/iie oaeaoiiiie eeiee.

Iinea oiai, eae ienueii iaienaii, iii aoaeao ia?aaeaii ia neaaeothuee
eiiiuethoa? ii Aaoae eiiaiaea a i/a?aaeiii naaina nayce n i?iaaeaea?ii.
Yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue n?aco aea, eee aea aeiaeeaeaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiiai
/ana. Eae oieueei ienueii iiiaaeao ia eiiiuethoa?, eiathuee iinoiyiiia
niaaeeiaiea n eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth, iii ia?aaioaaony a ii?yaeea iauae
i/a?aaee ienai (ia ii/oiaii na?aa?a eo iiaeao neiieoueny cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai io anao aaiiaioia, oae /oi iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny a?aiy aeey
eo ia?aaioee e ioi?aaee). Iooue, ii eioi?iio iieaeao ienueii, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeai ec aae?ana ienueia n o/aoii nouanoaothueo IP-eaiaeia. Iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie, eiathueie iinoiyiiia iiaeeeth/aiea e Eioa?iao, ienueii
«iooaoanoaoao» iau/ii aanueia ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie (ianeieueei naeoiae
aeey ienueia iaaieueoiai ?acia?a). Anee aae?anao ia eiaao iinoiyiiie
nayce n Eioa?iao, oi ienueii aoaeao aeiaeeaeaoueny ia oaeaeaiiii
eiiiuethoa?a aeeaeaeoaai naaina nayce aae?anaoa n aai i?iaaeaea?ii.
Iiyoiio, oioy ienueii i/aiue auno?i i?ieaeao ii eiiiuethoa?iie naoe, iii
iiaeao aeieai caaea?aeaoueny, iiea iiiaaeao ia eiiiuethoa? aae?anaoa.

I?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ia?anueeo ienai, iiaoo eiaoue ?aciua
iano?ieee. Oae, a i?ia?aiia iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu ?acee/iua e?eoa?ee
iaaeinoeaeeiinoe aaiiaioa e niiniau iiaaaeaiey. Ia aaeaaaynue a
iiae?iaiinoe, ioiaoei, /oi anee aicieeatho i?iaeaiu i?e ia?aaea/a
ienueia, oi aeaeaaony iaeioi?ia /enei iiiuoie ia?aaea/e /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, iinea /aai — anee i?iaeaiu
nio?aieeenue — ienueii aoaeao aica?auaii ioi?aaeoaeth n ioiaoeie i
iaaeinoeaeeiinoe aae?anaoa.

Iooue ienueia, ana n?iee aai ia?anueee aeieoiaioe?othony. Eo iiaeii
iiniio?aoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, auaaaey ia ye?ai caaieiaie ienueia.

11.4. No?oeoo?a yeaeo?iiiiai ienueia

Yeaeo?iiiia ienueii eiaao /aoeoth no?oeoo?o, iicaieythuoth aio aeinoe/ue
aae?anaoa a ethaie oi/ea ieaiaou. Iiyoiio aeey iaienaiey ienueia
eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea oi?iao
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou. Eiia/ii iiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue ienueii a ethaii
oaenoiaii ?aaeaeoi?a, ii /oiau ioi?aaeoue aai, oaeno iaaei aoaeao
eiii?oe?iaaoue a ii/oiaoth i?ia?aiio.

Yeaeo?iiiia ienueii eiaao ianeieueei iieae, eioi?ua ioaeii caiieieoue
aei ioi?aaee.

From «Io eiai» Ii oiie/aieth a yoi iiea aaoiiaoe/anee iiaenoaaeyaony Aao
ee/iue ii/oiaue aae?an. Iaeioi?ua ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho
ioi?aaeoue ienueii io eiaie ae?oaiai iieueciaaoaey a i?aaiecaoeee.
*anoi yoi iiea «ii oiie/aieth» aeaaea e ia ioia?aaeaaony ia ye?aia.

Oi «Eiio» Iaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea. A iaai aiineony aae?an
/aeiaaea, eioi?iio i?aaeiacia/aii ienueii i?aaeoaey ienueia, a a iiea
oaiu — oaia i?eoaaeoaai ienueia n aeiaaaeaieai a ia/aei neiaieia Re (io
reply).

NN «Eiiey» A yoi iaiaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea iiaeii caianoe
yeaeo?iiiua aae?ana oao ethaeae, eiio Au oioeoa iai?aaeoue eiiee
ienueia.

ANN «Iaaeaeeiay eiiey» Iaiaycaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea. A iaai
caiinyony aae?ana ethaeae, eioi?ui iaaei ioi?aaeoue eiiee ienueia, ii
oae /oiau aae?anao ia ciae, /oi eiiee ienueia ioi?aaeaiu aua eiio-eeai
(aae?ana a iiea NN ?annueathony anai iieo/aoaeyi ienueia).

Subject «Oaia» Iaiaycaoaeueiia, ii aeaeaoaeueiia aeey caiieiaiey iiea.
Iiea oaeiaii iniaaiii aeey i?eaioaoeee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ienueii
nio?aiaii a a?oeaa.

