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Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-2” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331048 PAGEREF
_Toc418331048 2

I?aaeeaaaaiia ?aoaiea ii ?aaeecaoeee eiiiuethoa?iie naoe a IEE
?ai?ia?aoee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331049 PAGEREF _Toc418331049 3

Ninoaa iai?oaeiaaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331050 PAGEREF
_Toc418331050 4

Aiia?aoiay eiioeao?aoeey na?aa?ia e eo iniauaiea iauanenoaiiui II.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331051 PAGEREF _Toc418331051 4

A?oeoaeoo?u iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, auai? a?oeoaeoo?u.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331052 PAGEREF _Toc418331052 7

Iaci? i?ioieieia e auai? iniiaiiai i?ioieiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331053
PAGEREF _Toc418331053 10

TCP/IP GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331054 PAGEREF _Toc418331054 10

NetBEUI GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331055 PAGEREF _Toc418331055 10

O.25 GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331056 PAGEREF _Toc418331056 10

IPX/SPX e NWLink GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331057 PAGEREF _Toc418331057 10

Eaaaeueiua nenoaiu a eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331058
PAGEREF _Toc418331058 12

Eiiiiiaiou eaaaeueiie nenoaiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331059 PAGEREF
_Toc418331059 12

Naoaaia iai?oaeiaaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331060 PAGEREF
_Toc418331060 13

Oeiiaua o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iniauaieth e iiaea?iecaoeee oeiiauo
eieaeueiuo oceia — iauaeoia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331061 PAGEREF
_Toc418331061 15

Iauea iieiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331062 PAGEREF _Toc418331062 15

O?aaiaaiey e n?aaenoaai au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee GOTOBUTTON
_Toc418331063 PAGEREF _Toc418331063 15

O?aaiaaiey e eiiioieeaoeeiiiiio (naoaaiio) iai?oaeiaaieth GOTOBUTTON
_Toc418331064 PAGEREF _Toc418331064 15

O?aaiaaiey e nenoaia yeaeo?iieoaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331065
PAGEREF _Toc418331065 16

O?aaiaaiey e iauanenoaiiiio i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth GOTOBUTTON
_Toc418331066 PAGEREF _Toc418331066 17

Aiia?aoiia iaania/aiea, ninoaaiua /anoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331067
PAGEREF _Toc418331067 18

I?ioeanni?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331068 PAGEREF _Toc418331068 18

Iaoa?eineea ieaou, iaai?u iee?inoai GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331069
PAGEREF _Toc418331069 30

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331070 PAGEREF _Toc418331070
35

Eioa?oaenu IDE, SCSI, a?oeoaeoo?a RAID GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331071
PAGEREF _Toc418331071 38

Aeaeaiiiaenenoaia GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331072 PAGEREF _Toc418331072
54

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331073 PAGEREF
_Toc418331073 72

Microsoft Windows 95 GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331074 PAGEREF _Toc418331074
72

Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331075
PAGEREF _Toc418331075 73

I?eeiaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331076 PAGEREF _Toc418331076 75

N?aaiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?ia Intel Pentium e AMD K6
GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331077 PAGEREF _Toc418331077 75

Ae?oaea i?ioeanni?iua oanou GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331078 PAGEREF
_Toc418331078 78

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iaoa?eineeo ieao ia /einaoa i430TX n iaiyoueth
aieaa 64 Iaaeo GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331079 PAGEREF _Toc418331079 80

Oanoe?iaaiea /einaoia Intel 440BX e Intel 440LX GOTOBUTTON
_Toc418331080 PAGEREF _Toc418331080 81

N?aaiaiea nei?inoe ?aaiou nenoai n EDO RAM e SDRAM GOTOBUTTON
_Toc418331081 PAGEREF _Toc418331081 83

Niioaaonoaea aiaoieo /anoio, a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae e a?aiaie aeinooia
aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia iaiyoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331082 PAGEREF
_Toc418331082 83

Eiio?ieea?u UltraWideSCSI GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331083 PAGEREF
_Toc418331083 85

Oanoe?iaaiea nia?aiaiiuo aeanoeeo aeeneia GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331084
PAGEREF _Toc418331084 87

Eo/oea ae?noeea aeenee IDE GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331085 PAGEREF
_Toc418331085 91

Eo/oea ae?noeea aeenee SCSI GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331086 PAGEREF
_Toc418331086 92

Niaoeeoeeaoeee aeanoeeo aeeneia GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331087 PAGEREF
_Toc418331087 93

Naiaeiay oaaeeoea ia?aiao?ia iiieoi?ia GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331088
PAGEREF _Toc418331088 106

?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo aeaeaiaenaea?aoi?ia
GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331089 PAGEREF _Toc418331089 111

Oanoe?iaaiea AGP–aeaeaiea?o GOTOBUTTON _Toc418331090 PAGEREF
_Toc418331090 118

Aaaaeaiea

Ii iinoaiiaeaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ?1253-68 io 26.12.1995a. e ?860-44
io 14.07.1997a. i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i aiciaiiaeaiee ?aaio ii ?ac?aaioea e
nicaeaieth no?aoiaiai oiiaea aeieoiaioaoeee (NOAe). A niioaaonoaee n
yoei iinoaiiaeaieai ia/aou ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth e aaaeaieth NOAe.

Nia?aiaiiua oneiaey ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee aeeeootho
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo onei?aiiiai i?eiaiaiey, eae iaeaieaa iia?aoeaiiai
niiniaa aaaeaiey NOAe. A ?aieao yoiai iai?aaeaiey o?aaoaony aiaae?aiea
iiauo ia?niaeoeaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee.

Aic?anoathuay aaaeiinoue i?iaeai eioi?iaoecaoeee iai?yioth naycaia n
ia?aiaiaie, eae oaoiieiae/aneeie, oae e nioeeaeueiuie. Aac
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee iaeuecy i?aaenoaaeoue ie iaeii nia?aiaiiia
i?aaei?eyoea eee i?aaiecaoeeth.

Nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee aiaae?ythony a ?innee n iaauaaeui
?aciaoii, ii?iaa?aay ana, aeaaea i/aiue niaeua i?iaiicu. E niaeaeaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee /anoi ia?aie/eaathony
?aoaieai eieaeueiuo i?iaeai ia caaeyaeuaay a ia?niaeoeao, yoi aucaaii
eae ionoonoaeai niaoeeaeenoia iaiaoiaeeiie eaaeeoeeaoeee, oae e ia
i?i?aaioaiiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoecaoeee.
Aeaiiua iaoa?eaeu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa i?e i?iaaaeaiee
oaoie/aneie iieeoeee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoecaoeee e niaea?aeao aieueoia
eiee/anoai ni?aai/iuo iaoa?eaeia ii anai iniiaiui iai?aaeaiey
eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee.

Ana i?aaeeiaeaiey aeathony ia iniiaaiee e ai eniieiaiea, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
eceiaeaiiuo a ?oeiaiaeyuai aeieoiaioa «Niaoeeaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee, ninoaaeythuae ainoaea?noaaiioth
oaeio, io ooa/ee ii oaoie/aneei eaiaeai (NO?)», Iineaa, 1997a.

I?aaeeaaaaiia ?aoaiea ii ?aaeecaoeee eiiiuethoa?iie naoe a IEE
?ai?ia?aoee.

Enoiaey ec i?aaeuyaeyaiuo o?aaiaaiee n nicaeaieth eiiiuethoa?iie naoe a
IEE ?ai?ia?aoee. I?aaeeaaaaony neaaeothuay ?aaeecaoeey.

Oeaio?aeueiay aunieinei?inoiay /anoue naoe ?aaeecoaony ia eiiiooaoi?a
Ethernet i?iecaiaenoaa oe?iu 3Com na?ee SuperStack II Switch 3000
10/100. Yoi 12 ii?oiaue eiiiooaoi?, a eioi?ii ?aaeeciaaia ooieoeey
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey n?aaeu ia?aaea/e, iaania/eaathuay
iiaeeeth/aiea naoaaiai iai?oaeiaaiey eae ia nei?inoe 10 Iaeo/n, oae e ia
nei?inoe 100 Iaeo/n a ?aaeeiao iieiiai aeoieaena e iieoaeoieaena.
Iiauoaiiay i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue aioo?aiiae oeiu eiiiooaoi?a iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa aunieinei?inoiuo iaaeno?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee.
Iiaeaeue SuperStack II Switch 3000 10/100 iieiinoueth oi?aaeyaiay e
iaeaaeaao iieiui niaeo?ii eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ooieoeee. Ia?eoa?eeiua
?aai/ea noaioeee iiaeeeth/athony e naaiaioo naoe i?aaieciaaiiiio ia
eiioeaio?aoi?a oe?iu 3Com SuperStack II PS Hub40, /oi iicaieeo
?aca?oceoue iniiaioth iaaeno?aeue io oe?iei aauaoaeueiiai o?aoeea e
iioeiece?iaaoue o?aoee i?ioieiea TCP/IP. SuperStack II PS Hub40 – yoi 12
ii?oiaue eiioeaio?aoi?, iieiinoueth oi?aaeyaony ii SNMP e RMON e
i?aaeeaaaao oaeiaiue a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen aeey eiioeao?aoeee
ae?ooaeueiuo naoae. Oaeaea eiathony aiciiaeiinoe iaania/aiey iiauoaiiie
iaaeaaeiinoe e caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e aeaiiui.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 1

Noaia eiiiuethoa?iie naoe IEE ?ai?ia?aoee

1- Na?aa? aeiiaia, 2- Na?aa? BackUp aeiiaia, 3 – A?aoe/aneay noaioeey, 4
– Eiiiooaoi? 3Com, 5 – Eiioeaio?aoi? 3Com 40Hub, 6 – ?aai/ea ianoa
iia?aoi?ia (iieueciaaoaee), 7 – Enoi/iee aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey APC 1000
RM, 8 – Enoi/iee aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey APC 700 RM, 9 – Naoaaie i?eioa?
eee ae?oaia ia?eoa?eeiia ono?ienoai, Eaaaeueiay nenoaia STP Level 5,
Eaaaeueiay nenoaia, aunieinei?inoiay STP Level 5, Auaeaeaiiay nenoaia
yeaeo?iieoaiey aeeciaiii aaaeiuo yeaiaioia naoe.

Ninoaa iai?oaeiaaiey.

A ea/anoaa aaciauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ii iniauaieth IEE ?ai?ia?aoee e
oeaio?ia NOAe.

I?aaeeaaathony neaaeothuea n?aaenoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee (NAO).

A ea/anoaa na?aa?a i?aaeeaaaaony eniieueciaaiea aeaooi?ioeanni?iie
nenoaiu ia iniiaa i?ioeanni?a Pentium II. Iaeaaeathuae neaaeothueie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie:

I?ioeanni? Pentium II 266 o 2 eee eo/oa;

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 64 Ia eee aieueoa;

Aeeneiaay iaiyoue 4,5 Aa o 3 eee aieueoa, SCSI – RAID iannea;

?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea eniieueciaaiea II aeeneia;

Aeaeai iiaenenoaia ia ooaea SVGA 2 Ia.

?aai/ea noaioeee ii ia?aaioea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee i?aaeeaaathony ia
iniiaa aeaooi?ioeanni?iie nenoaiu Pentium II.

I?ioeanni? Pentium II 266 eee eo/oa;

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 64 Ia e aieueoa;

Aeeneiaay iaiyoue 4aa o2 Ultra DMA eee aieueoa;

?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea eniieueciaaiea II aeeneia;

Aeaeai iiaenenoaia SVGA 8Ia eniieueciaaiea oeiu AGP.

?aai/ea noaioeee iia?aoi?ia NOAe e ?ac?aaio/eeia i?eeeaaeiiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?aaeeaaathony ia iniiaa i?ioeanni?a AMD K6.

I?ioeanni? AMD K6 200 eee eo/oa;

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 32 Ia eee aieueoa;

Aeeneiaay iaiyoue 2Aa eee aieueoa;

?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea iao, «eniieuecothony ?ano?nu na?aa?a»;

Aeaeai iiaenenoaia SVGA 2Ia.

A ea/anoaa ia?eoa?eeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey (i?eioa?u, neaia?u, ieiooa?u e
i?.) i?aaeeaaaaony ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea n?aaenoaai iicaieythuei
iiaeeeth/aoue iai?oaeiaaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a eiiiuethoa?ioth naoue n
eniieueciaaieai IP eee MAC aae?anaoeee.

A ea/anoaa iauanenoaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?aaeeaaaaony
eniieueciaaoue iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio Microsoft Windows NT Server e
Windows NT Workstation aa?nee 4.0 n iaeaoii iaiiaeaiey ? 3. Aeey
onoaiiaee ia na?aa? e ?aai/ea noaioeee niioaaonoaaiii.

Aiia?aoiay eiioeao?aoeey na?aa?ia e eo iniauaiea iauanenoaiiui II.

I?e auai?a no?aoaaee iniauaiey oeaio?ia NOAe iiaeii i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
iaeiiai ec aeaoo aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia:

a) enoiaey ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi iniiaiay aaca aeaiiuo aoaeao eiaoue
iaaieueoea ?acia?u, iia ia aoaeao i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia eeeaio–na?aa?ioth
oaoiieiaeth, aoaeao ?ac?aaioaia n i?eiaiaieai NOAAe eeanna MS Visual
FoxPro 5.0, Borland Delhi e io ia? ia aoaeoo o?aaiaaoueny ?acaeoua
naoaaua aiciiaeiinoe;

a) aeey neo/ay auai?a eeeaio–na?aa?iuo oaoiieiaee.

Caeanue neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaea aa?eaio ?aaeecaoeee aac aeaiiuo
aac eniieueciaaiey oaoiieiaee eeeaio–na?aa? iiaeao auoue i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aei?aaioai aei a? o?aaiaaiee. I?e/?i naeaeaoue yoi aoaeao
eaa/a e aeaoaaea, anee oaea ia yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaeie nenoaiu
o/eouaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea ia aieaa nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo.

Aeey iaieo aa?eaioia iaiaoiaeeia onoaiiaea eieaeueiie naoe. A ea/anoaa
naoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue MS Windows NT 4.0
eae aeey na?aa?ia, oae e aeey ?aai/eo noaioeee (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nouanoaoao eieaeeciaaiiue aeey ?innee aa?eaio Windows NT Workstation).
?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue aeiiaiioth a?oeoaeoo?o, ?aaeeciaaiioth a
oeacaiiuo nenoaiao. I?e yoii iiiaaeiaeony eae ieieioi iaeei na?aa? NT a
ea/anoaa eiio?ieea?a aeiiaia ia eaaeaeua 20(30 ?aai/eo noaioeee. Anee
eiee/anoai eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe iaaaeeei, oi eiio?ieea? aeiiaia iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue eae oaeeiaue na?aa?, na?aa? ia/aoe. I?aaaea, a aeaiiii
neo/aa, iiuiinoue onoaiaaeeaaaiie iaoeiu aeieaeia auoue aieueoa, a a
neo/aa eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey — cia/eoaeueii aieueoa.

Aa?eaiou iniauaiey eiio?ieea?a aeiiaia

Ia eiiiuethoa?, yaeythueeny eiio?ieea?ii aeiiaia NT iiaoo auoue
aiceiaeaiu iaeioi?ua aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee. Oneiaii eo iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea:

Auiieiyaiua ooieoeee oieueei ooieoeee eiio?ieea?a aeiiaia.

I?ioeanni? Pentium, 166MHz.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 32MB

Aeeneiaay iiaenenoaia IDE, 1(1,6GB

Naoaaay iiaenenoaia 16bit ISA, UTP, 10Mbit

I?eaioe?iai/iay noieiinoue 1000(1500 USD

Auiieiyaiua ooieoeee eiio?ieea? aeiiaia, o?aiaiea oaeeia iieueciaaoaeae
(aeieoiaioia), ia?auaiea e eioi?ui i?ienoiaeeo yieciaee/anee, na?aa?
ia/aoe n iaaieueoie eioaineaiinoueth.

I?ioeanni? Pentium, 200MHz.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 32(64 MB

Aeeneiaay iiaenenoaia SCSI, ia iaiaa 3GB

Naoaaay iiaenenoaia 32bit PCI, UTP, 10Mbit

I?eaioe?iai/iay noieiinoue 2500 USD

Auiieiyaiua ooieoeee eiio?ieea? aeiiaia, o?aiaiea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
oaeeia iieueciaaoaeae (aeieoiaioia) ia?auaiea e eioi?ui i?ienoiaeeo
iinoiyiii, o?aiaiea aieueoeo iau?iia eioi?iaoeee, caione iieueciaaoaeyie
i?eeiaeaiee i?yii n na?aa?a, na?aa? ia/aoe.

I?ioeanni? Pentium II, 266(333MHz; a caaeneiinoue io iaa?ocee iiaeii
i?aaeoniio?aoue aeaooi?ioeanni?iue aa?eaio.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ia iaiaa 64 MB

Aeeneiaay iiaenenoaia SCSI, aiia?aoiue RAID 3, 5; 3(4 ae?noeeo aeenea ii
2(5GB

Naoaaay iiaenenoaia 32bit PCI, STP, 100Mbit eeai FDDI

I?eaioe?iai/iay noieiinoue io 5000 USD

Iaae?aeiinoue

I?e ioeaca eiio?ieea?a aeiiaia, ?ano?nu naoe noaiiayony iaaeinooiiu,
aeaaea anee ?aai/ea noaioeee i?iaeieaeatho ooieoeeiie?iaaoue e «aeaeyo»
ae?oa ae?oaa. *oiau ecaaaeaoue oaeie neooaoeee iiaeao auoue
oeaeaniia?aciui onoaiiaeoue ?aca?aiue eiio?ieea?, aaoiiaoe/anee aa?ouee
ia naay ooieoeee ia?ae/iiai a neo/aa aai ioeaca. Eiioeao?aoeey
?aca?aiiai eiio?ieea?a iiaeao ioee/aoueny io ia?ae/iiai e caaeneo io
aiceiaeaiiuo ia iaai ooieoeee.

Anee aoaeao aua?aia no?aoaaey iniauaiey eieaeueiuo oceia, iniiaaiiay ia
eeeaio–na?aa?iuo oaoiieiaeyo, oi iiiaaeiaeony au? eae ieieioi iaeei
eiiiuethoa? a ea/anoaa na?aa?a i?eeiaeaiee, eiie?aoii — aeey onoaiiaee
ia iaai MS SQL Server. Eniieueciaaoue aai a ea/anoaa oaeeiaiai na?aa?a
eee aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae, ioee/iuo io noaoai niaoeeaeueiuo, ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony. Iiuiinoue eiiiuethoa?a iiyoue aea ii?aaeaeyaony iau?iii
auiieiyaiuo caaea/. Anee ia?aaaouaaaiay aaca aeaiiuo eiaao n?aaeiee
iau?i (ia aieaa 150MB) e n?aaeithth eioaineaiinoue ia?auaiee e iae, oi
?aeiiaiaeoaiay eiioeao?aoeey eiiiuethoa?a eiaao neaaeothuee aeae:

I?ioeanni? iaeei eee aeaa PentiumPro 200MHz eee Pentium II 233(266MHz

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ia iaiaa 64 MB

Aeeneiaay iiaenenoaia SCSI, ia iaiaa aeaoo aeeneia ii 3GB

Naoaaay iiaenenoaia 32bit PCI, UTP, 100Mbit

I?eaioe?iai/iay noieiinoue 3500 USD

Iniauaiea iauanenoaiiui II

Aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey aiciiaeiinoae iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu
Windows NT, ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eia?anoe ia oieueei nianoaaiii NT Server
4.0 e SQL Server 6.5, a eiiaeie?iaaiiui iaeao Microsoft BackOffice Small
Business Server, a eioi?ue aoiaeeo ?yae i?iaeoeoia naiaenoaa BackOffice.
Iaeao ?ann/eoai ia iaeua i?aaiecaoeee (aei 25 eiiiuethoa?ia),
?aaioathuea a oneiaeyo ionoonoaey iinoiyiiiai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai
nenoaiiiai aaeieieno?aoi?a.

A ninoaa BackOffice Small Business Server aoiaeyo neaaeothuea
eiiiiiaiou:

Windows NT Server 4.0 n Internet Information Server 3.0, FrontPage 98 e
Index Server 1.1

Internet Explorer 4.01

Exchange Server 5.0 e Outlook 97 (8.01)

SQL Server 6.5

Proxy Server 1.0

Fax Server

I?ia?aiia niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey iiaeaiia

Internet Connection Wizard

I?ia?aiia onoaiiaee eeeaioneiai eiiiuethoa?a

Eino?oiaiou aaeieieno?e?iaaiey

BackOffice Small Business Server yaeyaony iniiaie aeey iino?iaiey
iieiiai eioaa?e?iaaiiiai ?aoaiey aeey iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey ia iniiaa
nia?aiaiiuo na?aa?iuo eiiiiiaioia e Internet-noaiaea?oia. Iaeao oaeaea
niaea?aeeo Fax Server aeey oeaio?aeeciaaiiie ioi?aaee e i?eaia oaenia
/a?ac oaen–iiaeaiu, iiaeeeth/aiiua e na?aa?o.

A i?ioeanna ?inoa i?aaiecaoeee aiciiaeii iaiiaeaiea eae ethaiai
eiiiiiaioa, oae e anaai iaeaoa a oeaeii.

A?oeoaeoo?u iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, auai? a?oeoaeoo?u.

Naoaaay a?oeoaeoo?a – yoi niaieoiiinoue noaiaea?oia, oiiieiaee e
i?ioieieia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nicaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiie naoe.

A eiioea 70o aiaeia, eiaaea EAN noaee aini?eieiaoueny a ea/anoaa
iioaioeeaeueiiai eino?oiaioa aeey ?aaiou e auee noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua
noaiaea?ou (Project 802).

Project 802 onoaiiaee iniiaiua noaiaea?ou aeey oece/aneeo eiiiiiaioia
naoe – naoaauo ea?o e eaaaeueiuo nenoai.

Noaiaea?ou EAN, ii?aaeaeaiiua Project 802, aeaeyony ia 12 eaoaai?ee,
eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao naie iiia?.

802.1 – iauaaeeiaiea naoae

802.2 – oi?aaeaiea eiae/aneie naycueth

802.3 – EAN n iiiaeanoaaiiui aeinooiii, eiio?ieai ianouae e
iaia?oaeaieai eieeecee (Ethernet)

802.4 – EAN oiiieiaee “oeia” n ia?aaea/ae ia?ea?a

802.5 – EAN oiiieiaee “eieueoei” n ia?aaea/ae ia?ea?a

802.6 – naoue ianooaaa ai?iaea

802.7 – Eiinoeueoaoeaiue niaao ii oe?ieiaauaoaeueiie oaoiieiaee

802.8 – Eiinoeueoaoeaiue niaao ii iioiaieieiiiie oaoiieiaee

802.9 – eioaa?e?iaaiiua naoe n ia?aaea/ae ?a/e e aeaiiuo

802.10 – aaciianiinoue naoae

802.11 – aani?iaiaeiua naoe (?aaeei naoe)

802.12 – EAN n aeinooiii ii i?ei?eoaoo cai?ina

Iaeaieueooth iiioey?iinoue iieo/ee noaiaea?o 802.3 Ethernet eiaiii ia
yoie a?oeoaeoo?a iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae inoaiiaeiny aieaa
iiae?iaii.

Ethernet – naiay iiioey?iay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy naoaaay a?oeoaeoo?a, Iia
eniieuecoao oceiiieinioth ia?aaea/o ni nei?inoueth 10 Iaeo/nae e
oiiieiaeth “oeia”, a aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey o?aoeea a iniiaiii eaaaea –
CSMA/CD.

Naoue Ethernet eiaao neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee:

o?aaeeoeeiiiay oiiieiaey – eeiaeiay oeia;

ae?oaea oiiieiaee – caacaea – oeia;

oei ia?aaea/e – oceiiieiniay;

iaoiae aeinooia – CSMA/CD;

niaoeeoeeaoeee -802.3;

nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo – 10, 100 e 1000 Iaeo/nae;

eaaaeueiay nenoaia – Oienoue e oiieee eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue, aeoay ia?a
(UTP, STP), iioiaieieii.

A iniiaa iino?iaiey ethaie naoe noieo yoaeiiiay iiaeaeue OSI (Open
System Interconnection, Acaeiiaeaenoaea ioe?uouo nenoai), Yoa iiaeaeue
?acaeaeyao ?aaioathuaa iai?oaeiaaiea e i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea i?e
iauaaeeiaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae niaeanii eiaeea eo ?aaiou. Eaaeaeue ec
o?iaiae auiieiyao naith niaoeeoe/aneoth, ooieoeeth oai naiui iaeaa/ay
i?iaeoe?iaaiea anae nenoaiu a oeaeii. I?e naoaaii iaiaia niiauathony
niioaaonoaothuea o?iaie aeaoo eiiiuethoa?ia aeaeaainy yoi ia iai?yioth,
a iooai cai?ina ia ianeoaeeaaiea o ieaea eaaeauaai. O?iaie iiaoo eiaoue
iaeeiaeiaoth ?aaeecaoeeth, a iiaoo e ?acioth. Naiia aeaaiia oi, /oi iie
eaeaioe/ii ?aaioath aeaiiino?e?oy iieiia acaeiiiiieiaiea. Naiiio
ieaeiaio o?iaith ia iaeiai “naaeeoue” ?aaioo, iiyoiio oece/aneay
?aaeecaoeey aeieaeia niaiaaeaoue (ii e?aeiae ia?a ia o?iaia iaeiiai
naaiaioa naoe).

Ia eaaeaeii ec o?iaiae aaeeieoeu eioi?iaoeee iacuaathony ii ?aciiio. Ia
oece/aneii o?iaia iaeue/aeoay aaeeieoea – aeo. Ia eaiaeueiii o?iaia
eioi?iaoeey iauaaeeiaia ai o?aeiu, Ia naoaaii o?iaia iu aiai?ei i
aeaeoaa?aiiao. Ia o?ainii?oiii o?iaia aaeeieoeae ecia?aiey yaeyaony
naaiaio. I?eeeaaeiua o?iaie iaiaieaathony niiauaieyie. I?yiay ia?aeeaeue
n oaeeiaie nenoaiie ia aeenea – eieaeueiua eciaiaiey iaiaaie/aiiinoe
(aeou) iauaaeeiaiu a naeoi?a, eiathuea caaieiaee, naeoi?a iauaaeeiythony
a aeiee, a oa, a naith i/a?aaeue, a oaeeu, oiaea eiathuea caaieiaee,
niaea?aeauea neoaeaaioth eioi?iaoeeth.

Aaaeii iiieiaoue, /oi yoaeiiiay iiaeaeue ia yaeyaony /ai oi ?aaeueiui,
oaeei /oi iaania/eaaao naycue. Naia ii naaa iia ia canoaaeyao
eiiioieeaoeee ooieoeeiie?iaaoue e neoaeeo eeoue aeey eeanneoeeaoeee. Iia
eeanneoeoee?oao oi, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii aianoa ?aaioaao, a eiaiii-
i?ioieieu. I?ioieieu n/eoathony iaai?ii niaoeeoeeaoeee, ii?aaeaeythueo
?aaeecaoeeth iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo o?iaiae OSI. Niaoeeoeeaoeey
i?ioieieia ?ac?aaaouaathony noaiaea?oece?othueie i?aaiecaoeeyie, oae e
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iai?oaeiaaiey. Iiiaea ?ac?aaioaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
i?ioieieu ieacuaathony ianoieueei oniaoiuie, /oi i?eiaiythony ia
oieueei ?ac?aaio/eeaie ii e ae?oaeie oe?iaie noaiiaynue noaiaea?oii
aea-oaeoi.

Oece/aneee o?iaaiue ii?aaeaeyao iaoaie/aneea e yeaeo?e/aneea ia?aiao?u
n?aaeu ia?aaea/e, naoaauo ieao, niaaeeieoaeae, niiniau iiiauaiey
eioi?iaoeee a n?aaeo ia?aaea/e e ecaea/aiey aa ioooaea. Niaoeeoeeaoeee
oece/aneiai o?iaiy ii?aaeaeytho oei ?acuaia e iacia/aiea iiaeae,
o?iaaiue neaiaea, nei?inoue ia?aaea/e e o.ae.

Eaiaeueiue o?iaaiue oi?ie?oao ec aeoia, iieo/aaiuo io oece/aneiai
o?iaiy, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iaeaoia eee o?aeiia. Caeanue oaeaea
inouanoaeyaony oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e ?acaeaeyaiie anaie naoaauie
ono?ienoaaie ia?aaeathuae n?aaea e iaia?oaeeaaaony e ei??aeoe?oaony
/anoue ioeaie. Eae e aieueoeinoai ae?oaeo o?iaiae eaiaeueiue aeiaaaeyao
caaieiaie ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. A caaieiaea iau/ii niaea?aeeony
oece/aneee aae?an i?eaiieea, aae?an enoi/ieea e ae?oaay eioi?iaoeey.

Naoaaie o?iaaiue caaaaeoao aeaeaeaieai eioi?iaoeee ii naoyi, ninoiyuei
ec ianeieueeeo eee iiiaeo naaiaioia. Aeey oniaoiiai ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e
a i?ioieie aeaiiiai o?iaiy aiineony eioi?iaoeey i eiae/aneii aae?ana
enoi/ieea e aae?ana iaeaoa. I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee iaeaoia /a?ac oceu,
niaaeeiythuea ?acee/iua naoe, yoa eioi?iaoeey aiaeece?oaony e iaeao
ia?anueaaony e neaaeothuaio oceo, i?eiaaeeaaeauaio oaea ae?oaiio
naaiaioo. Eioi?iaoeey i oii , eoaea ia?anueaoue iaeao, iiaeao
niaea?aeaoueny a oaaeeoeao ono?ienoaa auiieiythuaai ?ieue
ia?o?ooecaoi?a, eee au/eneyoueny a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaeaou iooaoanoaotho ii naoe ia?aoiaey io ocea e oceo. A ooieoeee
naoaaiai o?iaiy aoiaeeo oaeaea eaeaioeoeeaoeey e oaeaeaiea
“caaeoaeeaoeony” iaeaoia, oi anoue oaeeo eioi?ua i?ioee /a?ac iaeioi?ia
/enei oceia, iioie e ia iiiaee e aae?anaoo.

O?ainii?oiue o?iaaiue iaoiaeeony a naiii oeaio?a yoaeiiiie iiaeaee. Ii
ioaa/aao ca aa?aioe?iaaiioth aeinoaaeo aeaiiuo, eiiiaine?oy ioeaee
eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeaoue i?e ?aaioa ieaeaeaaeaueo o?iaiae.
“Aa?aioe?iaaiiay” aeinoaaea ia icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua iiiaaeoo e
aae?anaoo a ethaii neo/aa: iai?aaiiue eaaaeue, ionoueiaaiiue ?acuai,
auoaaeoay ec no?iy naoaaay ea?oa – ana yoi “aa?aioe?oao eiaiii
iaaeinoaaeo”. Iaeiaei iaaeaaeiua ?aaeecaoeee i?ioieieia o?ainii?oiiai
o?iaiy iaania/eaatho iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oniaoa eee ia oniaoa aeinoaaee,
eioi?ie?oy auoaeaaeauea o?iaie eioi?ua i?aaeatho niiauaiey ii
o?aaiaaaoaio ianeoaeeaaiey i?ia?aiiiiio i?eeiaeaieth. Aa?aioe?iaaiiay
aeinoaaea inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue ?acee/iuo iaoaieciia, n?aaee eioi?uo
– onoaiiaeaiea e ?ac?ua niaaeeiaiey, iaoaieci iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey e
eiio?ieue nei?inoe iioiea.

Naainiaue o?iaaiue ioaa/aao ca auciau oaeaeaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?. Yoi
niaoeeaeueiue iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue niioaaonoaothueie i?ioieieaie eioa?oaen,
i?e eioi?ii aucia i?ia?aiiiie i?ioeaaeo?u i?iecaiaeeony ia iaeiii
eiiiuethoa?a a auiieiaiea – ia ae?oaii, iinea /aai ?acoeueoao
aica?auaaony e aucaaaoae i?ia?aiia oae, neiaii i?ioeaaeo?a auea
auiieiaia eieaeueii. Naainiaue o?iaaiue oaeaea eiio?iee?oao
onoaiiaeaiea, oa/aiea e caaa?oaiea naaina nayce iaaeaeo
acaeiiaeaenoaothueie i?ia?aiiaie, /oi e io?aaeaaony a aai iacaaiee.

I?aaenoaaeoaeueneee o?iaaiue caieiaaony i?aia?aciaaieyie oi?iaoa,
oiaeiaeie , ?aniaeiaeie, oeo?iaaieai e aeaoeo?iaaieai caeanue
inouanoaeyaony i?aia?aciaaiea eneeth/eoaeueii oi?iaoa, a ia eiae/aneie
no?oeoo?u aeaiiuo. Oi anoue i?aaenoaaeyao aeaiiua a oii aeaea e oi?iaoa,
eaeie iaiaoiaeei aeey iineaaeiaai ec auoa eaaeaueo o?iaiae.

Iineaaeiee i?eeeaaeiie o?iaaiue ii ioaa/aao ca eioa?oaen n
iieueciaaoaeai e acaeiiaeaenoaea i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii auiieiyaiuo ia
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo eiiiuethoa?ao. I?aaeinoaaeyaiua oneoae – yeaeo?iiiay
ii/oa eaeaioeoeeaoee iieueciaaoaeae, ia?aaea/a oaeeia e o.i.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 2

Naieo?iaiaaay iiaeaeue OSI aeey i?ioieieia nayce eieaeueiuo naoae

Enoiaey ec auoa i?eaaaeaiiiai e aiaeeca iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
naoaauo oaoiieiaee n/eoaaony iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui eniieueciaaiea
a?oeoaeoo?u Ethernet. Yoa oaoiieiaey ia iaic?eiia aoaeouaa inoaiaony
naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie e iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuae aeey ?aaeecaoeee ii
niioiioaieth oeaia/i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Iaci? i?ioieieia e auai? iniiaiiai i?ioieiea.

Iniiaiuie i?ioieieaie eniieuecoaiuie a eieaeueiuo naoyo yaeythony:

i?ioieie TCP/IP;

i?ioieie NetBEUI;

i?ioieie IPX/SPX e NWLink;

i?ioieie X.25;

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) –
I?iiuoeaiiue noaiaea?oiue iaai? i?ioieieia, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho naycue
a aaoa?iaaiiie n?aaea, oi anoue iaania/eaatho niaianoeiinoue iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ?aciuo oeiia. Niaianoeiinoue – iaeii ec iniiaiuo
i?aeiouanoa ON?/IP, iiyoiio aieueoeinoai EAN iiaeaea?aeeaaao aai. E?iia
oiai, ON?/IP i?aaeinoaaeyao aeinooi e ?ano?nai Interneta, a oaeaea
ia?o?ooece?oaiue i?ioieie aeey naoae ianooaaa i?aaei?eyoey. Iineieueeo
ON?/IP iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia?o?ooecaoeeth, ii iau/ii eniieuecoaony a
ea/anoaa iaaenaoaaiai i?ioieiea. Aeaaiaea?y naiae iiioey?iinoe ON?/IP
noae noaiaea?oii aea – oaeoi aeey iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

ON?/IP eiaao aeaa aeaaiuo iaaeinoaoea: ?acia? e iaaeinoaoi/iay nei?inoue
?aaiou. ON?/IP – ioiineoaeueii aieueoie noae i?ioieieia, eioi?ue iiaeao
aucaaoue i?iaeaiu o MS-DOS eeeaioia. Iaeiaei aeey oaeeo IN, eae Windows
NT eee Windows 95 ?acia? ia yaeyaony i?iaeaiie, a nei?inoue ?aaiou
n?aaieia ni nei?inoueth i?ioieiea IPX/SPX.

NetBEUI

NetBEUI – ?anoe?aiiue eioa?oaen NetBIOS ia?aiia/aeueii NetBIOS e NetBEUI
auee oanii naycaiu e ?anniao?eaaeenue eae iaeei i?ioieie. Caoai
iaeioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaee EAN oae iainiaeee NetBIOS, i?ioieie naainiaiai
o?iaiy, /oi ii oaea ia iia eniieueciaaoueny ia ?yaeo n ae?oaeie
ia?o?ooece?oaiuie o?ainii?oiuie i?ioieieaie. NetBIOS – yoi eioa?oaen
naainiaiai o?iaiy n EAN, eioi?ue aunooiaao a ea/anoaa i?eeeaaeiiai
eioa?oaena n naoueth, Yoio i?ioieie i?aaeinoaaeyao i?ia?aii n?aaenoai
aeey inouanoaeaiey naainia nayce n ae?oaeie naoaauie i?ia?aiiaie. Ii
i/aiue iiioey?ai, oae eae iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iiiaeie i?eeiaeaieyie.
NetBEUI iaaieueoie auno?ue e yooaeoeaiue i?ioieie O?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy,
eioi?ue iinoaaeyaony ni anaie naoaauie i?iaeoeoaie oe?iu Microsoft.
I?aeiouanoaai NetBEUI ioiineony iaaieueoie ?acia? noaea, aunieay
nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii naoe e niaianoeiinoue ni anaie naoyie
Microsoft. Iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie NetBEUI ii ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao
ia?o?ooecaoeeth. Yoi ia?aie/aiea ioiineony ei anai naoyi Microsoft.

O.25

O.25 – iaai? i?ioieieia aeey naoae n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia aai
eniieueciaaee neoaeau eiiiooaoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee niaaeeiyoue
oaeaeaiiua oa?ieiaeu n iyei o?aeiaie.

IPX/SPX e NWLink

IPX/SPX e NWLink – noae i?ioieieia eniieuecoaiue a naoyo NET WARE oe?iu
NOVELL. Eae e NetBEUI, ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoie e auno?ue i?ioieie, ii,
a ioee/ee io NetBEUI ii iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia?o?ooecaoeeth.

NWLink – ?aaeecaoeey IPX/SPX oe?iu Microsoft. Yoi o?ainii?oiue
ia?o?ooece?oaiue i?ioieie.

Enoiaey ec auoa i?eaaaeaiiiai e aiaeeca iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
naoaauo i?ioieieia n/eoaaony iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui eniieueciaaiea
i?ioieiea TCP/IP eae iaeaieaa iieii oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai i?aaeuyaeyaiui
o?aaiaaieyi.

Eaaaeueiua nenoaiu a eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo.

Naaiaeiy iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae a ea/anoaa
n?aaeu ia?aaea/e eniieuecoao i?iaiaea eee eaaaee. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
oeiu eaaaeae, eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho iio?aaiinoyi anaaiciiaeiuo naoa io
aieueoeo aei iaeuo.

A aieueoeinoaa naoae i?eiaiyaony oieueei o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu eaaaeae:

eiaeneaeueiue eaaaeue (coaxial cable);

aeoay ia?a (twisted pair):

iaye?aie?iaaiiay (unshielded);

ye?aie?iaaiiay (shielded);

iioiaieieiiiue eaaaeue, iaeii iiaeiaue, iiiai iiaeiaue (fiber optic).

Ia naaiaeiy naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oei eaaaey e iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuee ii
naiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai – yoi aeoay ia?a a /anoiinoe ye?aie?iaaiiay.
Inoaiiaeiny ia iae aieaa iiae?iaii.

Eaaaeue ye?aie?iaaiiay aeoay ia?a (STP) eiaao iaaeioth iieaoeo, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaao aieueooth caueoo /ai iaye?aie?iaaiiay aeoay ia?a. E?iia
oiai ia?u i?iaiaeia STP iaiioaiu oieueaie. A ?acoeueoaoa ye?aie?iaaiiay
aeoay ia?a iaeaaeaao i?ae?aniie ecieyoeeae, caueuathuae i?aaeaaaaiua
aeaiiua io aiaoieo iiiao. Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi STP iaiueoa
iiaeaa?aeaia aicaeaenoaeth yeaeo?e/aneeo iiiao e iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue
neaiaeu ia aieueoaa ?annoiyiea, a oaeaea iaiueoa eceo/aao e nianoaaiiuo
iiai/iuo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae. E ninoieo ec /aou?ao aeouo ia? iaaeiiai
i?iaiaea. N oeaeueth nieaeaiey acaeiiuo iaaiaeie oaa ne?ooee o anao ia?
?acee/ai. I?iaiaea ia? ?acee/athony oeaaoii ecieyoeee, i?e/ai iaeei ec
ieo ie?aoai oeaeeeii, a ae?oaie aaeiai oeaaoa n iaianaiiie iieinie
oeaaoa ia?u. Oeaao, oaa ne?ooee e aeeaiao? no?iai ii?ie?iaaiu.
Ye?aie?iaaiiay aeoay ia?a niiniaia ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua ni nei?inoueth
aei 100 Iaeo/nae.

Eiiiiiaiou eaaaeueiie nenoaiu.

E eiiiiiaioai eaaaeueiie nenoaiu ioiinyony ianneaiua niaaeeieoaee. Aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey aeoie ia?u e eiiiuethoa?o eniieuecoaony eiiiaeoi?u RJ-45
eiathuea ainaiue eiioaeoia (aeey ?aaio o?aaothony RJ-45 a ye?aia). Aeey
iino?iaiey ?acaeoie eaaaeueiie nenoaiu e a oiaea a?aiy aeey oi?iuaiey
?aaiou n iae o?aaothony neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou.

?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua noieee e iieee, i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iiioaaea eaaaey.
Iie iicaieytho oeaio?aeeciaaiii i?aaieciaaoue iiiaeanoai niaaeeiaiee e
i?e yoii caieiatho aeinoaoi/ii iaei ianoa.

Eiiiooaoeeiiiua iaiaee, nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeiu iaiaeae a oii /enea e
a ye?aia. Eiee/anoai ii?oia iiaeao iaiyoueny io 8 aei 96.

?icaoee, niaaeeieoaee, n iiiiuueth eaaaey niaaeeiythony n
eiiiooaoeeiiiuie iaiaeyie. Iie iaania/eaatho nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aei 100
Iaeo/nae.

Naoaaia iai?oaeiaaiea.