Oaeno ienueia. A yoii iiea Au, nianoaaiii aiai?y, e ieoaoa naii ienueii.

11.5. Yeaeo?iiiua aae?ana a Internet

Yeaeo?iiiue aae?an a Eioa?iao anaaaea eiaao aeae
[email protected]+.domen?.domen2…

Postbox — yoi eiy ii/oiaiai yueea aae?anaoa. Ca ciaeii eiae/aneiai «e»,
/anoi iacuaaaiiai «niaa/eie», neaaeoao aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia eioi?ii
yoio yuee iaoiaeeony. Aae?an iaaei aaiaeeoue aac ioeaie, oae eae ethaay
aaeeie/iay ioeaea i?eaaaeao e iaaiciiaeiinoe aeinoaaee yeaeo?iiiiai
ienueia.

?aaioaoue n oaeeie aae?anaie ia i/aiue oaeiaii. Iiyoiio ii/oiaua
i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho oeacuaaoue a iiea aae?ana iau/iua eiaia, iai?eia?,
«Ivanov S.». Ii i?e yoii a aae?aniie eieaeea i?ia?aiiu aeieaeii auoue
oeacaii niioaaonoaea aeaiiiai eiaie yeaeo?iiiiio aae?ano. Ienueii aoaeao
ioi?aaeaii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aeey aeaiiiai eiaie aoaeao iaeaeai
niioaaonoaothuee aio yeaeo?iiiue aae?an. Aeiaieueii /anoi aicieeatho
neooaoeee, eiaaea ii/oo i?eoiaeeony ?annueaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ii iaeiei e
oai aea aae?anai. A yoii neo/aa ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho
noi?ie?iaaoue nienie ?annueee. Nicaeaa ii i?aaeeai i?ia?aiiu yoio nienie
e aeeth/ea a iaai ana iaiaoiaeeiua aae?ana (iiaeii, iai?eia?, iiiauaoue
a iaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeieoiaiou, a aeaeueiaeoai aeinoaoi/ii aoaeao
oeacaoue a iiea aae?ana eiy yoiai nienea, /oiau ienueii auei ioi?aaeaii
anai aai /eaiai).

11.6. O?aaiaaiey e oaenoo ienueia

Oaeno iau/iiai yeaeo?iiiiai ienueia iiaeao niaea?aeaoue oieueei
ASCII-neiaieu. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ienueii ia iiaeao aeeth/aoue a naay
neiaieu oi?iaoe?iaaiey oaenoa (auaeaeaiey iieoaee?iui, eo?neaii,
?acia?ii eaaey, aueeth/eie e o.i.). Iiyoiio, anee oaeno iiaeaioiaeai a
ae?oaii ?aaeaeoi?a, oi ii iiaeao auoue anoaaeai a ienueii oieueei eae
nio?aiaiiue aac oi?iaoe?iaaiey (text only).Ia i?aeoeea i?eiyoi
eniieueciaaoue aeey auaeaeaiey oaenoa a ienueia neaaeothuea i?eaiu:
/oiau auaeaeeoue iaeii eee ianeieueei neia a i?aaeeiaeaiee, eo ia/eiatho
e caeai/eaatho n neiaiea iiae/a?eeaaiey. Neaaeoao oaeaea o/eouaaoue, /oi
ia ?acia? ienueia nouanoaotho ia?aie/aiey, iaeeaaeuaaaiua i?ia?aiiaie,
i?iecaiaeyueie ni?oe?iaeo e ia?anueeo ienai. Oae, eiino?aiiua ii/oiaua
na?aa?a ia ia?anueatho ienai, aieueoeo 1 Iaaeoa. Iaeioi?ua noa?ua
ii/oiaua nenoaiu a iaoae no?aia eiatho ia?aie/aiey ia iauai ienueia
ieiei 60 Eaaeo. Oaeie iauai ?aaeei aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao oieueei iaeiiai
oaenoa. Iau/ii yoi naycaii n ia?anueeie aioo?e ienueia oaeeia.

I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi ec-ca eiaee?iaee oaeea aai iauai
aic?anoaao i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 20%; iiyoiio iaeneiaeueiue enoiaeiue
?acia? oaeea, eioi?ue iiaeii ia?aneaoue a ienueia, aeieaeai auoue
niioaaonoaaiii oiaiueoai.

I?e eioaineaiie ia?aienea nyeiiiieoue a?aiy iiiiaeao aiciiaeiinoue
i?ia?aiiu aaoiiaoe/anee anoaaeyoue a oaeno ienueia ca?aiaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiua o?acu. Iai?eia?, iiaeii oeacaoue, /oiau a eiiaoe ienueia
aaoiiaoe/anee anoaaeyeenue neiaa i?iuaiey e oaieeey.

Ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu eiatho ?aaeei ioaaoa aaoi?o ienueia. A yoii neo/aa
aaoiiaoe/anee nicaeaaony ienueii, a iiea aae?ana eioi?iai oeacuaaaony
aae?an aaoi?a ienueia, a a oaeno Aaoaai ienueia aeeth/aaony oaeno
ienueia, ia eioi?ia ieoaony ioaao (oeeoe?iaaiea ienueia). *oiau
ioee/eoue oeeoe?iaaiiue oaeno, eaaeaeay no?iea aai ia/eiaaony n neiaiea
«>» e /anoi, a ia/aea no?iee oeacuaathony eieoeeaeu aaoi?a yoiai oaenoa.

Oi?ioei oiiii n/eoaaony oeeoe?iaaiea ienueia oieueei a iaiaoiaeeiii
iauaia.

Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou au?aaioaeny naie aea?aii,
eioi?ue aanueia /anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue a ienueiao. Ia?a/ie nie?auaiee
eaaei iiaeii iieo/eoue n aeeaeaeoeo BBS eee io oao, eoi aeaaii
?aaioathueo n yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie.

11.7. Ia?anueea oaeeia a ienueia

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, a ienueia iiaeii ia?anueaoue oaeeu. Oae eae aeey
yoiai oaeeu iiaeaa?aathony niaoeeaeueiiio eiaee?iaaieth, aeeaaeuaaoue eo
a ienueii neaaeoao niioaaonoaothueie eiiaiaeaie i?ia?aiiu. Anee
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ?acia? ienueia iinea yoiai i?aauneo nouanoaothuee
eeieo, oi oaee iiaeii ?ac?acaoue ia ianeieueei eoneia e ia?aneaoue a
niioaaonoaothuai /enea ienai.

Naiue i?inoie niinia aeey yoiai — yoi a?oeae?iaaoue oaee n ?ac?aceie aai
ia /anoe ioaeiiai ?acia?a.

11.8. Naienoaa ienueia

Eaaeaeia ienueii eiaao ianeieueei i?eciaeia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
i?aaeea ?aaiou i?ia?aiiu n iei e iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu iieueciaaoaeai.
Ioiaoei eeoue iniiaiua.

I?ei?eoao ienueia. Ia ii/oiauo na?aa?ao iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii, /oi
ia?aaioea ii/ou e ioi?aaea aa inouanoaeyaony, iai?eia?, eaaeaeua 15
ieioo a ii?yaeea iauae i/a?aaee. Anee iaaei, /oiau ienueii auei
iacaiaaeeeoaeueii ioi?aaeaii aia anyeie i/a?aaee, oi neaaeoao
onoaiiaeoue aeey iaai «aunieee i?ei?eoao».

Niiauaiey i aeinoaaea. Iiaeii onoaiiaeoue a naienoaao ienueia, /oiau
aaoiiaoe/anee aue iai?aaeai ioaao, eae oieueei ienueii aoaeao
aeinoaaeaii aei ii/oiaiai yueea aae?anaoa eee, eae oieueei ii i?i/oao
aai.

Caaieiaie ienueia. I/aiue iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii ecaea/ue ec
caaieiaea ienueia, a iai oeacuaathony eae ana ii/oiaua nenoaiu, /a?ac
eioi?ua ienueii auei aeinoaaeaii, oae e a?aiy eo i?ioiaeaeaiey.

11.9. Nienee ?annueee

Ii/oiaua i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho ioi?aaeyoue ienueia ia oieueei iaeiiio
aae?anaoo, ii e i?aaieciauaaoue ?annueeo ii nieneo aae?ania. I?e/ai
i?ia?aiio iiaeii iano?ieoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ienueia, aae?aniaaiiua
ia eaeie-oi eiie?aoiue aae?an, aaoiiaoe/anee ?annueaeenue a niioaaonoaee
n eiathueiny nieneii.

Oaeie na?aen a Eioa?iao iacuaaaony nienie ?annueee. Iauyaeyaony oaia, ii
eioi?ie aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iaiai iiaieyie, oeacuaaaony aae?an, ia
eioi?ue ioaeii iai?aaeyoue naie ienueia. Ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeea
aeeth/aiey Aaoaai aae?ana a yoio nienie ?annueee (iiaeienea). Iau/ii —
oae aea eae e aeey eiioa?aioeee — aeey iiaeienee ia aeaiiue nienie
?annueee ioaeii ioi?aaeoue ienueii ni no?ieie.

I?aeiouanoaa eniieueciaaiey nieneia ?annueee — yoi iia?aoeaiinoue
iieo/aiey iiaie eioi?iaoeee anaie caeioa?aniaaiiuie noi?iiaie.

11.10. Eiioa?aioeee

Aiiaua aiai?y, eiioa?aioeee — yoi oaeoe/anee oio aea aaoiiaoe/anee
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue nienie ?annueee yeaeo?iiiuo ienai ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
oaiaoeeai. A ?aieao oaiu eiioa?aioeee Au ieoaoa ienueii, ioi?aaeyaoa
aai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue aae?an, — e ienueii aoaeao aaoiiaoe/anee ?acineaii
anai, eoi iiaeienaeny ia aeaiioth eiioa?aioeeth. Eiioa?aioeee
ioee/athony io nieneia ?annueee oai, /oi niiauaiey a ieo ?annueathony ia
eiie?aoiiio iieueciaaoaeth, a o?aiyony ii iiiaei na?aa?ai, niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiui aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey eiioa?aioeee. Ia yoeo na?aa?ao
niiauaiey iaoiaeyony ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, caoai oaeaeythony.
Iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo iaiai iaaeaeo na?aa?aie iiauie niiauaieyie.