E naoaaiio iai?oaeiaaieth ioiinyony:

naoaaua ea?ou;

eiioeaio?aoi?u;

eiiiooaoi?u;

ia?o?ooecaoi?u;

niaoe iai?oaeiaaiea aeey aeinooia e aeiaaeueiui naoyi.

Naoaaua ea?ou, yaeythony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo eiiiiiaio ethaie
eiiiuethoa?iie naoe. Naoaaua ea?ou aunooiatho a ea/anoaa oece/aneiai
eioa?oaena aeey niaaeeiaiey, iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?ii e naoaaui eaaaeai.
Naoaaay ea?oa anoaaeyaony a naiaiaeiue neio ?anoe?aiey ia iaoa?eineie
ieaoa eiiiuethoa?a e ?acee/athony ii oeio eniieuecoaiiai ?acuaia: ISA,
EISA, PCI.

Iniiaiia iacia/aiea naoaaie ea?ou:

iiaeaioiaea aeaiiuo, iinooiathueo io eiiiuethoa?a, e ia?aaea/a ii
naoaaiio eaaaeth;

ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o;

oi?aaeaiea iioieii aeaiiuo iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?ii e eaaaeueiie nenoaiie.

E?iia oiai, naoaaay ieaoa, i?eieiaao aeaiiua ec eaaaey e ia?aaiaeeo eo a
oi?io, iiiyooth oeaio?aeueiiio i?ioeanni?o eiiiuethoa?a. Oaeaea eaaeaeay
naoaaay ea?oa eiaao oieeaeueiue aae?an (MAC). Naoaaua aae?ana
ii?aaeaeaiu eiieoaoii IEEE, yoio eiieoao cae?aieyao ca eaaeaeui
i?iecaiaeeoaeai iaeee eioa?aae aae?ania. I?iecaiaeeoaee «caoeaatho» yoe
aae?ana a iee?inoaiu naoaaie ea?ou.

Eiioeaio?aoi?, yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiie /anoueth eiiiuethoa?iie naoe a
neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee oiiieiaee «caacaea». E yaeyaony naiui i?inoui
ono?ienoaii i?e nicaeaiee eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae. O iaai ionoonoaoao
aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey e i?eiaiyaony, eae i?aaeei a naoyo iaeuo ioenia
eee iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Eiiiooaoi?, aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aaaeouaai yeaiaioa eiiiuethoa?iie naoe.
Iaania/aiea nayce n aaciaie iaaeno?aeueth eee a?oiiie na?aa?ia ii
aunieinei?inoiui eaiaeai, iiaeao niaaeeiyoue naaiaiou naoe, neoaeeo
oaeaea aeey ecieyoeee o?aoeea a naoe, /oi niinianoaoao aieaa aunieei
nei?inoyi ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Eiiiooaoi?u ?aoatho neaaeothuea
i?iaeaiu:

oaaee/eaatho ?acia?u naoe;

oaaee/eaatho iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe;

ono?aiytho oceea ianoa, iiyaeythueany a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeeeth/aiey
ecauoi/iiai /enea eiiiuethoa?ia e, eae neaaenoaea, aic?anoaiea o?aoeea.

Eiiiooaoi? i?e ?aaioa auiieiyao neaaeothuea aeaenoaey:

«neooaao» aanue o?aoee;

i?iaa?yao aae?ana enoi/ieea e iieo/aoaey iaeaoia Ethernet;

no?ieo oaaeeoeo ia?o?ooecaoeee, ninoiyuoth ec MAN aae?ania;

ia?aaeaao iaeaou Ethernet.

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi eiiiooaoi?u iaeaaeatho iaeioi?ui «eioaeeaeoii»,
iineieueeo eco/atho, eoaea neaaeoao iai?aaeyoue aeaiiua. A ia/aea ?aaiou
oaaeeoea ia?o?ooecaoeee ionoa, ii caoai iia iaiieiyaony e eiioeaio?aoi?
eco/ay yoe aeaiiua ciaao ?aniieiaeaiea eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue eniieueciaaiea eiiiooaoi?ia naiue ia?niaeoeaiue
niinia iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae.

Ia?o?ooecaoi? – yoi yeaiaio eiiiuethoa?iie naoe iauaaeeiythuae
ianeieueei naoaauo naaiaioia n ?acee/iuie i?ioieieaie e a?oeoaeoo?aie.
Ia?o?ooecaoi?u iiaoo auiieiyoue neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

oeeueo?iaaoue e eciee?iaaoue o?aoee;

niaaeeiyoue naaiaiou naoe;

Oaaeeoea aeaiiuo eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a ia?o?ooecaoi?a niaea?aeeo naoaaua
aae?ana. Iia aeeth/aao neaaeothuoth eioi?iaoeeth:

ana ecaanoiua naoaaua aae?ana;

niiniau nayce n ae?oaeie naoyie;

aiciiaeiua iooe iaaeaeo ia?o?ooecaoi?aie;

noieiinoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii ia?o?ooo.

Ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeaiiuo ia?o?ooecaoi? auae?aao iaeeo/oee ia?o?oo aeey
aeaiiuo, n?aaieaay noieiinoue e aeinooiiinoue ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia.
Ia?o?ooecaoi?u o?aaotho niaoeeaeueiie aae?anaoeee: ei iiiyoiu oieueei
iiia?a naoae e aae?ana eieaeueiuo naoaauo ea?o. E oaeaeaiiui
eiiiuethoa?ai ia?o?ooecaoi?u ia?auaoueny ia iiaoo.

Ia?o?ooecaoi?u iiaoo ?aaioaoue ia ni anaie i?ioieieaie, a oieueei n
ia?o?ooece?oaiuie, e iei ioiinyony:

DECnet;

TCP/IP;

IPX/SPX;

OSI;

XNS.

E ia ia?o?ooece?oaiui i?ioieieai ioiinyony:

LAT;

NetBEUI.

Ia?o?ooecaoi?u iauaaeeiytho naoe e iaania/eaatho oeeueo?aoeeth iaeaoia.
Iie oaeaea ii?aaeaeytho iaeeo/oee ia?o?oo aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Ia?aae
i?eiaiaieai ia?o?ooecaoi?ia iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeony, /oi a naoe
ionoonoaotho ia ia?o?ooece?oaiua i?ioieieu.

Eniieueciaaiea ia?o?ooecaoi?ia ii?aaaeaii, anee naoue eiaao auoiae a
aeiaaeueiua naoe eee i?e eniieueciaaiee a ea/anoaa oceiaiai yeaiaioa
naoe, o?iaiy ei?ii?aoeee.

Niaoe iai?oaeiaaieai, iacuaathony niaoeeaeueiia oa?ieiaeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey aeinooia e aeiaaeueiui naoyi. Aieaa iiae?iaiue iaci?
yoiai iai?oaeiaaiey aoaeao i?eaaaeai a neaaeothueo iaoa?eaeao.

Oeiiaua o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iniauaieth e iiaea?iecaoeee oeiiauo
eieaeueiuo oceia — iauaeoia.

Iauea iieiaeaiey

?aciauaiea e iiioaae iai?oaeiaaiey a oeaio?ao NOAe aeieaeiu auoue
auiieiaiu a niioaaonoaee n:

“A?aiaiiuie naieoa?iuie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie aeey ?aaioieeia
au/eneeoaeueiuo oeaio?ia” (a oii /enea: 6 ea.i. ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea n
o/aoii iaeneiaeueiiai /enea iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaioathueo a niaio);

NIeI 2-09-04-87;

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua e auoiaua caeaiey e iiiauaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee”;

“I?aaeeaie ono?ienoaa yeaeo?ionoaiiaie”;

“Eino?oeoeeae ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth caeaiee e iiiauaiee aeey YAI”;

ni?aai/ieeii “Aaiiaioneea ono?ienoaa AON”;

ni?aai/ieeii “Iiioaaeiee nayce”;

ni?aai/ieeii “Noaiaea?ou ii eieaeueiui au/eneeoaeueiui naoyi”;

AINO 11326.2-79, AINO 11326.16-79;

no?oeoo?iie noaiie EAN;

iaiaoiaeeiuie aeieoiaioaie ii iaania/aieth ?aaeeiiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
niaoeeaeueiuie o?aaiaaieyie, i?aaeuyaeyaiuie e
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea (YAO) iauaeoia eioi?iaoeee
niioaaonoaothuae eaoaai?ee e i?aaeienaieyie ia yenieoaoaoeeth.

O?aaiaaiey e n?aaenoaai au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee

Noaiaea?oiuie n?aaenoaaie i?e iniauaiee iauaeoia NOAe yaeythony IYAI
oeia ?N/AO. IYAI iiioe?oaony a noaiaea?oiii nenoaiiii aeiea “caueuaiiii”
n aeeneiaiaeaie aeey aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneia e eaca?iuo eiiiaeo aeeneia
“ND-ROM”. Iniauaaony iaieioeyoi?aie oeia “iuoue” e eeaaeaoo?ie. Ia ana
n?aaenoaa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue
caeeth/aiey ii NI e NE.

Au/eneeoaeueiua ?ano?nu IYAI aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue iaaeaaeiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aiia?aoii – i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa e aa?aioeeiue n?ie
yenieoaoaoeee ia iiaiea 3 (o?ao) eao. Iinea /aai iiaeaa?aaoue
iiaea?iecaoeee eee eaieoaeueiiio ?aiiioo n i?ioiaeaeaieai NI e NE.

Aieinoue iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe aeieaeia auoue ia iaiaa 32Ia, aieinoue
aeanoeiai aeenea aeieaeia auoue ia iaiaa 2Aa, iniauaoueny naoaaie ea?oie
Ethernet, eiaoue ii?ou ?anoe?aiey aeey iiaeeeth/aiey aiaoieo
ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa. Aeaeai iiaenenoaia aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue
?ac?aoaiea 800o600 oi/ae aeey ?aai/eo noaioeee iia?aoi?ia e 1024o786
oi/ae aeey a?aoe/aneeo ?aai/eo noaioeee. *anoioa eaae?iaie ?acaa?oee
aeey iiieoi?a aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa 75 Aoe.

O?aaiaaiey e eiiioieeaoeeiiiiio (naoaaiio) iai?oaeiaaieth

Aiia?aoiue eiiieaen n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeieaeai
iaania/eaaoue iaiai eioi?iaoeeae, eae cae?uoiai oae e ioe?uoiai
oa?aeoa?a. Aace?iaaoueny ia nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaeyo ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee. Ia ana n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue caeeth/aiey ii NI e NE.

Aeey eieaeueiuo naoae iauaeoia NOAe eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue
(EAN) nicaeaaony n i?eiaiaieai oaoiieiaee Ethernet 10/100. Aiia?aoiua
n?aaenoaa EAN aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey
ae?ooaeueiuo naoae ia iaeiii ono?ienoaa (eiiiooaoi?a), iaania/eaaoue
aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey ia?o?ooecaoeeae IP. Eiaoue ano?iaiiua n?aaenoaa
caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia.

Aeey auoiaea a oaaea?aeueiua naoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aeieaeiu
eniieueciaaoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oa?ieiaeueiua ono?ienoaa
iiaeaea?aeeaathuea i?ioieie nayce O.25, eae ii auaeaeaiiui oae e ii
eiiiooe?oaiui eaiaeai nayce.

N oeaeueth caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia ec aeiaaeueiuo naoae
oaaea?aeueiiai ianooaaa aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu
(FIREWALL) niioaaonoaothuaai eeanna.

O?aaiaaiey e nenoaia yeaeo?iieoaiey

Nenoaia yeaeo?iieoaiey iauaeoa NOAe aeieaeia auoue auiieiaia a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie I?aaee ono?ienoaa yeaeo?ionoaiiaie (IOY),
i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e yeaeo?ionoaiiaeai aei 1 eA.

Yeaeo?e/aneea onoaiiaee e eaaaee, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey yeaeo?iieoaiey
iauaeoia NOAe aeieaeiu ?aciauaoueny a i?aaeaeao eiio?iee?oaiie ciiu.
Niiniau e n?aaenoaa cacaieaiey yeaeo?ionoaiiaie iaiaa?eaathony
ioaeaeueii.

Ia iauaeoao NOAe yeaeo?iieoaiea aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny /a?ac
na?oeoeoee?iaaiiua ii o?aaiaaieyi aaciianiinoe eioi?iaoeee naoaaua
iiiaoiiiaeaaeythuea oeeueo?u n oeeueo?aoeeae neaiaeia a ioeaaii
i?iaiaea, eeai n eniieueciaaieai aeoeaiiai caooieaiey.

?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaieoue ia iauaeoao NOAe aeaoo i?iaiaeiua eee /aou?ao
i?iaiaeiua naoaaua iiiaoiiiaeaaeythuea oeeueo?u, ?ann/eoaiiua ia
iiieiaeueiua iai?yaeaiey e oiee a yeaeo?ioeaiyo, n iieinie iiaeaaeaiey
iiiao a aeeaiaciia /anoio 0,02 – 1000IAoe e n aiineiui caoooaieai a
oeacaiiie iieina /anoio ia iaiaa 60 aeA.

Aeaooi?iaiaeiua naoaaua oeeueo?u aeieaeiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny e
iiioe?iaaoueny oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eneeth/eoue iiyaeaiea iaaaaeaiiiai
neaiaea a iooiaeyueo io oeeueo?a i?iaiaeao yeaeo?iieoaiey.

Aeey iniai aaaeiuo /anoae iauaeoa ?aeiiaiaeoainy eniieueciaaiea
aa?aaaoia aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia niioaaonoaothuoth
iio?aaeyaioth iiuiinoue.

Nenoaia cacaieaiey aeieaeia ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

yeaeo?iieoaiea iauaeoia NOAe ieoaiea eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeony ii noaia n
aeooicacaieaiiie iao?aeueth, aeieaeii auiieiyony caioeaiea ei?ionia AO;

yeaeo?e/anee naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie ono?ienoaa AO ia aeieaeiu
cacaieyony ia ?aciua nenoaiu cacaieaiey;

a nenoaiao cacaieaiey ia aeieaeiu ia?aciauaaoueny caieiooua eiioo?u ec
cacaieythueo i?iaiaeia, oei eee ye?aiia;

nii?ioeaeaiea cacaieythuaai ono?ienoaa aeey cacaieaiey ia aeieaeii
i?aauoaoue 4 Iia a ethaia a?aiy aiaea.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 3

Noaia ?acaeaeaiey cacaieaiee i?e yeaeo?iieoaiee iauaeoa io
o?ainoi?iaoi?iie iiaenoaioeee ?aniieiaeaiiie ca i?aaeaeaie EC

O?aaiaaiey e iauanenoaiiiio i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth

Eniieuecoaiua i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeieaeii auoue eeoeaiceiiii
/enoui, niaea?aeaoue ano?iaiiua aiciiaeiinoe iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe e
iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey aeaiiuo. Aoiae a nenoaio iieueciaaoaey aeieaeai
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ?aaeno?aoeeth e aaiae ia?iey. Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia
aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi n i?ia?aiiiui
i?iaeoeoai e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaeaieaa iiioey?iua i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou.
Eiaoue eeoeaice?iaaiiia n?aaenoai caueou io ae?onia.

Aiia?aoiia iaania/aiea, ninoaaiua /anoe

I?ioeanni?u

AMD K6

2 ai?aey 1997 a. aue ioeoeeaeueii i?aaenoaaeai iiaue i?ioeanni? AMD-K6.
I?ioeanni? auioneaaony ii oaoiieiaee 0.35ie?, caoai i?aaeiieaaaaony
ia?aeoe e 0.25ie?, ii oaea n aieaa aunieeie /anoioaie. Ia?aua o?e oeia
i?ioeanni?a E6 eiatho niioaaonoaaiii /anoiou 166, 200 e 233MHz. (nae/an
anoue iiaeeoeeaoeee ia 266MHz e 300MHz, i?iecaiaeeiua ii 0.25ie?
oaoiieiaee). I?ioeanni?u iieiinoueth iiaeaea?aeeaath oaoiieiaeth MMX,
eiatho eyo ia?aiai o?iaiy 64Ea (32Ea ia aeaiiua e 32Ea ia eiiaiaeu),
aeey onoaiiaee a nenoaiioth ieaoo o?aaoaony iaee/ea Socket 7, aeaieiiai
ieoaiey 2.9V/3.2V, e iiaeaea?aeea aeinii oioy au i?ioeanni?a
AMD-K5PR133. I?ioeanni? E6 i?aaeeaaaaony a ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau
Pentium II, ii eiathueiny ?acoeueoaoai oanoe?iaaiey iiae Windows95
K6-233MHz — aiieia aeinoieiay aeueoa?iaoeaa ieaaeoei iiaeaeyi iiaiai
eioaeianeiai i?ioeanni?a. Iiae Windows NT K6/233 iaoiaeeony i?eia?ii ia
iaeiii o?iaia n PentiumPro/200. Ii oanoo ia MMX i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
i?ioeanni? iieacae n?aaieiua ?acoeueoaou n Pentium II, i?e yoii,
i?ie?ooeo aeaeai ii aeaeaao eo/oa. Ia?iiiui i?aeiouanoaii E6 yaeyaony
aai i?eaeaeaoaeueiay oeaia, oae iai?eia? E6/166 — $245.00 i?e ia?oee a
1000 oooe.

Iaiaeiaaaeiui yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi o E6 ono?aiaia aeinaaeiay
iai?eyoiinoue, naycaiiay n E5, eiaaea iaeioi?ua i?ia?aiiu oeia NDiags,
3DStudioMax, Clipper ia caioneaeenue, eeai auaeaaaee ioeaeo aeaeaiey ia
0. Iiaeaea?aeea i?iecaiaeeoaeyie aeinia i?ioeanni?a E6 oaea ?aaeeciaaia.
E6 i?ae?anii ?acaiiyaony e oiaao oiiiaeaoue ia 3.5, yoi ?aaeecoaony i?e
onoaiiaea ia nenoaiiie ieaoa oiiiaeaiey ia 1.5. E?iia oiai, AMD
aiiine?iaae nianoaaiiue /einaoa, eioi?ue iie niae?athony auioneaoue
niaianoii n VIA, iiae iaeiaiiaaieai Am640, iaeeaeaaony /oi a eoiaa yoio
/einao i?aaeinoaaeo oaeea aiciiaeiinoe, eae 100 MHz ii oeia, AGP
(Accelerated Graphics Port), eyoe?oaioth iaiyoue aei 256Ia (eee
aieueoa), ECC (/aoiinoue), o.a. oi /oi Intel ia ?aaeeciaaea a naiai
iineaaeiai (a i?yiii niunea yoiai neiaa, o.e. aeey nenoai ia aaca
Pentium iiaeaea?aeee aieueoa ia aoaeao) /einaoa i430TX.

Alpha i?ioeanni?

A eiioea 1995 aiaea ia ?uiea aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia
i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia niauoea. Auiouaiiue eiiiaieae Intel i?ioeanni?
Pentium Pro, ?aaioathuee ia /anoioa 200 MHz, iaiaiae (ia iia?aoeeyo n
oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie) ana nouanoaiaaaoea ia oio iiiaio RISC-i?ioeanni?u
(Alpha, PowerPC, SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC).

Eeaea?noai Intel, iaeiaei, auei iaaeieaei: nionoy anaai ianeieueei
ianyoeaa oe?ia Digital aa?ioea naaa iaeueio ia?aainoaa, eioi?ay
i?eiaaeeaaeaea ae n 1992 aiaea. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y auioneo
i?ioeanni?a Alpha AXP 21164A n oaeoiaie /anoioie 333 MHz. Nae/an au?
o?oaeii aeaeaoue eaeea-eeai na?ue?ciua i?iaiicu, ii iioiaea, /oi Intel
a?yae ee niiaa niiaeao au?aaoueny aia??ae a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy.

A ia?oa i?ioeiai aiaea oaeoiaay /anoioa i?ioeanni?a 21164A aeinoeaea
600MHz; i?eia?ii a yoi aea a?aiy aue aiiine?iaai i?ioeanni? 21264 n
/anoioie 600MHz e aieaa, ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?aainoiaeyuee naiaai
i?aaeoanoaaiieea ii/oe a aeaa ?aca (i?e ?aaiie oaeoiaie /anoioa).

I?ioeanni?

Alpha AXP — 64-?ac?yaeiue RISC-i?ioeanni? (Digital iinoiyiii
iiae/??eeaaao, /oi yoi ia i?inoi 32–?ac?yaeiay a?oeoaeoo?a, ?anoe?aiiay
aei oanoeaeanyoe /aou??o aeo, a eiaiii «enoeiiay» 64-?ac?yaeiinoue), ia
e?enoaeea eioi?iai ?aciauathony aieaa aeaayoe ieeeeiiia o?aicenoi?ia (ec
eioi?uo ii/oe 2 ieeeeiia i?eoiaeyony ia yae?i, inoaeueiua — ia
eyo–iaiyoue). N?aaee iniaaiiinoae noieo ioiaoeoue aeaayoenooiai/aoue
eiiaaea? aeey iia?aoeee n ieaaathuae oi/eie, naienooiai/aoue eiiaaea?
aeey iia?aoeee n oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie; 16-eeeiaaeoiue eyo ia?aiai o?iaiy
n i?yiui ioia?aaeaieai (ii 8 eeeiaaeo aeey eiiaiae e aeaiiuo);
96-eeeiaaeoiue o??oeaiaeueiue /anoe/ii annioeeaoeaiue eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy
(oaeaea ?aciau?i ia e?enoaeea); iiaeaea?aeea eyo-iaiyoe o?aoueaai o?iaiy
(io iaeiiai aei oanoeaeanyoe /aou??o iaaaaaeo); 128-aeoiay oeia aeinooia
e iaiyoe; 32 oeaei/eneaiiuo ?aaeno?a e 32 ?aaeno?a n ieaaathuae oi/eie.
Ana iia?aoeee iaae aeaiiuie i?iecaiaeyony a ?aaeno?ao; eiiaiaeu
i?ioeanni?a — 32–aeoiua, aeinoaoi/ii i?inoua e eiatho oieoeoee?iaaiiue
oi?iao.

A?aiy aeinooia e eyo–iaiyoe ia?aiai o?iaiy ninoaaeyao anaai iaeei oaeo;
aoi?iai o?iaiy — eae ieieioi aeaa oaeoa. Ca iaeei oaeo, enoaoe,
i?ioeanni? iiaeao auiieiyoue aei /aou??o eiiaiae. E?iia oiai, iaeioi?ua
i?eaeiaeueiua ?aoaiey iicaieeee i/aiue yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue
eiiaaea?u, i?aeoe/anee oa?aa i?inoie ec-ca ionoonoaey iia?aiaeia.

I?ioeanni? Alpha eiaao ?yae ioee/ee io ae?oaeo RISC–i?ioeanni?ia. O iaai
aeinoaoi/ii «neeueiue» aeie iia?aoeee n oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie, /oi ia
neeoeii oa?aeoa?ii aeey a?oeoaeoo?u RISC (yoi naycaii n ia?aaioeie
eneeth/eoaeueiuo ninoiyiee i?e a?eoiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeeyo; oe?ia Digital
oaeaeinue iaieoe yoi ia?aie/aiea). Ia naiii aeaea, oeaei/eneaiiuo aeieia
aeaa — iaeei ioaa/aao ca iia?aoeee naeaeaa e oiiiaeaiey, ae?oaie
ia?aaaouaaao eiiaiaeu aaoaeaiey. Ono?ienoai aeey ?aaiou n ieaaathuae
oi/eie oiaea ninoieo ec aeaoo aeieia: iaeei caieiaaony oiiiaeaieyie,
ae?oaie auiieiyao eiiaiaeu neiaeaiey, aeaeaiey e aaoaeaiey. Anoue e
ae?oaea eioa?aniua iniaaiiinoe: iai?eia?, iaee/ea oaeiaiuo eino?oeoeee
?aaiou ni no?ieaie; ca iaeio eiiaiaeo iiaeao ia?aaaouaaoueny n?aco 8
aaeo.

Ia?aua i?ioeanni?u na?ee 21164 i?iecaiaeeeenue ii 0.5–iee?iiiie
oaoiieiaee (nae/an — 0.35 iee?ii) e ?aaioaee ia /anoioao 266 e 300MHz
(nae/an — aei 600MHz). Enoaoe, oaeea aunieea /anoiou iaecaaaeii
aucuaatho i?iaeaiu n ioaiaeii oaiea: ?annaeaaaiay iiuiinoue o
i?ioeanni?a n /anoioie 366MHz aeinoeaaao 28 Aaoo (aeey aieueoeo /anoio —
aeiiieieoaeueiua 5 Aaoo ia 66MHz, o.a. 38 Aaoo aeey 500MHz e o.ae.).
Iaeiaei Digital ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia aeinoeaiooii, e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
?ac?aaaouaaao iiaua nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iicaieyo iiaeiyoue
oaeoiaoth /anoioo i?ioeanni?a aei 700–800MHz aeaaea i?e nouanoaothuae
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa AEN. Aeey n?aaiaiey: PentiumPro n eyo–iaiyoueth
1Mb ?annaeaaao aei 47 Aaoo (e yoi i?e oaeoiaie /anoioa anaai 200MHz);
Pentium II i?e /anoioa 300MHz — 43 Aaooa.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea auionea 21164, oe?ia Digital (niaianoii n
Mitsubishi) ?ac?aaioaea i?ioeanni? 21164PC. N oeaeueth nieaeaiey
naaanoieiinoe ec iaai oa?aee eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy (96 eeeiaaeo),
eiiiaine?iaaa yoi oaaee/aieai eyoa eiiaiae n ainueie aei oanoiaaeoeaoe
eeeiaaeo; i?e yoii eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey aiaoiaai eyoa
aoi?iai o?iaiy: io 512Kb aei 4Mb. Eiee/anoai o?aicenoi?ia ia e?enoaeea
oiaiueoeeinue aei o??o n iieiaeiie ieeeeiiia. Ca iaiueooth oeaio,
anoanoaaiii, au iieo/aaoa e iaiueooth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue: aei 14.3
SPECint95 e 17.0 SPECfp95; oai ia iaiaa, yoi an? ?aaii cia/eoaeueii
aieueoa, /ai iiaeao aeaoue PentiumPro…

21164PC i?aaeiacia/ai aeey «ianniaiai» ?uiea iaaei?iaeo ?aai/eo noaioeee
($2000 – $5000). Niaeo? aiciiaeiuo i?eiaiaiee aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?ai:
ioeueoeiaaeea a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie, web–na?aa?u, i?aaiecaoeey
aeaeaieiioa?aioeee, CAD/CAM, 3D-a?aoeea, iaeeiaeiue aeaeaiiiioaae. I?e
?ac?aaioea yoiai i?ioeanni?a Digital iineaaeiaaea «ii noiiai» Intel e
aaaea aeiiieieoaeueiua eino?oeoeee aeey ?aaiou n aeaeaiaeaiiuie, /oi
iicaieyao aeinoe/ue i?ae?anioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia aeaeiii?annee
aeaeai (MPEG-2): /anoioa 30 eaae?ia a naeoiaeo aeinoeaaaony aac
aeiiieieoaeueiiai nii?ioeanni?a eee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie aeaeaiieaou.

Aieueoa aiaea iacaae Digital iiaeienaea niaeaoaiea n oe?iie Samsung,
niaeanii eioi?iio iineaaeiyy iieo/eea i?aaa ia i?iecaiaenoai i?ioeanni?a
Alpha 21164A ia nianoaaiiuo caaiaeao e iiae nianoaaiiie oi?aiaie ia?eie.
Oioy eiiiaiey Samsung iiea oieueei ?acai?a/eaaao i?iecaiaenoai (a 1997
aiaeo ieaie?iaaeinue auionoeoue anaai /aou?a ouny/e, a a 1998 — ieiei
noa ouny/ i?ioeanni?ia), iia oai ia iaiaa oaea ia/aea i?iaiaeeoue
ianne?iaaiioth ?aeeaio a i?anna, ?annueeo ia?acoeia iee?inoai naiei
ia?oia?ai e aeaaea ia?aciaaea iiae?acaeaeaiea, eioi?ia aoaeao
caieiaoueny auioneii aeaoaauo eiiiuethoa?ia ia aaca i?ioeanni?ia Alpha
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Samsung onoaiiaeea ia naie i?ioeanni?u oeaiu
nouanoaaiii aieaa ieceea, /ai Digital e ia/aea auione nianoaaiiuo
iaoa?eineeo ieao PC 164LX, eiiee ieao io Digital.

Eiaaony aiaeiae/iia niaeaoaiea e n oe?iie Mitsubishi, eioi?ay, iaeiaei,
ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai i?ioeanni?ia iiea ia ia/aea, iaeeaeay
ieii/aoaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea.

Iaoa?eineea ieaou

A ioee/ea io Intel, Digital i?eaea?aeeaaaony aieaa «cae?uoie» iieeoeee a
?ani?ino?aiaiee naiae ieaooi?iu. Eioi?iaoeey i eiiieaeoao iee?inoai,
iiaeaea?aeeaathueo i?ioeanni? Alpha, oioy e ?aciauaia ia naeoa Digital,
ii, ii aeaiiui ec iacaaeneiuo enoi/ieeia, niaea?aeeo ?yae iaoi/iinoae e
(aiciiaeii, aianaiiuo niaoeeaeueii) ioeaie, /oi aeaeaao aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeaiaoe/iui ?ac?aaioeo iaoa?eineeo ieao o?aoueeie oe?iaie. Iieioth
eioi?iaoeeth iieo/eoue aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii aeaaea aeey ia?oia?ia
Digital. OEM–ia?oia?u oaeaea aanueia ia?aie/aiu a naiai auai?a — iiuiua
ieaou aeey ?aai/eo noaioeee e na?aa?ia ei ia iinoaaeythony.

Eoae, eaeea ieaou niiaeao eniieueciaaoue, neaaeai, ?inneeneay oe?ia,
anee iia caoi/ao caiyoueny «ioaa?oi/iie» nai?eie eiiiuethoa?ia ia aaca
i?ioeanni?a Alpha?

Ieaoa AlphaPC164 oe?iu Digital. Auioneaaony a noaaoai a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
iiioey?iui oi?iaoa ATX, ii ia iieiinoueth niioaaonoaoao yoiio
noaiaea?oo. Ai–ia?auo, ia ?acuaia ieoaiey ionoonoaoao neaiae «Power
Good»; ec-ca yoiai ia enoi/ieea ieoaiey n?aaaouaaao caueoa, e ii
aaoiiaoe/anee aueeth/aaony iaiaaeeaiii iinea aeeth/aiey. Aaeiaaaie, ia
ieaoa ionoonoaoao ?acuai aeey iiaeniaaeeiaiey aueeth/aoaey ieoaiey, /oi
oaeaea ia neeoeii oi?ioi, oae eae ia iiiaeo ATX–ei?ionao ionoonoaoao
iauee aueeth/aoaeue ieoaiey. E iineaaeiee — nianai iaeeee ii n?aaiaieth
n i?aaeuaeoueie — iaaeinoaoie: ?acu?iu ii?oia, iuoe e eeaaeaoo?u
?aniieiaeaiu ia oae, eae o noaiaea?oiuo ATX–ieao.

A inoaeueiii aea ieaoa ia ?aaeeinoue noaiaea?oia e niaianoeia n «ie?ii
ia?niiaeie». Aeaa ?acuaia IDE, ?acuai aeey iiaeeeth/aiey
oeiiie-aeeneiaiaea, aeaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo e iaeei ia?aeeaeueiue ii?o,
PS/2–niaianoeiua eeaaeaoo?a e iuoue — /oi, a iauai–oi, ia oaeeaeoaeueii,
oae eae eniieuecoaony iee?inoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa Intel e SMC. *aou?a
?acuaia noaiaea?oa PCI, aeaa ec ieo 64–?ac?yaeiuo (oe?ia Intel i
iiaeaea?aeea PCI64 iiea ia cayaeea, e iiea aaeeinoaaiiay ia?niiaeea n
oaeie oeiie — Micron Powerdigm XSU ia aaca iaai?a iee?inoai Samurai).
Eyo-iaiyoue 1 eee 2 iaaaaaeoa aeey PC — ?aaeeinoue, a aeey RISC–ieaooi?i
nianai iaiiiai. Enoaoe, «aeey naay» Digital i?iecaiaeeo ieaou n
ainaiueth e aeaaea n oanoiaaeoeaoueth iaaaaaeoaie eyo–iaiyoe (a iiaeao e
aieueoa — iiaeaea?aeeaaaony–oi aei 64MB) — ii eo ia i?iaeaao. E, naiia
aeaaiia — 8 ?acuaiia aeey 72–eiioaeoiuo SIMM–iiaeoeae. Aeey oaaee/aiey
nei?inoe iaiaia iaaeaeo iia?aoeaiie e eyo–iaiyoueth eniieuecoaony
256-?ac?yaeiay oeia, oae /oi aeey iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?eaeaony onoaiiaeoue a ieaoo ana ainaiue iiaeoeae
iaiyoe. Iiaeii ia?aie/eoueny «anaai eeoue» 128–?ac?yaeiie oeiie e
onoaiiaeoue 4 iiaeoey, ii neoieoueny ooo ia noieo — iaiyoue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony oieueei «iau/iay», ni no?aie/iui aeinooiii (oae
iacuaaaiay fast page, FPM), a ioee/ea io noaiaea?oiie aeey
Pentium-eiiiuethoa?ia iaiyoe n «?anoe?aiiui auaiaeii aeaiiuo» (EDO) eee
neio?iiiie (SDRAM).

N aeaeaiaaeaioa?aie, SCSI–ieaoaie e i?i/eie ono?ienoaaie, nei?aa anaai,
na?ue?ciuo i?iaeai ia aicieeiao: a ninoaa Windows NT 4.0 aoiaeeo
aieueoeinoai iaiaoiaeeiuo ae?aeaa?ia. I?iaeaiu iiaoo aicieeiooue ?acaa
/oi n nianai iiauie ieaoaie — iiea eeoue iaiiiaea i?iecaiaeeoaee ieao
auioneatho ae?aeaa?u aeey aa?nee NT/Alpha.

Ieaoa AlphaPC 164LX, iiyaeaoayny a naioya?a 1997 aiaea, eniieuecoao
iiaue iaai? iee?inoai, eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaao neio?iiioth
aeeiaie/aneoth iaiyoue (SDRAM) e i?ioeanni? n /anoioie aei 600MHz, ii
aeaaiia — iia ai?acaei aieueoa niioaaonoaoao noaiaea?oo ATX, oae /oi
iienaiiuo auoa i?iaeai ia aicieeaao. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e
oanoe?iaaiee ia iaeiiiioi/iuo i?eeiaeaieyo e «n/aoiuo» caaea/ao
nouanoaaiii aic?inea. I?aaaea «noa?ay» ieaoa auno?aa ia na?aa?iuo
i?eeiaeaieyo aeaaiaea?y iienaiiie auoa 256–?ac?yaeiie iaiyoe (ia
LX–ieaoa iia 128–?ac?yaeiay).

Ieaie?oaony oaeaea auione ieaou AlphaPC164UX — aieueoa ?acuaiia aeey
?anoe?aiey iaiyoe, auoa iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua oaeoiaua /anoiou (aei 800
IAoe), e eioaa?e?iaaiiua ia ieaoa Ethernet 10/100 e UltraWideSCSI
aaeaioa?u.

Anoue aua ianeieueei iaaieueoeo oe?i, auioneathueo ieaou aeey
i?ioeanni?a Alpha — Alta Technology, Aspen, Polywell — ii i?e aeeaeaeoai
?anniio?aiee iie ana ieacaeenue «eiieyie» ieao Digital. Noaey ii oiio,
/oi ?aniieiaeaiea eiiiiiaio ia ieaoa niaiaaeaao, ecaioiaeaiu iie ana ii
aeieoiaioaoeee, iieo/aiiie io Digital, a oi e i?inoi — oe?iu caeoiatho
naio ieaoo, iee?inoaiu, «?aniaeaatho» eo e aeatho «naia» iacaaiea.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iiiaea oe?iu aiiine?iaaee «i?eaeiaeueiua» ieaou aua
iieaiaea iacaae, ie iaeia oae e ia i?enooieea e eo eiiia?/aneiio auioneo
— neacuaathony, ii-aeaeeiiio, neiaeiinoue oaoiieiaee, aunieea oaeoiaua
/anoiou e aunieea o?aaiaaiey Digital e na?oeoeoee?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue

Ioeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe — aeaei aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia. Nianoaaiii,
auaanoe iaeoth «aaniethoioth» aaee/eio nei?inoe ?aaiou i?ioeanni?a
aiiaua i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii; neeoeii iiiaia caaeneo io iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiu, niaoeeoeee i?eeiaeaiee e o.ae. Aeey n?aaiaiey nenoai,
?aaioathueo iiae Windows 95 e Windows NT, iau/ii eniieuecotho oanou io
Ziff-Davis: ZD WinBench e ZD WinStone. Iie iicaieytho i?ioanoe?iaaoue
aanue eiiieaen a oeaeii, nicaeaaay oneiaey, iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiiua e
«?aaeueiui», o.a. oai, a eioi?uo ?aaioaao «n?aaeiee iieueciaaoaeue».

Iaeiaei, oaeea oanou niaa?oaiii iai?eaiaeiu aeey n?aaiaiey ?aciuo
i?ioeanni?ia, ?aaioathueo a ?aciuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao. Caeanue
aieueoa iiaeoiaeeo iaai? iaeeo «on?aaei?iiuo» oanoia, eaaei ia?aiineiuo
ia ethaoth ieaooi?io; oaeiauie yaeythony SPECint95 (aeey iia?aoeee n
oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie) e SPECfp95 (aeey iia?aoeee n ieaaathuae oi/eie).

Oeeo?u aia/aoeytho: 18 SPECint95 e 27 SPECfp95 aeey 21164–600; 40
SPECint95 e 60 SPECfp95 aeey 21264–600. Aeey n?aaiaiey: i?ioeanni?
Pentium II n /anoioie 333MHz e eyo-iaiyoueth 512Kb iieacuaaao ieiei 13
ia oanoa SPECint e 9 ia SPECfp.

Oe?ia Aspen Systems, Inc., iinoaaeythuay ?aai/ea noaioeee ia aaca Alpha,
i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuea aeaiiua:

SPECint95 SPECfp95

Aspen Systems

Alpha 21064, 275 MHz 4.24 6.29

Alpha 21164PC, 400MHz 10.4 14.2

Alpha 21164PC, 466 MHz 11.0 15.0

Alpha 21164PC, 500MHz 12.6 16.1

Alpha 21164, 266MHz 7.7 9.9

Alpha 21164, 300MHz 8.7 11.2

Alpha 21164, 333MHz 9.2 13.2

Alpha 21164, 366MHz 11.3 14.5

Alpha 21164, 400MHz 10.4 14.2

Alpha 21164, 433MHz 11.25* 18.3

Alpha 21164, 500MHz 15.6 22.5

Alpha 21164, 533MHz 16.6* 24.0*

Alpha 21164, 566MHz 17.6* 25.5*

Alpha 21164, 600MHz 18.0 27.0

Alpha 21164, 633MHz 19.0* ** 28.5* **

Alpha 21164, 667MHz 20.1* ** 30.0* **

Alpha 21264, 500MHz 33.3* ** 50.00* **

Alpha 21264, 600MHz 40.0* ** 60.00* **

Intel

Pentium II 233 MHz 512K cache 9.47 7.31

Pentium II 266 MHz 512K cache 10.8 7.98

Pentium II 300 MHz 512K cache 11.7 8.49

Pentium II 333 MHz 512K cache 12.8 9.25

SUN

UltraSPARC II 167 MHz 6.39 11.8

UltraSPARC II 250 MHz 7.88 14.7

UltraSPARC II 300 MHz 12.1 15.5

Silicon Graphics

R5000 180 MHz (O2) 4.8 5.4

R5000 200 MHz (O2) 5.4 5.7

R10000 175 MHz (Octane) 8.4 15.5

R1000 195 MHz (Octane) 9.3 17.0

Hewlett-Packard

8000 180 MHz 11.8 20.2

8200 220 MHz 15.5* 25.0*

* I?eaioe?iai/ii

** Au? ia iinoaaeyaony

E?iia oiai, eioa?aniu ?acoeueoaou neaaeothueo oanoia:

Oano 1 — iaaeeaiiay oeeueo?aoeey ea?oeiee ?acia?ii 512×512 (ianea
?acia?ii 7×7).

Oano 2 — auno?ia i?aia?aciaaiea Oo?uea (2048×2048).

Oano 3 e Oano 4 — iaai? ooieoeee ia?aaioee neaiaeia, aeiaieueii /anoi
ano?a/athueeny a nenoaiao ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie (iiiai iia?aoeee n
ieaaathuae oi/eie, a oii /enea auciau o?eaiiiiao?e/aneeo ooieoeee).

Ana a?aiaia aeaiu a ieeeenaeoiaeao.

Pentium MMX 200 Pentium II 300 Alpha 21164A-500 (native) Alpha
21164A-500 (FX!32)

Oano 1 177 138 86 420

Oano 2 13,8 6,1 2,8 3,9

Oano 3 0,055 0,049 0,041 0,116

Oano 4 3,116 1,115 0,673 0,990

Oanoe?iaaiea aeey Pentium MMX i?ioiaeeei ia eiiiuethoa?a n iaoa?eineie
ieaoie ASUS TX97E, i?ioeanni? Pentium-200 MMX, 64Mb SDRAM, 512Kb cache,
Windows 95 OSR2; eiiieeyoi?: Intel Optimizing compiler, aoiaeyuee a
ninoaa Borland C++ 5.01.

I?ioeanni? Pentium II aue onoaiiaeai ia iaoa?eineie ieaoa Intel AL440LX
n 64Mb SDRAM, 512Kb cache; eiiieeyoi?: Intel C/C++ Compiler 2.4.

Alpha: iaoa?eineay ieaoa AlphaPC164, i?ioeanni? 21164A-500, 1024Kb
cache, 128Mb FP DRAM; eiiieeyoi?: Visual C++ 5.0 (RISC Edition).

Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi aa?eaio aeey Intel aeiaieueii
ouaoaeueii iioeiece?iaaeny n iiiiuueth iaeaoa VTune n oeaeueth
iaeneiaeueii caa?oceoue eiiaaea? Pentium (eino?oeoeee MMX, i?aaaea, ia
eniieueciaaeenue). Aa?eaio aeey i?ioeanni?a Alpha aue iieo/ai i?inoie
ia?aeiiieeyoeeae (ia n/eoay iaaieueoeo eciaiaiee, naycaiiuo n caia?aie
a?aiaie), oae /oi ?aca?au aeey iioeiecaoeee eiathony (i?eiaiaiea aeaaea
aeiaieueii noa?uo iaoaiaoe/aneeo aeaeeioae io Digital, ?ac?aaioaiiuo a
1993 aiaeo au? aeey Windows NT 3.1, aea?o aeiiieieoaeueiue auea?uo aei
15%).

Iineaaeiee noieaaoe a oaaeeoea iieacuaaao a?aiy auiieiaiey ia Alpha
oanoia, neiiieee?iaaiiuo aeey i?ioeanni?a Intel, o.a. a ?aaeeia
yioeyoeee. ?acoeueoaou aeinoaoi/ii i?eee/iua; ianeieueei ii?oeo ea?oeio
oieueei ia?aue oano — aeaei a oii, /oi eniieuecoaiua a i?i ianneau
aeaiiuo ia oiauathony ai aioo?aiithth eyo–iaiyoue).

A eaai?aoi?ee aeo?iaea BYTE (ni. «Low-Cost Alpha Offers Cheap Power»,
February 1998) aue i?iaaae?i n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec iineaaeieo iiaeaeae
io Micron (Powerdigm XSU) e Hewlett-Packard (Kayak XU), iino?iaiiuo ia
aaca aeaoo i?ioeanni?ia Pentium II, e ?aai/ae noaioeee «ia/aeueiiai
o?iaiy» io Microway (Scream’n Demon-SX 533) ia aaca Alpha 21164PC. I?e
oii, /oi iineaaeiyy aeaoaaea naieo eiieo?aioia aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca,
iia n eaaeinoueth inoaaeea eo iicaaee, auiieiea oano Lightwave 3D ca 683
naeoiaeu, a oi a?aiy eae Micron e HP iio?aoeee ia iaai 833 e 842
naeoiaeu, niioaaonoaaiii. E aeey n?aaiaiey — ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua ia
i?ioeanni?a Alpha 21164A: 511 naeoiae i?e /anoioa 600MHz e 594 naeoiaeu
i?e /anoioa 533MHz.

N auioneii eiiiaieae Intel i?ioeanni?a Merced neooaoeey a?yae ee
eciaieony. Yoio i?ioeanni? e oae oaea iiacaeuaaao ia aeaa aiaea;
iaeeaeaaony, /oi ii aoaeao eiaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ii?yaeea 40
SPECint. Alpha ia?anaeoo yoio aa?uea? oaea eaoii iuiaoiaai aiaea; a e
iiiaioo auoiaea Merced (i?eia?ii /a?ac aiae) Digital e Samsung aoaeoo
eiaoue i?ioeanni? Alpha 21364, n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth ii?yaeea
130–160 SPECint.

Enoaoe, ii/oe ana eaae?u iineaaeiaai aieeeaoaeneiai aeieaanoa?a
«Oeoaiee» ia?aaaouaaeenue ia Alpha–noaioeeyo — 200 eiiiuethoa?ia io
Digital ?aaioaee 24 /ana a nooee a oa/aiea aeaoo ianyoeaa iiae
oi?aaeaieai IN Linux64. Aaeeeieaiiua niaoeyooaeou a iineaaeieo yieciaeao
oe?iei ecaanoiiai na?eaea «Aaaeeii-5» oiaea noaee aiciiaeiuie oieueei
aeaaiaea?y iiuiinoe i?ioeanni?a Alpha.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nouanoaoao aieaa o??o ouny/ «?iaeiuo» i?eeiaeaiee
aeey eiiiuethoa?ia ia aaca i?ioeanni?ia Alpha, ?aaioathueo iiae
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie Windows NT (Softimage, AutoCad, Lotus Notes,
LightWave 3D), e eo /enei iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony. Ia web–na?aa?a
Digital iiaeii n e?aeinoueth i?iaa?eoue, ia?aianaia ee oa eee eiay
i?ia?aiia ia ieaooi?io Alpha; iieiue nienie i?eeiaeaiee iiaeii iieo/eoue
io DIGITAL Partner Applications Catalog

Iaeioi?ie iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth noae iaaeaaiee ioeac oe?iu Autodesk io
auionea iiauo aa?nee AutoCad (ia/eiay n aa?nee 14) aeey yoie ieaooi?iu;
ii neiaai i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?iu, 240000 Alpha–nenoai (a eiaiii noieueei
auei i?iaeaii Digital ca iineaaeiee aiae) — yoi neeoeii iaei.

Iaeiaei ?anno?aeaaoueny ia noieo. Digital auionoeea i?iaeoeo FX!32
(?ani?ino?aiyaony aanieaoii), iicaieythuee caioneaoue ia Alpha–noaioeeyo
(?aaioathueo iiae Windows NT) i?eeiaeaiey aeey DOS, Win16 e Win32
(Intel).

FX!32 — yoi ia i?inoi yioeyoi?. Aoaeo/e i?ieinoaeee?iaaiiui, ii
ioneaaeeaaao caione «/oaeeo» i?eeiaeaiee e yioee?oao i?ioeanni? Intel
oieueei i?e ia?aii eo caionea, iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aaiaey eiiaiaeu aeey
Intel a «?iaeiie» eiae Alpha. Iinea oiai, eae i?ia?aiia caeai/eaaao
auiieiaiea, eiae aeiaieueii ouaoaeueii iioeiece?oaony. I?e aeaeueiaeoeo
caioneao auiieiyaony oaea «?iaeiie» Alpha–eiae. Digital ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao ia 21164 aeinoe/ue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe,
n?aaieiie n PentiumPro–200, /oi nianai iaieioi. N niaianoeiinoueth,
enoaoe, i?iaeai ii/oe iao: neaaeai, Microsoft Office 97, ?aaioaao iiae
Windows NT (Alpha) aeaaea iaae?aeiaa, /ai iiae Windows 95 (a nei?ii
a?aiaie, enoaoe, Microsoft ieaie?oao auionoeoue anee ia iieiue Office,
oi eae ieieioi Word 97 e Excel 97 aeey ieaooi?iu Alpha). Aeaaea oaeea
«iiino?u», eae 3D Studio Max e Adobe Photoshop 4.0, ?aaioatho iiae FX!32
eneeth/eoaeueii oi?ioi. I?iaeaiu, eiia/ii aea anoue, ii eo iaiiiai e iie
a i?eioeeia ?aoaaiu. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi yoa oaoiieiaey aoaeao ano?iaia a
oeiaeueioth aa?neth Windows NT 5.0.

?ac?aaio/eee i?eeiaeaiee aeey Windows NT oiaea ia eniuouaatho
o?oaeiinoae i?e ia?aiina naieo i?ia?aii ia Alpha: Microsoft iaaeaaii
auionoeea Visual C++ v.5.0 e aeaaea Visual Basic v.5.0 (RISC edition).
Auoae oaeaea e Digital Visual Fortran, ?aiaa ecaanoiue eae Microsoft
Fortran PowerStation — Microsoft iieiinoueth ia?aaeaea aai oe?ia Digital
(aeeth/ay Intel–aa?neth). Iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi i?inoie ia?aeiiieeyoeee
enoiaeiuo oaenoia iau/ii auaaao aeinoaoi/ii (iethn iaeioi?ua «iaei/e» —
iai?eia?, ?aciua ?acia?u no?aieoe iaiyoe o i?ioeanni?ia Intel e Alpha);
ii?aaeae?iiua neiaeiinoe aucuaaao oieueei ia?aiin kernel–mode
ae?aeaa?ia, ii e yoa i?iaeaia ?aoaaia (iiaeii, iai?eia?,
ainiieueciaaoueny oneoaaie Microsoft Porting Lab eee DEC Migration Lab).

Oai ia iaiaa «?iaeiie» iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie aeey i?ioeanni?a Alpha
yaeyaony an?–oaee UNIX. A ioee/ea io NT, UNIX — iieiinoueth
64-?ac?yaeiay nenoaia, a yoi iaiaeiaaaeii aeey iaeioi?uo i?eeiaeaiee
(32–?ac?yaeiay aae?anaoeey a Windows NT iicaieyao aea?aeaoue a iaiyoe
«anaai» 4Gb aeaiiuo, e yoi aeinoaoi/ii na?ue?ciia ia?aie/aiea aeey
nenoai oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo e ?yaea ae?oaeo i?eeiaeaiee).
Neaaeothuay aa?ney NT aoaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue 64–?ac?yaeiua aae?ana (VLM
— Very Large Memory), ii enoeiii 64–?ac?yaeiie aoaeao oieueei NT 6.0.
Ai?i/ai, aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae iiaoo ia yoii ia aaniieieoueny;
ieaeai?eaaae?iiua aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi nouanoaaiiie ?acieoeu a
nei?inoe ?aaiou iiae Digital UNIX e Windows NT ia iaaethaeaaony
(oanoe?iaaeenue ?aai/ea noaioeee Digital Personal Workstation; iiaeaee
433a, 433au, 500a, 500au, 600a, e 600au — ia?aua o?e oeeo?u icia/atho
oaeoiaoth /anoioo i?ioeanni?a, “a” – Alpha, “u” – Unix):

SPECint_base95

CPU MHz NT Unix Ratio

Alpha 21164 433 12.2 12.1 101%

Alpha 21164 500 13.9 13.7 101%

Alpha 21164 600 16.3 16.0 102%

SPECfp_base95

CPU MHz NT Unix Ratio

Alpha 21164 433 15.3 16.9 91%

Alpha 21164 500 16.5 18.0 92%

Alpha 21164 600 18.4 19.9 92%

Aoaeouaa

Ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea oaeouaai aiaea aeieaeii ia/aoueny i?iecaiaenoai
i?ioeanni?a 21264 (EV6) — ii oie aea 0.35–iee?iiiie oaoiieiaee, /oi e
21164; eiee/anoai o?aicenoi?ia ia ieiuaaee 302 ii2 — aieaa iyoiaaeoeaoe
ieeeeiiia; aioo?aiiyy eyo–iaiyoue aoaeao ?anoe?aia aei 128 eeeiaaeo
(2×64), a /anoioa ia?auaiey e iae aeinoeaiao 333MHz (i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue — aei 5.2GBps). Aiiine?iaai e iiaue iaai? iee?inoai 21272
«Tsunami», eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaao iaeei eee aeaa i?ioeanni?a 21264,
iaeio eee aeaa oeiu iaiyoe (256-aeo, 83MHz, SDRAM) e aeaa ia?aeeaeueiuo
64–?ac?yaeiuo oeiu PCI (i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue — aei 2.6 GBps).

Noa?a i?eiaiaiey nenoai ia aaca Alpha i?ioeanni?ia

O/eouaay ioiioaiea oeaia/ea/anoai nenoai ia aaca Aeueou, iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iie niiaoo iioanieoue i?iaeoeoeeth Intel, iniaaiii
ia ?uiea ianoieueiuo ?aai/eo noaioeee (a na?aa?a au/eneeoaeueiay
iiuiinoue i?ioeanni?a ia yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuae, ai?acaei aieueoa
caaeneo io i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe aeeneiaie e naoaaie iiaenenoaiu).

O/eouaay aei?iaiaecio DigitalUNIX e neaaoth iiaeaea?aeeo Windows
iaeaieaa ?acoiiui auai?ii aoaeoo, iieo/eaoea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
Internet, naiaiaeii ?ani?ino?aiyaiua aa?eaiou Unix–iiaeiaiuo nenoai —
Linux, NetBSD.

Aeaeay oaeie auai? iu ia?anoaai caaenaoue io i?eoioe iaeiiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey e naiaeei cao?aou ia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e ioeth.

Linux aeey Aeueo eiaao aaeaa ee ia oaeoth aea oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo eae
e aeey i386, aeaeay oaeie auai? iiaeii iieo/eoue aeinooi e ia?iiiiio
eiee/anoao ea/anoaaiiiai aanieaoiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e aeaaiia,
e iiuoo iaeiieaiiiio «naoaaie iauanoaaiiinoueth».

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieueoa i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiiia?/aneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ii?oe?otho naie i?eeiaeaiey ia ieaooi?io Linux,
oae /oi ethaeoaee «ei?iai/iuo» i?ia?aii oaeaea iaeaeoo aeey naay iiiai
eioa?aniiai.

Ethaee, aeaeathuea iieo/eoue iaaeaaeioth nenoaio e iaaniieiaiiua
i?iaeaiaie aaciianiinoe eioi?iaoeee, ni/ooo aieaa iiaeoiaeyuei aa?eaioii
NetBSD — ianeaaeieoeo ciaiaieoie 4.4 BSD Lite 2. Yoi i?iaeo, iiyaeaoeeny
ianeieueei iicaeiaa oe?iei ecaanoiie a e?oaao ?inneeneeo i?iaaeaea?ia
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu FreeBSD, i?ecaaiiue ?anoe?eoue e?oa
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiiai ai FreeBSD aeaeaca (a /anoiinoe a?oeoaeoo?o Aeueoa).
NetBSD nio?aieea niaianoeiinoue n FreeBSD e oianeaaeiaaea aunieia
ea/anoai eiaea yae?a e aai onoie/eainoue. Ei?ia oiai NetBSD a ioee/ea io
Linux iiaeaea?aeeaaaony oeaio?aeeciaaiii e iao iiiaeanoaa «/ooue-/ooue»
ioee/athueony ?aaeaeoeee, eioi?ua ca/anooth ioaeaeathony a ioaeaeueiii
aeieoiaioe?iaaiee. Oae eae NetBSD ioiineony e naiaenoao BSD, oi e
iiiaeanoai eiea ii 4.4 LIte2, BSDI, FreeBSD aiieia iiaeoiaeyo ia ?ieue
nii?iaiaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia.

Eniieueciaaiea iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai Linux eee NetBSD a ea/anoaa ?aoaiee
aeey nenoai ia iniiaa Aeueou iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiu eiaiii a ?innee.
Yoe iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu aanieaoiua e iieuecothony oe?ieie
iiaeaea?aeeie a Eioa?iaoa. Oaeei ia?acii cao?aou ia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea i?e iino?iaiee (iai?eia?) Aaa–na?aa?a naaaeoony oieueei e
cao?aoai ia aeaeaci.

A?oeoaeoo?a IA64

A eiioea 1999 aiaea Intel (a nio?oaeie/anoaa n Hewlett–Packard)
ieaie?oao i?aaenoaaeoue Merced — ia?aue i?ioeanni?, iino?iaiiue n
eniieueciaaieai a?oeoaeoo?u iiaiai iieieaiey, niaianoii ?ac?aaioaiiie
aeaoiy eiiiaieyie. Oioy yoa 64–?ac?yaeiay a?oeoaeoo?a iniiaaia ia
iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaieyo Intel, HP, ae?oaeo eiiiaiee e oieaa?neoaoia,
iia ?aaeeeaeueii ioee/aaony io anaai, /oi auei aei neo ii? i?aaenoaaeaii
ia ?uiea.

Yoa a?oeoaeoo?a, ecaanoiay iiae iacaaieai Intel Architecture–64 (IA–64),
iieiinoueth «ii?uaaao n i?ioeui». IA–64 ia yaeyaony eae 64–?ac?yaeiui
?anoe?aieai 32–?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?u o86 eiiiaiee Intel, oae e
ia?a?aaioeie 64–?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?u PA–RISC eiiiaiee HP. IA–64
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia/oi aaniethoii iiaia — ia?aaeiaoth a?oeoaeoo?o,
eniieuecothuoth aeeeiiua neiaa eiiaiae (long instruction words (LIW)),
i?aaeeeaou eiiaiae (instruction predication), ono?aiaiea aaoaeaiee
(branch elimination), i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth caa?oceo aeaiiuo (speculative
loading) e ae?oaea ooeu?aiey aeey oiai, /oiau «ecaea/ue aieueoa
ia?aeeaeecia» ec eiaea i?ia?aii. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Intel e HP iaauaee
aeiaeoueny ia?aoiie niaianoeiinoe n nouanoaothuei i?ia?aiiiui
iaania/aieai, ?aaioathuei ia i?ioeanni?ao a?oeoaeoo? o86 e PA–RISC, iie
aei neo ii? ia ?acaeaoatho, eaeei ia?acii yoi aoaeao naeaeaii. Ia naiii
aeaea iaania/eoue oaeoth niaianoeiinoue nianai ia i?inoi; aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue ai?acaei iaiaa ea?aeeiaeueiue ia?aoiae n 16–?ac?yaeiie ia
32–?ac?yaeioth a?oeoaeoo?o o86, i?iaeieaeaaoeeny 12 eao e aei neo ii? ia
caaa?o?iiue.

I?aaaea, ia?aoiae e a?oeoaeoo?a IA–64 a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy a?yae ee
cao?iiao aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae, iineieueeo Intel cayaeea, /oi
Merced ?ac?aaaouaaaony aeey na?aa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee eeanna high–end,
a ia aeey eiiiuethoa?ia n?aaeiaai o?iaiy. Oaeoe/anee, eiiiaiey cayaeea,
/oi IA–64 ia caiaieo o86 a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai. Iioiaea ia oi, /oi Intel
e ae?oaea iinoaaueee i?iaeieaeao ?ac?aaaouaaoue /eiu o86.

Ia?aae oai, eae oaeoaeoueny a oaoie/aneea aeaoaee, iii?iaoai iiiyoue,
ii/aio Intel e HP ?eneioee iieoe ia noieue ea?aeeiaeueiua ia?aiaiu.
I?e/eia naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio: iie n/eoatho, /oi eae CISC, oae e
RISC–a?oeoaeoo?u en/a?iaee naay.

Iaaieueoie yeneo?n a i?ioeia. A?oeoaeoo?a o86 eiiiaiee Intel — CISC
a?oeoaeoo?a, iiyaeaoayny a 1978 aiaeo. A oa a?aiaia i?ioeanni?u
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie neaey?iua ono?ienoaa (oi anoue iiaee a eaaeaeue
iiiaio a?aiaie auiieiyoue oieueei iaeio eiiaiaeo), i?e yoii eiiaaea?ia
i?aeoe/anee ia auei. I?ioeanni?u niaea?aeaee aeanyoee ouny/
o?aicenoi?ia. PA–RISC eiiiaiee HP auea ?ac?aaioaia a 1986 aiaeo, eiaaea
oaoiieiaey noia?neaey?iuo (n aiciiaeiinoueth auiieiaiey ianeieueeeo
eiiaiae iaeiia?aiaiii) eiiaaea?ia oieueei ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny.
I?ioeanni?u niaea?aeaee nioie ouny/ o?aicenoi?ia. A eiioea 90–o iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiua i?ioeanni?u niaea?aeao ieeeeiiu o?aicenoi?ia. E iiiaioo
ia/aea auionea Merced eiiiaiey Intel ieaie?oao ia?aeoe ia
0.18–iee?iiioth oaoiieiaeth aianoi iuiaoiae 0.25–iee?iiiie. Oaea ia?aua
/eiu a?oeoaeoo?u IA–64 aoaeoo niaea?aeaoue aeanyoee ieeeeiiia
o?aicenoi?ia. A aeaeueiaeoeo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo eo /enei oaaee/eony aei
nioai ieeeeiiia.

?ac?aaio/eee i?ioeanni?ia no?aiyony nicaeaaaoue /eiu, niaea?aeauea eae
iiaeii aieueoa ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oceia — /oi iicaieyao ia?aaaouaaoue
aieueoa eiiaiae ia?aeeaeueii — ii iaeiia?aiaiii i?eoiaeeony nouanoaaiii
oneiaeiyoue oi?aaeythuea oeaie aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey iioiea eiiaiae ii
ia?aaaouaathuei oceai. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio eo/oea i?ioeanni?u ia iiaoo
auiieiyoue aieaa /aou??o eiiaiae iaeiia?aiaiii, i?e yoii oi?aaeythuay
eiaeea caieiaao neeoeii iiiai ianoa ia e?enoaeea.

A oi aea a?aiy, iineaaeiaaoaeueiay no?oeoo?a eiaea i?ia?aii e aieueoay
/anoioa aaoaeaiee aeaeatho caaea/o ?ani?aaeaeaiey iioiea eiiaiae e?aeia
neiaeiie. Nia?aiaiiua i?ioeanni?u niaea?aeao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
oi?aaeythueo yeaiaioia aeey oiai, /oiau ieieiece?iaaoue iioa?e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua n aaoaeaieyie, e ecaea/ue eae iiaeii
aieueoa «ne?uoiai ia?aeeaeecia» ec eiaea i?ia?aii. Iie eciaiytho
ii?yaeie eiiaiae ai a?aiy eniieiaiey i?ia?aiiu, iuoathony i?aaeneacaoue,
eoaea iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao ia?aeoe a ?acoeueoaoa i/a?aaeiiai aaoaeaiey, e
auiieiytho eiiaiaeu aei au/eneaiey oneiaee aaoaeaiey. Anee iooue
aaoaeaiey i?aaeneacai iaaa?ii, i?ioeanni? aeieaeai na?ineoue iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou, i/enoeoue eiiaaea?u e caa?oceoue ioaeiua eiiaiaeu, /oi
o?aaoao aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiai /enea oaeoia. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeanni?,
oai?aoe/anee auiieiythuee /aou?a eiiaiaeu ca oaeo, ia aeaea auiieiyao
iaiaa aeaoo.

I?iaeaio au? ineiaeiyao oio oaeo, /oi iee?inoaiu iaiyoe ia oniaaatho ca
oaeoiaie /anoioie i?ioeanni?ia. Eiaaea Intel ?ac?aaioaea a?oeoaeoo?o
o86, i?ioeanni? iia ecaeaeaoue aeaiiua ec iaiyoe n oaeie aea
nei?inoueth, n eaeie ii eo ia?aaaouaae. Naaiaeiy i?ioeanni? o?aoeo nioie
oaeoia ia iaeeaeaiea caa?ocee aeaiiuo ec iaiyoe, aeaaea ianiio?y ia
iaee/ea aieueoie e auno?ie eyo–iaiyoe.

Aiai?y i oii, /oi CISC– e RISC–a?oeoaeoo?u en/a?iaee naay, Intel e HP
eiatho a aeaeo iaa yoe i?iaeaiu. A aeaoo i?ino?aiiuo eioa?aueth aeo?iaeo
BYTE iie ?ane?uee iaeioi?ua aeaoaee a?oeoaeoo?u IA-64:

Eiiaiaeu a oi?iaoa IA–64 oiaeiaaiu ii o?e a 128–aeoiue iaeao aeey
auno?aeoae ia?aaioee. Iau/ii yoi iacuaatho «LIW encoding» (?onneee
aiaeia iiaeia?aoue neiaeii, iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoii ia?aaanoe eae
«eiaee?iaaiea a aeeeiiua neiaa eiiaiae»). Iaeiaei eiiiaiey Intel
ecaaaaao oaeiai iacaaiey, cayaeyy, /oi n iei naycaiu «iaaaoeaiua
annioeeaoeee» (negative connotation). Ii oie aea i?e/eia Intel ia ethaeo
iacuaaoue naie eiiaiaeu RISC–iiaeiaiuie (RISC–like), aeaaea ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iie eiatho oeene?iaaiioth aeeeio e i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii
iioeiece?iaaiu aeey eniieiaiey ca iaeei oaeo a yae?a, ia ioaeaeathuainy
a iee?ieiaea. Intel i?aaeii/eoaao iacuaaoue naith iiaoth LIW–oaoiieiaeth
Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing eee EPIC (Iieiinoueth
Ia?aeeaeueiiai Auiieiaiey Eiiaiae). A ethaii neo/aa oi?iao eiiaiae IA–64
ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n o86. Eiiaiaeu o86 iiaoo eiaoue aeeeio io 8 aei
108 aeo, e i?ioeanni? aeieaeai iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeaeiaee?iaaoue
eaaeaeoth eiiaiaeo iinea ii?aaeaeaiey a? a?aieoe.

Eaaeaeue 128–aeoiue iaeao niaea?aeeo oaaeii (template) aeeeiie a
ianeieueei aeo, iiiauaaiue a iaai eiiieeyoi?ii, eioi?ue oeacuaaao
i?ioeanni?o, eaeea ec eiiaiae iiaoo auiieiyoueny ia?aeeaeueii. Oaia?ue
i?ioeanni?o ia ioaeii aoaeao aiaeece?iaaoue iioie eiiaiae a i?ioeanna
auiieiaiey aeey auyaeaiey «ne?uoiai ia?aeeaeecia». Aianoi yoiai iaee/ea
ia?aeeaeecia ii?aaeaeyao eiiieeyoi? e iiiauaao eioi?iaoeeth a eiae
i?ia?aiiu. Eaaeaeay eiiaiaea (eae aeey oeaei/eneaiiuo au/eneaiee, oae e
aeey au/eneaiee n ieaaathuae oi/eie) niaea?aeeo o?e 7–aeoiuo iiey
?aaeno?a iauaai iacia/aiey (?II). Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi i?ioeanni?u
a?oeoaeoo?u IA–64 niaea?aeao 128 oeaei/eneaiiuo ?II e 128 ?aaeno?ia aeey
au/eneaiee n ieaaathuae oi/eie. Ana iie aeinooiiu i?ia?aiienoo e
yaeythony ?aaeno?aie n i?iecaieueiui aeinooiii (programmer-visible
random–access registers). Ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeanni?aie o86, o eioi?uo
anaai ainaiue oeaei/eneaiiuo ?II e noae aeoaeiu 8 aeey au/eneaiee n
ieaaathuae oi/eie, IA–64 iaiiiai «oe?a» e, niioaaonoaaiii, aoaeao
iaiiiai ?aaea i?inoaeaaoue ec-ca «iaoaaoee ?aaeno?ia».

Eiiieeyoi?u aeey IA–64 aoaeoo eniieueciaaoue oaoiieiaeth «ioia/aiiuo
eiiaiae» (predication) aeey ono?aiaiey iioa?ue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
ec–ca iai?aaeeueii i?aaeneacaiiuo ia?aoiaeia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iionea
o/anoeia eiaea iinea aaoaeaiee. Eiaaea i?ioeanni? ano?a/aao «ioia/aiiia»
aaoaeaiea a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu, ii ia/eiaao iaeiia?aiaiii
auiieiyoue ana aaoae. Iinea oiai, eae aoaeao ii?aaeaeaia «enoeiiay»
aaoaue, i?ioeanni? nio?aiyao iaiaoiaeeiua ?acoeueoaou e na?anuaaao
inoaeueiua.

Eiiieeyoi?u aeey IA–64 aoaeoo oaeaea i?iniao?eaaoue enoiaeiue eiae n
oeaeueth iienea eiiaiae, eniieuecothueo aeaiiua ec iaiyoe. Iaeaey oaeoth
eiiaiaeo, iie aoaeoo aeiaaaeyoue ia?o eiiaiae — eiiaiaeo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caa?ocee (speculative loading) e i?iaa?ee caa?ocee
(speculative check). Ai a?aiy auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu ia?aay ec eiiaiae
caa?oaeaao aeaiiua a iaiyoue aei oiai, eae iie iiiaaeiayony i?ia?aiia.
Aoi?ay eiiaiaea i?iaa?yao, oniaoii ee i?iecioea caa?ocea, ia?aae oai,
eae ?ac?aoeoue i?ia?aiia eniieueciaaoue yoe aeaiiua. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay
caa?ocea iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue iioa?e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ec-ca
caaea?aeae i?e aeinooia e iaiyoe, a oaeaea iiauneoue ia?aeeaeeci.

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi eiiieeyoi?u aeey i?ioeanni?ia
a?oeoaeoo?u IA-64 aeieaeiu auoue iaiiiai «oiiaa» e eo/oa ciaoue
iee?ia?oeoaeoo?o i?ioeanni?a, eiae aeey eioi?iai iie au?aaaouaatho.
Nouanoaothuea /eiu, a oii /enea e RISC–i?ioeanni?u, i?iecaiaeyo ai?acaei
aieueoa iioeiecaoeee ia yoaia auiieiaiey i?ia?aii, aeaaea i?e
eniieueciaaiee iioeiece?othueo eiiieeyoi?ia. IA–64 ia?aeeaaeuaaao
i?aeoe/anee anth ?aaioo ii iioeiecaoeee iioiea eiiaiae ia eiiieeyoi?.
Oaeei ia?acii, i?ia?aiiu, neiiieee?iaaiiua aeey iaeiiai iieieaiey
i?ioeanni?ia a?oeoaeoo?u IA–64, ia i?ioeanni?ao neaaeothuaai iieieaiey
aac ia?aeiiieeyoeee iiaoo auiieiyoueny iayooaeoeaii. Yoi noaaeo ia?aae
iinoaaueeaie iae?aeoth caaea/o ii auioneo ianeieueeeo aa?nee eniieiyaiuo
oaeeia aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Ae?oaei ia i/aiue i?eyoiui neaaenoaeai aoaeao oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia eiaea,
oae eae eiiaiaeu IA–64 aeeeiiaa, /ai 32–aeoiua RISC–eiiaiaeu (ii?yaeea
40 aeo). Eiiieeyoeey i?e yoii aoaeao caieiaoue aieueoa a?aiaie,
iineieueeo IA–64, eae oaea auei neacaii, o?aaoao io eiiieeyoi?a ai?acaei
aieueoa aeaenoaee. Intel e HP cayaeee, /oi oaea ?aaioatho niaianoii n
iinoaaueeaie n?aaenoa ?ac?aaioee iaae ia?a?aaioeie yoeo i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoia.

Oaoiieiaey «ioia/aiiuo eiiaiae» yaeyaony iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui i?eia?ii
«aeiiieieoaeueiie iioe», ia?aeeaaeuaaaiie ia eiiieeyoi?u. Yoa oaoiieiaey
yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiie aeey ono?aiaiey aaoaeaiee e oi?aaeaiey
ia?aeeaeueiui auiieiaieai eiiaiae.

Iau/ii eiiieeyoi? o?ainee?oao iia?aoi? aaoaeaiey (iai?eia?,
IF–THEN–ELSE) a aeiee iaoeiiiai eiaea, ?aniieiaeaiiua iineaaeiaaoaeueii
a iioiea. A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee aaoaeaiey i?ioeanni? auiieiyao iaeei
ec yoeo aeieia e ia?aneaeeaaao /a?ac inoaeueiua. Nia?aiaiiua i?ioeanni?u
noa?athony i?aaeneacaoue ?acoeueoao au/eneaiey oneiaee aaoaeaiey e
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auiieiytho i?aaeneacaiiue aeie. I?e yoii a neo/aa
ioeaee iiiai oaeoia o?aoeony aionooth. Naie aeiee ca/anooth aanueia iaeu
— aeaa eee o?e eiiaiaeu — a aaoaeaiey ano?a/athony a eiaea a n?aaeiai
eaaeaeua oanoue eiiaiae. Oaeay no?oeoo?a eiaea aeaeaao e?aeia neiaeiui
aai ia?aeeaeueiia auiieiaiea.

Eiaaea eiiieeyoi? aeey IA–64 iaoiaeeo iia?aoi? aaoaeaiey a enoiaeiii
eiaea, ii enneaaeoao aaoaeaiea, ii?aaeaeyy, noieo ee aai «ioia/aoue».
Anee oaeia ?aoaiea i?eiyoi, eiiieeyoi? iiia/aao ana eiiaiaeu,
ioiinyueany e iaeiiio iooe aaoaeaiey, oieeaeueiui eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii,
iacuaaaiui i?aaeeeaoii (predicate). Iai?eia?, iooue, niioaaonoaothuee
cia/aieth oneiaey aaoaeaiey TRUE, iiia/aaony i?aaeeeaoii ?1, a eaaeaeay
eiiaiaea iooe, niioaaonoaothuaai cia/aieth oneiaey aaoaeaiey FALSE —
i?aaeeeaoii ?2. Nenoaia eiiaiae IA–64 ii?aaeaeyao aeey eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu
6–aeoiia iiea aeey o?aiaiey yoiai i?aaeeeaoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaeiia?aiaiii iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu 64 ?acee/iuo i?aaeeeaoa. Iinea
oiai, eae eiiaiaeu «ioia/aiu», eiiieeyoi? ii?aaeaeyao, eaeea ec ieo
iiaoo auiieiyoueny ia?aeeaeueii. Yoi iiyoue o?aaoao io eiiieeyoi?a
ciaiey a?oeoaeoo?u eiie?aoiiai i?ioeanni?a, iineieueeo ?acee/iua /eiu
a?oeoaeoo?u IA–64 iiaoo eiaoue ?acee/iia /enei e oei ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
oceia. E?iia oiai, eiiieeyoi?, anoanoaaiii, aeieaeai o/eouaaoue
caaeneiinoe a aeaiiuo (aeaa eiiaiaeu, iaeia ec eioi?uo eniieuecoao
?acoeueoao ae?oaie, ia iiaoo auiieiyoueny ia?aeeaeueii). Iineieueeo
eaaeaeue iooue aaoaeaiey caaaaeiii ia caaeneo io ae?oaeo, eaeia–oi
«eiee/anoai ia?aeeaeecia» ii/oe anaaaea aoaeao iaeaeaii.

Caiaoei, /oi ia ana aaoaeaiey iiaoo auoue ioia/aiu: oae, eniieueciaaiea
aeeiaie/aneeo iaoiaeia auciaa i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aei yoaia auiieiaiey
iaaiciiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, aicieeiao ee eneeth/aiea. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo
i?eiaiaiea yoie oaoiieiaee iiaeao i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi aoaeao cao?a/aii
aieueoa oaeoia, /ai nyeiiiieaii.

Iinea yoiai eiiieeyoi? o?ainee?oao enoiaeiue eiae a iaoeiiue e
oiaeiauaaao eiiaiaeu a 128–aeoiua iaeaou. Oaaeii iaeaoa (bundle’s
template field) oeacuaaao ia oieueei ia oi, eaeea eiiaiaeu a iaeaoa
iiaoo auiieiyoueny iacaaeneii, ii e eaeea eiiaiaeu ec neaaeothuaai
iaeaoa iiaoo auiieiyoueny ia?aeeaeueii. Eiiaiaeu a iaeaoao ia
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue ?aniieiaeaiu a oii aea ii?yaeea, /oi e a
iaoeiiii eiaea, e iiaoo i?eiaaeeaaeaoue e ?acee/iui iooyi aaoaeaiey.
Eiiieeyoi? iiaeao oaeaea iiiauaoue a iaeei iaeao caaeneiua e iacaaeneiua
eiiaiaeu, iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeeaeueiiai auiieiaiey
ii?aaeaeyaony oaaeiiii iaeaoa. A ioee/ea io iaeioi?uo ?aiaa
nouanoaiaaaoeo a?oeoaeoo? ni naa?oaeeeiiuie neiaaie eiiaiae (VLIW),
IA–64 ia aeiaaaeyao eiiaiae «iao iia?aoeee» (NOPS) aeey aeiiieiaiey
iaeaoia.

Ai a?aiy auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu IA–64 i?iniao?eaaao oaaeiiu, auae?aao
acaeiii iacaaeneiua eiiaiaeu e ?ani?aaeaeyao eo ii ooieoeeiiaeueiui
oceai. Iinea yoiai i?iecaiaeeony ?ani?aaeaeaiea caaeneiuo eiiaiae.
Eiaaea i?ioeanni? iaia?oaeeaaao «ioia/aiiia» aaoaeaiea, aianoi iiiuoee
i?aaeneacaoue cia/aiea oneiaey aaoaeaiey e ia?aoiaea e aeieo,
niioaaonoaothuaio i?aaeneacaiiiio iooe, i?ioeanni? ia/eiaao ia?aeeaeueii
auiieiyoue aeiee, niioaaonoaothuea anai aiciiaeiui iooyi aaoaeaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, ia iaoeiiii o?iaia aaoaeaiey iao.

?acoiaaony, a eaeie-oi iiiaio i?ioeanni? iaeiiaoe au/eneeo cia/aiea
oneiaey aaoaeaiey a iia?aoi?a IF–THEN–ELSE. I?aaeiieiaeei, iii ?aaii
TRUE, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeeueiue iooue ioia/ai i?aaeeeaoii ?1.
6–aeoiiio iieth i?aaeeeaoa niioaaonoaoao iaai? ec 64 i?aaeeeaoiuo
?aaeno?ia (predicate registers) ?0–?63 aeeeiie 1 aeo. I?ioeanni?
caienuaaao 1 a ?aaeno? ?1 e 0 ai ana inoaeueiua.

E yoiio a?aiaie i?ioeanni?, aiciiaeii, oaea auiieiee iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai eiiaiae, niioaaonoaothueo iaiei aiciiaeiui iooyi, ii aei neo
ii? ia nio?aiee ?acoeueoao. Ia?aae oai, eae naeaeaoue yoi, i?ioeanni?
i?iaa?yao niioaaonoaothuee i?aaeeeaoiue ?aaeno?. Anee a i?i 1 — eiiaiaea
aa?ia e i?ioeanni? caaa?oaao a? auiieiaiea e nio?aiyao ?acoeueoao. Anee
0 — ?acoeueoao na?anuaaaony.

Oaoiieiaey «ioia/aiiuo eiiaiae» nouanoaaiii nieaeaao iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea
aaoaeaiee ia iaoeiiii o?iaia. A oi aea a?aiy, anee eiiieeyoi? ia
«ioiaoee» aaoaeaiea, IA–64 aeaenoaoao i?aeoe/anee oae aea, eae e
nia?aiaiiua i?ioeanni?u: iuoaaony i?aaeneacaoue iooue aaoaeaiey e o.ae.
Eniuoaiey iieacaee, /oi iienaiiay oaoiieiaey iicaieyao ono?aieoue aieaa
iieiaeiu aaoaeaiee a oeie/iie i?ia?aiia, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oiaiueoeoue
aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca /enei aiciiaeiuo ioeaie a i?aaeneacaieyo.

Ae?oaie eeth/aaie iniaaiiinoueth IA–64 yaeyaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay
caa?ocea aeaiiuo. Iia iicaieyao ia oieueei caa?oaeaoue aeaiiua ec iaiyoe
aei oiai, eae iie iiiaaeiayony i?ia?aiia, ii e aaia?e?iaaoue eneeth/aiea
oieueei a neo/aa, anee caa?ocea i?ioea iaoaea/ii. Oeaeue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caa?ocee — ?acaeaeeoue nianoaaiii caa?oceo e
eniieueciaaiea aeaiiuo, /oi iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue i?inoiy i?ioeanni?a.
Eae e a oaoiieiaee «ioia/aiiuo eiiaiae» caeanue oaeaea ni/aoaaony
iioeiecaoeey ia yoaia eiiieeyoeee e ia yoaia auiieiaiey.

Nia/aea eiiieeyoi? i?iniao?eaaao eiae i?ia?aiiu, ii?aaeaeyy eiiaiaeu,
eniieuecothuea aeaiiua ec iaiyoe. Aacaea, aaea yoi aiciiaeii,
aeiaaaeyaony eiiaiaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caa?ocee ia aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii
?annoiyiee ia?aae eiiaiaeie, eniieuecothuae aeaiiua e eiiaiaea i?iaa?ee
caa?ocee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae eiiaiaeie, eniieuecothuae aeaiiua.

Ia yoaia auiieiaiey i?ioeanni? nia/aea iaia?oaeeaaao eiiaiaeo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caa?ocee e, niioaaonoaaiii, iuoaaony caa?oceoue
aeaiiua ec iaiyoe. Eiiaaea iiiuoea ieacuaaaony iaoaea/iie — iai?eia?,
eiiaiaea, o?aaothuay aeaiiua, iaoiaeeony iinea aaoaeaiey, oneiaey
eioi?iai au? ia au/eneaiu. «Iau/iue» i?ioeanni? ooo aea aaia?e?oao
eneeth/aiea. IA–64 ioeeaaeuaaao aaia?aoeeth eneeth/aiey aei oiai
iiiaioa, eiaaea ano?aoeo niioaaonoaothuoth eiiaiaeo i?iaa?ee caa?ocee.
Ii e yoiio a?aiaie oneiaey aaoaeaiey, aucuaaaoaai eneeth/aiea, oaea
aoaeoo au/eneaiu. Anee eiiaiaea, eieoeee?iaaaoay i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth
caa?oceo, ioiineony e iaaa?iiio iooe, caa?ocea i?eciaaony iaoaea/iie e
aaia?e?oaony eneeth/aiea. Anee aea iooue aa?ai, oi eneeth/aiea aiiaua ia
aaia?e?oaony. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay caa?ocea a a?oeoaeoo?a
IA–64 ?aaioaao aiaeiae/ii no?oeoo?a oeia TRY–CATCH.

Aiciiaeiinoue ?aniieaaaoue eiiaiaeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caa?ocee aei
aaoaeaiey i/aiue nouanoaaiia, oae eae iicaieyao caa?oaeaoue aeaiiua
caaeieai aei iiiaioa eniieueciaaiey (iaiiiiei, /oi a n?aaeiai eaaeaeay
oanoay eiiaiaea yaeyaony eiiaiaeie aaoaeaiey).

A 80–a aiaeu iaeioi?ua ?ac?aaio/eee RISC–i?ioeanni?ia auniaeaaee
CISC–a?oeoaeoo?o e i?aae?aeaee nei?oth iiaeaaeue naiaenoao o86. Ii
oaoiieiaee e aecian — ?aciua aaue. Ianiio?y ia oaoiieiae/aneea
i?aeiouanoaa RISC–a?oeoaeoo?u, ia?iiiua ?ano?nu ei?ii?aoeee Intel e
ainiiaenoai iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai DIS e Windows i?eaaee e oiio, /oi
i?ioeanni?u a?oeoaeoo?u o86 inoathony eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie aei neo ii?.
Oaia?ue oaea Intel cayaeyao, /oi RISC–a?oeoaeoo?a onoa?aea. A ethaii
neo/aa, aei auoiaea a naao ia?aiai i?ioeanni?a a?oeoaeoo?u IA–64
inoa?ony au? aeaa aiaea, e o eiieo?aioia anoue a?aiy i?eiyoue ioaaoiua
ia?u.