Eiioa?aioeee — aeeaie i?aaieci. Iie nouanoaotho, iiea anoue ethaee,
ieoouea a ieo. Iie oie?atho, anee aaoi?u oa?ytho e iei eioa?an. *enei
niiauaiee a eiioa?aioeee ioee/aaony io oaiu e oaia: anoue eiioa?aioeee,
aaeaaeiaaiia /enei niiauaiee eioi?uo en/eneyaony aeanyoeaie, anoue
eiioa?aioeee n iaeiei-aeaoiy niiauaieyie a ianyoe. Iau/ii ia na?aa?a
iiainoae iiaeii oaeaeaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ianeieueei ouny/ oai
eiioa?aioeee. A i?eioeeia ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea i?aaieciaaoue e iiaoth
eiioa?aioeeth, ii, eae i?aaeei, i?aaeiieaaaaiay oaiaoeea oaea io?aaeaia
a eaeie-eeai ec nouanoaothueo eiioa?aioeee.

O/anoaoy a eiioa?aioeeyo, iiaeii anaaaea iaoiaeeony a eo?na iineaaeieo
niauoee, iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeioth eiinoeueoaoeeth e iiiiuue.

N ?acaeoeai eiioa?aioeee niaa?oainoaiaaeny e iaoaieci /oaiey iiainoae.
Iaeaieaa oaeiaiui yaeyaony /oaiea eiioa?aioeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
«iiainoiuo» eiiiuethoa?ia. Aeey yoiai, iai?eia?, iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia i?ia?aiia Microsoft Internet Explorer. Au oeacuaaaoa a iae
na?aa?, ia eioi?ii o?aiyony niiauaiey eiioa?aioeee, auae?aaoa
(iiaeienuaaaoanue) aeaeaaiua oaiu e anei?a iinea yoiai aeaeeoa ia ye?aia
caaieiaee niiauaiee.

Ioia/aiiua niiauaiey eiie?othony ia eiiiuethoa?, e iiaeii i?i/eoaoue eo
oaeno. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaenou eiioa?aioeee iiaeii neiie?iaaoue ia
eiiiuethoa? e i?i/eoaoue eo oaea iinea caaa?oaiey naaina nayce n
i?iaaeaea?ii. I?ia?aiia aaoiiaoe/anee ioneaaeeaaao iiaua niiauaiey,
iiaeii, iai?eia?, auaanoe ia ye?ai oieueei iai?i/eoaiiua ienueia eee aea
nio?aieoue ia naiai eiiiuethoa?a ioia/aiiua iiainoe.

Aeey ?aaiou yoie i?ia?aiiu iaiaoiaeeii iiaeeeth/aiea ii i?ioieieo IP.
Anee aea ia eiiiuethoa?a eiaaony oieueei yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa, oi iiaeii
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo ii i?eioeeio iiaeienee. Ia aaoiiaoe/aneee ii/oiaue
na?aa? (aai aae?an ioaeii ooi/ieoue o i?iaaeaea?ia) ieoaony ienueii, a
oaenoa eioi?iai oeacuaaaony neaaeothuay no?iea:

Subscribe- iacaaiea eiioa?aioeee

Yoi ienueii aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aaaouaaaony, e ana niiauaiey eiioa?aioeee
aoaeoo ia?anueaoueny ia Aao ii/oiaue yuee. Aeey ioeaca io iiaeienee
neaaeoao ioi?aaeoue neaaeothuaa ienueii:

Unsubscribe- iacaaiea eiioa?aioeee

Aiiaua aiai?y, iieiue nienie eiiaiae ii/oiaiai na?aa?a iiaeii iieo/eoue,
anee ioineaoue ienueii n iaeiei neiaii «help».

Aeey eaaeaeie eiioa?aioeee nouanoaotho i?aaeea, eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny. Yoe i?aaeea ia?eiaee/anee ?annueathony anai
iiaeien/eeai. Iau/ii ia iaeeaaeuaaaony ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee, e?iia
o?aaiaaiee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oaiaoeee eiioa?aioeee, cai?aoa ee/iie
ia?aienee e inei?aeaiee o/anoieeia.

Eiioa?aioeee auaatho ia iiaeaee?oaiua e iiaeaee?oaiua. A ia?aii neo/aa
ethaia ienueii a eiioa?aioeeth aoaeao aaoiiaoe/anee ?acineaii anai
o/anoieeai. Ai aoi?ii — iii nia/aea iiiaaeaao e iiaea?aoi?o, eioi?ue
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea, noieo ee yoi ienueii iai?aaeyoue anai iiaeien/eeai. A
eaaeaeii aa?eaioa anoue naie iethnu e ieionu, ii anee Au n /ai-oi
i?eioeeieaeueii ia niaeaniu, oi anaaaea iiaeaoa i?aaieciaaoue naith
eiioa?aioeeth.