Iaoa?eineea ieaou, iaai?u iee?inoai

Intel 430TX PCIset

18 ia?oa 1997 a. ioeoeeaeueii iiyaeeenue i?iaiua ia?acoeu iiaiai /einaoa
iyoiai iieieaiey io Intel — 430TX. Yoio /einao ?ann/eoai aeey i?eiaiaiey
a ianoieueiuo e iiaeeueiuo nenoaiao. Aeey ecaioiaeaiey i?eiaiaia
ia?aaeiaay aeaoo/eiiaay oaoiieiaey — TDP:82439TX, PIIX4:82371AB.

Yoio /einao i?eoiaeeo ia niaio i430VX, ii e niaeaeaieth ia ia niaio
i430HX. Iiaue /einao ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao (ioeoeeaeueii) aieaa 66MHz ii
oeia, e ia eyoe?oao aieaa 64Mb iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. Iaeiaei oiaiueoaii,
eae e iaeeaeaeinue, eiee/anoai oaeoia ia neio?iiiie iaiyoe.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i430TX:

Iiaeaea?aeea:

DRAM support: SDRAM, EDO, FPM

Ultra DMA / ATA–33 (DMA Bus master support)

USB support

Concurrent PCI (PCI 2.1)

Dynamic Power Management Architecture (DPMA) n iiaeaea?aeeie Advanced
Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), nieaeaao iio?aaeaiea yia?aee
iee?inoaiaie ia 75%

SMBUS (System Management Bus)

Ano?iaiiua ooieoeee:

PCI–ISA Bridge

Standart AT functions

real–time clock (RTC)

IDE e GPIO ports (Master/Slave independent drive timing)

Iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa:

Max L2 Cache size — 512Kb Pipelined Burst SRAM

Max DRAM size — 256Mb (6 RAS lines)

Max Cacheable DRAM — 64Mb

DRAM Timing at 66MHz Bus speed

FPM RAM 5-3-3-3

EDO RAM 5-2-2-2

BEDO RAM n/a

SDRAM 5-1-1-1

DRAM refresh — CAS before RAS

Iaeneiaeueiia /enei ianoa?–ono?ienoa PCI — 5

*enei aooa?ia iaaeaeo PCI e DRAM, POST – 10DW=40Byte

*enei aooa?ia iaaeaeo PCI e DRAM, Prefetch – 18DW=72Byte

Io?eoeaoaeueiua ea/anoaa:

Iiaeaea?aeea Dual/Multi i?ioeanni?iie eiioeao?aoeee — IAO

Iiaeaea?aeea eiaea ei??aeoeee ioeaie iaiyoe (DRAM ECC) — IAO

Iiaeaea?aeea AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) — IAO

Intel 440LX AGPset

A ni/aoaiee n a?oeoaeoo?ie aeaieiie iacaaeneiie oeiu (DIB) i?ioeanni?a
Pentium II iaai? iee?inoai 440LX AGPset i?ecaai noaoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiie
aiia?aoiie iniiaie iiaiai eeanna IE ia aaca Slot 1 (aianoi /einaoa
i440FX), i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia aecoaeueioth ia?aaioeo.

Iiaue iaai? iee?inoai ?ac?aaioai n oeaeueth iioeiecaoeee e aaeaine?iaee
nenoaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, aeeaae a eioi?oth aeaao eae nai
i?ioeanni? Pentium II, oae e ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou au/eneeoaeueiie
ieaooi?iu, aeeth/ay a?aoe/aneoth iiaenenoaio e iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oieeaeueiue aa?eaio iioeiece?iaaiiie a?oeoaeoo?u,
iieo/eaoae iacaaiea «ii?oa n o/aoaa?aiiui auno?iaeaenoaeai» (QPA). E
/eneo iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia QPA ioiinyony: AGP n i?yiui iiaeniaaeeiaieai
(Direct Connect AGP), nenoaia aeeiaie/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiiiai a?aeo?aaea
(Dynamic Distributed Arbitration) e n?aaenoaa iiiaiiioi/iiai aeinooia e
iaiyoe (Multistream Memory Access). QPA a ni/aoaiee n i?ioeanni?ii
Pentium II e AGP iiaeaea?aeeaaao ianooaae?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe II
o?aoia?iie a?aoeee, a oii /enea eiiiuethoa?iuo ea? e eiuo
?acaeaeaoaeueiuo i?eeiaeaiee, iao/athueo i?ia?aii, nenoai ia?aaioee
ioeeo?iaaiiuo ecia?aaeaiee.

I?ioeanni? Pentium II e iaai? iee?inoai 440LX AGPset iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae «no?ieoaeueiua aeiee», i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ?ac?aaioeo
naaeaine?iaaiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo ieaooi?i n aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth e n?aaenoaaie naoaaiai oi?aaeaiey aeey
oieaa?naeueiuo IE e Net PC, i?eiaiyaiuo a aeaeiaie noa?a. Iiieii QPA,
iee?inoaiu 440LX AGPset iaeaaeatho ?yaeii ooieoeee e oa?aeoa?enoee,
iicaieythueo oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey e IE ni noi?iiu eae
nouanoaothueo, oae e aoaeoueo i?eeiaeaiee. Iiaua iee?inoaiu aeaaeoo
aiciiaeiinoue inianoeoue ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u oniaa?oainoaiaaiiui
eioa?oaenii aeey eiio?iey ca yia?aiiio?aaeaieai (ACPI), n?aaenoaaie
iiaeaea?aeee oaoiieiaee plug-and-play, eiiiiiaioaie Ultra DMA (ia aaca
eiio?ieea?a PIIX4, eniieuecoaiii oaeaea a /einaoa i430TX) a oeaeyo
onei?aiey i?yiiai aeinooia e iaiyoe e iiaeoeyie SDRAM, iicaieythueie
iiauneoue nenoaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Iiaeaea?aeea eioa?oaena ACPI
iicaieeo ecaioiaeoaeyi IE aeiiieieoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth naoaauie
ooieoeeyie oi?aaeaiey yia?aiiio?aaeaieai, auaiaea eiiiuethoa?a ec
iaaeoeaiiai ninoiyiey eeai aai aeenoaioeeiiiiai iiaeaea?aeaiey a
iinoiyiii aeeth/aiiii (AlwaysOn) ?aaeeia.

Caiouaiiue a ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai iaai? iee?inoai Intel 440LX AGPset
ninoieo ec aeaoo /eiia: eiio?ieea?a PCI AGP Controller (PAC) a ei?iona
oeia 492 BGA e aenaea?aoi?a PCI, ISA, IDE Accelerator (PIIX4) a ei?iona
oeia 324 BGA.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i440LX:

Iiaeaea?aeea:

Iaeei eee aeaa i?ioeanni?a naiaenoaa Pentium–II

*anoioa oeiu AGP aei 133IAoe

64/72–aeoiue eioa?oaen nenoaiiie iaiyoe, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee SDRAM

Aiia?aoiue eiio?ieue /aoiinoe (ECC)

32–aeoiue eioa?oaen PCI 2.1

Iiaeaea?aeea 64–aeoiie niaoeeoeeaoeee oeiu GTL+

Aooa?ecaoeey anao eioa?oaenia aeey iiauoaiey i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe

Eiio?ieea? nenoaiiie iaiyoe:

Iiaeaea?aeea EDO e SDRAM

Eiio?ieea? nenoaiiie iaiyoe iioeiece?iaai aeey SDRAM

Iiaeaea?aeea io 8 aei 512Iaaeo nenoaiiie iaiyoe

Neiiao?e/aneay e aneiiao?e/aneay aae?anaoeey

Iiaeaea?aeea iaeiiaaieiauo e aeaoaaieiauo iiaeoeae DIMM

Iiaeaea?aeea 4, 16 e 64Iaeo iee?inoai iaiyoe

Aeey aneio?iiiuo iia?aoeee a?aiy aeinooia 50 e 60 in, aeey neio?iiiie
SDRAM – /anoioa 66IAoe

Eiio?ieea? aaiaea/auaiaea PIIX4:

Niaianoeiinoue ni niaoeeoeeaoeeae PCI 2.1

Iiaeaea?aeea niaoeeoeeaoeee ACPI e PC97

DMA–eiio?ieea?

Iiaeaea?aeea aiaoieo APIC-eiiiiiaio

Iiaeaea?aeea 2-o ii?oia USB

Iiaeaea?aeea iiaeoeae DIMM ni noi?iiu SMB (System Management Bus)

Eioaa?e?iaaiiue IDE–eiio?ieea? n iiaeaea?aeeie Ultra DMA–33

N?aaiaiea i440LX e i440FX:

440FX 440LX

AGP No Yes

SDRAM No Yes

EDO Yes Yes

66Mhz Bus Yes Yes

ECC Yes Yes

DRAM Bank No.(max) 8 8

Max. memory per bank 128MB 128MB

Ultra DMA-33 No Yes

ACPI No Yes

I2C(SMBus) No Yes

*einao Intel 440BX

Nionoy iieaiaea n iiyaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai /einaoa Intel 440LX, a
eioi?ii aue aia?aua i?eiaiai onei?aiiue a?aoe/aneee ii?o AGP e
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue iaiyoue SDRAM, 15 ai?aey Intel aua?ineea ia ?uiie
naie iiaue i?iaeoeo — iaai? eiaeee Intel 440BX. Auione yoiai iaai?a
iee?inoai iciaiaioao ia/aei iiaiai yoaia a ?acaeoee Slot 1 nenoai. Yoi
aoaeao y?a ia?aueaaiey /anoiou nenoaiiie oeiu, eioi?ay oaea ia
i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eao caaea?aeaeanue ia ioiaoea 66 IAoe. Iiaue
/einao Intel 440BX i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaoa?eineeo ieao aeey i?ioeanni?a
Pentium II e iiaeaea?aeeaaao aiaoithth /anoioo (nenoaiiie oeiu) 100
IAoe. Ia yoie /anoioa ?aaioaao, a /anoiinoe, nenoaiiay iaiyoue.

Nianoaaiii, a ioeoeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea 100–iaaaaa?oeiaie oeiu e
caeeth/aaony iniiaiia ioee/ea eioaeianeeo /einaoia 440LX e 440BX.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea Intel 82440BX AGPSet

I?ioeanni?

Iiaeaea?aeea anao Slot–1 i?ioeanni?ia Pentium II

Aiciiaeiinoue aeaooi?ioeanni?iinoe, iiaeaea?aeea SMP

Iiaeaea?aeea iaiyoe oeia EDO RAM e SDRAM

Iaeneiaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aei 512 Iaaeo SDRAM eee 1024 Iaaeo EDO
RAM

A?aiaiiay aeeaa?aiia aeey EDO RAM 5-2-2-2 (i?e aiaoiae /anoioa 66 IAoe)

A?aiaiiay aeeaa?aiia aeey SDRAM 5-1-1-1 (i?e aiaoiae /anoioa 66 IAoe)

64–aeoiay oeia iaiyoe

Iiaeaea?aeea ECC

PIIX4 IDE-eiio?ieea?

*ei 82371AB

Iiaeaea?aeea Bus Mastering

Iiaeaea?aeea UltraDMA

?aaioa a ?aaeeiao PIO Mode 5/DMA Mode 3

Neio?iiiue eioa?oaen PCI

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaony 30 e 33 IAoe ia oeia PCI

Niioaaonoaea niaoeeoeeaoeee PCI 2.1

Power Management

Niioaaonoaea PC97

Onei?aiiue a?aoe/aneee ii?o AGP

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaony AGP 1o/2x mode (66/133 IAoe)

Iiaeaea?aeea Unified Memory Architecture ionoonoaoao

Iiaeaea?aeea USB

1 x 492–pin BGA /ei 82443BX

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua /anoiou nenoaiiie oeiu 66 e 100 IAoe

Aeaaiaea?y ?acaiio, e ia 440LX iiaeii auei iieo/eoue 75, 83 eee aeaaea
92 IAoe aiaoiae /anoiou, ii 440AO iiaeaea?aeeaaao 100 IAoe ioeoeeaeueii,
a iooai ?acaiia /anoioa oeiu iiauoaaony aei 103, 112, 133 IAoe: iniiaiua
i?iecaiaeeoaee iaoa?eineeo ieao i?aaeinoaayo iai oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue.

Caeanue neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iineieueeo eyo aoi?iai o?iaiy a Pentium
II ?aaioaao ia 1/2 io /anoiou naiiai i?ioeanni?a, oi ?acaii nenoaiiie
oeiu ia iai ieeae ia neacuaaaony. Iaeiaei aea, aeaaiaea?y yoiio oaeoo,
auioneaaiua nae/an Pentium II niiaoo eaaei ?aaioaoue ia oeia 100 IAoe.
I?e yoii i?eiaiyaiua nae/an Intel ia?u i?ioea ?acaiia — iaee/ea oieueei
iaeiiai eiyooeoeeaioa oiiiaeaiey — aeaenoaey ia aicuiatho. I?aaaea, i?e
yoii yooaeo io oaeiai ?acaiia aoaeao ianeieueei ieaea, /ai i?e
aiaeiae/iuo aeaenoaeyo n Socket–7 /eiaie.

?ac oae, oi iii?iaoai ?acia?aoueny, eaeea i?aeiouanoaa iiaeao a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeaoue iiaue eioaeianeee iaai? iee?inoai.

Ai-ia?auo i?e eniieueciaaiee 440LX ia aa?aioe?iaaeinue, /oi i?e /anoioa
oeiu aieaa 66 IAoe nenoaia aoaeao ?aaioiniiniaia. I?iaeaia caeeth/aeanue
a oii, /oi aeey iieo/aiey ianouae /anoiou ia oeia PCI eniieueciaaeny
aeaeeoaeue 2 ioiineoaeueii oeiu e i?e onoaiiaea aiaoieo 75 IAoe, ia PCI
iieo/aeinue 37,5 IAoe, /oi ia 15% auoa noaiaea?oa, i?e onoaiiaea aiaoieo
83 IAoe — ia PCI auei 41,5 IAoe, oi anoue auoa ii?iu ia 25%. I?e yoii
iiiaea PCI–ea?ou, a iniaaiiinoe SCSI–eiio?ieea?u, oa?yee naith
?aaioiniiniaiinoue. Oaia?ue oaeeo i?iaeai ia aoaeao. Oioy, i?e yoii
ia?eoa?ey ?acaiiyoueny ia aoaeao nianai, e nei?inoue aeaeai e aeanoeiai
aeenea i?e ?acaiia ia aic?anoao.

*einao Intel 440BX iiaeaea?aeeaaao e?iia aeaeeoaey 2 aeey PCI aua e
aeaeeoaeue 3, eioi?ue i?eiaiyaony ia aiaoieo /anoioao auoa 100 IAoe
aeeth/eoaeueii. Oae /oi anee, ana-oaee iaoa?eineay ieaoa iicaieyao
onoaiiaeoue 75 e 83 IAoe, oi ii n?aaiaieth n 440LX Au ie/aai ia
iioa?yaoa. Iaeiaei, iaeioi?ua LX–ieaou eiaee onoaiiaeo 92 IAoe. Oaeiai n
BX iiea ia aoaeao.

Aoi?ia, ia yoio ?ac iainii?eiia i?aeiouanoai 440BX, caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi yoio /einao aoaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ana auoiaeyuea i?ioeanni?u
Deschutes n aieueoeie aioo?aiieie /anoioaie.

Iaeiaei e nouanoaothuea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy Pentium–II i?ioeanni?u aoaeoo
?aaioaoue ia iaoa?eineeo ieaoao n iaai?ii eiaeee Intel 440BX, /oi
iaiaeiaaaeii. Yoi aiciiaeii, oae eae /anoioicaaeneiue L2-eao a Pentium
II oaeooaony io aioo?aiiae /anoiou, a ia io oeiu.

*oi aea noaiao n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth? Oa oanou, eioi?ua iu
i?iaiaeeee n Socket 7–i?ioeanni?aie, ia i?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe 100–iaaaaa?oeiaie oeiu, iieacaee 15–i?ioeaioiue i?e?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia iaeeiaeiauo aioo?aiieo /anoioao, ii n aiaoieie
66 e 100 IAoe. Ii ia iaaei caauaaoue i oii, /oi eniieuecoy 100 IAoe ia
Socket-7, iu ?acaiiyai e aiaoiee eyo. A 440AO, L2-eao ia onei?yaony,
iiyoiio i?e?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?e i?eiaiaiee 100–iaaaaa?oeiaie
oeiu ninoaaeo, ii iaoei ioeaieai, ia aieaa 7%. Aiciiaeii, iaeioi?ua
iaoa?eineea ieaou ia /einaoa AO aoaeoo eiaoue
iaaeieoiaioe?iaaiii–onoaiaaeeaaaioth /anoioo 150 IAoe. Anee oae, oi
i?e?ino iiaeao ieacaoueny iiaieueoa. Ii a ethaii neo/aa, oaea /a?ac aiae
aoaeao aianth i?eiaiyoueny nenoaiiay oeia 200 IAoe, eioi?ay aoaeao
iiaeaea?aeaia i?ioeanni?ii Katmai, /oi aiieia aiciiaeii aeaaiaea?y
iiaiio oeio iaiyoe RAMBUS, eioi?ay niiniaia ?aaioaoue ia oaeie /anoioa.

Iiea aea, i?iaeaia n iaiyoueth i?eia?aoaao iniaue aan e ia iiaeao auoue
iaieaeaia. Aeaei a oii, /oi nouanoaothuay nae/an iaiyoue ?aaioaao ia 100
IAoe n aieueoei o?oaeii. Intel oi/ao aeiaeoueny aiaae?aiey
niaoeeoeeaoeee PC100 ia iaiyoue, eioi?ay o?aaoao niaoeeaeueii
ecaioiaeaiiuo iiaeoeae. Iaeiaei, yenia?eiaiou iieacaee, /oi ia 100 IAoe
iiaeao i?ae?anii ?aaioaoue ethaay iaiyoue ni a?aiaiai aeinooia 7 in eee
a?aiaeiaay iaiyoue ni a?aiaiai aeinooia 10 in. I?aaaea, ooo anoue iaeia
oiieinoue. Niaoeeoeeaoeey PC100 o?aaoao iaee/ey SPD ia iiaeoea. I?e aai
ionoonoaee, nenoaia iiaeao ia ?aaioaoue aiana, i?eia?ii eae nae/an yoi
aeaeatho eioaeianeea ieaou ia /einaoa 440LX. Ii, e n/anoueth, SPD
eniieuecoaony ia /einaoii, a BIOS, eioi?ue, a i?eioeeia, iiaeao e SPD e
ia ia?auaoueny. Oae /oi a yoii aii?ina any iaaeaaeaea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeae
iaoa?eineeo ieao, /oiau iie ia ia/aee ?ueyii eniieiyoue eioaeianeoth
?aeiiaiaeaoeeth.

Oae /oi ie/aai ?aaiethoeeiiii iiaiai a Intel 440BX iao. A aio /oi
aeaenoaeoaeueii eioa?anii, yoi iiaue IDE–eiio?ieea? PIIX6, eioi?ue
iiyaeony /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa. A yoi Firewire e UltraDMA-66.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue

Nenoaiiay iaiyoue: acaeyae a aoaeouaa

Aei 2000 aiaea a ie? ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia aieaeao ianeieueei
iiauo a?oeoaeoo? aunieinei?inoiie iaiyoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, n eiioea
1997 aiaea ii ia/aei 1998 iniiaiay iaiyoue PC inouanoaeyao yaiethoeeth
io EDO RAM e SDRAM — neio?iiioth iaiyoue, eioi?ay, eae iaeeaeaaony
aoaeao aeiieie?iaaoue ia ?uiea n eiioea 1997 aiaea. A?aoe/aneea e
ioeueoeiaaeeeiua nenoaiu a eioi?uo naaiaeiy i?eiaiyaony RDRAM ia?aeaeao
e eiioeo aiaea ia Concurrent (eiieo?aioioth) RDRAM. Eoae, a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo 1997 e 2000 aiaeii aoaeoo ?acaeaaoueny iyoue iniiaiuo
oaoiieiaee:

SDRAM II (DDR);

SLDRAM (SyncLink);

RAMBus (RDRAM);

Concurrent RAMBus;

Direct RAMBus.

A?aoee, i?eaaaeaiiue ieaea, i?eaeeaeaiii aeaiiino?e?oao a?aiy iiyaeaiey
e i?eiaiaiey aoaeoueo oaoiieiaee iaiyoe.

E?aeia neiaeii i?aaeneacaoue, ia /ai inoaiiaeony i?ia?ann. Ana aeanyoue
e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaiyoe, oaeea eae Samsung, Toshiba e Hitachi,
?ac?aaaouaathuea Direct RDRAM, oaeaea i?iaeieaeatho ?acaeaaoue
aa?anneaioth iieeoeeo, iai?aaeaiioth ia ?acaeoea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
oaoiieiaee iaiyoe neaaeothueo iieieaiee, oaeeo eae DDR e SLDRAM. A nayce
n yoei ia?aciaaeinue ethaiiuoiia iauaaeeiaiea eiieo?aioia.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe nenoaiu iaiyoe.

Auno?ia ?acaeoea aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?eaaei
e oiio, /oi aii?in yooaeoeaiinoe anoaao ia ia?aia ianoi. Oaeoe/anee,
ianeieueei eao iacaae, Ai?aeii Io?, i?aceaeaio ei?ii?aoeee Intel,
i?aaeneacae, /oi iiuiinoue oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a a ia?niiaeueiii
eiiiuethoa?a aoaeao oaeaaeaaoueny eaaeaeua 18 ianyoeaa (Caeii Io?a). Io?
ieacaeny i?aa. N 1980 aiaea aei ianoiyuaai iiiaioa oaeoiaay /anoioa
i?ioeanni?a Intel, onoaiiaeaiiiai a ia?niiaeueiii eiiiuethoa?a aic?inea
a 60 ?ac (n 5 aei 300MHz). Iaeiaei, ca oi aea a?aiy, /anoioa, ia eioi?ie
?aaioaao nenoaiiay iaiyoue ni no?aie/iie i?aaiecaoeeae (FPM), aic?inea
anaai a iyoue ?ac. Aeaaea i?eiaiaiea EDO RAM e SDRAM oaaee/eei
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu iaiyoe anaai a aeanyoue ?ac. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth iaiyoe e i?ioeanni?a
ia?aciaaeny ?ac?ua. A oi a?aiy eae i?ioeanni?u niaa?oainoaiaaeenue a
a?oeoaeoo?a, i?iecaiaenoai iaiyoe i?aoa?iaaaei eeoue oaoiieiae/aneea
eciaiaiey. Aieinoue iaeiie iee?inoaiu DRAM oaaee/eeanue n 1Iaeo aei
64Iaeo. Yoi iicaieeei ia?aueaaoue iauai i?eiaiyaiie a eiiiuethoa?ao
iaiyoe, ii eciaiaiey oaoiieiaee a ieaia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
DRAM ia i?iecioei. Oi anoue, nei?inoue ia?aaea/e ia oaaee/eeanue aneaae
ca iau?iii.

*oi eanaaony iio?aaiinoae, oi aneaaenoaea i?eiaiaiey iiaiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey e n?aaenoa ioeueoeiaaeea, iio?aaiinoue a auno?iaeaenoaothuae
iaiyoe ia?anoaea. N oaaee/aieai /anoiou i?ioeanni?a, e aeiiieieoaeueiui
eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa ioeueoeiaaeea iiaui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai,
ia aeaeae oio aeaiue, eiaaea aeey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou PC aoaeoo
iaiaoiaeeiu aeaaaaeou iaiyoe. Ia yoio i?ioeann oaeaea aeieaeii iiaeeyoue
aiaae?aiea e ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai, iai?eia? Windows
NT.

*oiau i?aiaeieaoue aicieeoee ?ac?ua, i?iecaiaeeoaee aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa
eniieueciaaee ?acee/iua iaoiaeu. SRAM (Static RAM) i?eiaiyeny a eyoa
aeey oaaee/aiey nei?inoe auiieiaiey iaeioi?uo i?ia?aii ia?aaioee
aeaiiuo. Iaeiaei aeey ioeueoeiaaeea e a?aoeee aai yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii.
E?iia oiai, ?anoe?eeanue oeia, ii eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony iaiai aeaiiuie
iaaeaeo i?ioeanni?ii e DRAM. Iaeiaei oaia?ue yoe iaoiaeu ia ni?aaeythony
n ia?anoathueie iio?aaiinoyie a nei?inoe. Oaia?ue ia ia?aia ianoi
auoiaeeo iaiaoiaeeiinoue neio?iiecaoeee i?ioeanni?a n iaiyoueth,
iaeiaei, nouanoaothuay oaoiieiaey ia iicaieyao inouanoaeoue yoio
i?ioeann.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iiauo oaoiieiaeyo iaiyoe,
eioi?ua niiaoo i?aiaeieaoue aicieeoee ?ac?ua. E?iia SDRAM, yoi DDR,
SLDRAM, RDRAM, Concurrent RDRAM, e Direct RDRAM.

Oanoue oaoiieiaee iaiyoe aoaeouaai. Ii?aaeaeaiey

SDRAM Synchronous (neio?iiiay) DRAM neio?iiece?iaaia n nenoaiiui
oaeia?ii, oi?aaeythuei oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii. *anu, oi?aaeythuea
iee?ii?ioeanni?ii, oaeaea oi?aaeytho ?aaioie SDRAM, oiaiueoay a?aiaiiua
caaea?aeee a i?ioeanna oeeeeia iaeeaeaiey e onei?yy iiene aeaiiuo. Yoa
neio?iiecaoeey iicaieyao oaeaea eiio?ieea?o iaiyoe oi/ii ciaoue a?aiy
aioiaiinoe aeaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, nei?inoue aeinooia oaaee/eaaaony
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi aeaiiua aeinooiiu ai a?aiy eaaeaeiai oaeoa oaeia?a,
a oi a?aiy eae o EDO RAM aeaiiua auaatho aeinooiiu iaeei ?ac ca aeaa
oaeoa, a o FPM — iaeei ?ac ca o?e oaeoa. Oaoiieiaey SDRAM iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue iiiaeanoaaiiua aaiee iaiyoe, ooieoeeiie?othuea
iaeiia?aiaiii, aeiiieieoaeueii e aae?anaoeee oeaeuie aeieaie. SDRAM oaea
iaoea oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a aeaenoaothueo nenoaiao.

SDRAM II (DDR) Synchronous DRAM II, eee DDR (Double Data Rate —
oaeaiaiiay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo) — neaaeothuaa iieieaiea
nouanoaothuae SDRAM. DDR iniiaaia ia oao aea naiuo i?eioeeiao, /oi e
SDRAM, iaeiaei aeeth/aao iaeioi?ua oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, iicaieythuea aua
oaaee/eoue auno?iaeaenoaea. Iniiaiua ioee/ey io noaiaea?oiiai SDRAM:
ai-ia?auo eniieuecoaony aieaa «i?iaeaeiooay» neio?iiecaoeey,
ionoonoaothuay a SDRAM; a ai-aoi?uo DDR eniieuecoao DLL (delay–locked
loop — oeeee n oeene?iaaiiie caaea?aeeie) aeey auaea/e neaiaea
DataStrobe, icia/athuaai aeinooiiinoue aeaiiuo ia auoiaeiuo eiioaeoao.
Eniieuecoy iaeei neaiae DataStrobe ia eaaeaeua 16 auaiaeia, eiio?ieea?
iiaeao inouanoaeyoue aeinooi e aeaiiui aieaa oi/ii e neio?iiece?iaaoue
aoiaeyuea aeaiiua, iinooiathuea ec ?aciuo iiaeoeae, iaoiaeyueony a
iaeiii aaiea. DDR oaeoe/anee oaaee/eaaao nei?inoue aeinooia aaeaia, ii
n?aaiaieth n SDRAM, eniieuecoy i?e yoii oo aea /anoioo. A ?acoeueoaoa,
DDR iicaieyao /eoaoue aeaiiua ii ainoiaeyuaio e iaaeathuaio o?iaith
oaeia?a, auiieiyy aeaa aeinooia ca a?aiy iaeiiai ia?auaiey noaiaea?oiie
SDRAM. Aeiiieieoaeueii, DDR iiaeao ?aaioaoue ia aieueoae /anoioa
aeaaiaea?y caiaia neaiaeia TTL/LVTTL ia SSTL3. DDR ia/iao
i?iecaiaeeoueny a 1998 aiaeo.

SLDRAM (SyncLink) i?iaeoeo DRAM–eiini?oeeoia, yaeyaony aeeaeaeoei
eiieo?aioii Rambus. Yoio eiini?oeeoi iauaaeeiyao aeaaiaaeoeaoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeae DRAM. SLDRAM i?iaeieaeaao aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
oaoiieiaee SDRAM, ?anoe?yy /aou??oaaieiaoth a?oeoaeoo?o iiaeoey aei
oanoiaaeoeaoe aaieia. E?iia oiai, aeiaaaeyaony iiaue eioa?oaen e
oi?aaeythuay eiaeea, iicaieyy eniieueciaaoue iaeaoiue i?ioieie aeey
aae?anaoeee y/aae iaiyoe. SLDRAM ia?aaeaao aeaiiua oae aea eae e RDRAM,
ii eaaeaeiio oaeoo nenoaiiiai oaeia?a. SLDRAM a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaoiaeeony a noaaeee ?ac?aaioee, a i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
iaeeaeaaony a 1999 aiaeo.

RDRAM iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiue i?ioieie iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo
iee?inoaiaie, iicaieythuee ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo ii oi?iuaiiie oeia,
?aaioathuae ia aunieie /anoioa. RDRAM i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eioaa?e?iaaiioth ia nenoaiiii o?iaia oaoiieiaeth. Eeth/aauie yeaiaioaie
RDRAM yaeythony: iiaeoee DRAM, aace?othueany ia Rambus; y/aeee Rambus
ASIC (RACs); noaia niaaeeiaiey /eiia, iacuaaaiay Rambus Channel.

Rambus

Rambus, aia?aua eniieueciaaiiue a a?aoe/aneeo ?aai/eo noaioeeyo a 1995
aiaeo, eniieuecoao oieeaeueioth oaoiieiaeth RSL (Rambus Signal Logic —
neaiaeueiay eiaeea Rambus), iicaieythuoth eniieueciaaiea /anoio
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo aei 600MHz ia iau/iuo nenoaiao e iaoa?eineeo ieaoao.
Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaea Rambus — RDRAM e Concurrent RDRAM. Iee?inoaiu
RDRAM oaea i?iecaiaeyony, a Concurrent RDRAM aoaeao caiouaia a
i?iecaiaenoai a eiioea 1997 aiaea. O?aoee aeae RDRAM — Direct RDRAM,
iaoiaeeony a noaaeee ?ac?aaioee, a ia/aei aai i?iecaiaenoaa ieaie?oaony
a 1999 aiaeo.

Rambus eniieuecoao ieceiaieueoiaua neaiaeu e iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o
aeaiiuo ii iaiei o?iaiyi neaiaea nenoaiiiai oaeia?a. RDRAM eniieuecoao
8–aeoiaue eioa?oaen, a oi a?aiy eae EDO RAM e SDRAM eniieuecotho 4–, 8–
e 16–aeoiaue eioa?oaen. RAMBUS caiaoaioiaaia 11 e?oiiaeoeie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie DRAM, iaania/eaathueie 85% anaai ?uiea iaiyoe. Samsung
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeoe?oao 16/18–Maeoioth e 64–Maeoioth RDRAM.
Toshiba aea oaea i?iecaiaeeo 16/18–Maeoioth RDRAM e ?ac?aaaouaaao
64–Maeoioth RDRAM.

A 1996 aiaeo eiini?oeeoi RDRAM iieo/ee iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu
ei?ii?aoeee Intel, e iiaua /einaou oe?iu Intel aoaeoo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
oaoiieiaeth RDRAM n 1999 aiaea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ea?iaua
aeaeaii?enoaaee Nintendo 64 eniieuecotho oaoiieiaeth Rambus aeey
3D–a?aoeee e caoea aunieiai ea/anoaa. Noaiaea?oiua PC i?iecaiaenoaa
Gateway e Micron iiaeaea?aeeaatho ea?ou oe?iu Creative Labs n Rambus ia
ai?oo.

Concurrent Rambus eniieuecoao oeo/oaiiue i?ioieie, iieacuaathuee oi?ioaa
auno?iaeaenoaea aeaaea ia iaeaiueeeo, neo/aeii ?aniieiaeaiiuo aeieao
aeaiiuo. Concurrent Rambus i?eiaiyaony aeey 16/18/64/72–Maeoiuo iiaeoeae
RDRAM. Yoi aoi?ia iieieaiea RDRAM, ioee/aaony aunieie yooaeoeaiinoueth,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey a?aoe/aneeo e ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo i?eeiaeaiee. Ii
n?aaiaieth n RDRAM, i?eiaiai iiaue neio?iiiue ia?aeeaeueiue i?ioieie
aeey /a?aaeothueony eee ia?ae?uaathueony aeaiiuo. Yoa oaoiieiaey
iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua ni nei?inoueth 600Ia/nae ia eaiae e n
/anoioie aei 600MHz n neio?iiiui ia?aeeaeueiui i?ioieieii, eioi?ue aua
iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue ia 80%. E?iia oiai yoa oaoiieiaey iicaieyao
nio?aieoue niaianoeiinoue n RDRAM i?ioeiai iieieaiey. Ieaie?oaony, /oi a
1998 aiaeo, aeaaiaea?y aeiiieieoaeueiui oeo/oaieyi, nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
iiaeao aeinoeaiooue 800MHz.

Oaoiieiaey Direct Rambus — aua iaeii ?anoe?aiea RDRAM. Direct RDRAM
eiatho oa aea o?iaie neaiaeia (RSL: Rambus Signaling Level — o?iaaiue
neaiaeia Rambus), ii aieaa oe?ieoth oeio (16 aeo), aieaa aunieea /anoiou
(auoa 800MHz) e oeo/oaiiue i?ioieie (yooaeoeaiinoue auoa ia 90%).
Iaeiiaaieiaue iiaeoeue RDRAM aoaeao iaania/eaaoue nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
1.6Aaaeo/nae, aeaooaaieiaue — 3.2Aaaeo/nae. Direct Rambus eniieuecoao
aeaa 8–aeoiuo eaiaea aeey ia?aaea/e 1.6Aaaeo e 3 eaiaea aeey iieo/aiey
2.4Aaaeo.

N?aaiaiea:

SDRAM DDR SDRAM SLDRAM RDRAM Concurrent RDRAM Direct RDRAM

Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo 125 MB/sec 200 MB/sec 400 MB/sec 600 MB/sec
600 MB/sec 1.6 GB/sec

MHz 125 MHz 200 MHz 400 MHz 600 MHz 600 MHz 800 MHz

Noaiaea?o JEDEC JEDEC SLDRAM Consortium RAMBUS RAMBUS RAMBUS

A?aiy iiyaeaiey 1997 1998 1999 1995 1997 1999

Ieoaiea 3.3V 3.3V 2.5V 3.3V 3.3V 2.5V

Eioa?oaenu IDE, SCSI, a?oeoaeoo?a RAID

Eioa?oaenu, eniieuecoaiua aeey ae?noeeo aeeneia IBM PC. E?aoeee iaci?.

Ia?aua aei/anoa?u a PC XT eiaee eioa?oaen ST412/ST506; oae eae ii
i?eaioe?iaai ia iaoiae caiene MFM, aai /anoi iacuaatho MFM–eioa?oaenii.
Aei/anoa? ST412/ST506 oaeoe/anee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaaee/aiioth eiieth
iau/iiai oeiiie-aeeneiaiaea: ii niaea?aeeo aeaeaaoaeue n aaoiiiiiie
noaaeeecaoeeae nei?inoe a?auaiey (iau/ii ia eiaeoeoeaiii aeao/eea eee
aeao/eea Oieea), oneeeoaeue caiene–aini?iecaaaeaiey, eiiiooaoi? aieiaie
e oaaiaue i?eaiae iiceoeeiiapa n aiaoiei oi?aaeaieai. Ooieoeee
eiaee?iaaiey e aeaeiaee?iaaiey aeaiiuo, ia?aiauaiey iiceoeeiiapa,
oi?iaoe?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoe e ei??aeoeee ioeaie auiieiyao ioaeaeueiue
eiio?ieea?, e eioi?iio aei/anoa? iiaeeeth/aaony aeaoiy eaaaeyie:
34–i?iaiaeiui eaaaeai oi?aaeaiey e 20–i?iaiaeiui eaaaeai aeaiiuo.
Eioa?oaen iiaeaea?aeeaaao aei ainueie ono?ienoa; i?e yoii eaaaeue
oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony iauei, a eaaaee aeaiiuo — ioaeaeueiuie aeey
eaaeaeiai aei/anoa?a. Ii eaaaeth oi?aaeaiey ia?aaeathony neaiaeu auai?a
iaeiieoaey, ia?aiauaiey iiceoeeiiapa, auai?a aieiaee, aeeth/aiey ?aaeeia
caiene, onoaiiaee ia ioeaaoth aei?iaeeo e o.i. — oae aea, eae e ai
oeiiie–aeeneiaiaeao; ii eaaaeyi aeaiiuo ia?aaeathony n/eouaaaiua e
caienuaaaiua aeaiiua a aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie oi?ia (a oi/iinoe a oii
aeaea, a eaeii iie i?enoonoaotho ia iiaa?oiinoe aeeneia), a oaeaea
neaiae aioiaiinoe iaeiieoaey.

Eioa?oaen ST412/ST506 eniieuecoaony oaeaea aeey ?aaiou n aei/anoa?aie
i?e iaoiaea caiene RLL/ARLL; a ?yaea neo/aaa oaeaaony oniaoii
iiaeeeth/eoue RLL–aei/anoap e MFM–eiiopieeapo e iaiai?io, iaeiaei
iie?uoea iiaa?oiinoae e ia?aiao?u oneeeoaeae auae?athony a ?an/aoa ia
eiie?aoiue iaoiae caiene, e iaeneiaeueiie iaaeaaeiinoe iiaeii aeinoe/ue
oieueei ia iai.

Eiio?ieea? aei/anoa?ia n eioa?oaenaie MFM/RLL/ESDI iau/ii niaea?aeeo
nianoaaiiue BIOS, ioia?aaeaaiue a aae?an C800 (MFM/RLL) eee D000 (ESDI).
Ii niauaieth 5 a naaiaioa MFM/RLL BIOS /anoi iaoiaeeony aoiae a
i?ia?aiio ianeoaeeaaiey eee oi?iaoe?iaaiey iaeiieoaey, eioi?oth iiaeii
caionoeoue eiiaiaeie “G=C800:5” ioeaae/eea DEBUG.

Eioa?oaen ESDI (Extended Small Device Interface — ?anoe?aiiue eioa?oaen
iaeuo ono?ienoa) oaeaea eniieuecoao iauee 34–ipiaiaeiie eaaaeue
oi?aaeaiey e 20–ipiaiaeiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eaaaee aeaiiuo, iaeiaei
ono?iai i?eioeeieaeueii eia/a: /anoue eiio?ieea?a, ioaaonoaaiiay ca
oi?aaeaiea caienueth/n/eouaaieai e eiaee?iaaiea/aeaeiaee?iaaiea aeaiiuo,
?aciauaia a naiii iaeiieoaea, a ii eioa?oaeniui eaaaeyi ia?aaeathony
oieueei oeeo?iaua neaiaeu aeaiiuo e oi?aaeaiey a eiaeea OOE. ia?aoiae ia
iaiai /enouie aeaiiuie iicaieee oaaee/eoue i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue
eioa?oaena i?eia?ii aei 1.5 Ia/n e aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue
iniaaiiinoe iaeiieoaey (oei iie?uoey, ieioiinoue caiene, ?aca?aiua
aei?iaeee e o.i.). Ec–ca yoeo ?acee/ee eioa?oaen ESDI ianiaianoei n
ono?ienoaaie MFM/RLL.

Eioa?oaen SCSI (Small Computer System Interface — eioa?oaen iaeuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai, i?ieciineony eae «neace») yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui
eioa?oaenii aeey ethauo eeannia ono?ienoa. A ioee/ea io ST412/ST506 e
ESDI, a SCSI ionoonoaoao i?eaioaoeey ia eaeea-eeai eiie?aoiua oeiu
ono?ienoa – ii eeoue ii?aaeaeyao i?ioieie iaiaia eiiaiaeaie e aeaiiuie
iaaeaeo ?aaiii?aaiuie ono?ienoaaie; oaeoe/anee SCSI yaeyaony oi?iuaiiui
aa?eaioii nenoaiiie oeiu eiiiuethoa?a, iiaeaea?aeeaathuei aei ainueie
ono?ienoa. Oaeay i?aaiecaoeey o?aaoao io ono?ienoa iaee/ey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eioaeeaeoa — iai?eia?, a aei/anoa?ao SCSI ana ooieoeee
eiaee?iaaiey/aeaeiaee?iaaiey, iienea naeoi?a, ei??aeoeee ioeaie e o.i.
aiceaaathony ia ano?iaiioth yeaeo?iieeo, a aiaoiee SCSI–eiio?ieea?
auiieiyao ooieoeee iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo ono?ienoaii e eiiiuethoa?ii —
/anoi a aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia, aac o/anoey oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a
(?aaeeiu DMA — i?yiiai aeinooia e iaiyoe, eee Bus Mastering — caaeao/eea
oeiu). Oeia aaciaiai SCSI i?aaenoaaeyao niaie 50–ipiaiaeiie eaaaeue a
iieiii nei?inoiii aa?eaioa, eee 25–ipiaiaeiie — a oi?iuaiiii
ieceinei?inoiii.

Eioa?oaen IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics — yeaeo?iieea, ano?iaiiay a
i?eaiae), eee ATA (AT Attachment – iiaeeeth/aaiue e AT) — i?inoie e
iaaei?iaie eioa?oaen aeey PC AT. Ana ooieoeee ii oi?aaeaieth iaeiieoaeai
iaania/eaaao ano?iaiiue eiio?ieea?, a 40–ipiaiaeiie niaaeeieoaeueiue
eaaaeue yaeyaony oaeoe/anee oi?iuaiiui naaiaioii 16–?ac?yaeiie
iaaeno?aee AT–Bus (ISA). i?inoaeoee aaeaioa? IDE niaea?aeeo oieueei
aae?aniue aeaoeo?aoi? — ana inoaeueiua neaiaeu caaiaeyony i?yii ia
?acuai ISA. aaeaioa?u IDE iau/ii ia niaea?aeao nianoaaiiiai BIOS — ana
ooieoeee iiaeaea?aeee IDE ano?iaiu a nenoaiiue BIOS PC AT. Iaeiaei
eioaeeaeooaeueiua eee eyoe?othuea eiio?ieea?u iiaoo eiaoue nianoaaiiue
BIOS, iiaeiaiythuee /anoue eee ana ooieoeee nenoaiiiai.

Iniiaiie ?aaeei ?aaiou ono?ienoa IDE — i?ia?aiiiue iaiai (PIO) iiae
oi?aaeaieai oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a, iaeiaei ana nia?aiaiiua
aei/anoa?u EIDE iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaiai a ?aaeeia DMA, a aieueoeinoai
eiio?ieea?ia — ?aaeei Bus Mastering.

Iiaeeoeeaoeee IDE–eioapoaena

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio eo ian/eouaaaony /aou?a: iau/iue IDE, eee ATA; EIDE
(Enhanced IDE — ?anoe?aiiue IDE), eee ATA–2 (Fast ATA a aa?eaioa
Seagate); ATA–3 e Ultra ATA.

A ATA–2 auee aaaaeaiu aeiiieieoaeueiua neaiaeu (IORDY, CSEL e o.i.),
?aaeeiu PIO 3–4 e DMA, eiiaiaeu inoaiiaee aeaeaaoaey. Aue oaeaea
?anoe?ai oi?iao eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeiea, cai?aoeaaaiiai ec ono?ienoaa ii
eiiaiaea Identify.

A ATA–3 oaaee/aia iaaeaaeiinoue ?aaiou a nei?inoiuo ?aaeeiao (PIO 4 e
DMA 2), aaaaeaia oaoiieiaey S.M.A.R.T. (Self Monitoring Analysis And
Report Technology — oaoiieiaey naiinoiyoaeueiiai neaaeyuaai aiaeeca e
io/aoa), iicaieythuay ono?ienoaai niiauaoue i naieo iaeni?aaiinoyo.

Noaiaea?o Ultra ATA (iacuaaaiue oaeaea ATA–33 e Ultra DMA–33)
i?aaeeiaeai oe?iaie Intel e Quantum. A iai iiauoaia nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo (aei 33 Ia/n), i?aaeoniio?aii nopiaepiaaiea ia?aaeaaaaiuo
aeaiiuo ni noi?iiu ia?aaeao/eea (a i?aaeieo ATA nopiaepiaaiea anaaaea
auiieiyaony eiio?ieea?ii) aeey ono?aiaiey i?iaeai n caaea?aeeaie
neaiaeia, a oaeaea aaaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iey ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo
(iaoiae CRC).

Ana /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth oece/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth —
40–eiioaeoiue ?acu?i, ii iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?aciua ?aaeeiu ?aaiou, iaai?u
eiiaiae e nei?inoe iaiaia ii oeia. Ana eioa?oaenu niaianoeiu nieco aaa?o
(iai?eia?, aei/anoa? ATA–2 iiaeao ?aaioaoue n eiio?ieea?ii ATA, ii ia
ana ?aaeeiu eiio?ieea?a ATA–2 aiciiaeiu aeey aei/anoa?a ATA).

Ioaeaeueii noieo noaiaea?o ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface — iaeaoiue
eioa?oaen ATA), i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ?anoe?aiea ATA aeey iiaeeeth/aiey
ono?ienoa i?i/eo oeiia (CDROM, no?eia?ia e o.i.). ATAPI ia eciaiyao
oece/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ATA — ii eeoue aaiaeeo i?ioieieu iaiaia
iaeaoaie eiiaiae e aeaiiuo, iaiiaeiaea SCSI.

Iiaeeoeeaoeee SCSI–eioa?oaena

Aaciaue SCSI (Small Computer System Interface — eioa?oaen iaeuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai), eiiaaea iacuaaaiue SCSI–1: oieaa?naeueiue
eioa?oaen aeey iiaeeeth/aiey aiaoieo ono?ienoa (aei ainueie, aeeth/ay
eiio?ieea?). Niaea?aeeo ?acaeoua n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey, a oi aea a?aiy ia
i?eaioe?iaai ia eaeie-eeai eiie?aoiue oei ono?ienoa. Eiaao 8–?ac?yaeioth
oeio aeaiiuo, iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e — aei 1.5 Ia/n a
aneio?iiiii ?aaeeia (ii iaoiaeo «cai?in–iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea»), e aei 5 Ia/n
a neio?iiiii ?aaeeia (iaoiae «ianeieueei cai?inia — ianeieueei
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee»). Iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eiio?ieue /aoiinoe aeey
iaia?oaeaiey ioeaie. Yeaeo?e/anee ?aaeeciaai a aeaea 24 eeiee
(iaeiiiiey?iuo eee aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo), eaaaeue aeieaeai auoue
niaeaniaai oa?ieiaoi?aie (iaa?oci/iuie ?acenoi?aie) n iaieo eiioeia.
Iaeaieueooth iiioey?iinoue iieo/ee 50–ipiaiaeiie SCSI–eaaaeue n
50–eiioaeoiuie ?acu?iaie, iaeiaei eniieuecoaony e
25–ipiaiaeiie/25–eiioaeoiue n iaeiei iauei i?iaiaeii — aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey ieceinei?inoiuo ono?ienoa. SCSI oe?iei eniieuecoaony ai
iiiaeo iiaeaeyo eiiiuethoa?ia, a nooaeeeiii iocueaeueiii iai?oaeiaaiee,
nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie e o.i.

SCSI–2: nouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea aaciaiai SCSI. Naeaou a?aiaiiua aeeaa?aiiu
?aaeeia ia?aaea/e (aei 3 Ia/n a aneio?iiiii e aei 10 Ia/n a neio?iiiii)
– Fast SCSI, aeiaaaeaiu iiaua eiiaiaeu e niiauaiey, iiaeaea?aeea
eiio?iey /aoiinoe naeaeaia iaycaoaeueiie. Aaaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue
?anoe?aiey oeiu aeaiiuo aei 16 ?ac?yaeia (Wide SCSI, 68–eiioaeoiue
?acu?i), /oi iaania/eaaao nei?inoue aei 20 Ia/n.

Ultra SCSI: aaaaeaiu aua aieaa nei?inoiua ?aaeeiu ia?aaea/e – aei 20
Ia/n ii 8–?ac?yaeiiio eaiaeo e, niioaaonoaaiii, 40 Ia/n — ii
16–?ac?yaeiiio (Ultra Wide SCSI).

Plug-and-play SCSI: aeiaaaeaiu n?aaenoaa iiaeaea?aeee oaoiieiaee PnP —
aaoiiaoe/aneia iiiciaiea oeia e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey ono?ienoa,
iano?ieea aac iiiiue iieueciaaoaey eee i?e ieieiaeueiii aai o/anoee,
aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu ono?ienoa ai a?aiy ?aaiou e o.i.

Ana oeiu SCSI oai?aoe/anee niaianoeiu iaaeaeo niaie (ono?ienoaa
naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaatho i?eaieaiue i?ioieie iaiaia). Iaeiaei ia
i?aeoeea yoi ia anaaaea oae, e aeey niaeaniaaiey ono?ienoa iiaeao
iiiaaeiaeoueny ?o/iay iano?ieea i?e iiiiue ia?aiu/ae eee i?ia?aii.

Ianiio?y ia eaaeouaany caneeuea ono?ienoa n eioa?oaenii IDE/EIDE, ii
iauaiai auionea ca SCSI aeanoeeie aeeneaie ana-oaee inoaaony ieiei 27%
?uiea. Iau/ii yoi iauyniytho oai, /oi yoe eioa?oaenu ?ann/eoaiu ia
?aciua naaiaiou ?uiea — IDE aeey «iiioey?iuo e aeaoaauo nenoai», a SCSI
aeey «aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ?aai/eo noaioeee». Iaeiaei iiiaea iiaoo
aic?aceoue, /oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeanoeea aeenee IDE aeinoeaee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe SCSI e noiyo cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea. E IDE
eiio?ieea?, i?e/ai oaea naiue auno?ue, iau/ii iaoiaeeony ia iaoa?eineie
ieaoa e ia o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, oiaaea eae ia
oi?ioee SCSI eiio?ieea? ioaeii iio?aoeoue ieieioi $100. Iaeiaei ia
iiioey?iinoue SCSI yoi ieeae ia neacuaaaony.

SCSI eee IDE

Nii? «*oi eo/oa: IDE eee SCSI» aoiaeeo a /enei naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ai
iiiaeo oaeaeiioa?aioeeyo. *enei niiauaiee e noaoae ia yoo oaio i/aiue
aaeeei. Iaeiaei yoio aii?in, eae e ciaiaieoia «Windows NT or OS/2 or
Unix», a oaeie iinoaiiaea yaeyaony ia?ac?aoeiui. Iaeaieaa /anoay e
i?aaeeueiay ?aaeoeey ia ieo «A aeey /aai?». ?anniio?aa yoio aii?in
iiae?iaiaa, Au niiaeaoa i?eiyoue aeey naay ?aoaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe SCSI
aeey naay.

A oaaeeoea i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua i oii, /oi iiaeao aeaoue i?inoie SCSI
eiio?ieea? ii n?aaiaieth n IDE e ca /oi aai ioaeii auae?aoue eee ia
auae?aoue.

i?aaeeiaeaiea SCSI

aic?aaeaiey EIDE/ATAPI ioaao SCSI

aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey 7 ono?ienoa e iaeiiio eiio?ieea?o (e Wide —
15)

iao?oaeii onoaiiaeoue 4 eiio?ieea?a IDE e anaai aoaeao 8 ono?ienoa ia
eaaeaeue eiio?ieea? IDE ioaeii ii i?a?uaaieth! E oieueei 2 aoaeoo n
UDMA/33. A 4 UWSCSI yoi 60 ono?ienoa

oe?ieee niaeo? iiaeeeth/aaiuo ono?ienoa

ia IDE anoue NDD, ZIP , MO, CD–R, CD–RW Aeey eaaeaeiai IDE–ono?ienoaa
(ia aei/anoa?a) iaiaoiaeeiu naie ae?aeaa?u. Aeey SCSI iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue ethaua, a oii /enea aoiaeyuea a ninoaa IN

aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeeth/aoue eae aioo?aiiea, oae e aiaoiea ono?ienoaa

removable rack eee LPT-IDE

iauay aeeeiia eaaaey SCSI iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 25 iao?ia. A iau/iuo
aa?eaioao 3-6i*

ia aieaa iao?a iaei!

iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eyoe?iaaiea e oaoiieiaee RAID aeey ea?aeeiaeueiiai
iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe

?aiueoa auee eyoe?othuea Tekramu a nae/an iiyaeeenue e RAID aeey IDE
aeey na?ue?ciuo i?eeiaeaiee yoi ia aiaeeony

* Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi a neo/aa eniieueciaaiey eioa?oaena Ultra eee
Ultra Wide SCSI ia ea/anoai niaaeeieoaeueiuo eaaaeae e eo aeeeio
iaeeaaeuaathony aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
iaeneiaeueiay aeeeia niaaeeiaiey iiaeao auoue nouanoaaiii nieaeaia.

*oiau ia neeaaeuaaeinue aia/aoeaiea, /oi IDE yoi i/aiue ieioi, ioiaoei e
iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa IDE eioa?oaena, /anoe/ii a naaoa auoa
i?eaaaeaiiie oaaeeoeu:

1. Oeaia. Aannii?ii eiiaaea yoi i/aiue aaaeii.

2. Ia anai ioaeii iiaeeeth/aoue 4 HDD e 3 CDD. *anoi aeaoo eaiaeia IDE
aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii, a iiiaea neaia?u eaeoo ni naieie ea?oi/eaie.

3. A ei?iona minitower neiaeii eniieueciaaoue oeaeo, aeeeiiaa 80ni.

4. IDE HDD onoaiiaeoue ai?acaei i?iua, oai anaai iaeei jumper, a ia 4–16
eae ia SCSI.

5. IDE eiio?ieea? oaea anoue o aieueoeinoaa iaoa?eineeo ieao.

6. O IDE ono?ienoa oeia anaaaea 16 aeo e aeey iiaeaeae, n?aaieiuo ii
oeaia, IDE auea?uaaao ii nei?inoe.

Oaia?ue i oeaia. Naiue i?inoie SCSI ia oeio ISA noieo ieiei $20.
Neaaeothuee aa?eaio yoi eiio?ieea? ia oeia PCI. I?inoaeoee aa?eaio
FastSCSI noieo ieiei $40. Iaeiaei nae/an iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai
iaoa?eineeo ieao, ia eioi?uo anaai ca aeiiieieoaeueiua $70 iiaeao auoue
onoaiiaeai Adaptec 7880 UltraWideSCSI. Aeaaea o ciaiaieouo ASUS P55T2P4
e P2L97 anoue aa?eaiou ni SCSI. Aeey UWSCSI–ea?oi/ee oeaia aa?uee?oaony
io $100 aei $600. Oaeaea auaatho aeaooeaiaeueiua (eae IDE ia Intel
Triton HX/VX/TX) eiio?ieea?u. Oeaia eo anoanoaaiii auoa. Caiaoei, /oi a
neo/aa SCSI, a ioee/ea io IDE, aaea /oi–oi iiaia i?eaeoiaoue neiaeii, ca
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiueae eiio?ieea?u iiaoo auoue ?anoe?aiu ooieoeeyie
eyo–eiio?ieea?a, RAID–0(5, hotswap e o.ae., iiyoiio aiai?eoue i aa?oiae
a?aieoea noieiinoe eiio?ieea?a ia nianai ei??aeoii.

E iaeiiaoe i nei?inoe. Eae ecaanoii, naaiaeiy iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue
ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee ii oeia IDE ninoaaeyao 33Ia/n. Aeey UWSCSI
aiaeiae/iue ia?aiao? aeinoeaaao 40Ia/n. Iniiaiua i?aeiouanoaa SCSI
i?iyaeythony i?e ?aaioa a ioeueoecaaea/iuo n?aaeao (io e a Windows95
iaiiiai). Iiiaea oanou, i?eaaaeaiiua iiae Windows NT iieacuaatho
ianiiiaiiia i?aeiouanoai SCSI. Iiaeaeoe yoi naiay iiioey?iay ia naaiaeiy
IN, aeey eioi?ie i?eiaiaiea SCSI aieaa /ai ii?aaaeaii. Oaeaea iiaoo
auoue eiie?aoiua caaea/e (naycaiiua, iai?eia?, n ia?aaioeie aeaeai) a
eioi?uo i?inoi iaaiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea IDE. Nouanoaotho e ioee/ey
aioo?aiieo a?oeoaeoo?, oaeaea aeeythueo ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.
Iaeiaei, iaaethaeay ca ?acaeoeai IDE caia/aai, /oi ii i?eia?aoaao iiiaea
/a?ou SCSI, ii, aoaeai iaaeayoueny, ana-oaee nianai iie ia nieuethony.

Eae auaeyaeeo e ec /aai ninoieo SCSI eiio?ieea?

Eae aeaeii, aieueoa anaai ianoa caieiatho ?acuaiu. Naiue aieueoie (e
naiue noa?ue) yoi ?acuai aeey 8-e aeoiuo aioo?aiieo ono?ienoa, /anoi
iacuaaaiue narrow, ii aiaeiae/ai ?acuaio IDE, oieueei a iai ia 40, a 50
eiioaeoia. Ia aieueoeinoaa eiio?ieea?ia anoue e aiaoiee ?acuai, eae
neaaeoao ec iacaaiey, e iaio iiaeii e ioaeii iiaeeeth/aoue aiaoiea SCSI
ono?ienoaa. Ia ea?oeiea ecia?aaeai ?acuai oeia mini-centronix ia 50
eiioaeoia. A oaaee/aiiii ?aca a 2 aeaea yoi auaeyaeeo oae:

Eiiaaea iiaeii ano?aoeoue e noa?ue aa?eaio aiaoiaai ?acuaia — i?inoi
centronix. Oaeie aea (aiaoia, ii ia ooieoeeiiaeueii) eae e aeey
i?eioa?a.

Aeey ?aaiou ethaiai ono?ienoaa, eae ecaanoii, iaiaoiaeeia i?ia?aiiiay
iiaeaea?aeea. Aeey aieueoeinoaa IDE ono?ienoa ieieiaeueiay ano?iaia a
BIOS iaoa?eineie ieaou, aeey inoaeueiuo iaiaoiaeeiu ae?aeaa?a iiae
?acee/iua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu. O SCSI ono?ienoa ana iaiiiai neiaeiaa.
Aeey ia?ae/iie caa?ocee ni SCSI aeanoeiai aeenea e ?aaiou a DOS
iaiaoiaeei naie SCSI BIOS. Caeanue anoue 3 aa?eaioa.

1. iee?inoaia ni SCSI BIOS anoue ia naiii eiio?ieea?a (eae ia VGA
ea?oao). I?e caa?ocea eiiiuethoa?a ii aeoeaece?oaony e iicaieyao
caa?oceoueny ni SCSI aeanoeiai aeenea eee, iai?eia?, CDROM, MO. I?e
eniieueciaaiee iao?eaeaeueiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu (Windows NT, OS/2,
Unix) aeey ?aaiou n ono?ienoaaie SCSI anaaaea eniieuecothony ae?aeaa?a.
Oaeaea iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?aaiou ono?ienoa, ia yaeythueony aeanoeeie
aeeneaie, iiae DOS.

2. ia?ac SCSI BIOS i?ioeo a flash BIOS iaoa?eineie ieaou. Aeaeaa ii i.1.
Iau/ii a BIOS ieaou aeiaaaeytho SCSI BIOS aeey eiio?ieea?a ia iniiaa
/eia NCR 810, Symbios Logic SYM53C810 (ia ia?aie ea?oeiea eiaiii ii) eee
Adaptec 78xx. Yoei i?ioeannii i?e aeaeaiee iiaeii oi?aaeyoue e eciaiyoue
aa?neth SCSI BIOS ia aieaa iiaoth. I?e iaee/ee ia iaoa?eineie ieaoa SCSI
eiio?ieea?a eniieuecoaony eiaiii oaeie iiaeoiae. Yoio aa?eaio oaeaea
aieaa auaiaeai yeiiiie/anee — eiio?ieea? aac iee?inoaiu BIOS noieo
aeaoaaea.

3. SCSI BIOSa iao aiiaua. ?aaioa anao SCSI ono?ienoa iaania/eaaaony
oieueei ae?aeaa?aie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

E?iia iiaeaea?aeee caa?ocee ni SCSI ono?ienoa, BIOS iau/ii eiaao aua
ianeieueei ooieoeee: iano?ieea eiioeao?aoeee aaeaioa?a, i?iaa?ea
iiaa?oiinoe aeeneia, oi?iaoe?iaaiea ia ieceii o?iaia, iano?ieea
ia?aiao?ia eieoeeaeecaoeee SCSI ono?ienoa, caaeaiea iiia?a caa?oci/iiai
ono?ienoaa e o.ae.

Neaaeothuaa caia/aiea neaaeoao ec ia?aiai. Iau/ii ia iaoa?eineeo ieaoao
anoue CMOS. A iai BIOS o?aieo iano?ieee ieaou, a oii /enea
eiioeao?aoeeth aeanoeeo aeeneia. Aeey SCSI BIOS /anoi iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea
o?aieoue eiioeao?aoeeth SCSI ono?ienoa. Yoo ?ieue iau/ii auiieiyao
iee?inoaia oeia 93C46 (flash). Iiaeeeth/aaony iia e iniiaiiio SCSI /eio.
O iaa anaai 8 iiaeae e ianeieueei aeanyoeia aaeo iaiyoe, iaeiaei aa
niaea?aeeiia nio?aiyaony e i?e aueeth/aiee ieoaiey. A yoie iee?inoaia
SCSI BIOS iiaeao nio?aiyoue eae ia?aiao?u SCSI ono?ienoa oae e naie
nianoaaiiua. A iauai neo/aa aa i?enoonoaea ia naycaii n iaee/eai
iee?inoaiu ni SCSI BIOS, ii, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, iau/ii eo
onoaiaaeeaatho aianoa.

Ia neaaeothuae ea?oeiea Au iiaeaoa oaeaeaoue UltraWide SCSI eiio?ieea?
oe?iu ASUSTeK. Ia iai oaea i?enoonoaoao iee?inoaia SCSI BIOS. Oaeaea
iiaeii ?acaeyaeaoue aioo?aiiee e aiaoiee Wide ?acuaiu. I?e aeeaeaeoai
?anniio?aiee aioo?aiiee auaeyaeeo i?eia?ii oae:

Ii aeaaea iaiueoa, /ai narrow, ca n/ao aieaa aunieie ieioiinoe
?aniieiaeaiey eiioaeoia. (Enoaoe, ianiio?y ia iacaaiea, wide oeaeo oiaea
oaea, /ai narrow). Aiaoiee ?acuai yoi oio aea mini–centronix, oieueei ia
68 eiioaeoia.

Ia iineaaeiae ea?oeiea i?aaenoaaeai aeaooeaiaeueiue Ultra Wide SCSI
eiio?ieea?. Aai niaoeeoeeaoeey aeeth/aao neaaeothuea ioieou: RAID
o?iaiae 0,1,3,5 ; Failure Drive Rebuilding ; Hot Swap e on–line
Rebuilding; eyo iaiyoue 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Mb; Flash EEPROM aeey SCSI BIOS.
I/aiue oi?ioi aeaeai 486 i?ioeanni?, eioi?ue aeaeeii e iuoaaony anai
yoei aeia?ii oi?aaeyoue.

Aua ia ieaoa eiio?ieea?a SCSI iiaeii ano?aoeoue

naaoiaeeiae aeoeaiinoe SCSI oeiu e/eee ?acuai aeey aai iiaeeeth/aiey

?acuaiu aeey iiaeoeae iaiyoe

eiio?ieea? aeaeeo aeeneia (a iniiaiii ia noa?uo ieaoao Adaptec)

IDE eiio?ieea?

caoeiaoth ea?oo (ia ea?oao ASUSTeK aeey MediaBus)

VGA ea?oo

Ae?oaea ea?ou SCSI

*anoi e neaia?ai e ae?oaei iaauno?ui SCSI ono?ienoaai a eiiieaeoa
i?eeaaaaony i?inoie SCSI eiio?ieea?. Iau/ii yoi SCSI–1 eiio?ieea? ia
oeia ISA 16 eee aeaaea 8 aeo n iaeiei (aiaoiei eee aioo?aiiei) ?acu?iii.
Ia iai iao BIOSa, eeprom, /anoi ii ?aaioaao aac i?a?uaaiee (polling
mode), eiiaaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao oieueei iaeii (a ia 7) ono?ienoai. A
iniiaiii oaeie eiio?ieea? iiaeii i?eiaiyoue oieueei ni naiei
ono?ienoaii, o.e. ae?aeaa?a anoue oieueei aeey iaai. Iaeiaei i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiii iaauea iiaeii iiaeeeth/eoue e iaio iai?eia? aeanoeee aeene
eee no?eia?. Yoi ii?aaaeaii oieueei a neo/aa ionoonoaey aeaiaa e iaee/ey
a?aiaie (eee nii?oeaiiai eioa?ana) , o.e. noaiaea?oiue SCSI eiio?ieea?,
eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iiaeii i?eia?anoe ca $20–40 e eiaoue ia ii?yaeie
iaiueoa i?iaeai e ai?acaei aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee SCSI–oeiu

Iniiaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeiu SCSI yaeythony

aa oe?eia — 8 eee 16 aeo. Eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, «narrow» eee «wide».

nei?inoue (a?oai — /anoioa, n eioi?ie oaeoe?oaony oeia)

oece/aneee oei eioa?oaena (iaeiiiiey?iue, aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue, iioeea…).
eiiaaea yoi iiaeii iacaaoue oeiii ?acuaia aeey iiaeeeth/aiey

Ia nei?inoue aeeytho a iniiaiii ia?aua aeaa ia?aiao?a. Iau/ii iie
caienuaathony a aeaea i?enoaaie e neiao SCSI.

SCSI Iauay /anoue iacaaiey. Iau/ii ieoaony ni?aaa. Eee iaicia/aao
«aaciaue» eioa?oaen SCSI: oeia 8 aeo, nei?inoue 5MHz

Fast eee -2 nei?inoue iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 10MHz (eiiaaea ieooo
FastSCSI-2)

Ultra nei?inoue iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 20MHz

Ultra2 nei?inoue iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 40MHz

Wide oe?eia oeiu oaaee/aia aei 16 aaeo

Iaeneiaeueioth nei?inoue ia?aaea/e ono?ienoai–eiio?ieea? eaaei
iiaen/eoaoue. Aeey yoiai ioaeii i?inoi acyoue /anoioo oeiu, a a neo/aa
iaee/ey «Wide» oiiiaeeoue aa ia 2. Iai?eia?: FastSCSI — 10Ia/n;
Ultra2WideSCSI — 80Ia/n. Caiaoei, /oi WideSCSI iau/ii iaicia/aao
ana–oaee WideFastSCSI.

Ia i?eia?a iaicia/aiee aeanoeeo aeeneia Seagate ?anniio?ei aa?eaiou
eioa?oaenia SCSI. A iacaaiee iiaeaee iineaaeiea 1–2 aoeau iaicia/atho
eioa?oaen, o.a. iaeei e oio aea aeene iiaeao auioneaoueny n ?acee/iuie
eioa?oaenaie, iai?eia? Baracuda 9LP — ST34573N, ST34573W, ST34573WC,
ST34573WD, ST34573DC, ST34573LW, ST34573LC.

DC 80–pin Differential

FC Fibre Channel

N 50–pin SCSI connector

ND 50–pin Differential SCSI connector

W 68–pin Wide SCSI connector

WC 80–pin Single connector SCSI

WD 68–pin Wide Differential SCSI connector

LW 68–pin Wide SCSI connector, low–voltage Differential

LC 80–pin Single connector SCSI connector, low–voltage Differential

A iau/iie aeecie ano?a/athony a iniiaiii eioa?oaenu, iaicia/aiiua N e W.
Eo «Differential» aa?eaiou iaania/eaatho iiauoaiioth iiiaoicaueuaiiinoue
e oaaee/aiioth aeiionoeioth aeeeio oeiu SCSI. «Low–voltage» i?eiaiyaony
n iiaui i?ioieieii Ultra2. «Single connector» eniieuecothony a iniiaiii
a hot–swap eiioeao?aoeeyo, o.e. iauaaeeiytho neaiaeu SCSI, ieoaiey e
cacaieaiey a iaeiii ?acuaia. «Fibre Channel» nei?aa iioiae ia eioa?oaen
eieaeueiie naoe, /ai ia SCSI, o.e. yaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiui
eioa?oaenii. Nei?inoue a 100Mb/s aeey iaai aiieia iau/ia. I?eiaiyaony a
Hi–End eiioeao?aoeeyo.

Eiio?ieea?

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iau/ii eiio?ieea? eiaao SCSI ID=7. Iiiaiyoue aai
iiaeii /a?ac SCSI BIOS. Oaeaea iiaeii iano?ieoue: iiaeaea?aeeo nei?inoae
ultra, iiaeaea?aeeo aieaa aeaoo aeeneia, iiaeaea?aeeo removable eae
aeene ai a?aiy caa?ocee e o.ae. Aeey eaaeaeiai ec ono?ienoa ia SCSI–oeia
iiaeii iano?ieoue: i?iaa?eo /aoiinoe, caaea?aeeo i?e aeeth/aiee (/oiau
ia iaeiia?aiaiii ana 7 aeeneia aeeth/aeenue), iaeneiaeueioth nei?inoue
ono?ienoaa. Aeey ia PnP eiio?ieea?ia ia oeia ISA ia caaoaeueoa
onoaiiaeoue eniieuecoaiia ei i?a?uaaiea a BIOS SETUP a «Legal ISA». Aeey
PCI eiio?ieea?a i?iaa?ueoa, /oi aio oiaea aeinoaeinue i?a?uaaiea, e ii
aai ie n eai ia aeaeeo.

Oa?ieiaoi?u

Oeaeue i?eiaiaiey oa?ieiaoi?ia — iaania/eoue niaeaniaaiea o?iaiae
neaiaeia, oiaiueoeoue caoooaiea e iiiaoe. Aiai?yo, /oi i?iaeaiu n
oa?ieiaoi?aie yaeythony iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie, iaeiaei anee
aieiaoaeueii ana aeaeaoue, eo ia aicieeiao. Eaaeaeia SCSI ono?ienoai
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue aeeth/aiey eee aueeth/aiey oa?ieiaoi?ia. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeytho iaeioi?ua neaia?u, o eioi?uo oa?ieiaoeey oeiu aeeth/aia
iaanaaaea e aiaoiea ono?ienoaa ni neaiciie oeiie. Aa?eaiou oa?ieiaoi?ia:

1. aioo?aiiea — iau/ii i?enoonoaotho ia aeanoeeo aeeneao, aeeth/athony
onoaiiaeie iaeiie ia?aiu/ee;

2. aaoiiaoe/aneea — aieueoeinoai eiio?ieea?ia SCSI eiaao oaeea, iie naie
?aoatho, aeeth/aoueny ei eee iao;

3. a aeaea nai?ie ?acenoi?ia — ia iaeioi?uo CD-ROM e CD–R eiaiii oaeea,
aueeth/athony oaeaeaieai ec iaiaeae anao nai?ie;

4. aiaoiea — eae a i.3, ii e?aneaaa, ono?ienoai (iau/ii aiaoiaa) eiaao
aeaa ?acuaia SCSI, a iaeei aeeth/aaony eaaaeue e eiio?ieea?o, a ae?oaie
— oa?ieiaoi? eee eaaaeue e neaaeothuaio ono?ienoao a oeaii/ea.

E?iia oiai oa?ieiaoi?u iiaoo auoue ianneaiuie eee aeoeaiuie.
Aieueoeinoai ana–oaee ianneaiua. Aeoeaiua i?eiaiythony a
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo Hi–End eiioeao?aoeeyo.

Aieaa iiae?iaii i?i oa?ieiaoi?u iaienaii a iienaiee eaaeaeiai
ono?ienoaa. I?aaeea oa?ieie?iaaiey /anoi ia?eniaaiu a ?oeiaiaenoaa e
aaeaioa?o. Aeaaiia cao/eo oae: oeia SCSI aeieaeia auoue caoa?ieie?iaaia
ia iaieo naieo eiioeao. Caeanue ?anniio?ei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
aa?eaiou ono?ienoa ia iaeiie SCSI oeia (wide eee narrow)

I?inoaeoee aa?eaio: eiio?ieea? e iaeii ono?ienoai (aiaoiaa eee
aioo?aiiaa — ia aaaeii). Oa?ieiaoi?u iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue e ia
eiio?ieea?a e ia ono?ienoaa (eee a ono?ienoai)

Aa?eaio n ianeieueeeie aioo?aiieie ono?ienoaaie. Oa?ieiaoi? aeeth/ai
oieueei ia iineaaeiai e ia eiio?ieea?a.

Anoue eae aioo?aiiea, oae e aiaoiea ono?ienoaa. Oa?ieiaoi?u aeeth/aiu ia
e?aeieo aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ono?ienoaao.

Anoue aioo?aiia e ianeieueei aiaoieo ono?ienoa. Oa?ieiaoi?u ia
aioo?aiiai e a iineaaeiai aiaoiai ono?ienoaa

Iaiiiai neiaeiaa neooaoeey, eiaaea ia iaeiii eiio?ieea?a (oeia)
eniieuecothony narrow e wide ono?ienoaa iaeiia?aiaiii. I?aaenoaaei, /oi
o ian aeaa 8 aeo oeiu, eioi?ua ia naiii aeaea anoue i?inoi noa?oee e
ieaaeoee aaeou wide oeiu (a iienaieyo e SCSI BIOS yoi oae e iacuaaaony —
High byte/Low byte) . Oaia?ue, neaaeoy auoai?eaaaeaiiui i?aaeeai,
iaiaoiaeeii caoa?ieie?iaaoue iaa yoe oeiu. Iau/ii a oaeeo neo/ayo ia
eiio?ieea?a iiaeii iacaaeneii oa?ieie?iaaoue noa?oee e ieaaeoee aaeou
wide oeiu. A yoie neooaoeee narrow oeia anoue i?iaeieaeaiea ieaaeoaai
aaeoa wide oeiu. I?eaaaeai iaeei i?eia?:

Eniieueciaaiea Narrow e Wide ono?ienoa ia iaeiie SCSI oeia

A i?eioeeia yoi aiciiaeii, oieueei ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia oa?ieiaoeeth.
Iaeiaei ana–oaee eo/oa oae ia aeaeaoue. Iineieueeo anaaaea
ninouanoaiaaiea ia iaeiie oeia auno?uo (wide yoi iau/ii UltraWide SCSI)
e iaaeeaiiuo ono?ienoa (narrow yoi iau/ii oieueei Fast SCSI) ia anoue
oi?ioi.

Eniieueciaaiea Narrow ono?ienoaa ia Wide eiio?ieea?a(oeia)

Oaeie aa?eaio aiieia ?aaioiniiniaai. Ioaeii oieueei eniieueciaaoue
ia?aoiaeiee wide-narrow eee yoi iiaeao auoue aiaoiee SCSI eaaaeue n
narrow ?acuaiii ia iaeiii eiioea e wide ia ae?oaii. *aua anaai oaeay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicieeaao i?e iiaeeeth/aiee aiaoieo narrow ono?ienoa e
wide eiio?ieea?o, o.e. ii iau/ii eiaao wide aiaoiee ?acuai.

SCSI ono?ienoaa

Ia?a/eneeoue ana SCSI ono?ienoaa ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui,
i?eaaaeai oieueei ianeieueei eo oeiia: aeanoeee aeene, CD–ROM, CD–R,
CD–RW, Tape (no?eia?), MO (iaaieoiiioe/aneee ae?aea), ZIP, Jaz, SyQuest,
neaia?. N?aaee aieaa yecioe/aneeo ioiaoei Solid State disks (SSD) —
i/aiue auno?ia ono?ienoai ianniaie iaiyoe ia iee?inoaiao e IDE RAID —
ei?iaea n n IDE aeeneaie, eioi?ay i?eoai?yaony iaeiei aieueoei SCSI
aeeneii. A iauai neo/aa iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi ana ono?ienoaa ia oeia SCSI
iaeeiaeiau e aeey ?aaiou n ieie eniieuecoaony iaeei iaai? eiiaiae.
Eiia/ii ii ia?a ?acaeoey oece/aneiai o?iaiy SCSI eciaiyeny e i?ia?aiiiue
eioa?oaen. Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo naaiaeiy — ASPI. Iiaa?o
yoiai eioa?oaena iiaeii i?eiaiyoue ae?aeaa?a neaia?ia, CD–ROMia, MO.
Iai?eia? i?aaeeueiue ae?aeaa? CD–ROMa iiaeao ?aaioaoue n ethaui
ono?ienoaii ia ethaii eiio?ieea?a, anee o eiio?ieea?a anoue ASPI
ae?aeaa?. Enoaoe, Windows95 yioee?oao ASPI aeaaea aeey IDE/ATAPI
ono?ienoa. Yoi iiaeii iiniio?aoue iai?eia? a i?ia?aiiao oeia EZ–SCSI e
Corel SCSI. Eaaeaeia ono?ienoai ia SCSI oeia eiaao naie iiia?. Yoio
iiia? iacuaaaony SCSI ID. Aeey ono?ienoa ia narrow SCSI oeia ii iiaeao
auoue io 0 aei 7, ia wide — io 0 aei 15. O SCSI eiio?ieea?a,
yaeythuaainy ?aaiii?aaiui SCSI ono?ienoaii, oiaea anoue naie iiia?,
iau/ii yoi 7. Caiaoei, /oi anee o Aan iaeei eiio?ieea?, ii anoue ?acuaiu
e narrow e wide, oi SCSI oeia ana–oaee iaeia, e ana ono?ienoaa ia iae
aeieaeiu eiaoue oieeaeueiua iiia?a. Aeey iaeioi?uo oeaeae, iai?eia? o
aeaeeioae ono?ienoa CD-ROM, i?eiaiyaony aua LUN — eiae/aneee iiia?
ono?ienoaa. Anee a aeaeeioaea 8 CD–ROM, oi iia eiaao SCSI ID, iai?eia?,
6, a eiae/anee CD–ROMu ?acee/athony ii LUN. Aeey eiio?ieea?a ana yoi
auaeyaeeo a aeaea ia? SCSI ID – LUN, a iaoai i?eia?a 6–0, 6–1, …, 6–7 .
Iiaeaea?aeeo LUN i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioaeii aeeth/aoue a SCSI BIOS. Iiia?
SCSI ID iau/ii onoaiaaeeaaaony n iiiiuueth ia?aiu/ae (oioy a SCSI
nouanoaotho e iiaua noaiaea?ou, aiaeiae/iua Plug&Play, ia o?aaothuea
ia?aiu/ae). Oaeaea eie iiaeii onoaiiaeoue ia?aiao?u: i?iaa?ea /aoiinoe,
aeeth/aiea oa?ieiaoi?a, ieoaiea oa?ieiaoi?a, aeeth/aiea aeenea ii
eiiaiaea eiio?ieea?a,

CD–ROM, CD–R, CD–RW

Aeey yoeo ono?ienoa iiae DOS iaiaoiaeei ae?aeaa?. Iau/ii ii
onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaa?o ASPI ae?aeaa?a. I?e ?aaioa ia iiae DOS iau/ii
ieeaeeo ae?aeaa?ia ia o?aaoaony. I?e aeaeaiee iiaeii onoaiiaeoue
ia?aiao? eiio?ieea?a ia caa?oceo n CD aeenea. Aeey ?aaiou n CD–R/CD–RW
ono?ienoaaie a ?aaeeia caiene Aai iio?aaoaony niaoeeaeueiia II (iai?eia?
Adaptec EZ-CD Pro).

No?eia?u

Aiaeiae/ii CD–ROM, SCSI no?eia?u iiaoo ?aaioaoue n aieueoeinoaii
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai ni noaiaea?oiuie ae?aeaa?aie. I/aiue oaea/ii, /oi
iiaeii, iai?eia? iiae WindowsNT, eniieueciaaoue noaiaea?oioth i?ia?aiio
backup, a ia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia II.

Neaia?u

Iau/ii a eiiieaeo neaia?ia aoiaeeo naiy ea?oi/ea. Eiiaaea iia nianai
«naiy», eae, iai?eia?, o Mustek Paragon 600N, a eiiaaea i?inoi
iaeneiaeueii oi?iuaiiue aa?eaio noaiaea?oiiai SCSI. A i?eioeeia
eniieueciaaiea neaia?a n iae ia aeieaeii aucuaaoue i?iaeai, ii eiiaaea
iiaeeeth/aiea neaia?a e ae?oaiio eiio?ieea?o (anee o neaia?a anoue oaeay
aiciiaeiinoue) iiaeao i?eianoe iieueco. Neaie?iaaiea A4 n 32 aeo oeaaoii
ia 600dpi yoi ea?oeiea ieiei 90Mb e ia?aaea/a yoiai eiee/anoaa
eioi?iaoeee /a?ac 8 aeo oeio ISA ia oieueei caieiaao iiiai a?aiaie, ii e
neeueii caiaaeeyao IE, o.e. ae?aeaa?a e yoie noaiaea?oiie ea?oi/ea
iau/ii 16 aeoiua (i?eia? — Mustek Paragon 800IISP). A ea/anoaa
aeiiieieoaeueiiai iau/ii aunooiaao aeaoaaue FastSCSI PCI eiio?ieea?.
Iaiaa eee aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue ia aeaaeoo ie/aai iiaiai. A oaeii
aa?eaioa oiaea anoue caia/aiea — ioaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi neaia? (eee
aieaa aaaeii — aai ae?aeaa?a) iiaeao ?aaioaoue n Aaoei iiaui
eiio?ieea?ii a Aaoae eiioeao?aoeee. Iai?eia? ae?aeaa?a Mustek Paragon
800IISP ?ann/eoaiu ia naith ea?oi/eo eee ethaoth ASPI niaianoeioth.

AEanoeea aeenee

Iiaeeeth/aiea aeanoeeo aeeneia i/aiue i?inoi, ioaeii oieueei
iicaaioeoueny i aeaoo aauao — i oa?ieiaoi?a e SCSI ID. Iau/ii o iiaiai
aeenea oa?ieiaoeey aeeth/aia, a iiia? iinoaaeai ia 6 eee 2. Iiyoiio anee
Au noaaeoa ia?aue aeene, oi caaioeoueny ia i /ai, a anee iao, oi ioaeii
i?iaa?eoue yoe onoaiiaee. Aua iaeii caia/aiea i SCSI ID — noa?ua
eiio?ieea?u Adaptec iiaoo caa?oaeaoueny oieueei n iiia?a 0 eee 1.

Neaaeothuee yoai onoaiiaee — oi?iaoe?iaaiea aeenea. N/eoaaony oi?ioei
oiiii ia?aae eniieueciaaieai aeenea ia iiaii eiio?ieea?a
iooi?iaoe?iaaoue aai eiaiii ia iai. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi o ?aciuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae SCSI aaeaioa?ia eniieuecothony ?aciua noaiu o?aineyoeee
naeoi?ia (iiaeii n?aaieoue n LBA, CHS, LARGE o IDE aeeneia) e i?e
ia?aiina aeene iiaeao ?aaioaoue ieioi eee aiiaua ieeae. Anee aeene ia
iiaii eiio?ieea?a ia ca?aaioae, iii?iaoeoa aai iooi?iaoe?iaaoue
eiiaiaeie format, a anee ia iiiiaeao, oi ec SCSI BIOSa.