12. WWW

Iaeaieaa iiioey?iui yaeyaony iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee n oae iacuaaaiuo
WWW-na?aa?ia ii i?ioieieo http.

Iacaaiea WWW — World Wide Web — auei aaaaeaii Tim Berners-Lee
(eaai?aoi?ey CERN). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoei oa?ieiii, eiiaaea
ia?aaiaeeiui eae anaie?iay iaooeia, i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue niaieoiiinoue
aeieoiaioia ai anai ie?a, eioi?ua eiatho aeia?oaenoiaua nnueee (nnueee
ia ae?oaea aeieoiaiou, a oii /enea e ia ae?oaeo na?aa?ao) e iiaoo auoue
i?iniio?aiu n eniieueciaaieai i?ioieiea http.

WWW-na?aa?a (eee Web-na?aa?a) i?aaeinoaaeytho a Internet oaenoiaoth e
a?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth. Iau/ii yoa eioi?iaoeey ioi?ieaia aiaeiae/ii
no?aieoeai «aoiaaeiiai aeieoiaioa», oae /oi i?eiyoi aiai?eoue, /oi a
naoue i?aaeinoaaeyaony «no?aieoea eioi?iaoeee». Eaaeaeue aeieoiaio
iiaeao niaea?aeaoue iiiai aioo?aiieo nnueie. Ii ana aea iaeia no?aieoea
aoaeao yaeyoueny aeaaiie, ia/aeueiie. Aa iacuaatho «home page». Anee ia
iaeiii na?aa?a iaoiaeeony ianeieueei oai aeieoiaioia, ia naycaiiuo ae?oa
n ae?oaii nnueeaie, oi aiai?yo, /oi ia na?aa?a iaoiaeeony ianeieueei
home pages. Iau/ii yoi naienoaaiii na?aa?ai oe?i, i?aaeinoaaeythueo
oneoae iiaeaea?aeaiey home pages noi?iiiei i?aaiecaoeeyi.

Anee inouanoaeyaony eiioaeo n oaeaeaiiui WWW-na?aa?ii, oi a ieia
i?ia?aiiu iiyaeony ecia?aaeaiea no?aieoeu aeieoiaioa. Iau/ii
?ac?aaio/eee no?aieoeu i?eeaaatho iiiai oneeee, /oiau no?aieoea «oi?ioi
niio?aeanue». Iie eniieuecotho aeey ioi?ieaiey ?acee/iua oeaaoa,
iiiai/eneaiiua oeaaoiua eeethno?aoeee e ioeueoeieeeaoeee. Nia?aiaiiua
i?ia?aiiu iicaieytho aeeth/aoue a no?aieoeo aoaeei- e aeaeai eeeiu.
Eiia/ii, iauai ia?anueaaiie ii naoe eioi?iaoeee i?e yoii ?acei
oaaee/eaaaony e ?ac?aaio/eeai i?eoiaeeony auae?aoue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
nei?inoueth iieo/aiey no?aie/ee iieueciaaoaeai e aiciiaeiinoyie aa
ioi?ieaiey.

Aeey i?iniio?a oaeeo no?aieoe iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu,
a oii /enea iiiai i?ia?aii i?aaeinoaaeyaony aanieaoii. N?aaee ieo —
i?ia?aiia Microsoft Internet Explorer. Yoa i?ia?aiia nouanoaoao a
aa?neyo aeey Windows 3.11, Windows’95, Windows NT. A ea/anoaa aoi?ie
iaeaieaa iiioey?iie i?ia?aiiu neaaeoao iacaaoue Netscape Navigator. Ai
iiiaii yoe i?ia?aiiu aiaeiae/iu, ii iaeioi?ua aa?eaiou ioi?ieaiey
no?aieoe ?acee/ii aini?iecaiaeyony eaaeaeie ec ieo. I?e/ai /anoi aeaei
aeona, eaeiio aa?eaioo ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea.

Aeey ia/aea ?aaiou n WWW neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue naycue ii IP-i?ioieieo,
ioe?uoue i?ia?aiio i?iniio?a e iaa?aoue a no?iea aae?ana http:
\\aae?an_na?aa?a. *a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, ii?aaeaeyaiay i?aaeaea anaai
ea/anoaii eaiaea nayce, ia ye?ai aoaeao auaaaeaia home page oaeaeaiiiai
na?aa?a. Iaeioi?ua neiaa aoaeoo ioia/aiu ae?oaei oeaaoii. Yoi
aeia?oaenoiaua nayce. Uaeeioa iuoueth ii oaeiio auaeaeaiiiio neiao (eee
eeethno?aoeee), iiaeaoue eiiaiaeo aeey auaiaea ia ye?ai
aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay naycaia n aeaiiui oa?ieiii. I?e/ai
i?ia?aiia ninoaaeaia oaeei ia?acii, /oi iiaeii iiianoue i?e yoii ia
ae?oaie na?aa?, iiaeao auoue aeaaea a ae?oaie no?aia. Iooaoanoaoy oaeei
ia?acii, iiaeii iieo/eoue iiiai iiaie e iieaciie eioi?iaoeee.

13. Iiene eioi?iaoeee a Internet

A Internet iiaeii iaeoe i?aeoe/anee ana: eoeeia?iua ?aoeaiou e
ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou i?aaeoaeuenoa, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e
eioi?iaoeeth ii iiaui aaoiiiaeeyi, yeaeo?iiiua aacaou e eeoau ii
eioa?anai…

I?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii iacaaoue oaio, eioi?iaoeee ii eioi?ie iao a
Internet.

Eiee/anoai eiiiuethoa?ia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e Internet, ii ?aciui ioeaieai
aeinoeaaao 20-35 ieeeeiiia. Aeanyoee ouny/ eiiiuethoa?ia ?aaioatho a
?aaeeia on-line (oi anoue aeinooiiu a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie). Iiyoiio
iiene ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee, oi/iaa ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa eiiiuethoa?ia, ia
eioi?uo iia i?aaenoaaeaia, noaiiaeony i/aiue neiaeiie caaea/ae.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aua, /oi iniiaiie iauai eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeai
ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. Oae /oi iaaei ciaoue ia oieueei, /oi eneaoue, ii e
eae yoi i?aaeeueii noi?ioee?iaaoue ia aiaeeeneii ycuea.

13.1. *oi euoo a Eioa?iao

Oaoiieiaey iienea, aae?ana iieneiauo nenoai ioee/athony a caaeneiinoe
io oiai, /oi iaaei iaeoe.

Iau/ii oioyo iaeoe:

• eii?aeeiaou /aeiaaea;

• aeaiiua ii i?aaiecaoeee;

• noaoueth a oaeaeiioa?aioeee;

• WWW-na?aa?;

• WWW-aeieoiaio.

Yoe oaoiieiaee iienea yaeythony iauai?eiyouie. I?eaeeceoaeueii ii
iaeeiaeiaui i?aaeeai ?aaioatho nouanoaothuea iieneiaua nenoaiu.
Oa?ieiieiaey

?acee/atho aeaa oeia iienea. Aiai?yo, /oi i?iecaiaeeony white-iiene,
anee oi/ii ecaanoiu ia?aiao?u iienea.

I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue, iai?eia?, iiene yeaeo?iiiuo aacao NOA,
ieooueo i nii?oa e o.i. A?aieoea iaaeaeo yoeie oeiaie iienea oneiaia.
Iau/ii white-iiene niaea?aeeo a naaa iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou yellow-iienea.

Whois – na?aa?a. Yoe na?aa?a i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey white-iienea a naoyo e
aieueoeo aacao aae?ania. ?aaioa n oaeei na?aa?ii i?iecaiaeeony ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai. *anoue na?aa?ia aeinooiia /a?ac WWW-oceu, /anoue
— /a?ac i?ia?aiio telnet.

Finger. Iieneiaay nenoaia aeey onoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo iieueciaaoaey ii aai
ii/oiaiio aae?ano. Eeeaioneay /anoue onoaiaaeeaaaony a Windows
iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioieieii TCP/IP. Iauai auaiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee ii
iieueciaaoaeth caaeneo io iieiiou ?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo aeaiiuo. E?iia yoiai
auaiaeeony aeaoa iineaaeiaai /oaiey ii/ou.

O500. Aeiaaeueiay ni?aai/iay neoaeaa, iauaaeeiythuay eieaeueiua
ni?aai/iua nenoaiu. Aeinooi e iae aiciiaeai /a?ac WWW-na?aa?a, eee
aeaaea ii/oiaui cai?inii.

Search engine. Iieneiaue na?aa? WWW-aeieoiaioia. Iau/ii iiene
i?iecaiaeeony ii eeth/aaui neiaai niioaaonoaothueo WWW-aeieoiaioia.
Aieueoeinoai iieneiauo na?aa?ia iicaieytho aaiaeeoue oneiaey ia
eeth/aaua neiaa (iai?eia?, oa?ieiu a oaenoa aeieoiaioa aeieaeiu
ano?aoeoueny ?yaeii) e ia?aie/eaaoue ciio iienea ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiaoeeie
(iieeoeea, nii?o, Eioa?iao e o.i.). Nouanoaotho iieneiaua na?aa?a,
eioi?ua o?ainee?otho naie cai?in ia ianeieueei ?acee/iuo iieneiauo
nenoai. Ii, o/eouaay, /oi i?e ia?aii iienea eiee/anoai iaeaeaiiuo
aeieoiaioia n eaaeaeiai na?aa?a iiaeao en/eneyoueny aeanyoeaie ouny/,
eniieueciaaoue eo neaaeoao oieueei aeey oaeoaeaiiiai iienea n /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiuie e?eoa?eyie.