Anee Au iiaeeeth/aaoa aieueoa aeaoo aeanoeeo aeeneia eee aeenee iauaiii
aieaa 2A, iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny eciaieoue onoaiiaee SCSI BIOS. I?e
iiaeeeth/aiee removable ono?ienoa, iai?eia? IOmega Jaz, aeey caa?ocee n
ieo ioaeii onoaiiaeoue iioeee SCSI BIOS. Iienaiea aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia
neeoeii aaeeei — /eoaeoa aeieoiaioaoeeth.

Auai? SCSI ono?ienoa

Eiio?ieea?u

I?e auai?a SCSI eiio?ieea?a ioaeii ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia ianeieueei
ia?aiao?ia:

Aaoe o?aaiaaiey e caaea/e;

niaianoeiinoue;

ecaanoiinoue oe?iu–i?iecaiaeeoaey ea?ou;

ecaanoiinoue oe?iu–i?iecaiaeeoaey /eia;

iaee/ea ae?aeaa?ia;

oaoie/aneay iiaeaea?aeea;

noieiinoue;

niaaou ae?ocae e ciaeiiuo;

ee/iua i?aaeii/oaiey;

aiaoiee aeae e eiiieaeoaoeey.

Ieaea i?aaaaeaiu ianeieueei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiuo e «i?iaa?aiiuo»
SCSI–aaeaioa?ia.

FastSCSI PCI eiio?ieea? — Tekram DC–390. Yoio eiio?ieea? iino?iai ia
aaca ecaanoiiai /eia AMD, /oi aa?aioe?oao ?aaioiniiniaiinoue iiae
aieueoeinoaii iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai n ano?iaiiuie ae?aeaa?aie, iaeiaei
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e io Tekram. I?enoonoaoao ianeiaeiue SCSI BIOS.
Eiio?ieea?u ia /eia Symbios Logic SYM53C810, oi?ioi ecaanoiu
aieueoeinoao IN. SCSI BIOS eiaiii aeey iaai aoiaeeo ii/oe a ethaie AWARD
BIOS aeey iaoa?eineeo ieao. I/aiue aeaoaaue e oai ia iaiaa
?aaioiniiniaiue.

UltraWideSCSI PCI eiio?ieea? — Adaptec AHA2940UW. Iaeei ec naiuo
iiioey?iuo naaiaeiy, oioy oaea naeaao naie iiceoeee. Iaeiaei ii ana–oaee
?aaioiniiniaai. Io iaiiiai iaaeeaiiue e aei?iaie, caoi ?aaioaao iiae
anaie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie IN.

Eiio?ieea?u ia /eia Symbios Logic 53C875 — iiiaea ioia/atho aai
nei?inoue e iaaeaaeiinoue.

Ono?ienoaa

HDD —Seagate Cheetah — n RPM 10000 neiaeii iinii?eoue. Ii aac
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aaioeeyoi?ia ioeaaeaeaiey yoio aeene aeieai ia
i?iaeeaao. Oae aea ioee/athony iaaeaaeiinoueth e ae?oaea na?ee aeeneia
Seagate — Barracuda e Hawk.

Inoaeueiua ono?ienoaa (CD-ROM, Tape, CD–R e ae?oaea) — caeanue ana
ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ee/iuie i?aaeii/oaieyie, eeai — i?inoi neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeeae. SCSI ono?ienoaa i?iecaiaeyo iiiaea ecaanoiua eiiiaiee.
Iai?eia? HP, Sony, Plextor, Yamaha.

PIO e DMA

?aaeeiu i?ia?aiiiiai aaiaea/auaiaea (Programmed Input/Output) e i?yiiai
aeinooia e iaiyoe (Direct Memory Access) ia aei/anoa?ao noaiaea?oa
IDE/EIDE. I?ia?aiiiue aaiae/auaiae — iau/iue iaoiae iaiaia n
IDE–aei/anoapii, eiaaea i?ioeanni? i?e iiiiue eiiaiae aaiaea/auaiaea
n/eouaaao eee caienuaaao aeaiiua a aooa? aei/anoa?a, /oi ioieiaao
eaeoth–oi /anoue i?ioeanni?iiai a?aiaie. Aaiae/auaiae iooai i?yiiai
aeinooia e iaiyoe eaeao iiae oi?aaeaieai naiiai aei/anoa?a eee aai
eiio?ieea?a a iaocao iaaeaeo ia?auaieyie i?ioeanni?a e iaiyoe, /oi
yeiiiieo i?ioeanni?iia a?aiy, ii ianeieueei nieaeaao iaeneiaeueioth
nei?inoue iaiaia. A iaeiicaaea/iuo nenoaiao aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai ?aaeei
PIO, a iiiaicaaea/iuo — ?aaeei DMA. Iaeiaei aeey ?aaeecaoeee ?aaeeia DMA
iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua eiio?ieea?u e ae?aeaa?u, oiaaea eae ?aaeei PIO
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony anaie aac eneeth/aiey nenoaiaie.

IORDY

Neaiae io EIDE–aei/anoapa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee caaa?oaiea oeeeea iaiaia n
eiio?ieea?ii. ae?oaea iacaaiey — CHRDY, IOCHDRY. Eniieueciaaiea IORDY
iicaieyao nei?inoiiio aei/anoa?o caoyiooue oeeee iaiaia n eiio?ieea?ii,
eiaaea ii ia oniaaaao i?eiyoue eee ia?aaeaoue aeaiiua. Yoi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue naanoe noaiaea?oioth aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea iaiaia e
ieieioio, i?aaeaeueii oaaee/ea nei?inoue, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
oaeeeiyoue ioaeaeueiua oeeeeu i?e iiiiue IORDY. Aeey yoiai neaiae
aeieaeai iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny e aei/anoa?ii, e eiio?ieea?ii.

?aaeeiu PIO e DMA

Hiiapa ?aaeeiia iaicia/atho nei?inoue (eee a?aiy iaeiiai oeeeea) iaiaia:

PIO A?aiy oeeeea (in) Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue iaiaia (Ia/n)

0 600 3.3

1 383 5.2

2 240 8.3

3 180 11.1

4 120 16.6

5 100 20.0

?aaeeiu 0..2 ioiinyony e iau/iui IDE (noaiaea?o ATA), 3..4 — e EIDE
(ATA–2), ?aaeei 5 — e ATA–3. Ca iaeei oeeee ia?aaeaaony neiai (aeaa
aaeoa), iiyoiio nei?inoue au/eneyaony oae:

2 aaeoa / 180 in = 11 111 110 aaeo/c

PIO 3 e auoa o?aaoao eniieueciaaiey neaiaea IORDY.

?aaeeiu DMA aeaeyony ia iaeiineiaiua (single word) e iiiaineiaiua
(multiword) a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa neia (oeeeeia iaiaia),
ia?aaeaaaaiuo ca iaeei naain ?aaiou n oeiie

DMA A?aiy oeeeea (in) Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue iaiaia (Ia/n)

Single word

0 960 2.1

1 480 4.2

2 240 8.3

Multiword

0 480 4.2

1 150 13.3

2 120 16.6

?aaeeiu Single Word 0..2 e Multiword 0 ioiinyony e ATA, 1..2 – e
(ATA-2), ?aaeei 3 – e ATA-3.

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua eiio?ieea?ii eee aei/anoa?ii ?aaeeiu ii?aaeaeytho
eeoue iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth nei?inoue iaiaia ii eioapoaeno —
?aaeueiay nei?inoue iaiaia ii?aaeaeyaony /anoioie a?auaiey aeeneia,
nei?inoueth ?aaiou eiaeee aei/anoa?a, nei?inoueth ?aaiou
i?ioeanni?a/iaiyoe e aua iiiaeanoaii ae?oaeo i?e/ei.

Block Mode

?aaeei aei/iiai iaiaia n IDE–aei/anoapii. Iau/ii iaiai aeaeaaony
iinaeoipii: iai?eia?, i?e /oaiee iyoe naeoi?ia cai?aoeaaaony /oaiea
ia?aiai, aei/anoa? n/eouaaao aai ai aioo?aiiee aooa?, i?ioeanni?
caae?aao aeaiiua a naith iaiyoue, cai?aoeaaaony /oaiea neaaeothuaai
naeoi?a e o.ae. I?e yoii iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, iniaaiii i?e
iaiioeiaeueiith naeaeaiiii ae?aeaa?a a BIOS, iiaoo noaoue caiaoiu ia
oiia anae iia?aoeee. I?e aei/iii /oaiee aei/anoa?o aia/aea niiauaaony
eiee/anoai naeoi?ia, ia?aaaouaaaiuo ca iaeio iia?aoeeth, ii n/eouaaao eo
ana ai aioo?aiiee aooa?, e caoai i?ioeanni? caae?aao ana naeoi?u n?aco.
?acee/iua aei/anoa?u eiatho ?aciue ?acia? aioo?aiiaai aooa?a e ?aciia
iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai naeoi?ia ia iia?aoeeth.

Haeaieueoee auea?uo io aei/iiai ?aaeeia iieo/aaony oiaaea, eiaaea
iniiaiay ?aaioa eaeao n o?aaiaioaie aeaiiuo, ia iaiueoeie, /ai Blocking
Factor (eiee/anoai naeoi?ia ia iia?aoeeth), e iaeiaiueoee, eee nianai
ieeaeiai — i?e i?aiaeaaeaiee ?aaiou n iaeeeie o?aaiaioaie, eiaaea iaiai
eaeao iaeeii/iuie naeoi?aie.

Aeey ?aaiou a aei/iii ?aaeeia iaiaoiaeei aei/anoa?, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee
yoio ?aaeei, e BIOS eee ae?aeaa?, oiathuee ei oi?aaeyoue. Heeaeie
iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu nenoaiiie ieaou eee aiaoiaai eiio?ieea?a ia
o?aaoaony.

?aaeeiu LBA e Large

Logical Block Addressing — aae?anaoeey eiae/aneeo aeieia a
EIDE–aei/anoa?ao. A noaiaea?oa ATA aue i?aaeoniio?ai oieueei
eeanne/aneee niinia aae?anaoeee naeoi?ia — ii iiia?o oeeeeiae?a, aieiaee
e naeoi?a. Iiae iiia? oeeeeiae?a auei ioaaaeaii 16 ?ac?yaeia, iiae iiia?
aieiaee — 4 e naeoi?a — 8, /oi aeaaaei iaeneiaeueioth aieinoue
aei/anoa?a a 128 Aa, iaeiaei BIOS n naiiai ia/aea ia?aie/eaae eiee/anoai
naeoi?ia aei 63, a oeeeeiae?ia — aei 1024, yoiio aea i?eia?o iineaaeiaae
e DOS, /oi a eoiaa aeaei iaeneiaeueiue iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue iauai a 504 Ia.
Iaoiae, eniieueciaaiiue aeey ia?aaea/e BIOS’o aae?ana naeoi?a, inoaaeyao
naiaiaeiuie 4 noa?oeo ?ac?yaea a ?aaeno?a n iiia?ii aieiaee, /oi
iicaieeei oaaee/eoue iiaeaea?aeeaaaioth DOS aieinoue aua a 16 ?ac — aei
8 Aa. Aeey noaiaea?oecaoeee iaoiaea ia?aaea/e aae?ana naeoi?a aei/anoa?o
aue aaaaeai ?aaeei LBA, a eioi?ii aae?an ia?aaeaaony a aeaea eeiaeiiai
28–pacpyaeiiai aaniethoiiai iiia?a naeoi?a (aeey DOS ii–ipaaeiaio
inoaaony ia?aie/aiea a 8 Aa), i?aia?acoaiiai aei/anoa?ii a ioaeiua
iiia?a oeeeeiae?a/aieiaee/naeoi?a.

Aeey ?aaiou a ?aaeeia LBA iaiaoiaeeia iiaeaea?aeea eae aei/anoa?a, oae e
aai ae?aeaa?a (eee BIOS). I?e ?aaioa /a?ac BIOS aei/anoa?
i?aaenoaaeyaony eiathuei 63 naeoi?a, /enei aieiaie, ?aaiia noaiaie
aeaieee (aei 256) e iaiaoiaeeiia /enei oeeeeiae?ia. BIOS i?aia?acoao yoe
aae?ana a eeiaeiua, a aei/anoa? — a aae?ana nianoaaiiie aaiiao?ee.

Award BIOS, e?iia ?aaeeia LBA, iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaeaea ?aaeei Large,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey aei/anoa?ia aieinoueth aei 1 Aa, ia
iiaeaea?aeeaathueo ?aaeeia LBA. A ?aaeeia Large eiee/anoai eiae/aneeo
aieiaie oaaee/eaaaony aei 32, a eiee/anoai eiae/aneeo oeeeeiae?ia
oiaiueoaaony aaeaia. I?e yoii ia?auaiey e eiae/aneei aieiaeai 0..F
o?ainee?othony a /aoiua oece/aneea oeeeeiae?u, a ia?auaiey e aieiaeai
10..1F — a ia/?oiua. Aei/anoa?, ?acia/aiiue a ?aaeeia LBA, ianiaianoei n
?aaeeiii Large, e iaiai?io. E?iia yoiai, aa?nee 4.50 e 4.51 AWARD BIOS
ia i?iaa?ytho iau?i aei/anoa?a a ?aaeeia Large — onoaiiaea a yoio ?aaeei
aei/anoa?a iauaiii aieaa 1 Aa (/enei eiae/aneeo aieiaie > 32) ?aii eee
iicaeii iaieioaii i?eaaaeao e ii?/a aeaiiuo ec–ca iaeiaeaiey ?aciuo
eiae/aneeo naeoi?ia a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiie o?aineyoeee aae?ania.

MRH e PRML

MRH (Magneto–Resistive Heads) — iaaieoi?acenoeaiay aieiaea. Ii
o?aaeeoeee aeey caiene/n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee n iiaa?oiinoe aeenea
eniieueciaaeenue eiaeoeoeaiua aieiaee. Iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie eiaeoeoeaiie
aieiaee n/eouaaiey — neeueiay caaeneiinoue aiieeooaeu neaiaea io
nei?inoe ia?aiauaiey iaaieoiiai iie?uoey e aunieee o?iaaiue ooiia,
cao?oaeiythuee aa?iia ?aniiciaaaiea neaauo neaiaeia. Iaaieoi?acenoeaiay
aieiaea n/eouaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acenoi?, nii?ioeaeaiea eioi?iai
eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io iai?yaeaiiinoe iaaieoiiai iiey, i?e/ai
aiieeooaea oaea i?aeoe/anee ia caaeneo io nei?inoe eciaiaiey iiey. Yoi
iicaieyao iaiiiai aieaa iaaeaaeii n/eouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth e aeenea e,
eae neaaenoaea, cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue i?aaeaeueioth ieioiinoue caiene.
MR–aieiaee eniieuecothony oieueei aeey n/eouaaiey; caienue ii–ipaaeaeaio
auiieiyaony eiaeoeoeaiuie aieiaeaie.

PRML (Partial Response Maximum Likelihood — iaeneiaeueiia
i?aaaeiiiaeiaea i?e iaiieiii ioeeeea) — iaoiae n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee,
iniiaaiiue ia ?yaea iieiaeaiee oai?ee ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia. Ii
o?aaeeoeee aeaeiaee?iaaiea auiieiyeinue iooai iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
neaaeaiey ca aiieeooaeie, /anoioie eee oacie n/eoaiiiai neaiaea, e aeey
iaaeaaeiiai aeaeiaee?iaaiey yoe ia?aiao?u aeieaeiu auee eciaiyoueny
aeinoaoi/ii neeueii io aeoa e aeoo. Aeey yoiai, a /anoiinoe, i?e caiene
iiae?yae aeaoo e aieaa niaiaaeathueo aeoia eo i?eoiaeeeinue
niaoeeaeueiui ia?acii eiaee?iaaoue, /oi nieaeaei ieioiinoue caienuaaaiie
eioi?iaoeee. A iaoiaea PRML aeey aeaeiaee?iaaiey i?eiaiyaony iaai?
ia?acoeia, n eioi?uie n?aaieaaaony n/eoaiiue neaiae, e ca ?acoeueoao
i?eieiaaony iaeaieaa iioiaeee. Oaeei ia?acii nicaeaaony aua iaeia
aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey ieioiinoe caiene (30–40%).

Master, Slave, Conner Present e Cable Select

Yoi ?aaeeiu ?aaiou IDE–onopienoa. Ha iaeiii IDE–eaaaea iiaoo ?aaioaoue
aei aeaoo ono?ienoa: Master (MA) — iniiaiie, eee ia?aue, e Slave (SL) —
aeiiieieoaeueiue, eee aoi?ie. Anee ono?ienoai ia eaaaea iaeii, iii
iau/ii iiaeao ?aaioaoue a ?aaeeia Master, iaeiaei o iaeioi?uo aeey yoiai
anoue ioaeaeueiue ?aaeei Single.

Eae i?aaeei, ia aeiioneaaony ?aaioa ono?ienoaa a ?aaeeia Slave i?e
ionoonoaee Master–onopienoaa, iaeiaei iiiaea iiaua ono?ienoaa iiaoo
?aaioaoue a yoii ?aaeeia. I?e yoii o?aaoaony iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu
BIOS eee ae?aeaa?a: iiiaea ae?aeaa?u, iaia?oaeea ionoonoaea
Master–onopienoaa, i?ae?auatho aeaeueiaeoee ii?in aeaiiiai eiio?ieea?a.

Conner Present (CP) — eiathueeny ia iaeioi?uo iiaeaeyo ?aaeei
iiaeaea?aeee aei/anoa?ia Conner a ?aaeeia Slave; aaaaeai ec–ca
ianiaianoeiinoae a aeeaa?aiiao iaiaia ii eioa?oaeno.

Cable Select (CS, CSel) — auai? ii ?acuaio eaaaey — ?aaeei, a eioi?ii
ono?ienoai naii onoaiaaeeaaaony a ?aaeei Master/Slave a caaeneiinoe io
oeia ?acuaia ia eioa?oaeniii eaaaea. Aeey yoiai aeieaeai auoue auiieiai
?yae oneiaee:

iaa ono?ienoaa aeieaeiu auoue onoaiiaeaiu a ?aaeei Cable Select;

eiioaeo 28 ni noi?iiu eiio?ieea?a aeieaeai auoue eeai cacaieai, eeai ia
iai aeieaeai iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ieceee o?iaaiue;

ia iaeiii ec ?acuaiia eaaaey eiioaeo 28 aeieaeai auoue oaeaeai, eeai
ioeeth/ai iiaeoiaeyuee e iaio i?iaiae eaaaey.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia iaeiii ec ono?ienoa eiioaeo 28 ieacuaaaony cacaieaiiui
(yoio aei/anoa? iano?aeaaaony ia ?aaeei Master), a ia ae?oaii —
naiaiaeiui (Slave).

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua ?aaeeiu onoaiaaeeaathony ia?aiu/eaie eee
ia?aeeth/aoaeyie ia ieaoa ono?ienoaa. Iieiaeaiey ia?aiu/ae iau/ii
iienaiu ia ei?iona eee a eino?oeoeee.

RAID

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (ecauoi/iue iaai? iaaei?iaeo
aeeneia) — niinia i?aaiecaoeee aieueoeo o?aieeeu eioi?iaoeee, oaaee/aiey
nei?inoe iaiaia eee iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey aeaiiuo. RAID–nenoaia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio ec ianeieueeeo iau/iuo iaaei?iaeo
aei/anoa?ia, ?aaioathueo iiae oi?aaeaieai i?inoiai eiio?ieea?a, e
aeaeeioth ecaia, eae iaeii ono?ienoai aieueoie aieinoe, aunieie nei?inoe
eee iaaeaaeiinoe. ?acee/aaony ianeieueei o?iaiae (levels) RAID-nenoai:

o?iaaiue 0 ia?aeeaeueiia aeeth/aiea n oeaeueth iaeiia?aiaiiiai
oaaee/aiey aieinoe e nei?inoe iaiaia. Caienuaaaiue aeie aeaiiuo
?acaeaeyaony ia aeiee iaiueoaai ?acia?a, eioi?ua caoai ia?aeeaeueii
caienuaathony ia ana iaeiieoaee iaai?a; i?e n/eouaaiee i?ienoiaeeo
iauaaeeiaiea iiaeaeieia a iaeei iieiue aeie.

o?iaaiue 1 capeaeecaoeey (mirroring) — ia?aeeaeueiia aeeth/aiea n
oeaeueth oaaee/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey aeaiiuo. Iaeei e oio aea aeie
aeaiiuo ia?aeeaeueii caienuaaaony ia ana iaeiieoaee iaai?a, a i?e
n/eouaaiee auae?aaony iaeaieaa aeinoiaa?iay eiiey.

o?iaaiue 3 aa?eaio o?iaiy 0 n ECC (Extended Correction Code —
?anoe?aiiue eni?aaeythuee eiae). Aeey eaaeaeiai aeiea aeaiiuo ia
iniiaiuo iaeiieoaeyo au/eneyaony ECC, eioi?ue caienuaaaony ia
aeiiieieoaeueiue iaeiieoaeue. Yoi iicaieyao eni?aaeyoue aieueooth /anoue
ioeaie e iieo/eoue oi?iooth iaaeaaeiinoue i?e aieaa ieceie noieiinoe,
/ai a neo/aa o?iaiy 1.

o?iaaiue 5 eiiaeiaoeey o?iaiae 0 e 3. Aeaiiua ?ani?aaeaeythony ii anai
iaeiieoaeyi iaai?a, e oi/ii oae aea ?ani?aaeaeyaony au/eneaiiue ECC. Yoi
oiaiueoaao aa?iyoiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiie ii?/e e aeiea aeaiiuo, e aai ECC,
ca n/ao iaaieueoiai oaaee/aiey noieiinoe e iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ii
n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai 0.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu n aei/anoa?aie?

Iiaeeeth/aiea eioa?oaeniiai eaaaey IDE «caaeii iaia?aae». I?e yoii eeiey
«Reset» ieacuaaaony caieiooie ia caieth, io/aai aieueoeinoai aei/anoa?ia
aeaaea ia ?ane?o/eaathony, a nenoaiiay ieaoa iau/ii ia caioneaaony.
e?aoeia?aiaiiia aeeth/aiea a oaeii ninoiyiee /aua anaai iaiianii,
iaeiaei i?e aeeeoaeueiii iiaoo aueoe ec no?iy ia?aaeathuea aooa?u
aei/anoa?a eee eiio?ieea?a.

Haipaaeeueiay onoaiiaea ?aaeeiia IDE «Master/Slave». I?e yoii iiaeao ia
auoue ioeeeea ie io iaeiiai ono?ienoaa ia eaaaea, eeai iaeii ono?ienoai
iiaeao «caaeaaoue» ae?oaia, /oi au?aaeaaony a iai?aaeeueiii ii?aaeaeaiee
ia?aiao?ia, ioeaeao ia?aaea/e, caaenaieyo e o.i.

Haipaaeeueiay eiioeao?aoeey oeiu SCSI. Eaaeaeia SCSI–onopienoai
(eiio?ieea? oiaea n/eoaaony ono?ienoaii) aeieaeii eiaoue oieeaeueiue
iiia?. Ono?ienoaa, iiaeeeth/aiiua e eiioeai SCSI–oeiu, aeieaeiu eiaoue
oa?ieiaoi?u, a ono?ienoaa aioo?e oeiu eo eiaoue ia aeieaeiu. Anee
ono?ienoai iano?iaii ia oaeaeaiiue caione (ii eiiaiaea io eiio?ieea?a),
oi eiio?ieea? aeieaeai auaeaaaoue yoo eiiaiaeo i?e ia?auaiee e
ono?ienoao. Nei?inoue iaiaia e iaee/ea eiio?iey ii /aoiinoe aeieaeiu
auoue onoaiiaeaiu a niioaaonoaee n aiciiaeiinoyie ono?ienoa.

Haipaaeeueiia caaeaiea ia?aiao?ia aaiiao?ee IDE. Haipeiap, i?e caauoaiee
iaeneiaeueiiai iiia?a oeeeeiae?a aieueoeinoai BIOS’ia auaeaao ioeaeo ai
a?aiy oanoe?iaaiey. Aeaaea anee oano i?ioae oniaoii, oi ioaeiua naeoi?a
/aua anaai ieacuaathony ia ae?oaeo aae?anao, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ioeaco i?e
caa?ocea nenoaiu eee, /oi aua ooaea — e ?ac?ooaieth nenoaiiuo iaeanoae
aeenea. Oi aea ioiineony e e ?aaeeiai aae?anaoeee (Normal/LBA/Large) —
iinea eciaiaiey ?aaeeia o?aaoaony iieiay ia?aonoaiiaea aei/anoa?a,
ia/eiay n nicaeaiey ?acaeaeia. I?e aiciiaeiinoe ?aeiiaiaeoaony
onoaiiaeoue a Standard BIOS Setup ioieo Auto aianoi ?o/iiai aaiaea
ia?aiao?ia eee ii?aaeaeaiey /a?ac iaith Auto Detect — yoi aa?aioe?oao
onoaiiaeo i?aaeeueiie aaiiao?ee aeey aieueoeinoaa oeiia e oi?iaoia
aeeneia.

Ii?/a oaaeeoeu ?acaeaeia eee caa?oc/eea a Master Boot Record (MBR), a
?acoeueoaoa /aai ia caa?oaeaaony nenoaia eee i?iiaaeatho eiae/aneea
aeenee. Oaaeeoeo ?acaeaeia iiaeii eni?aaeoue i?ia?aiiie FDISK eee
aeeneiauie ooeeeoaie, aeey eni?aaeaiey caa?oc/eea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
FDISK n eeth/ii /MBR (?aaioaao oieueei aeey ia?aiai (Primary Master)
oece/aneiai aeenea). A DOS 7.0 aaaaeai iayaiue eeth/ /CMBR, ia?aiao?
eioi?iai caaeaao oece/aneee iiia? aeenea.

I?eeeiaiea aieiaie e iiaa?oiinoyi aeeneia, ec-ca /aai ia caioneaaony
oieiaeaeueiue aeaeaaoaeue (ia neuoii oa?aeoa?iiai caoea ?acaiia). A yoii
neo/aa iiaeii niyoue aei/anoa? e ianeieueei ?ac ?acei epooiooue aai a
?oea a ieineinoe a?auaiey aeeneia.

*?acia?iay caoyaeea e?aiaaeiuo aeioia eee ia?aein onoaiiai/iie ei?iaee,
aucaaaoea aeaoi?iaoeeth ei?iona aei/anoa?a. *aua anaai iia aucuaaao
naeaea e?uoee aapiiaeiea e ia?aein inae oieiaeaey eee iiceoeeiiapa. A
yoii neo/aa iiaeii iii?iaiaaoue ineaaeoue aeiou, e?aiyuea e?uoeo, neaaea
iinoo/aoue ii iae ni anao noi?ii e niiaa aeeo?aoii caoyiooue aeiou.
Iaeiaei a ?yaea neo/aaa aeaoi?iaoeey iiaeao ieacaoueny iaia?aoeiie.

Ec?aaeea ano?a/athony yecaiiey?u aei/anoa?ia, /oanoaeoaeueiua e
yeaeo?e/aneiio eiioaeoo n ei?ionii eiiiuethueoapa, eioi?ua naiyo i?e
iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee yoiai eiioaeoa. Anee i?e/eia a yoii, eo/oa
caiaieoue aei/anoa?; anee yoi iaaiciiaeii — i?eaeaony e?aieoue aai oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau eneeth/eoue eee, iaiai?io, iaania/eoue oi?ioee
yeaeo?e/aneee eiioaeo.

Haeioipua iiaeaee (iai?eia?, WD Caviar auionea 1996 aiaea) aeiaieueii
/oanoaeoaeueiu e noaaeeueiinoe iai?yaeaiey ieoaiey +12A, e aeaaea
iacia/eoaeueiia iaaeaiea yoiai iai?yaeaiey ieaea 12A iiaeao i?eaanoe e
ioeaeai caiene eee iia?aaeaeaieth napaieioipiaoeee. Iniaaiii neeueii yoi
i?iyaeyaony i?e iaee/ee a eiiiuethoa?a ianeieueeeo aei/anoa?ia eee
ae?oaeo ono?ienoa, iio?aaeythueo aieueoie oie ii eeiee +12A (iniaaiii —
i?e ieceii ea/anoaa aeiea ieoaiey), a oaeaea — i?e iiaeeeth/aiee
aei/anoa?a /a?ac ia?aoiaeiee (iai?eia?, aaioeeyoi?a i?ioeanni?a). Ha
iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaiou oaeaea iiaeao neacuaaoueny /?acia?iay (aieaa 30–40
ni) aeeeia eioa?oaeniiai eaaaey e aai i?ioiaeaeaiea ?yaeii n ianoaie
eioaineaiiai auniei/anoioiiai eceo/aiey.

Aeaeaiiiaenenoaia

Aeaeaiaiiapaoopa aeey PC

Onopienoai oeiiaie aeaeaieapou

Iia ninoieo ec /aoupao iniiaiuo onopienoa: iaiyoe, eiiopieeapa, OeAI e
ICO.

Aeaeaiiaiyoue neoaeeo aeey opaiaiey eciapaaeaiey. Io aa iauaia caaeneo
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia iieiia pacpaoaiea aeaeaieapou — A x B x C, aaea
A — eiee/anoai oi/ae ii aipeciioaee, B — ii aapoeeaee, e C — eiee/anoai
aiciiaeiuo oeaaoia eaaeaeie oi/ee. Haipeiap, aeey pacpaoaiey 640x480x16
aeinoaoi/ii 256 ea, aeey 800x600x256 — 512 ea, aeey 1024x768x65536
(aepoaia iaicia/aiea — 1024x768x64k) — 2 Ia, e o.ae. Iineieueeo aeey
opaiaiey oeaaoia ioaiaeeony oeaeia /enei pacpyaeia, eiee/anoai oeaaoia
anaaaea yaeyaony noaiaiueth aeaieee (16 oeaaoia — 4 pacpyaea, 256 — 8
pacpyaeia, 64k — 16, e o.ae.).

Aeaeaieiiopieeap ioaa/aao ca auaiae eciapaaeaiey ec aeaeaiiaiyoe,
paaaiapaoeeth aa niaeapaeeiiai, oipiepiaaiea neaiaeia pacaapoee aeey
iiieoipa e iapaaioeo caipinia oeaiopaeueiiai ipioeannipa. Aeey
eneeth/aiey eiioeeeoia ipe iapauaiee e iaiyoe ni noipiiu
aeaeaieiiopieeapa e oeaiopaeueiiai ipioeannipa iapaue eiaao ioaeaeueiue
aooap, eioipue a naiaiaeiia io iapauaiee OeI apaiy caiieiyaony aeaiiuie
ec aeaeaiiaiyoe. Anee eiioeeeoa ecaaaeaoue ia oaeaaony —
aeaeaieiiopieeapo ipeoiaeeony caaeapaeeaaoue iapauaiea OeI e
aeaeaiiaiyoe, /oi nieaeaao ipiecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu; aeey
eneeth/aiey iiaeiaiuo eiioeeeoia a pyaea eapo ipeiaiyaony oae iacuaaaiay
aeaooiipoiaay iaiyoue, aeiioneathuay iaeiiapaiaiiua iapauaiey ni noipiiu
aeaoo onopienoa.

Iiiaea niapaiaiiua aeaeaieiiopieeapu yaeyaony iioieiauie — eo paaioa
iniiaaia ia nicaeaiee e niaoeaaiee aiaaeeii ianeieueeeo iioieia
apaoe/aneie eioipiaoeee. Iau/ii yoi iniiaiia eciapaaeaiea, ia eioipia
iaeeaaeuaaaony eciapaaeaiea aiiapaoiiai eopnipa iuoe e ioaeaeueiia
eciapaaeaiea a ipyiioaieueiii ieia. Aeaeaieiiopieeap n iioieiaie
iapaaioeie, a oaeaea n aiiapaoiie iiaeaeapaeeie iaeioipuo oeiiauo
ooieoeee iacuaaaony aenaeapaoipii eee oneipeoaeai, e neoaeeo aeey
pacapocee OeI io pooeiiuo iiapaoeee ii oipiepiaaieth eciapaaeaiey.

OeAI (oeeopiaiaeiaiaue ipaiapaciaaoaeue, DAC) neoaeeo aeey
ipaiapaciaaiey pacoeueoepothuaai iioiea aeaiiuo, oipiepoaiiai
aeaeaieiiopieeapii, a opiaie eioaineaiinoe oeaaoa, iiaeaaaaiua ia
iiieoip. Ana niapaiaiiua iiieoipu eniieuecotho aiaeiaiaue aeaeaineaiae,
iiyoiio aiciiaeiue aeeaiacii oeaaoiinoe eciapaaeaiey iipaaeaeyaony
oieueei iapaiaopaie OeAI. Aieueoeinoai OeAI eiatho pacpyaeiinoue 8×3 —
ope eaiaea iniiaiuo oeaaoia (epaniue, neiee, caeaiue, RGB) ii 256
opiaiae ypeinoe ia eaaeaeue oeaao, /oi a noiia aeaao 16.7 iei. oeaaoia.
Iau/ii OeAI niaiauai ia iaeiii epenoaeea n aeaeaieiiopieeapii.

Aeaeai–ICO — iinoiyiiia caiiieiathuaa onopienoai, a eioipia caienaiu
aeaeai–BIOS, yepaiiua opeoou, neoaeaaiua oaaeeoeu e o.i. ICO ia
eniieuecoaony aeaeaieiiopieeapii iaipyioth — e iaio iapauaaony oieueei
oeaiopaeueiue ipioeannip, e a pacoeueoaoa auiieiaiey ei ipiapaii ec ICO
ipienoiaeyo iapauaiey e aeaeaieiiopieeapo e aeaeaiiaiyoe. ICO
iaiaoiaeeii oieueei aeey iapaiia/aeueiiai caionea aaeaioapa e paaiou a
paaeeia MS DOS; iiapaoeeiiiua nenoaiu n apaoe/aneei eioapoaenii —
Windows eee OS/2 — ia eniieuecotho ICO aeey oipaaeaiey aaeaioapii.

Ha eapoa iau/ii paciauathony iaeei eee ianeieueei pacuaiia aeey
aioopaiiaai niaaeeiaiey; iaeei ec ieo iineo iacaaiea Feature Connector e
neoaeeo aeey ipaaeinoaaeaiey aiaoiei onopienoaai aeinooia e aeaeaiiaiyoe
e eciapaaeaieth. E yoiio pacuaio iiaeao iiaeeeth/aoueny oaeaipeaiiee,
aiiapaoiue aeaeiaeap MPEG, onopienoai aaiaea eciapaaeaiey e o.i. Ha
iaeioipuo eapoao ipaaeoniiopaiu ioaeaeueiua pacuaiu aeey iiaeiaiuo
onopienoa.

A?aoe/aneea oneipeoaee

Oneipeoaeue (accelerator) — iaaip aiiapaoiuo aiciiaeiinoae aaeaioapa,
ipaaeiacia/aiiue aeey iapaeeaaeuaaiey /anoe oeiiauo iiapaoeee ii paaioa
n eciapaaeaieai ia anopiaiiue ipioeannip aaeaioapa. ?acee/athony
oneipeoaee apaoeee (graphics accelerator) n iiaeaeapaeeie eciapaaeaiey
iopaceia, ipinouo oeaop, caeeaee oeaaoii, auaiaea eopnipa iuoe e o.i., e
oneipeoaee aieiaoeee (video accelerators) — n iiaeaeapaeeie
ianooaaepiaaiey yeaiaioia eciapaaeaiey e ipaiapaciaaiey oeaaoiaiai
ipinopainoaa. Iiioeypiu oaeaea oneipeoaee opaoiapiie apaoeee n
iiaeaeapaeeie iiiaineieiiai eciapaaeaiey, oaiae e ip.

VESA e VBE

VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association — annioeeaoeey
noaiaeapoecaoeee aeaeaiyeaeopiieee) — ipaaiecaoeey, auioneathuay
pacee/iua noaiaeapou a iaeanoe yeaeopiiiuo aeaeainenoai e eo
ipiapaiiiiai iaania/aiey.

VBE (VESA BIOS Extension — panoepaiea BIOS a noaiaeapoa VESA) —
aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee aeaeai–BIOS ii ioiioaieth e noaiaeapoiiio
aeaeai–BIOS aeey VGA, iicaieythuea caipaoeaaoue o aaeaioapa nienie
iiaeaeapaeeaaaiuo aeaeaipaaeeiia e eo iapaiaopia (pacpaoaiea,
oeaaoiinoue, niiniau aaepanaoeee, pacaapoea e o.i.) e eciaiyoue yoe
iapaiaopu aeey niaeaniaaiey aaeaioapa n eiiepaoiui iiieoipii. Ii nooe,
VBE yaeyaony oieoeoeepiaaiiui noaiaeapoii ipiapaiiiiai eioapoaena n
VESA–niaianoeiuie eapoaie — ipe paaioa /apac aeaeai–BIOS ii iicaieyao
iaieoenue aac niaoeeaeecepiaaiiiai aepaeaapa eapou.

JPEG e MPEG

JPEG (Joint Picture Experts Group) — iauaaeeiaiiay apoiia yeniapoia ii
eciapaaeaieyi, auioneathuay noaiaeapou naeaoey iaiiaeaeaeiuo
eciapaaeaiee. Ipaaeeiaeaiiue apoiiie oipiao JPG, iniiaaiiue ia
eiaeepiaaiee ieaaiuo oeaaoiauo iapaoiaeia, iicaieyao a ianeieueei pac
oiaiueoeoue iauai aeaiiuo ipe iacia/eoaeueiie iioapa ea/anoaa.

MPEG (Motion Pictures Experts Group) — apoiia yeniapoia ii aeaeaeoueiny
eciapaaeaieyi, auioneathuay noaiaeapou naeaoey aeaeaeouaainy
eciapaaeaiey. Napey ipaaeeiaeaiiuo ath oipiaoia MPG, iniiaaiiay ia
naeaoee ecauoi/iie eioipiaoeee, oaeaeaiee iacia/eoaeueiuo aeaoaeae e
ipaaenoaaeaiee eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai eaaepa a aeaea nienea ioee/ee io
ipaaeuaeouaai, iicaieyao a ianeieueei aeanyoeia (aei 100) pac
oiaiueoeoue iauai aeaiiuo — iiyoue aea, ipe iacia/eoaeueiie iioapa
ea/anoaa.

Aeey ainipiecaaaeaiey oeeueiia a oipiaoao MPEG iaiaoiaeeii
aeaeiaeepiaaoue eeai aanue oeeuei capaiaa, eeai ii oiaeo auaiaea
eaaepia, a paaeueiii apaiaie. *aua anaai eniieuecoaony aoipie niinia,
opaaothuee aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiuo ipioeannipiuo panopnia. Aeey
oneipaiey aeaeiaeepiaaiey ia iaaeeaiiuo ipioeannipao auee pacpaaioaiu
aiiapaoiua aeaeiaeapu MPEG, auiieiaiiua eeai a aeaea aei/apieo ieao,
eeai anopiaiiua a iniiaiie aeaeaiaaeaioap. Iaeiaei aunopua ipioeannipu
(Pentium–133 e auoa) auiieiytho aeaeiaeepiaaiea aunopaa iau/iuo
aiiapaoiuo aeaeiaeapia, iiyoiio ipe ipiapaiiiii aeaeiaeepiaaiee iie
iicaieytho iieo/eoue aieaa aunieoth neipinoue auaiaea ipe oii aea
oipiaoa eciapaaeaiey.

Oneipeoaee aieiaoeee aeaeaiaaeaioapia yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony aeey
auaiaea oeeueiia a oipiaoao MPEG, nieiay n ipioeannipa iaapoceo ii
ianooaaepiaaieth eciapaaeaiey e ipeaaaeaieth aai oeaaoiinoe e oaeouaio
oeaaoiaiio paaeeio yepaia. Aeaeaiaaeaioapu n oaeeie oneipeoaeyie /anoii
iacuaatho «Software MPEG» — «ipiapaiiiue MPEG», iiaepacoiaaay
ipiapaiiiia aeaeiaeepiaaiea n aiiapaoiui auaiaeii.

Oeiu aeaeaiiaiyoe, eniieuecoaiua a aeaeaiaaeaioapao

FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode Dynamic RAM — aeeiaie/aneia ICO n aunopui
nopaie/iui aeinooiii) — iniiaiie oei aeaeaiiaiyoe, eaeaioe/iue
eniieuecoaiie a nenoaiiuo ieaoao. Eniieuecoao aneiopiiiue aeinooi, ipe
eioipii oipaaeythuea neaiaeu aeanoei ia ipeaycaiu e oaeoiaie /anoioa
nenoaiu. Aeoeaii ipeiaiyeny ipeiapii aei 1996 a. Haeaieaa
panipinopaiaiiua ieepinoaiu FPM DRAM — 4–pacpyaeiua DIP e SOJ, a oaeaea
— 16–pacpyaeiua SOJ.

VRAM (Video RAM — aeaeai-ICO) — oae iacuaaaiay aeaooiipoiaay DRAM n
iiaeaeapaeeie iaeiiapaiaiiiai aeinooia ni noipiiu aeaeaiipioeannipa e
oeaiopaeueiiai ipioeannipa eiiiuethoapa. Iicaieyao niaiauaoue ai apaiaie
auaiae eciapaaeaiey ia yepai e aai iapaaioeo a aeaeaiiaiyoe, /oi
niepauaao caaeapaeee e oaaee/eaaao neipinoue paaiou.

EDO DRAM (Extended Data Out DRAM — aeeiaie/aneia ICO n panoepaiiui
apaiaiai oaeapaeaiey aeaiiuo ia auoiaea) — oei iaiyoe n yeaiaioaie
eiiaaeapecaoeee, iicaieythuee ianeieueei oneipeoue iaiai aeieaie aeaiiuo
n aeaeaiiaiyoueth.

SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM — neiopiiiia apaoe/aneia ICO) — aapeaio
DRAM n neiopiiiui aeinooiii, eiaaea ana oipaaeythuea neaiaeu eciaiythony
oieueei iaeiiapaiaiii n nenoaiiui oaeoiaui neiopineaiaeii, /oi iicaieyao
oiaiueoeoue apaiaiiua caaeapaeee ca n/ao «aupaaieaaiey» neaiaeia.