Yellow Pages. Iieneiaue na?aa? i?aaiecaoeee.

Index sites. Na?aa?a, niaea?aeauea aieueoia eiee/anoai nnueie ia ae?oaea
na?aa?a (eee aeieoiaiou). Aiciiaeiinoe iienea iau/ii ia?aie/aiu
nouanoaothueie nnueeaie.

13.2. Oaoiieiaey iienea

A naoe ?aaioaao cia/eoaeueiia /enei ni?aai/iuo nenoai. Iaeioi?ua aae?ana
i?eaaaeaiu a I?eeiaeaiee. «Caeaey» ia oeacaiiue na?aa?, iieo/aaoue ia
ye?aia oi?io cai?ina, a eioi?oth iaaei aaanoe eioi?iaoeeth aeey iienea.
Iau/ii a oi?ia nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aie/aiey ciiu iienea
(iai?eia?, ii oaiaoeea). Iiaeii aaanoe ioaeiue oa?iei, ii?aaeaeeoue
iaeanoue iienea e iiiuoaoueny iieo/eoue ioaao.

Iiene i?iecaiaeeony aaoiiaoe/anee ia aaca o/aoa eiee/anoaa iaeaeaiiuo
neia ia na?aa?a. Ia eiiiuethoa? aoaeao ia?aaeaia ia?aay a?oiia
iaeaeaiiuo nnueie n eo/oeie iieacaoaeyie ii /eneo iaeaeaiiuo aoiaeaeaiee
eneiiuo neia. *anoi aianoa n nnueeie iiaeao auoue auaaaeaia e?aoeay
eioi?iaoeey ii aeieoiaioo. Anee n?aaee iaeaeaiiuo aeieoiaioia iao
ioaeiuo, oi iiaeii auaanoe neaaeothuoth a?oiio — iauaa /enei aeieoiaioia
iau/ii en/eneyaony ouny/aie. Aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aeoe ia na?aa?, ia
eioi?ii iaoiaeeony iaeaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey, aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi uaeeiooue
ii nnueea a ?acoeueoaoa iienea.

Iau/ii iiene ii ia?a eeth/aauo neia i?eaiaeeo e iieo/aieth aeanyoeia
ouny/ nnueie ia aeieoiaiou, niaea?aeauea yoe oa?ieiu. Oaeie iauai
?acoeueoaoia ?aaeei iicaieyao yooaeoeaii iouneaoue «aeai/oaeeio» n?aaee
ia eiathueo ioiioaiey e oaia iienea iaoa?eaeia. *oi iiaeii
iiniaaoiaaoue?

Ai-ia?auo, nocueoa ciio iienea. Iiiuoaeoanue ii?aaeaeeoue ia na?aa?ao
eaeiai i?ioeey, a eaeie no?aia e o.i. iaeaieaa aa?iyoii iiaeii
ano?aoeoue eioa?anoaiua iaoa?eaeu. Iiaeoiaeoa, eaeea ae?oaea eeth/aaua
neiaa iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iauaeou iienea, eniieueciaaoue ianeieueei
eeth/aauo neia.

Anee iauaeoii iienea oeacaiu ianeieueei oa?ieiia, oi iieneiaay nenoaia
euao aoiaeaeaiea eaaeaeiai neiaa a aeieoiaio iacaaeneii. Oi anoue,
iiaeii ?acoeueoaoii iienea iieo/eoue aeieoiaio, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo
oieueei iaeii neiai, ii ianeieueei ?ac. Iiyoiio i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
oa?ieiia, ii eioi?ui i?iecaiaeeony iiene, iiaeii e ioaeii eniieueciaaoue
eiae/aneea iia?aoeee.

Iai?eia?, aaiae neiai_1&neiai_2 canoaaeo eneaoue oa no?aieoeu, aaea
oiio?aaeai eae ia?aue, oae e aoi?ie oa?iei.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe iiene ii anai ecaanoiui iieneiaui
nenoaiai. A eaaeaeie ec ieo eniieuecoaony naiy, ianeieueei ioee/athuayny
io ae?oaeo oaoiieiaey iienea. Iiyoiio aaniethoii aiaeiae/iua iienee
iiaoo i?eaanoe e ?acee/athueiny ?acoeueoaoai. Aieueoeinoai iieneiauo
nenoai aanieaoiua, iiyoiio ie/oi ia iaoaao i?iaiaeeoue noieueei
iia?aoeee iienea, neieueei ioaeii.

A-o?aoueeo, i/aiue /anoi ?acoeueoao iiaeao i?eianoe iiene aeieoiaioia ia
iniiaa aiciiaeiuo nnueie ia ieo.

Ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea ecaanoiua aeieoiaiou iiaoo niaea?aeaoue
oiiieiaiea ioaeiuo oai. E oaea /a?ac aeia?oaenoiaua nayce a aeieoiaioao
aueoe ia aeaeaaiue enoi/iee. *anoi yoio iooue yooaeoeaai. Iiiuoaeoanue
iaeoe i?aaiecaoeee (WWW-na?aa?a), eiathuea i?ioeeue, noiaeiue n oaiie
iienea. Eiiaaea, /a?ac nnueee a aeieoiaioao yoeo na?aa?ia iiaeii aueoe
ia ioaeiua iaoa?eaeu.

A-/aoaa?ouo, iiiuoaeoanue iaeoe eiioa?aioeeth ii noiaeiie oaiaoeea.
*anoi aii?in, «a?ioaiiue» a oaeaeiioa?aioeeth, iicaieyao iieo/eoue
aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai ni?aai/iie eioi?iaoeee.

14. *oi aua aiciiaeii a Eioa?iao

14.1. Telnet

Aua iaeia o?aaeeoeeiiiay i?ia?aiia. N iiiiuueth aa iiaeii
iiaeeeth/eoueny e ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o e caioneaoue i?ia?aiiu oaea ia
iai. Iau/ii telnet eniieuecoaony aeey oaeaeaiiuo iano?iae eiiiuethoa?a e
eniieueciaaiey na?aenia ia UNIX-eiiiuethoa?ao. *oiau ae
ainiieueciaaoueny, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aae?an eiiiuethoa?a, ia?ieue e eiy
aoiaea ia iaai.

«Eiiiaou niaauaiee», «aeeaay ?a/ue»

Nae/an nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ?acaiaa?eaaoue /a?ac Eioa?iao eae ii
oaeaoiio. Nouanoaotho aeaaea niaoeeaeueiua eiioa?aioeee, /a?ac eioi?ua
iiaeii iaeoe ia?oia?a aeey ?acaiai?a. Aeey i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai ?acaiai?a
ia eiiiuethoa?a aeieaeia auoue onoaiiaeaia caoeiaay ieaoa e iee?ioii.
Ooeeeou aeey ia?aaea/e ?a/aaiai niiauaiey iau/ii eaaei aeinooiiu. Ii
aeey aiciiaeiinoe ?acaiai?a iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau eaiae nayce eiae
?aaeueioth i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo eeeiaaeo a
naeoiaeo.

Iiyoiio iu aeaaea e ia aoaeai oiiieiaoue i aiciiaeiinoe i?aaieciauaaoue
/a?ac Eioa?iao aeaeaieiioa?aioeee.

A aio nicaeaoue ae?ooaeueioth «eiiiaoo aeey ia?aaiai?ia» eee «/ao»
iiaeii. A yoii aa?eaioa i?ia?aiia iaania/eaaao acaeiioth naycue
ianeieueeeo /aeiaae. Au iaae?aaoa ia ye?aia oaeno, e yoio oaeno
iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony ia ye?aia eiiiuethoa?ia anao iieueciaaoaeae,
iiaeeeth/aiiuo e aeaiiie «eiiiaoa». Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaoo aaiaeeoue oaeno
ethaia eiee/anoai ethaeae, ia ye?aia eo no?i/ee iaicia/athony
eieoeeaeaie. I?ia?aiia aeey i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai iaiaia aoiaeeo a ninoaa
MS IE 3.0. Nouanoaotho e oi?iuaiiua aa?eaiou, eioi?ua i?aaiecotho
«?acaiai?» a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia a?aiaie oieueei aeaoo /aeiaae (aiaeiae/ii
i?ia?aiia Chat ec ninoaaa Windows).

Ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey aeiaaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae i?aeoe/anee
aaca?aie/iu. Ii oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth eo iiea iaoaao ieceia ea/anoai
nayce (anee au ?aaioaaoa ii aiaeiaiaiio iiaeaio) e aei?iaiaecia oneoa
i?iaaeaea?ia…

15. EEOA?AOO?A

«Aeiaaeueiua naoe: eioi?iaoeey e n?aaenoa aeinooia» – ecaeaoaeuenoai
IAOO.

Aeooaeue Y., Aeaeaein N., «ISDN i?inoi e aeinooiii» – 1999 a.

Ieeoa? A.A., Ieeoa? I.A., «Eiiiuethoa?iua naoe. I?eioeeiu, oaoiieiaee,
i?ioieieu» – Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Ieoa?» 2000 a.

«Microsoft TCP/IP: O/aaiue eo?n.» /ioeoeeaeueiia iiniaea Microsoft aeey
naiinoiyoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee/ – 1998 a.

O?ieia A.A., O?ieia A.A., «Aeiaaeueiua naoe eiiiuethoa?ia. I?aeoe/aneia
aaaaeaiea a Internet» – 1998 a.

Oao?ei TH. A., Iniiau eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee. – I. AAO. 1997 a.

Eaiei A. I., Ia/aieeia I. N., IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaeae. –
Aeaoa?eiao?a, 1993 – 1997 a.a.

http://www.ritmpress.ru/it/press/cwm/36_98/xdsl.htm

http://www.permnet.ru:8101/isdn_price.html

AEo?iaeu «Eiiiuethoa??a» e «LAN» ca 1999-2000 a.a.

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