WRAM (Window RAM — ieiiiia ICO) — EDO VRAM, a eioipii iipo (ieii), /apac
eioipue iapauaaony aeaeaieiiopieeap, naeaeai iaiueoei, /ai iipo aeey
oeaiopaeueiiai ipioeannipa.

MDRAM (Multibank DRAM — iiiaiaaieiaia ICO) — aapeaio DRAM,
ipaaieciaaiiue a aeaea iiiaeanoaa iacaaeneiuo aaieia iauaiii ii 32 ea
eaaeaeue, paaioathueo a eiiaaeapiii paaeeia.

Oeiu aeaeaiaaeaioapia, eniieuecoaiuo a IBM PC

MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter — iiiiopiiiue aaeaioap aeenieay) —
ipinoaeoee aeaeaiaaeaioap, ipeiaiyaoeeny a IBM PC. ?aaioaao a oaenoiaii
paaeeia n pacpaoaieai 80×25 (720×350, iaopeoea neiaiea — 9×14),
iiaeaeapaeeaaao iyoue aopeaooia oaenoa: iau/iue, ypeee, eiaapniue,
iiae/apeiooue e ieaathuee. *anoioa nopi/iie pacaapoee — 15 eAoe.
Eioapoaen n iiieoipii — oeeopiaie: neaiaeu neiopiiecaoeee, iniiaiie
aeaeaineaiae, aeiiieieoaeueiue neaiae ypeinoe.

HGC (Hercules Graphics Card — apaoe/aneay eapoa Hercules) — panoepaiea
MDA n apaoe/aneei paaeeiii 720×348, pacpaaioaiiia oepiie Hercules.

CGA (Color Graphics Adapter — oeaaoiie apaoe/aneee aaeaioap) — iapaue
aaeaioap n apaoe/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie. ?aaioaao eeai a oaenoiaii
paaeeia n pacpaoaieyie 40×25 e 80×25 (iaopeoea neiaiea — 8×8), eeai a
apaoe/aneii n pacpaoaieyie 320×200 eee 640×200. A oaenoiauo paaeeiao
aeinooiii 256 aopeaooia neiaiea — 16 oeaaoia neiaiea e 16 oeaaoia oiia
(eeai 8 oeaaoia oiia e aopeaoo ieaaiey), a apaoe/aneeo paaeeiao
aeinooiii /aoupa iaeeopu ii /aoupa oeaaoa eaaeaeay a paaeeia 320×200,
paaeei 640×200 — iiiiopiiiue. Auaiae eioipiaoeee ia yepai opaaiaae
neiopiiecaoeee n pacaapoeie, a ipioeaiii neo/aa aicieeaee eiioeeeou ii
aeaeaiiaiyoe, ipiyaeythueany a aeaea «niaaa» ia yepaia. *anoioa nopi/iie
pacaapoee — 15 eAoe. Eioapoaen n iiieoipii — oeeopiaie: neaiaeu
neiopiiecaoeee, iniiaiie aeaeaineaiae (ope eaiaea — epaniue, caeaiue,
neiee), aeiiieieoaeueiue neaiae ypeinoe.

EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter — oeo/oaiiue apaoe/aneee aaeaioap) —
aeaeueiaeoaa pacaeoea CGA, ipeiaiaiiia a iapauo PC AT. Aeiaaaeaii
pacpaoaiea 640×350, /oi a oaenoiauo paaeeiao aeaao oipiao 80×25 ipe
iaopeoea neiaiea 8×14 e 80×43 — ipe iaopeoea 8×8. Eiee/anoai
iaeiiapaiaiii ioiapaaeaaiuo oeaaoia — ii ipaaeiaio 16, iaeiaei iaeeopa
panoepaia aei 64 oeaaoia (ii aeaa pacpyaea ypeinoe ia eaaeaeue oeaao).
Aaaaeai ipiiaaeooi/iue aooap aeey iapaaeaaaaiiai ia iiieoip iioiea
aeaiiuo, aeaaiaeapy /aio ioiaea iaiaoiaeiinoue a neiopiiecaoeee ipe
auaiaea a oaenoiauo paaeeiao. Nopoeoopa aeaeaiiaiyoe naeaeaia ia iniiaa
oae iacuaaaiuo aeoiauo ieineinoae — «neiaa», eaaeaeue ec eioipuo a
apaoe/aneii paaeeia niaeapaeeo aeou oieueei naiaai oeaaoa, a a oaenoiauo
paaeeiao ii ieineinoyi pacaeaeythony nianoaaiii oaeno e aeaiiua
ciaeiaaiapaoipa. Niaianoei n MDA e CGA. *anoiou nopi/iie pacaapoee — 15
e 18 eAoe. Eioapoaen n iiieoipii — oeeopiaie: neaiaeu neiopiiecaoeee,
aeaeaineaiae (ii aeaa eeiee ia eaaeaeue ec iniiaiuo oeaaoia).

MCGA (Multicolor Graphics Adapter — iiiaioeaaoiue apaoe/aneee aaeaioap)
— aaaaeai oepiie IBM a paiieo iiaeaeyo PS/2. Aeiaaaeaii pacpaoaiea
640×400 (oaeno), /oi aeaao oipiao 80×25 ipe iaopeoea neiaiea 8×16 e
80×50 — ipe iaopeoea 8×8. Eiee/anoai ainipiecaiaeeiuo oeaaoia oaaee/aii
aei 262144 (ii 64 opiaiy ia eaaeaeue ec iniiaiuo oeaaoia). Iiieii
iaeeopu, aaaaeaii iiiyoea oaaeeoeu oeaaoia, /apac eioipoth auiieiyaony
ipaiapaciaaiea 64–oeaaoiiai ipinopainoaa oeaaoia EGA a ipinopainoai
oeaaoia MCGA. Aaaaeai oaeaea aeaeaipaaeei 320x200x256, a eioipii aianoi
aeoiauo ieineinoae eniieuecoaony ipaaenoaaeaiea yepaia iaipapuaiie
iaeanoueth iaiyoe iauaiii 64000 aaeo, aaea eaaeaeue aaeo iienuaaao oeaao
niioaaonoaothuae aio oi/ee yepaia. Niaianoei n CGA ii anai paaeeiai e n
EGA — ii oaenoiaui, ca eneeth/aieai paciapa iaopeoeu neiaiea. *anoioa
nopi/iie pacaapoee — 31 eAoe, aeey yioeyoeee paaeeiia CGA eniieuecoaony
oae iacuaaaiia aeaieiia neaiepiaaiea — aeoaeepiaaiea eaaeaeie nopiee
oipiaoa Nx200 a paaeeia Nx400. Eioapoaen n iiieoipii —
aiaeiaiai–oeeopiaie: oeeopiaua neaiaeu neiopiiecaoeee, aiaeiaiaua
neaiaeu iniiaiuo oeaaoia, iapaaeaaaaiua iiieoipo aac aeenepaoecaoeee.
Iiaeaeapaeeaaao iiaeeeth/aiea iiiiopiiiiai iiieoipa e aai aaoiiaoe/aneia
iiiciaiea — ipe yoii a aeaeai–BIOS aeeth/aaony paaeei noiiepiaaiey
oeaaoia ii oae iacuaaaiie oeaea napiai (grayscale) aeey iieo/aiey
iieooiiiaiai /apii–aaeiai eciapaaeaiey. Noiiepiaaiea auiieiyaony oieueei
ipe auaiaea /apac BIOS — ipe iaiinpaaenoaaiiie caiene a aeaeaiiaiyoue ia
iiieoip iiiaaeaao oieueei neaiae caeaiiai oeaaoa (anee ii ia eiaao
anopiaiiiai oeaaoinianeoaey).

VGA (Video Graphics Array — iiiaeanoai, eee iannea, aecoaeueiie apaoeee)
— panoepaiea MCGA, niaianoeiia n EGA, aaaaeai oepiie IBM a npaaeieo
iiaeaeyo PS/2. Oaeoe/aneee noaiaeapo aeaeaiaaeaioapa n eiioea 80–o
aiaeia. Aeiaaaeai oaenoiaue paaeei 720×400 aeey yioeyoeee MDA e
apaoe/aneee paaeei 640×480 n aeinooiii /apac aeoiaua ieineinoe. A
paaeeia 640×480 eniieuecoaony oae iacuaaaiay eaaaepaoiay oi/ea
(niioiioaiea eiee/anoaa oi/ae ii aipeciioaee e aapoeeaee niaiaaeaao ni
noaiaeapoiui niioiioaieai noipii yepaia — 4:3). Niaianoei n MDA, CGA e
EGA, eioapoaen n iiieoipii eaeaioe/ai MCGA.

IBM 8514/a — niaoeeaeecepiaaiiue aaeaioap aeey paaiou n aunieeie
pacpaoaieyie (640x480x256 e 1024x768x256), n yeaiaioaie apaoe/aneiai
oneipeoaey. Ha iiaeaeapaeeaaao aeaeaipaaeeiu VGA. Eioapoaen n iiieoipii
aiaeiae/ai VGA/MCGA.

IBM XGA — neaaeothuee niaoeeaeecepiaaiiue aaeaioap IBM. ?anoepaii
oeaaoiaia ipinopainoai (paaeei 640x480x64k), aeiaaaeai oaenoiaue paaeei
132×25 (1056×400). Eioapoaen n iiieoipii aiaeiae/ai VGA/MCGA.

SVGA (Super VGA — «naapo»–VGA) — panoepaiea VGA n aeiaaaeaieai aieaa
aunieeo pacpaoaiee e aeiiieieoaeueiiai napaena. Aeaeaipaaeeiu
aeiaaaeythony ec pyaea 800×600, 1024×768, 1152×864, 1280×1024, 1600×1200
— ana n niioiioaieai 4:3. Oeaaoiaia ipinopainoai panoepaii aei 65536
(High Color) eee 16.7 iei (True Color). Oaeaea aeiaaaeythony panoepaiiua
oaenoiaua paaeeiu oipiaoa 132×25, 132×43, 132×50. Ec aeiiieieoaeueiiai
napaena aeiaaaeaia iiaeaeapaeea VBE. Oaeoe/aneee noaiaeapo
aeaeaiaaeaioapa ipeiapii n 1992 a.

Eniieueciaaiea aeaoo aeaeaieapo

Aieueoeinoai aeaeaieapo aeey oei ISA e VLB ia iiaeao paaioaoue niaianoii
a iaeiii eiiiuethoapa, ca eneeth/aieai eiiaeiaoeee MDA (eee niaianoeiie)
n CGA/EGA/VGA (eee niaianoeiie). Yoi aiciiaeii oieueei iioiio, /oi a MDA
e niaianoeiuo n iei aaeaioapao eniieuecothony aaepana iipoia e iaiyoe,
ia iapanaeathueany n aaepanaie oeaaoiuo aaeaioapia. Niioaaonoaaiii,
iiaoo paaioaoue aianoa aeaaea aeaa EGA– eee VGA– niaianoeiua eapou, anee
iaeia ec ieo ipe aeeth/aiee aaoiiaoe/anee onoaiaaeeaaaony a
MDA–niaianoeiue paaeei, «ooiaey» n aaepania oeaaoiuo paaeeiia.

Niapaiaiiua eapou aeey oeiu PCI ia eiatho aeanoei caaeaiiuo aaepania
aaiaea/auaiaea, iiyoiio ipe eieoeeaeecaoeee nenoaia aaoiiaoe/anee
paciineo eo ii paciui iaeanoyi aaepania. Yoi iicaieyao niaiauaoue a
eiiiuethoapa aeaa e aieaa aeaeaieapo ipe iaee/ee iiaeaeapaeee ni noipiiu
IN; ipe yoii iniiaiie (paciauaaiie ii noaiaeapoiui aaepanai
aaiaea/auaiaea) aoaeao eapoa, paniieiaeaiiay a pacuaia n iaeiaiueoei
iiiapii.

Eiioeaopaoeeth ec aeaoo aeaeaiaaeaioapia iiaeaeapaeeaatho iiiaea
ioeaae/eee e aepoaea oipaaeythuea ipiapaiiu. Aieaa aeaoo aeaeaieapo
iiaeaeapaeeaaao iiaay aapney Windows 95 (Memphis).

DDC e DPMS?

DDC (Display Data Channel — eaiae aeaiiuo iiieoipa — aeiiieieoaeueiua
eeiee eioapoaena iaaeaeo aaeaioapii e iiieoipii, ii eioipui iiieoip
iiaeao niiauaoue aaeaioapo eioipiaoeeth i naiai eiaea iiaeaee,
iiaeaeapaeeaaaiuo paaeeiao, iioeiaeueiuo iapaiaopao eciapaaeaiey e o.i.
Iiieoipu n DDC iacuaatho oaeaea PnP (Plug And Play — aeeth/e e eapaeny),
iineieueeo anth paaioo ii ianopieea oaeiai iiieoipa nenoaia iiaeao
auiieieoue aaoiiaoe/anee.

DPMS (Display Power Management System — nenoaia oipaaeaiey ieoaieai
iiieoipa) — nenoaia, ipe iiiiue eioipie iiieoip iiaeao iapaaiaeeoueny a
paaeeiu yiapainaapaaeaiey eee ioeeth/aoueny nianai. ?acee/aaony /aoupa
paaeeia DMPS, oipaaeyaiuo neaiaeaie neiopiiecaoeee

?aaeei

H-Sync

V-Sync Ninoiyiea

Normal

Anoue

Anoue Hipiaeueiay paaioa

Standby

Hao

Anoue Epaoeiapaiaiiay iaoca

Suspend

Anoue

Hao Aeieaiapaiaiiay iaoca

Off

Hao

Hao Iieiia ioeeth/aiea

A paaeeia Standby ipienoiaeeo aaoaiea yepaia, a paaeeia Suspend —
nieaeaiea oaiiapaoopu iaeaea eaoiaeia YEO. ?yae iiieoipia opaeooao
paaeei Standby oae aea, eae e Suspend. Auoiae neiopineaiaeia ca
aeiionoeiua ipaaeaeu aieueoeinoai iiieoipia opaeooao eae eo ipiiaaeaiea,
iapaoiaey a paaeei iieiiai ioeeth/aiey ieoaiey.

?acaiaeea neaiaeia ia pacuaiao CGA, EGA, VGA e SVGA

CGA, EGA e iaeioipua iiaeaee VGA eniieuecotho 9–eiioaeoiue pacuai D-oeia

Auaiae CGA

EGA

VGA

1 GND

GND

GND

2 GND

Secondary Red

GND

3 Red

Primary Red

Red

4 Green

Primary Green

Green

5 Blue

Primary Blue

Blue

6 Intensity

Secondary Green

/Intensity

GND

7 –

Secondary Blue

8 H-Sync

H-Sync

H-Sync/Composite Sync

9 V-Sync

V-Sync

V-Sync

Noaiaeapoiui aeey VGA e SVGA yaeyaony 15–eiioaeoiue pacuai D–oeia

1 Red

2 Green

3 Blue

4 Sense 2

5 Self Test

6 Red GND

7 Green GND

8 Blue GND

9 Key – reserved, no pin

10 Sync GND

11 Sense 0

12 Sense 1

13 H-Sync

14 V-Sync

15 Sense 3

Neaiaeu Sense eniieuecothony aeey iieo/aiey eioipiaoeee io iiieoipa. A
VGA e paiieo SVGA neaiae Sense 1 eniieueciaaeny aeey iiiciaiey
iiiiopiiiiai iiieoipa, a eioipii yoa eeiey niaaeeiyeanue n iauei
ipiaiaeii. A iiieoipao n DDC eeiee 12 e 15 eniieuecoaony aeey iapaaea/e
aeaiiuo ec iiieoipa: 12 (SDA) – aeaiiua, 15 (SCL) – oipaaeaiea.

26–eiioaeoiue pacuai ia aeaeaiaaeaioapa

Yoi oae iacuaaaiue Feature Connector — «pacuai aeinooia e
aiciiaeiinoyi», /apac eioipue aiaoiea onopienoaa iiaoo paaioaoue n
aeaeaiiaiyoueth e eioipiaoeeiiiui iioieii eapou. Iau/ii ii eniieuecoaony
aeey iiaeeeth/aiey onopienoa aaiaea (caoaaoa) aeaeaieciapaaeaiey,
oaeaipeaiieeia, aeieia ipaiapaciaaiey noaiaeapoia e o.i. ?acee/aaony
aeaa oeia pacuaiia – VGA e VESA. Hacia/aiea eiioaeoia VGA-pacuaia:

Y 01 color bit 0

Y 02 color bit 1

Y 03 color bit 2

Y 04 color bit 3

Y 05 color bit 4

Y 06 color bit 5

Y 07 color bit 6

Y 08 color bit 7

Y 09 video clock (actve rising edge)

Y 10 blank (active negative)

Y 11 horizontal sync

Y 12 vertical sync

Y 13 ground

 

Z 01 ground

Z 02 ground

Z 03 ground

Z 04 select video | “1” or not connected-

Z 05 select sync  | -internal source,

Z 06 select clock | “0”-external source.

Z 07 not used

Z 08 ground

Z 09 ground

Z 10 ground

Z 11 ground

Z 12 not used

Z 13 not used

?acieoea iaaeaeo 24–pacpyaeiui e 32–pacpyaeiui eiaeepiaaieai oeaaoa

Ipaaeaea anaai — a oii, /oi 24–pacpyaeiia ipaaenoaaeaiea iaoaeiaii n
oi/ee cpaiey iapaaioee eciapaaeaiey: eaaeaeay oi/ea iienuaaaony opaiy
aaeoaie, a oiiiaeaiea/aeaeaiea ia ope — iaiaa yooaeoeaiua iiapaoeee, /ai
oiiiaeaiea/aeaeaiea ia noaiaie aeaieee. Iiyoiio iii eniieuecoaony
oieueei ipe iaiaoiaeeiinoe yeiiiieoue aeaeaiiaiyoue e nouanoaaiii
caiaaeeyao auaiae eciapaaeaiey. Ipe iaee/ee aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa
aeaeaiiaiyoe eniieuecoaony 32–pacpyaeiia ipaaenoaaeaiea, a eioipii
ieaaeoea ope aaeoa iienuaatho oeaao oi/ee, a noapoee aaeo eeai oipaaeyao
aeiiieieoaeueiuie iapaiaopaie (iaipeiap, eioipiaoeeae i acaeiiii
iapaepuaaiee iauaeoia eee aeoaeia a opaoiapiii eciapaaeaiee), eeai ia
eniieuecoaony.

DCI e DirectX

DCI — Device Control Interface (eioapoaen oipaaeaiey onopienoaii) —
ipiapaiiiue eioapoaen n ieceiopiaiaauie ooieoeeyie aeaeaiaaeaioapa,
aaaaeaiiue a Windows 3.1 e ipaaeiacia/aiiue aeaaiui iapacii aeey
yooaeoeaiie paaeecaoeee auaiaea aeaeaeoueony eciapaaeaiee n
iapaeeaeueiui ipaiapaciaaieai oeaaoia. Anee aepaeaap aeaeaiaaeaioapa,
eiathuaai oneipeoaeue aieiaoeee, ia iiaeaeapaeeaaao DCI, oi a eapao e
ipiapaiiao ainipiecaaaeaiey oeeueiia, ipeaioepiaaiiuo ia DCI, aoaeoo
eniieueciaaoueny iau/iua ooieoeee auaiaea eciapaaeaiee, e aueapuoa io
aiiapaoiiai oneipeoaey ia aoaeao.

A Windows 95 DCI caiaiai naiaenoaii eioapoaenia DirectX — DirectDraw,
Direct3D, DirectVideo, DirectSound, eaaeaeue ec eioipuo iaania/eaaao
aeinooi e niioaaonoaothuaio aiiapaoiiio oneipeoaeth. Iiaeaeapaeea DCI a
Windows 95 ia ipaeoeeoaony, e ipiapaiiu, ipeaioepiaaiiua ia iaai, ia
niiaoo eniieueciaaoue anth iieiioo aiciiaeiinoae aiiapaoopu ipe paaioa
iiae Windows 95. Haipeiap, aapnee 1.x iiioeypiiai ipieapuaaoaey
aieiaoeee Xing ipeaioepiaaiu ia Windows 3.1/DCI, a aapnee 2.x e 3.x – ia
Windows 95/DirectDraw.

Oaaee/aiea neipinoe paaiou aeaeaiaaeaioapa

A pyaea neo/aaa — iiaeii. Ipaaeaea anaai, oceei ianoii iiaeao auoue
nenoaiiay oeia iaaeaeo ipioeannipii e aaeaioapii: /ai auoa aa /anoioa —
oai auoa neipinoue iaiaia eioipiaoeeae ii oeia. Anee anoue aiciiaeiinoue
auapaoue oo aea aioopaiithth /anoioo ipioeannipa ipe aieaa aunieie
aiaoiae (iaipeiap, 2×83 IAoe aianoi 2.5×66 IAoe) — eiaao niune naeaeaoue
yoi, oaaaeeaoenue a noaaeeueiie paaioa aaeaioapa ia iiauoaiiie /anoioa.

Epiia yoiai, ai iiiaeo aaeaioapao eiaaony cia/eoaeueiue caian ii
aioopaiiae oaeoiaie /anoioa aeaeaiipioeannipa e paaeeiai paaiou
aeaeaiiaiyoe. Aeey oipaaeaiey yoeie iapaiaopaie eniieuecoaony ipiapaiia
MCLK (aeey eapo ia ieepinoaiao S3, Cirrus Logic, Trident e Tseng
ET-4000/6000). Iooai iiaeuaia oaeoiaie /anoiou eiiopieeapa e iiaeaipa
paaeeiia iaiyoe iiaeii oneipeoue paaioo ia 20% e aieaa. Ipe yoii iaeuecy
caauaaoue, /oi aaeaioap aoaeao paaioaoue a aieaa aeanoeii apaiaiiii e
oaieiaii paaeeiao, /oi iiaeao iiaea/ue ca niaie naie. *paciapiia
iiauoaiea oaeoiaie /anoiou iiaeao ipeaanoe e auoiaeo ec nopiy aaeaioapa
eee iiieoipa.

Eiiaaea caiaoiia oneipaiea iiaeii iieo/eoue, onoaiiaea aieaa naaaeea
aapnee aepaeaapia — a paiieo aapneyo aepaeaapia iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
ia ana aiciiaeiinoe aaeaioapa, iiaoo anopa/aoueny iaiioeiecepiaaiiua
o/anoee eiaea e o.i.

TV-tuner

Aeie oaeaaeceiiiiai ipeaiieea e aeaeiaeapa aeaeaineaiaea, auiieiaiiue
eeai a aeaea naiinoiyoaeueiie eapou, eeai iauaaeeiaiiue ia iaeiie ieaoa
n iau/iui aaeaioapii SVGA. Oeeopiaie aeaeaineaiae, iieo/aiiue n
ipeaiieea, iaeeaaeuaaaony ia iniiaiia eciapaaeaiea eeai ieiii, eeai n
pacaipioii ia iieiue yepai. Aaeaeo oiai, /oi ia iaaieueoie ieaoa opoaeii
iaania/eoue ea/anoaaiioth noaio oaeaipeaiieea e ec–ca cia/eoaeueiiai
opiaiy iiiao aioope eipiona eiiiuethoapa ea/anoai oaeaaeceiiiiai
eciapaaeaiey /aua anaai aeinoaoi/ii ieceia.

Aeaaiaeapy iaee/eth a TV–tuner nenoaiu ipaiapaciaaiey aiaeiaiaiai
neaiaea a oeeopiaie a iaeioipua iiaeaee anopiaiu ooieoeee aaiaea
(caoaaoa) eciapaaeaiey ni noaiaeapoiiai aeaeaiaoiaea, a oaeaea — auaiaea
oeeopiaiai eciapaaeaiey ia noaiaeapoiue aeaeaiaoiae. Iineieueeo yoe
ooieoeee a TV–tuner paaeeciaaiu eae aeiiieieoaeueiua — ii ia iiaoo
niiapie/aoue ni niaoeeaeecepiaaiiuie ieaoaie aaiaea/auaiaea
eciapaaeaiee.

OSD

On–Screen Display (aeenieae ia yepaia) — niinia paaoeepiaee iapaiaopia
iiieoipa, ipe eioipii iie ioiapaaeathony ia yepaia a oaeiaii/eoaaiii
aeaea — iaipeiap, a aeaea oeaeu, /eneiaie aaee/eiu eee iacaaiey paaeeia.
Haee/ea OSD iiaepacoiaaaao oeeopiaoth nenoaio oipaaeaiey,
niaeapaeathuoth ieepiipioeannip e neioacaoipu oipaaeythueo iaipyaeaiee,
eioipay paaioaao cia/eoaeueii oi/iaa opaaeeoeeiiiie aiaeiaiaie. Epiia
oaeianoaa paaoeepiaee, oeeopiaay nenoaia oipaaeaiey niiniaia
aaoiiaoe/anee caiiieiaoue iapaiaopu eciapaaeaiey aeey eaaeaeiai ec
paaeeiia pacaapoee, /oi iicaieyao eneeth/eoue eciaiaiey aaiiaopee e
oeaiopiaee eciapaaeaiey ipe niaia paaeeiia.

Iyoia ia yepaia oeaaoiiai iiieoipa

Yoi /anoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaiaaie/eaaiee oaiaaie ianee eee apiaoopu
eeianeiia, ipiecioaaeoai a pacoeueoaoa aeeyiey aiaoieo iaaieoiuo iieae
(iinoiyiiua iaaieou caoeiauo eieiiie, aeapaeaoaeae nepaiie, iapaiaiiua
iaaieoiua iiey opainoipiaoipia, aeaeaaoaeae, aepoaeo iiieoipia,
iaoiaeyueony a iaiinpaaenoaaiiie aeecinoe e o.i.). Iapaiaaie/eaaiea
iiaeao aicieeaoue aeaaea iinea iaipiaeieaeeoaeueiie paaiou iiieoipa a
iaanoanoaaiiii iieiaeaiee (yepaiii aiec eee aaapo, ia aieo eee aaapo
iiaaie) – aeaaiaeapy nenoaia eiiiainaoeee aeeyiey iaaieoiiai iiey Caiee,
eioipay a oaeeo iieiaeaieyo iiaeao eeoue oneeeoue aai. Haiaaie/aiiinoue
ianee e apiaoopu aucuaaao iapooaiea naaaeaiey eo/ae e canaaoeo
ethieiioipa «/oaeeo» oeaaoia, /oi ipiyaeyaony a aeaea oeaaoiuo iyoai.
Cia/eoaeueiia iaiaaie/eaaiea eeianeiia aucuaaao aaiiaope/aneea
eneaaeaiey oipiu eciapaaeaiey, iniaaiii a oaeao yepaia.

Aeey paciaaie/eaaiey eeianeiia ai anao iiieoipao ipaaeoniiopai
niaoeeaeueiue eiioop, ii eioipiio ipiioneaaony oie a iiiaio aeeth/aiey
ieoaiey. Ha iiiaeo iiieoipao anoue oaeaea paaeei ipeioaeeoaeueiiai
paciaaie/eaaiey (Degauss). Ipe iaee/ee paaeeia paciaaie/eaaiey
paeiiaiaeoaony aeeth/eoue aai iaeei–aeaa paca; anee iyoia ieii/aoaeueii
ia ipiiaee — oi iiaoipeoue n eioapaaeii a 25–30 ieioo. Anee oaeiai
paaeeia iao — iiaeii ianeieueei pac aueeth/eoue e aeeth/eoue iiieoip,
auaeapaeeaay iaoco a ianeieueei ieioo. Anee naiinoiyoaeueii
paciaaieoeoue eeianeii ia oaeaeinue — iaiaoiaeeii niaoeeaeueiia
paciaaie/eaathuaa onopienoai (eo/oa anaai naeaeaoue yoi a napaeniii
oeaiopa).

Ipaaeea e iipiu aaciianiinoe ipe paaioa n iiieoipii

Ipe paaioa iiieoip, eae e ethaie oaeaaecip, enioneaao pyae eceo/aiee:
paioaaiianeia e aaoa–eceo/aiea, eaeouaa ec eeianeiia, e iapaiaiiia
yeaeopiiaaieoiia iiea, eaeouaa io eaoooae nopi/iie e eaaepiaie
pacaapoee, neeiauo opainoipiaoipia e eaoooae eippaeoeee. Aaoa–eceo/aiea
iaiapoaeeaaaony eeoue a ianeieueeeo naioeiaopao io yepaia, paioaaiianeia
— a 20–30 ni, yeaeopiiaaieoiia iiea eaoooae panipinopaiyaony ai ana
noipiiu, iniaaiii aaie e iacaae (niapaaee iii a iaeioipie noaiaie
ineaaeyaony oaiaaie ianeie e apiaoopie eeianeiia). Ii iineaaeiei
aeaiiui, eiaiii yeaeopiiaaieoiia eceo/aiea ieceie /anoiou ipaaenoaaeyao
iaeaieueooth iianiinoue aeey caeipiauey, iiyoiio naieoapiua iipiu
pacaeouo nopai onoaiaaeeaatho ieieiaeueiia pannoiyiea io yepaia aei
iiapaoipa ieiei 50-70 ni (aeeeia auoyiooie poee), a aeeaeaeoeo paai/eo
iano io aieiaie e caaeiae noaiie iiieoipa — ia iaiaa 1.5 i. Eeaaeaoopa e
poee iiapaoipa oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue paniieiaeaiu ia iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiii pannoiyiee io iiieoipa.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeanoeeo noaiaeapoia ia aeiionoeiua opiaie
yeaeopiiaaieoiuo eceo/aiee — MPR II (Oaaoeey), onoaiaaeeaathuee oneiaii
aaciianiua opiaie eceo/aiee ia pannoiyiee 50 ni io iiieoipa; yoiio
noaiaeapoo oaeiaeaoaipytho ipaeoe/anee ana niapaiaiiua iiieoipu. Aieaa
aeanoeee noaiaeapo TCO’92 onoaiaaeeaaao oneiaii aaciianiua opiaie ia
pannoiyiee 30 ni io iiieoipa.

Auai? iiieoi?a

Anee aeaca — yoi ieii a aeooo /aeiaaea, oi iiieoi? – ieii a
eiiiuethoa?ioth nenoaio. Iiaeii auei au nie?eoueny n aeanoeei aeeneii,
eiiaaea «canuiathuei ia oiaeo», eee n iiaeaiii, ia?aaeathuei aeaiiua n
eaioeie. Hi iiaeeeth/eoa e aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiie nenoaia iaeaiueeee e
iaaeeaiiue eeai iaea/anoaaiiue iiieoi? – e au ana iiaoaeoa. Aa?ii e
ia?aoiia: aeaaea naiue niaa?oaiiue iiieoi? ia i?eaeano nee «iaiiuiie»
nenoaia, nei?aa eeoue iiae/a?eiao aa iaaeinoaoee. *oiau ia aicieeaei
i?iaeai n aeenieaai, ni anae ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ioianeoanue e aii?ino
aai auai?a, iaeeo/oei ia?acii niaeaniaaa iaiaoiaeeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
ono?ienoaa, i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, ia?aiao?u inoaeueiuo aiia?aoiuo
n?aaenoa e iaoa?eaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uie au ?aniieaaaaoa. Aeey
iniciaiiiai e aeaai?acoiiiai auai?a o?aaoaony inaieoue iaeioi?ua
oa?ieiu, aeiaa?eoueny naiei aeacai e iinoiyiii aea?aeaoue eaeueeoeyoi?
iaaioiaa. I?e/ai iineaaeiaa iniaaiii aaaeii, iineieueeo iiieoi?u
nouanoaaiii ioee/athony ?yaeii /eneiauo ia?aiao?ia.

I?eaeaeaoaeueiay aiaoiinoue.

Iiieoi?u noaee i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa, /ai i?aaeaea, ecia?aaeaiey ia ye?aiao —
?ac/a, aiaoiee aeae — i?iaeoiaiiaa e ooieoeeiiaeueiaa, a oeaiu — ieaea,
/ai eiaaea–eeai, oioy aiciiaeiinoe ?anoe?eeenue. Iinoiyiiia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa aeenieaaa iicaieyao iieo/aoue
aieaa /aoeea, y?eea e eo/oa noieone?iaaiiua ea?oeiee. Nia?aiaiiua
iiieoi?u ia?aaeatho iaeue/aeoea aeaoaee ecia?aaeaiey i?e aieaa aunieie
/anoioa niaiu eaae?ia, /oi naiaeeo e ieieioio iaaeaeaoaeueiua ia?oeaiey
ye?aia. Iiauoaiiia aieiaiea ?ac?aaio/eee oaeaeytho eiino?oeoeee ei?iona
iiieoi?a. Y?aiiiie/iua, e?ani/iua iiaeaee n i?iaeoiaiiui ?aciauaieai
n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey i?eoee ia niaio iaau?aceoaeueiui e oaeiaaoui
iiieoi?ai i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee.

Niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi plug-and-play — iaeaieaa aaaeiay ioee/eoaeueiay
iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiiai iieieaiey iiieoi?ia. Yoa oaoiieiaey oi?iuaao
onoaiiaeo iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Aiciiaeiinoue «iauaiey» iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu n
iiieoi?ii iicaieyao aio i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe yooaeoeaii ia?aeeth/aoue naie
?aaeeiu, iai?eia? n eiiiuethoa?iie ea?u ia oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi?.
Iiyaeaiea ioeueoeiaaeea–iiieoi?ia n ano?iaiiuie aeeiaieeaie, iee?ioiiaie
e niioaaonoaothueie ?acuaiaie aucaaei iaeioi?ia iaeeaeaiea ia
ei?ii?aoeaiii ?uiea. Caeanue ioeueoeiaaeea–ono?ienoaa iaeaeoo i?eiaiaiea
a noa?ao iao/aiey, oaeaoiiee, i?iaaaeaiey aeaeaieiioa?aioeee e
iooaoanoaee ii Internet.

Iaeii ec aeinoieinoa ioeueoeiaaeea–iiieoi?ia, eioi?ia ioeaiyo e
aeiiaoiea iieueciaaoaee, e i?ioanneiiaeu, — eioaa?e?iaaiiay
eiino?oeoeey. Aeaaiaea?y ae yeiiiieony ianoi ia noiea e nie?auaaony
/enei niaaeeieoaeueiuo eaaaeae. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiua iiaeaee aeenieaaa iiea
aua a iaiueoeinoaa. Hi i?iecaiaeeoaee noaioo iniauaoue naie i?iaeoeou
n?aaenoaaie ioeueoeiaaeea, /oiau auaeaeeoueny, a yoi i?eaaaeao e aieaa
oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth ioeueoeiaaeea–iiieoi?ia. Iaeiaei ano?iaiiua
aeeiaieee yoeo ono?ienoa iau/ii ia ioee/athony oi?ioeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii aua?aoue ?acia?u iiieoi?a
Oeacuaaaiue a oa?aeoa?enoeeao ono?ienoa ?acia? ye?aia, iai?eia? 15 eee
17 aetheiia, ioiineony e ?acia?o aeeaaiiaee (ec oaea a oaie)
yeaeo?iiii–eo/aaie o?oaee (YEO) iiieoi?a. Hi ii ia niioaaonoaoao ?acia?o
?aai/ae iaeanoe, iineieueeo /anoue o?oaee ne?uoa ei?ionii. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?acia? ecia?aaeaiey ia ye?aia 15–aetheiiaiai iiieoi?a a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue iaiueoa 14 aetheiia. Iiyoiio iiiaea
i?iecaiaeeoaee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?yaeo n iieiui ?acia?ii ye?aia (eee
aianoi iaai) oeacuaatho aaee/eio aeaeeiie iaeanoe. Haniiiaiii, /ai
aieueoa ye?ai, oai eo/oa. Iaeiaei ?aaeueii iaiaoiaeeiua aai ?acia?u
caaenyo io oiai, eae au eniieuecoaoa naie eiiiuethoa?. O?e /aoaa?oe IE
i?eia?aoathony n 14– eee 15–aetheiiauie iiieoi?aie, iniaaiii anee iaoeia
iieoiaaony aia?aua. 15–aetheiiaue iiieoi? — yoi, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue,
ieieioi. N 17–aetheiiaui au iieo/eoa ?aaeueiia oaaee/aiea ?acia?ia
eniieuecoaiie iaeanoe ye?aia — aaaeiia i?aeiouanoai aeey oao, eoi
i?iaiaeeo ca IE aeieaea /anu, caioneay ianeieueei i?eeiaeaiee n?aco eee
?aaoey?ii caieiaynue «na?oeiaii» a Internet. E?iia oiai, i?aia?aoaiea
oaeiai iiieoi?a caiaaeeeo ii?aeueiia noa?aiea aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Oi?ioee aeenieae iineoaeeo ii e?aeiae ia?a /aou?a–iyoue eao e ia?aaeeaao
ianeieueei iiaea?iecaoeee IE. Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi au «ia?a?anoaoa»
17-aetheiiaue iiieoi?, ai?acaei ieaea, /ai anee au ?a/ue oea i iiaeaee
iaiueoaai ?acia?a. Noieo 17–aetheiiaue aeenieae aei?iaea, i?eia?ii 650 –
900 aeie., ii ii aeano aai ii?aaeaeaiioth naiaiaeo e iaania/eo eo/ooth
ioaea/o io naeaeaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Iiaeii iaeeaeaoue aeaeueiaeoaai nieaeaiey oeai, iaoneiaeaiiiai
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaie i?iecaiaeeoaeae e eo iieeoeeie i?eaea/aiey
aieiaiey iieueciaaoaeae e iiieoi?ai aieueoaai ?acia?a. Niaaooai,
iaeiaei, ouaoaeueii i?iaa?youe oa?aeoa?enoeee ono?ienoa, i?aaeeaaaaiuo
ii i/aiue ieceei oeaiai: iie iiaoo auoue iaaunieiai ea/anoaa eee eiaoue
ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe. Ioaeaeueiua i?iecaiaeeoaee i?iaeatho
iiieoi?u, ia iieiinoueth niioaaonoaothuea aeaenoaothuei noaiaea?oai: n
eeianeiiaie iaaunieiai ea/anoaa, n ieceie /anoioie niaiu eaae?ia,
aieueoei oaaii ca?ia. Iiiaea oioaee au eoieoue aeenieae n aeeaaiiaeueth
aeaaea aieueoa 17 aetheiia, ii eo inoaiaaeeaaao ?aceee aceao oeai i?e
oaaee/aiee ?acia?a ye?aia aei 20 – 21 aetheia (1500 – 1900 aeie.).
Iaeiaei, anee au eiiieaeooaoa ianoieueioth ecaeaoaeueneoth nenoaio,
?aaioaaoa n a?aoeeie eee CAD/CAM–i?eeiaeaieyie eeai i?aaiecoaoa
Web–no?aieoeo, oi 20– eee aeaaea 21–aetheiiaue iiieoi? — eo/oaa ?aoaiea.
?acthia: i?e iaaeinoaoea n?aaenoa iiaeii ia?aie/eoueny oi?ioei
15–aetheiiaui iiieoi?ii, ii aiciiaeiinoe oeaeaniia?acii eoieoue
17–aetheiiaoth iiaeaeue: iia i?ineoaeeo aeieueoa e aeaca aoaeoo
ooiieyoueny iaiueoa.

O?oaea.

Naaiaeiy aieueoeinoai iiieoi?ia auioneathony ia YEO n oaiaaie ianeie
(iie aua iacuaathony o?oaeaie n ieineei ye?aiii) eee n aia?oo?iie
?aoaoeie. Iineaaeiea aieaa ecaanoiu iiae oi?aiaie ia?eie Trinitron oe?iu
Sony. Inoaeueiua i?iecaiaeeoaee, caeoieaoea eeoeaiceth ia yoo
oaoiieiaeth, auioneatho i?iaeoeoeeth iiae nianoaaiiuie oi?aiauie
ia?eaie. Hai?eia?, ViewSonic i?iecaiaeeo na?eth ecaeaeee SonicTron, a
ei?ii?aoeey Mitsubishi — Diamond Pro. I?iua aiai?y, auai? oeia YEO
naiaeeony e oiio, /oi au i?aaeii/oaoa: oi/ee eee iieinee. Ye?ai o?oaee n
oaiaaie ianeie iie?uo oi/eaie ethieiioi?a, ia eioi?ua yeaeo?iiiue eo/
iiiaaeaao /a?ac ianeo n iaaieueoeie e?oaeuie ioaa?noeyie. I?eaiaeeiue a
iienaiee iiieoi?a ia?aiao? «oaa oi/ee» iaicia/aao ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo
oi/eaie ethieiioi?a iaeiiai oeaaoa (e?aniiai, caeaiiai eee neiaai). *ai
iaiueoa yoi ?annoiyiea, oai aeeaea oi/ee ae?oa e ae?oao e oai ?ac/a
ecia?aaeaiea.

A o?oaeao n aia?oo?iie ?aoaoeie ethieiioi? iaianai a aeaea aa?oeeaeueiuo
iieinie, ?acaeaeaiiuo oiieeie iaoaeee/aneeie i?iaiei/eaie. Yeaeo?iiiue
eo/, iiiaaeay ia iieinee, aucuaaao eo naa/aiea. Aeey yoie eiino?oeoeee
o?oaie iiae oaaii iiae?acoiaaaaony ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iieineaie iaeiiai
oeaaoa. E iiyoue — /ai iaiueoa aeaiiia ?annoiyiea, oai eo/oa.

Haeuecy n?aaieaaoue ?acia? oaaa aeey o?oaie ?aciuo oeiia: oaa oi/ae
(/anoi aiai?yo «o?eaae») o?oaee n oaiaaie ianeie ecia?yaony ii
aeeaaiiaee, a oi a?aiy eae oaa aia?oo?iie ?aoaoee, eia/a iacuaaaiue
ai?eciioaeueiui oaaii oi/ae, — ii ai?eciioaee. Iiyoiio i?e iaeeiaeiaii
oaaa oi/ae o?oaea n oaiaaie ianeie eiaao aieueooth ieioiinoue oi/ae, /ai
o?oaea n aia?oo?iie ?aoaoeie. Iaa oeia o?oaie eiatho naie i?aeiouanoaa e
naieo noi?iiieeia. O?oaee n oaiaaie ianeie aeatho aieaa oi/iia e
aeaoaeece?iaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea, iineieueeo naao i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
ioaa?noey a ianea n /aoeeie e?ayie. Iiyoiio iiieoi?u n oaeeie YEO oi?ioi
eniieueciaaoue i?e eioaineaiie e aeeeoaeueiie ?aaioa n oaenoaie e
iaeeeie yeaiaioaie a?aoeee, iai?eia? a CAD/CAM-i?eeiaeaieyo. O?oaee oeia
Trinitron eiatho aieaa aaeo?ioth ianeo, iia iaiueoa caneiiyao ye?ai e
iicaieyao iieo/eoue aieaa y?eia, eiio?anoiia ecia?aaeaiea a ianuuaiiuo
oeaaoao. Iiieoi?u n oaeeie o?oaeaie oi?ioi iiaeoiaeyo aeey ianoieueiuo
ecaeaoaeueneeo nenoai e ae?oaeo i?eeiaeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?aaioo n
oeaaoiuie ecia?aaeaieyie. Iiniio?aa ia aeeth/aiiue ye?ai, iniaaiii ia
aaeue oii, iiaeii caiaoeoue oiieea ieoe, eaeouea iiia?ae ?aoaoee, iie —
noaaeeece?otho aa iieiaeaiea. Ec–ca aieaa neiaeiie eiino?oeoeee aeenieae
n oaeeie o?oaeaie iau/ii iaiiiai aei?iaea aiaeiae/iuo iiaeaeae n oaiaaie
ianeie.

Aii?in, eaeoth o?oaeo aua?aoue: n oaiaaie ianeie eee n aia?oo?iie
?aoaoeie, — a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyaony ee/iuie i?aaeii/oaieyie.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy YEO n oaiaaie ianeie eeaee?otho ii iauaiai i?iaeaae,
i?e/ai n aieueoei io?uaii. Niaeanii aeaiiui Stanford Resources, ai
aoi?ii eaa?oaea 1996 a. eo aeiey i?aauoaea 50%, a oi a?aiy eae o?oaeai n
aia?oo?iie ?aoaoeie i?eiaaeeaaeaei ieiei 10% ?uiea. Iaeiaei 17– e
20–aetheiiaua o?oaee oeia Trinitron aeiieie?otho ia ?uiea iiieoi?ia aeey
?aai/eo noaioeee, /oi, ii iiaieth SRI, yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
OEM–niaeaoaiey, ii eioi?iio Sony iniauaao iiaeiaiuie aeenieayie ?aai/ea
noaioeee Sun Microsystems. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Sony e ae?oaea
i?iecaiaeeoaee iuoathony i?eaioe?iaaoue ei?ii?aoeaiuo iieueciaaoaeae
ianoieueiuo nenoai ia 15– e 17–aetheiiaua iiaeaee iiieoi?ia oeia
Orinitron, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa onoaiiaeaiiuo
aeenieaaa ia o?oaeao n aia?oo?iie ?aoaoeie. Neooaoeey ia ?uiea iiieoi?ia
iaiyaony, e ii ia?a oiai, eae nieaeathony oeaiu, iiaeii eoieoue ca oa
aea aeaiueae eo/oaa ono?ienoai.

A i?ioeii aiaeo auei aia?aua ioia/aii i?aauoaiea iauaiia i?iaeaae
15–aetheiiauo aeenieaaa iaae 14–aetheiiauie. Haeioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaee
aeaaea i?ae?aoeee auione iiaeaeae iaiueoaai ?acia?a. Ecaioiaeoaee
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai oiaea «ia?aueaatho aetheiu», e oaia?ue i?aeoe/anee
ana eiiieaeootho naie noaiaea?oiua eiiiuethoa?u 15–aetheiiauie
iiieoi?aie.

Iiceoeee 17–aetheiiauo iiaeaeae oaeaea cia/eoaeueii ie?aiee, iniaaiii ia
?uiea ei?ii?aoeaiuo nenoai e n?aaee iieueciaaoaeae, i?iaaaeoeo
i/a?aaeioth iiaea?iecaoeeth. Ii–i?aaeiaio iiioey?iu o ?aaioathueo n
a?aoeeie i?ioanneiiaeia 20– e 21–aetheiiaua ono?ienoaa, ii ia ?uiea iie
a yaiii iaiueoeinoaa. I?e auai?a iiieoi?a iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii
eco/eoue acaeiioth caaeneiinoue ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe iiieoi?a e
/anoiou niaiu eaae?ia. Yoi iicaieeo auyaeoue i?aaeaeu aiciiaeiinoae
ono?ienoaa ii ea/anoaaiiiio aini?iecaaaeaieth ecia?aaeaiey. ?ac?aoathuay
niiniaiinoue ii?aaeaeyao /enei ieenaeia, eioi?ua iiaeii ioia?aceoue ia
ye?aia a ai?eciioaeueiii eee aa?oeeaeueiii iai?aaeaiee. Aunieay
?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue iaania/eaaao ?aaioo n iauaeoaie (iai?eia?, n
ieeoia?aiiaie) oiaiueoaiiiai ?acia?a. Aeey aieueoeinoaa
aecian-i?eeiaeaiee aiieia aeinoaoi/ii ?ac?aoaiey 800×600.

Eiia/ii iioeiaeueiay ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue caaeneo io ?acia?ia
ye?aia: iai?eia?, ?ac?aoaiea 1024×768, onoaiiaeaiiia ia 15–aetheiiaii
iiieoi?a, iiaeao iiauneoue iai?yaeaiea aeac, a oi a?aiy eae ia
17–aetheiiaii aeenieaa iii aoaeao aiieia oianoii. Ecia?yaiay a aa?oeao
/anoioa niaiu eaae?ia (eee /anoioa ?aaaia?aoeee ecia?aaeaiey)
iieacuaaao, eae auno?i iiaoo auoue ia?a?eniaaiu ana ieenaeu ye?aia.
Aieaa aunieay /anoioa niaiu eaae?ia aeaeaao ecia?aaeaiea onoie/eaaa, a
iiieaeaiiay /anoioa iiaeao i?eaanoe e iaaeaeaoaeueiiio ia?oeaieth —
aaeaa caiaoiiio, ii aucuaathuaio eceeoiaa iai?yaeaiea aeac.
Iaeneiaeueiay /anoioa ?aaaia?aoeee ecia?aaeaiey caaeneo io onoaiiaeaiiie
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe, a i?e caaeaiiii ?ac?aoaiee — ii?aaeaeyao
ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey.

O aeaoaauo iiieoi?ia /anoioa niaiu eaae?ia iau/ii anaai 60 Aoe, iiyoiio
auae?aeoa ana–oaee n?aaee ono?ienoa n /anoioie ii e?aeiae ia?a 75 Aoe.
Annioeeaoeey noaiaea?oia aeaeaiyeaeo?iieee (Video Electronics Standards
Association, VESA) onoaiiaeea /anoioo niaiu eaae?ia 85 Aoe a ea/anoaa
noaiaea?oa aeey naiaiaeiuo io iaaeaeaoaeueiiai ia?oeaiey iiieoi?ia, oioy
eeoue iaiiiaea aeenieae i?eaeeaeathony e yoiio aunieiio cia/aieth
/anoiou i?e aieueoii ?ac?aoaiee.

?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue e /anoioa ?aaaia?aoeee — iniiaiua ia?aiao?u
aeey niaeaniaaiey iiieoi?a e aeaeaiieaou eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu. Anee
aaoa ea?oa ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue e /anoioo niaiu
eaae?ia iiieoi?a, oi oeo/oeoue oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu ia oaeanony. E?iia
oiai, io aeaeaiaaeaioa?a caaeneo /enei aini?iecaiaeeiuo oeaaoia i?e
caaeaiiie ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe. Oe?eia iieinu /anoio iiieoi?a ?aaeei
i?eaiaeeony a iienaieyo eee ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeao, oioy yoi, iiaeao
auoue, iaeaieaa aaaeiue iieacaoaeue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eo/oae
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe ono?ienoaa. Iieina /anoio aeenieay
oa?aeoa?ecoao aai aiciiaeiinoe a ioiioaiee iinooiathuaai n a?aoe/aneie
ea?ou aeaeaineaiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, /ai auoa ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue e
/anoioa niaiu eaae?ia, oai oe?a o?aaoaiay iieina i?iioneaiey.
Eioi?iaoeeth ia eioa?anothuai iiieoi?a iiaeii ociaoue o ecaioiaeoaey
eeai a aeieoiaioaoeee ia ono?ienoai. Iieina i?iioneaiey aeaeaiea?ou
aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ia?aiao?ai iiieoi?a. Naiua i?inoua, eae
i?aaeei oceiiieiniua, aeaeaiieaou ia iiaoo auaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii /aoeee
neaiae aeey oi?aaeaiey aieueoei aeenieaai i?e aai oeie/iie /anoioa
?aaaia?aoeee ecia?aaeaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aunieieeanniua aeaeaiea?ou
iau/ii eiatho ia auoiaea neeoeii ?aceee neaiae aeey i?inoiai,
oceiiieiniiai iiieoi?a. Haeoe aeaiiua ii oe?eia iieinu /anoio
aeaeaiea?ou oaeaaony ia anaaaea, ii nouanoaoao oi?ioaa yiie?e/aneia
i?aaeei: aeaoaaua, n?aaeiea ii noieiinoe e aei?iaea aeaeaiieaou
eniieuecothony niioaaonoaaiii n 15–, 17– e 21–aetheiiauie iiieoi?aie.
Oi/iay iano?ieea (iiaeno?ieea) ia?aiao?ia ecia?aaeaiey ia iiieoi?a — yoi
ia oieueei niioaaonoaea eiathueony oa?aeoa?enoee aaoei iaeeaeaieyi.
N?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey iiieoi?ii neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue aeey niaeaniaaiey
aai ia?aiao?ia n aaoeie iio?aaiinoyie, i?aaeii/oaieyie e ie?oaeathueie
oneiaeyie, iai?eia? n inaauaiiinoueth. I?aeoe/anee ana iiieoi?u iniauaiu
eaaeiaeinooiiuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey ia ia?aaeiae iaiaee. Yoi iiaoo
auoue eiiiee eee a?auathueany ?o/ee. Oeeo?iaia oi?aaeaiea iiieoi?ii,
?aiaa n/eoaaoaany ?ineioueth, oaia?ue noaiiaeony noaiaea?oii. Ii aeaiiui
SRI, aieaa 70% i?iaeaiiuo ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea 1996 a. ono?ienoa eiaee
oeeo?iaua n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey. Aeaaiaea?y oeeo?iaui nenoaiai
oaaee/eaaaony oi/iinoue iano?ieee, eioi?ay, eae i?aaeei, e nio?aiyaony
ia aieaa aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae. O iiiaeo nia?aiaiiuo aeenieaaa
?anoe?aiiue ia?a/aiue ?aaoee?iaie e ye?aiiua iaith, oi?iuathuea eo
auiieiaiea. Ye?aiiue eioa?oaen oi?aaeaiey ono?ienoaii a oeaeii iaeaa/aao
thnoe?iaeo e iaania/eaaao iaiaaeeaiioth ia?aoioth naycue n iiieoi?ii,
iiauoay aa?iyoiinoue aieaa oi/iie aai iano?ieee.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey aeeth/atho a naay: onoaiiaeo
ai?eciioaeueiiai e aa?oeeaeueiiai ?acia?a ecia?aaeaiey, a oaeaea aai
naeaea ii aa?oeeaee e ai?eciioaee, ?aciaaie/eaaiea, ?aaoee?iaeo y?einoe
e eiio?anoa. Aieueoeinoai iiieoi?ia eiatho aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey aaiiao?eae ecia?aaeaiey: ono?aiaiea iiaeooeiia?aciuo e
o?aiaoeaeaeaeueiuo eneaaeaiee, naeaoea/?anoyaeaiea i?yiioaieueieea
ye?aia e iiai?io ecia?aaeaiey. A iaeioi?uo ono?ienoaao aiciiaeii oaeaea
ono?aiaiea ioa?a (eiiaeiaoeeiiiuo eneaaeaiee), ?aaoee?iaea naaaeaiey
eo/a, oeaaoiaie oaiia?aoo?u e o?iaiae oneeaiey e?aniiai, caeaiiai e
neiaai eiiiiiaioia neaiaea.

Noaiaea?ou

Iiieii /enoi ynoaoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aecoaeecaoeee ecia?aaeaiey,
nouanoaoao e ?yae y?aiiiie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee a ioiioaiee iiieoi?ia. E
n/anoueth, ecaeaiu /aoeea ?oeiaiaenoaa e noaiaea?ou a iiiiuue
iio?aaeoaeyi, auae?athuei ono?ienoaa. Ethaie i?eee/iue iiieoi? aeieaeai
ii e?aeiae ia?a niioaaonoaiaaoue noaiaea?oo MPRII, ii?aaeaeythuaio
o?iaaiue eceo/aiey yeaeo?e/aneiai e iaaieoiiai iieae.
I?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa, /oiau ii oaeiaeaoai?ye aieaa no?iaei o?aaiaaieyi
noaiaea?oa TCO ’92, eioi?ue ?aaeaiaioe?oao aua aieaa ieceea o?iaie
eceo/aiee ia iaiueoeo ?annoiyieyo io ono?ienoaa — 30 ni (aeey MPRII — 50
ni). E?iia oiai, TCO ’92 niaea?aeeo o?aaiaaiey ii yeiiiie/iinoe
yia?aiiio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea yeaeo?i– e iiaea?iaaciianiinoe. A iiaie
aa?nee noaiaea?oa — TCO ’95 aeeaiacii ?aaeaiaioe?oaiuo ia?aiao?ia
?anoe?ai, a iaai aeeth/aiu oa?aeoa?enoeee yia?aiiio?aaeaiey, ia?oeaiey
ye?aia, y?einoe ecia?aaeaiey e o?aaiaaiey a ioiioaiee eeaaeaoo?u. Iaiaa
no?iaee noaiaea?o MPRII oaea noae iauai?eiyoui. Niaeanii aeaiiui SRI,
naiue ec aeanyoe ono?ienoa, i?iaeaiiuo ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea 1996 a.,
niioaaonoaotho MPRII e oieueei 3,5% — TCO ’92. Iaeiaei a yoii aiaeo
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue iiieoi?ia, niioaaonoaothueo o?aaiaaieyi TCO,
aeieaeia aic?anoe, iniaaiii n?aaee aunieiea/anoaaiiuo ono?ienoa.

Aaaionoai ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (Environmental Protection
Agency, EPA) ?ac?aaioaei I?ia?aiio na?oeoeeaoeee yia?ainaa?aaathueo
ecaeaeee — Energy Star. Aieueoeinoai ecaioiaeoaeae aeenieaaa
eniieuecotho i?iiuoeaiiue noaiaea?o VESA Display Power Management
Signaling (DPMS), ioaa/athuee o?aaiaaieyi Energy Star. ?aaioa iiieoi?a e
aeaeaiaaeaioa?a a niioaaonoaee n DPMS iaania/eaaao iaee/ea o?ao o?iaiae
nieaeaiey yia?aiiio?aaeaiey ono?ienoaa a ia?eiae aai ianneaiinoe:
Standby, Suspend e Off. Ia?aue ?aaeei ?aca?ae?iaaiey yeiiiieo ieiei 30%
iiuiinoe e iicaieyao iaiiaaiii ainnoaiiaeoue ?aaioiniiniaiinoue i?e
iaaeaoee ethaie eeaaeoe. Aoi?ie ?aaeei aua aieueoa nieaeaao
yia?aiiio?aaeaiea ca n/ao ioeeth/aiey oeaiae iaeaea o?oaee iiieoi?a, a
o?aoee i?aaeiieaaaao ioeeth/aiea i?aeoe/anee anaai, e?iia
iee?ii?ioeanni?a.

I?e i?eia?aoaiee iiieoi?a neaaeoao ia?aouaoue iniaia aieiaiea ia oieueei
ia iauaa ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey, ii e ia oieone?iaeo e naaaeaiea eo/ae.

Oi?ioi noieone?iaaiiue iiieoi? ioee/aaony ?aceeie ia?aoiaeaie io naaoa e
oaiiioa ia ecia?aaeaiee. *oiau ioeaieoue oieone?iaeo aeenieay, auaaaeeoa
ia ye?ai /a?iia ecia?aaeaiea ia aaeii oiia e i?iaa?ueoa ?aciuoinoue ii
e?ayi e oaeai ye?aia. Haaei?iaea iiieoi?u /anoi iaania/eaatho
oieone?iaeo eeai oieueei a oeaio?a, eeai oieueei ia ia?eoa?ee, ii ia ii
anaio ye?aio. Ieioia naaaeaiea eo/ae i?eaiaeeo e iaaa?iiio niaiauaieth
e?aniiai, caeaiiai e neiaai eiiiiiaioia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiyaeythony
oaie eee ia?aceoiua ecia?aaeaiey.

Ia?niaeoeau

O aieueoeinoaa iiieoi?ia «iuoiua oi?iu», eioi?ua aanaeaeinoii
«nuaaeatho» ianoi ia ?aai/ai noiea. Neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth iiaoo
eciaieoue AEE–aeenieae, oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey eioi?uo aeoeaii
?acaeaaaony. Yoe ono?ienoaa n ieineeie ye?aiaie caieiatho iaiiiai
iaiueoa ianoa, ii aunieay noieiinoue e ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey
naea?aeeaatho eo i?eiaiaiea ai iiiaeo i?eeiaeaieyo. N?aaee ae?oaeo
iiaoanoa ioiaoei iiieoi?u, iai?oaeiaaiiua ?acuaiii oeiu USB. Yoa oeia
iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua auno?aa e iiaeniaaeeiyoue iiiai ono?ienoa
/a?ac nenoaio eiioeaio?aoi?ia e eaaaeae. Anei?a iiyayony aeenieae,
aini?iecaiaeyuea ?aaeueiua oeaaoa Internet. Iaeaaeathuea yoie
aiciiaeiinoueth iiaeaee ono?ienoa aoaeoo niiniaiu iioeiaeueiui ia?acii
ioia?aaeaoue oeaaoa Web–no?aieoe. E?iia oiai, iie ?ann/eoaiu ia
«iaaaneo» aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiaeoeae n iee?ioiiaie e aeeiaieeaie, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue i?eniaaeeiaiu e ethaiio iiieoi?o. Iinea anaai i?i/eoaiiiai i
ia?aiao?ao, noaiaea?oao e iniaaiiinoyo aeenieaaa iieoiea iiaeiaiiai
ono?ienoaa iiaeao iieacaoueny oyaeaeie ?aaioie.

Niaaou ii i?iaa?ea e yenieoaoaoeee YEO

Ia?aae i?aia?aoaieai iiieoi?a neaaeoao auiieieoue ianeieueei i?inouo
oanoia, eioi?ua iiiiaoo i?eiyoue aieaa iainiiaaiiia ?aoaiea i aai
ea/anoaa.

Ioeaiea eeiaeiuo eneaaeaiee. Iiaeaa?eoa iioeiaeueiua o?iaie eiio?anoa e
y?einoe aeey anao n?aaieaaaiuo ono?ienoa. Oaaaeeoanue, /oi ia anao
iiieoi?ao onoaiiaeai ?aaeei n ono?aeaathuae aan ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoueth (iau/ii 800×600 — aeey 15–aetheiiaiai iiieoi?a e 1024×768
— aeey 17–aetheiiaiai). Caiieieoa ye?ai no?ieaie iaeeiaeiauo aoea
ieieiaeueiiai, aaeaa ?acee/eiiai, ?acia?a. Cae?ieoa eino?oiaioaeueiua
iaiaee oaenoiaiai ?aaeaeoi?a e iiniio?eoa oaeno a iieiiye?aiiii
ecia?aaeaiee. Oaaaeeoanue a oii, /oi no?iee e noieaoeu neiaieia
ia?acotho ?iaiua, i?yiua ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua eeiee
iaeeiaeiaie oieueiu. I?iaa?ueoa oieone?iaeo a oeaio?a ye?aia e ia
ia?eoa?ee. Ha ea/anoaaiiuo iiieoi?ao ana neiaieu aeieaeiu auoue
iaeeiaeiai /aoeeie, oi?ioi noieone?iaaiiuie e ?aceeie, a aaeue oii —
/enoui e iaeii?iaeiui.

Auno?ay ioeaiea o?iaiy ia?oeaiey ye?aia. O?iaaiue ia?oeaiey iiaeii
i?iaa?eoue ia?eoa?eeiui c?aieai, eioi?ia aieaa /oanoaeoaeueii e iaio.
Aeey yoiai iiniio?eoa iaiiiai auoa eee a noi?iio io ye?aia. *oiau oi/iaa
n?aaieoue iiieoi?u, eniieuecoeoa iaeio e oo aea aeaeaiieaoo i?e
iaeeiaeiaie /anoioa eaae?iaie ?acaa?oee. Ana i?ioeaiaeeeiaua iie?uoey
?aaioatho ii–?aciiio. A iaiaa ea/anoaaiiuo iie?uoeyo eniieuecothony
neeoeii a?oaua e?oiiua /anoe/ee, eioi?ua ?annaeaatho naao iaiiaeiaea
iaoiaiai noaeea. Aueeth/eoa iiieoi? e iiaa?ieoa ye?ai a noi?iio y?eiai
naaoa. Haee/ea ?aciuouo io?aaeaiiuo ecia?aaeaiee iiaeao oeacuaaoue ia
iiauoaiiue o?iaaiue ?annayiey, /oi oooaeoaao ea/anoai ea?oeiee ia
iiieoi?a. Anoue ae?oaie aa?eaio i?iaa?ee: iinoaaueoa eeno aaeie aoiaae n
iaia/aoaiiui oaenoii ia?aae ye?aiii e iii?iaoeoa i?i/anoue aai a
io?aaeaiiii ecia?aaeaiee. Caeeth/eoaeueiue oano: iiaa?ieoa ye?ai aaa?o a
noi?iio ?aniieiaeaiiiai ia iioieea oeoi?anoeaioiiai enoi/ieea naaoa.
Oi?ioaa i?ioeaiaeeeiaia iie?uoea ioee/aaony oaiiui aieoaiaaoi-oeieaoiaui
io?aaeaieai, a oi a?aiy eae iaiaa aei?iaea iie?uoey aeaaeoo aaeua aeeee.

?aniieiaeeoa iiieoi? i?aaeeueii. Onoaiiaeoa aai oae, /oiau iaania/eoue
aaioeeyoeeth. Yeaeo?iiiua eiiiiiaiou ono?ienoaa auaeaeytho oaiei,
eioi?ia aeieaeii ?annaeaaoueny /a?ac aieiaua e caaeiea aaioeeyoeeiiiua
ioaa?noey (anee yoiio ia i?aiyonoaotho noaiu e i?i/ea i?aaeiaou).
Iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aaeeia aicaeooiie aaioeeyoeee aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue nio?aiaieth aunieeo oa?aeoa?enoee e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
n?iea neoaeau iiieoi?a. Iieueciaaoaee aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aeaaaoe?otho
aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aueeth/aiey eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai e iiieoi?ia
iaaeaeo naainaie ?aaiou. Yenia?ou n/eoatho, /oi iiieoi? oiaea aeieaeai
ioaeuoaoue. Yoi ioeaaeaeaao ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiua eiiiiiaiou ono?ienoaa,
oiaiueoaao aa?iyoiinoue auaeeaaiey o?oaee, e, e?iia oiai, naa?aaaao
yeaeo?iyia?aeth. Iaeneiaeueiay ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue — iaeia ec
iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiieoi?a, eioi?oth oeacuaaao eaaeaeue
ecaioiaeoaeue. Iaeiaei ?aaeueioth iaeneiaeueioth ?ac?aoathuoth
niiniaiinoue aeenieay au iiaeaoa ii?aaeaeeoue naie. Aeey yoiai iaaei
eiaoue o?e /enea: oaa oi/ee (oaa o?eaae aeey o?oaie n oaiaaie ianeie eee
ai?eciioaeueiue oaa iieinie aeey o?oaie oeia Trinitron) e aaaa?eoiua
?acia?u eniieuecoaiie iaeanoe ye?aia a ieeeeiao?ao. Iineaaeiea iiaeii
ociaoue ec iienaiey ono?ienoaa eeai ecia?eoue naiinoiyoaeueii. Anee au
iieaeaoa aoi?ui iooai, oi iaeneiaeueii ?anoe?ueoa a?aieoeu ecia?aaeaiey
e i?iaiaeeoa ecia?aiey /a?ac oeaio? ye?aia. Iiaenoaaueoa iieo/aiiua
/enea a niioaaonoaothuea oi?ioeu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeueiie
iaeneiaeueiie ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe. Aeey iiieoi?ia n oaiaaie ianeie:
iaeneiaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea ii ai?eciioaee (MPH) = ai?eciioaeueiue
?acia?/(0,866 x oaa o?eaae); iaeneiaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea ii aa?oeeaee (MPV)
= aa?oeeaeueiue ?acia?/(0,866 x oaa o?eaae) (0,866 – sin 600). Oae, aeey
17–aetheiiaiai iiieoi?a n oaaii oi/ae (o?eaae) 0,25 ii e ?acia?ii
eniieuecoaiie iaeanoe ye?aia 320×240 ii iieo/ei iaeneiaeueioth
?aaeueioth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue 1478×1109 oi/ae: 320 /(0,866×0,25)
= 1478 MPH; 240 /(0,866×0,25) = 1109 MPV.

Aeey iiieoi?ia n o?oaeie oeia Trinitron: MPH = ai?eciioaeueiue
?acia?/ai?eciioaeueiue oaa iieinie; MPV = aa?oeeaeueiue
?acia?/aa?oeeaeueiue oaa iieinie. Aiaeiae/ii aeey 17–aetheiiaiai
iiieoi?a n o?oaeie oeia Trinitron, oaaii iieinie 0,25 ii ii ai?eciioaee
e 0,40 ii ii aa?oeeaee, ?acia?ii eniieuecoaiie iaeanoe ye?aia 320×240 ii
iieo/ei iaeneiaeueioth ?aaeueioth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue 1280×600
oi/ae: 320/0,25 = 1280 MPH ; 240/0,40= 600 MPV.

AEE–aeenieae naeaeae iiooaoee ?aaeueiinoueth, ii iie nianai iaei
iiaeeyee ia ?uiie iau/iuo ianoieueiuo IE. E yoi iaoaeeaeoaeueii —
noieiinoue 14–aetheiiaiai AEE–aeenieay (e aeaaea iaeioi?uo 10–aetheiiauo
iiaeaeae) i?eaeeaeaaony e 3 oun. aeie. Aeaaea naiua aa?iua noi?iiieee
AEE–iiieoi?ia i?eciatho, /oi oeaia — naiia neaaia eo ianoi. Oai ia iaiaa
?ac?aaio/eee i?iaeieaeatho naie enneaaeiaaiey.

AEE–iaiaee ia eeoaiu e ae?oaeo iaaeinoaoeia. Eo aeeaiacii oaeia iaci?a
aeiaieueii ia?aie/ai, ii y?einoe e ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe iie oiaea
onooiatho iiieoi?ai ia YEO. E?iia oiai, iieueciaaoaee ianoieueiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai auneacuaatho iiaeaeaiey ia oaaee/aiee ?acia?ia
ye?aia.

?ac?aaio/eee iuoathony ono?aieoue ia?a/eneaiiua iaaeinoaoee e oaea
aeecee e iieo/aieth iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. ?yae i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
aeeth/ay NEC, Panasonic, Samsung, Sharp e ViewSonic, aioiau
i?aaenoaaeoue iiaua, oeo/oaiiua iiaeaee AEE–aeenieaaa.

A oi aea a?aiy AEE–aeenieae iaeaaeatho e cia/eoaeueiuie i?aeiouanoaaie.
Iie eiiiaeoiaa, eiatho oieueio ieiei iieooi?a aetheiia, caieiatho
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ianoa ia noiea, a oaeaea ioee/athony aieueoae
ieiuaaeueth ?aai/ae iaeanoe ye?aia. Eniieuecoaiay iaeanoue
10–aetheiiaiai AEE–aeenieay niioaaonoaoao 12-aetheiiaiio iiieoi?o ia
YEO. O AEE–aeenieay iao iaaeaeaoaeueiiai ia?oeaiey, ?aaeeaoeee e
eceo/aiey, eioi?ua aeaeatho ae?oaea iiieoi?u iaaaciianiuie e aucuaatho
i?iaeaiu yeaeo?iiaaieoiie niaianoeiinoe. Iie oaeaea ia iiaeaa?aeaiu
?eneo auaeeaaiey ecia?aaeaiey.

AEE–iiieoi? ia aaeeinoaaiiay aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue ye?ai ieineei. A oi
a?aiy eae AEE–oaoiieiaey eniieuecoaony aeey iiieoi?ia iaaieueoiai
?acia?a (iau/ii ia i?aauoathueo 17 aetheiia), aeenieae ?acia?ii nauoa 20
aetheiia iiaoo eiaoue ieaciaiiua ye?aiu, oaeea aea aei?iainoiyuea, eae e
AEE–iiieoi?u. Noieiinoue ieaciaiiuo ye?aiia ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii
300 aeie. ia eaaeaeue aethei ?acia?a aeeaaiiaee (oioy yenia?ou ec
Mitsubishi Electronics i?aaeneacuaaao e 2000 a. iaaeaiea oeaiu i?eia?ii
aei 100 aeie. ca aethei). A ioee/ea io AEE–aeenieaaa ieaciaiiua aeenieae
iaania/eaatho oe?ieee aeeaiacii oaeia iaci?a, a oaeaea oaeea aea
y?einoue e eiio?ano, eae o YEO–iiieoi?ia.

A Mitsubishi oaa?aiu, /oi ieaciaiioth oaoiieiaeth iaeeaeaao aieueoia
aoaeouaa. Ei?ii?aoeey ioe?uea a ssiiiee iiaia i?aaei?eyoea, eioi?ia n
ai?aey yoiai aiaea auioneaao 5 oun. 40–aetheiiauo ye?aiia a ianyoe, a e
ia/aeo 1998 a. oaeaieo iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii ioeaiea ei?ii?aoeee,
aiaeiaay iio?aaiinoue a iiaeiaiuo ecaeaeeyo e 2000 a. ninoaaeo
i?eaeeceoaeueii 2 iei oo. Enneaaeothony e ae?oaea aiciiaeiinoe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iiieoi?ia. Sharp e Sony nio?oaeie/atho iaae
oaoiieiaeae PALC (plasma addressed liquid crystal), eioi?ay, ii
niiauaieyi, iicaieeo iauaaeeieoue i?aeiouanoaa ieaciaiiuo e
AEE–aeenieaaa n aeoeaiie iao?eoeae. Aeaiiue iiaeoiae, aa?iyoiaa anaai,
aoaeao ?aaeeciaai i?e i?iecaiaenoaa aieueoeo iiieoi?ia ?acia?ii io 20
aei 40 aetheiia

Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)

Oeia ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a (PC) i?aoa?iea iiiaeanoai eciaiaiee a
nayce n iiauoaaiuie e iae o?aaiaaieyie. Enoiaeiui ?anoe?aieai oeiu PC
auea Industry Standard Architecture (ISA), eioi?ay ianiio?y ia naie
ia?aie/aiey ana aua eniieuecoaony aeey ia?eoa?eeiuo ono?ienoa c
i?aeiouanoaaiii ieceie oe?eiie iieinu i?iioneaiey, eae iai?eia?,
caoeiaua ea?ou oeia Sound Blaster. Oeia Peripherals Connection Interface
(PCI), noaiaea?o i?eoaaeoee ia niaio niaoeeoeeaoeee VESA VL bus, noaea
noaiaea?oiie nenoaiiie oeiie aeey auno?iaeaenoaothueo ia?eoa?eeiuo
ono?ienoa eae iai?eia?, aeeneiaua eiio?ieea?u e a?aoe/aneea ieaou. Oai
ia iaiaa, aiaae?aiea 3D a?aoeee oai?iaeaao ia?aa?oceoue oeio PCI.

Onei?aiiue a?aoe/aneee ii?o (AGP) yoi ?anoe?aiea oeiu PCI, /uea
iacia/aiea ia?aaioea aieueoeo ianneaia aeaiiuo 3D a?aoeee. Intel
?ac?aaaouaaea AGP, aeey ?aoaiey aeaoo i?iaeai ia?aae aiaae?aieai 3D
a?aoeee ia PCI. Ai-ia?auo, 3D a?aoeea o?aaoaony eae iiaeii aieueoa
iaiyoe eioi?iaoeee oaenoo?iuo ea?o (texture maps) e z-aooa?a (z-buffer).
*ai aieueoa oaenoo?iuo ea?o aeinooiii aeey 3D i?eeiaeaiee, oai eo/oa
auaeyaeeo eiia/iue ?acoeueoao. I?e ii?iaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao z-aooa?,
eioi?ue niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth ioiinyuothny e i?aaenoaaeaieth aeoaeiu
ecia?aaeaiey, eniieuecoao oo aea iaiyoue eae e oaenoo?u. Yoio eiioeeeo
ia?aaeinoaaeyao ?ac?aaio/eeai 3D iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia aeey auai?a
iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey, eioi?ia iie i?eaycuaatho e aieueoie cia/eiinoe
iaiyoe aeey oaenoo? e z-aooa?a, e ?acoeueoaou iai?yioth aeeytho ia
ea/anoai auaiaeeiiai ecia?aaeaiey.

?ac?aaio/eee PC eiaee ?aiaa aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue nenoaiioth
iaiyoue aeey o?aiaiey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i oaenoo?ao e z-aooa?a, ii
ia?aie/aiea a oaeii iiaeoiaea, auea ia?aaea/a oaeie eioi?iaoeee /a?ac
oeio PCI. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue a?aoe/aneie iiaenenoaiu e nenoaiiie
iaiyoe ia?aie/eaathony oece/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeiu PCI. E?iia
oiai, oe?eia iieinu i?iioneaiey PCI, eee aa aieinoue, ia aeinoaoi/ia
aeey ia?aaioee a?aoeee a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. *oiau ?aoeoue yoe
i?iaeaiu Intel ?ac?aaioaea AGP.

Anee ii?aaeaeeoue e?aoei, /oi oaeia AGP, oi yoi – i?yiui niaaeeiaieai
iaaeaeo a?aoe/aneie iiaenenoaiie e nenoaiiie iaiyoueth. Yoi ?aoaiea
iicaieyao iaania/eoue cia/eoaeueii eo/oea iieacaoaee ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo,
/ai i?e ia?aaea/a /a?ac oeio PCI, e yaii ?ac?aaaouaaeinue, /oiau
oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaieyi auaiaea 3D a?aoeee a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai
a?aiaie. AGP iicaieeo aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue iaiyoue
no?aie/iiai aooa?a (frame buffer), oai naiui oaaee/eaay
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue 2D a?aoeee oaeaea, eae oaaee/eaay nei?inoue
i?ioiaeaeaiey iioiea aeaiiuo 3D a?aoeee /a?ac nenoaio.

Ii?aaeaeaiea AGP, eae aeae i?yiiai niaaeeiaiey iaaeaeo a?aoe/aneie
iiaenenoaiie e nenoaiiie iaiyoueth, iacuaaaony niaaeeiaiea
point-to-point. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, AGP niaaeeiyao a?aoe/aneoth
iiaenenoaio n aeieii oi?aaeaiey nenoaiiie iaiyoueth, ?acaeaeyy yoio
aeinooi e iaiyoe n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii eiiiuethoa?a (CPU).

*a?ac AGP iiaeii iiaeeeth/eoue oieueei iaeei oei ono?ienoa – yoi
a?aoe/aneay ieaoa. A?aoe/aneea neoaiu, ano?iaiiua a iaoa?eineoth ieaoo e
eniieuecothuea AGP ia iiaoo auoue oeo/oaiu.

Ii?aaeaeaiea Intel iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaa, /oi iinea ?aaeecaoeee AGP
noaiiaeony noaiaea?oii, neaaeoao ec oiai, /oi aac oaeiai ?aoaiey,
aeinoeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe 3D a?aoeee a PC aoaeao
i/aiue o?oaeii aeinoeaiooue. 3D a?aoeea a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie
o?aaoao i?ioiaeaeaiey i/aiue aieueoiai iioiea aeaiiuo a?aoe/aneoth
iiaenenoaio. Aac AGP aeey ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu o?aaoaony i?eiaiaiey
ianoaiaea?oiuo ono?ienoa iaiyoe, eioi?ua yaeythony aei?iainoiyueie. I?e
i?eiaiaiee AGP oaeoo?iay eioi?iaoeey e aeaiiua z-aooa?a iiaoo o?aieony a
nenoaiiie iaiyoe. I?e aieaa yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee nenoaiiie iaiyoe,
a?aoe/aneea ieaou ia aaca AGP ia o?aaotho nianoaaiiie iaiyoe aeey
o?aiaiey oaenoo?, e iiaoo i?aaeeaaaoueny oaea ii cia/eoaeueii aieaa
ieceei oeaiai.

Oai?eoe/anee PCI iiaea au auiieiyoue oa aea ooieoeee, /oi e AGP, ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aueaau iaaeinoaoi/iie aeey aieueoeinoaa
i?eeiaeaiee. Intel ?ac?aaaouaaea AGP aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia /anoioa
133 MHz, e aeey oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth ii niaa?oaiii ae?oaiio i?eioeeio
/ai yoi inouanoaeyao PCI. A neo/aa n PCI, ethaay eioi?iaoeey
iaoiaeyuayny a nenoaiiie iaiyoe, ia yaeyaony oece/anee iai?a?uaiie. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi nouanoaoao caaea?aeea i?e eniieiaiee, iiea eioi?iaoeey
n/eouaaaony ii naiaio oece/aneiio aae?ano a nenoaiiie iaiyoe, e
ia?aaeaaony ii ioaeiiio iooe a a?aoe/aneoth iiaenenoaio. A neo/aa n AGP,
Intel nicaeaea iaoaieci, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai, oece/aneee aae?an ii
eioi?iio eioi?iaoeey o?aieony a nenoaiiie iaiyoe, niaa?oaiii ia aaaeai
aeey a?aoe/aneie iiaenenoaiu. Yoi eeth/aaia ?aoaiea, eiaaea i?eeiaeaiea
eniieuecoao nenoaiioth iaiyoue, /oiau iieo/aoue e o?aieoue iaiaoiaeeioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A neoaia ia iniiaa AGP, ia eiaao cia/aiey eae e aaea
o?aiyony aeaiiua i oaenoo?ao, a?aoe/aneay iiaenenoaia eiaao iieiue e
aaci?iaeaiiue aeinooi e o?aaoaiie eioi?iaoeee.

Intel iaeeaeaao, /oi AGP aoaeao aiaae?ai ii/oe a 90% anao nenoai e
eiioeo noieaoey. Eiaeono?ey eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeee, eae niiauanoai
?ac?aaio/eeia aiia?aoiuo e i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, iiaeaea?aeaea e i?eiyea
niaoeeoeeaoeeth AGP. A ioee/ea io PCI, aaea nouanoaoao iiiai
niia?ie/athueo iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iuo ono?ienoaa aeey oi?aaeaiey oeiie,
a neo/aa n AGP aaeeinoaaiiui ono?ienoaii yaeyaony a?aoe/aneay
iiaenenoaia. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii, e eiioeo 1997 aiaea, Intel
ia/iao iinoaaee iaoa?eineeo ieao n iiaeaea?aeeie AGP aeey nenoai ia aaca
Pentium II. I?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iiaeaea?aeea AGP aoaeao ?aaeeciaaia a
iiauo /einaoao Intel aeey nenoai ia aaca Pentium Pro e Pentium II iiae
iaeiaiiaaieai i440LX e iicaeiaa i440BX. Iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu Intel
AGP aeey nenoaiiuo ieao aeey Pentium ia iaeeaeaaony. I?aaaea eiieo?aiou
Intel ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?ac?aaoea /eianaoia oaea aiiine?iaaee
nianoaaiiua iaai?u eiaeee n iiaeaea?aeeie AGP aeey nenoai ia aaca
Socket7, yoi SiS e VIA a aeueyina n AMD.

Aeecaei oeiu AGP i?ecaai i?aiaeaeaoue ia?aie/aiey oeiu PCI i?e ia?aaea/a
aeaiiuo a nenoaiiie iaiyoe. AGP iicaieyao oeo/oeoue oece/aneoth
nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, ?aaioay ia oaeoiaie /anoioa a 133 MHz, ii
n?aaiaieth n 66 MHz oaeoiaie /anoiou oeiu PCI, e e?iia oiai, AGP
iaania/eaaao niaeaniaaiiia oi?aaeaiea iaiyoueth, eioi?ia aeiioneaao
?aca?inaiiinoue aeaiiuo a nenoaiiie iaiyoe e eo auno?ia n/eouaaiea
neo/aeiui ia?acii. AGP iicaieyao oaaee/eoue ia oieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinue 3D a?aoeee a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie ca n/ao
onei?aiey auaiaea oaenoo?, ii e oiaiueoaao iauoth noieiinoue
nicaeathueony aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo a?aoe/aneeo iiaenenoai, ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey nouanoaothueo a?oeoaeoo? neoaiiie iaiyoe.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea

A ianoiyuee iiiaio ia ?uiea i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
nenoaiu, iicaieythuea iauaaeeieoue iaaieueooth ?aai/oth a?oiio a
aaeeioth eioaa?e?iaaiioth n?aaeo. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
na?aa?iua i?iaeoeou oe?i Microsoft e Nowell (BackOffice 2.5 e Netware
4.1 niioaaonoaaiii). Aianoa n yoei, a ea/anoaa iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai
?aai/eo noaioeee noaiaea?oii aea–oaeoi noaee ?acee/iua aa?eaiou Windows
(Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation). Iacaaeneii io auai?a na?aa?a
?aai/ea noaioeee aoaeoo eiiieaeoiaaoueny iaeiie ec yoeo nenoai.

Microsoft Windows 95

Microsoft Windows 95 (?onneay aa?ney) — yoi iiuiay, iaaeaaeiay e a oiaea
a?aiy i?inoay a eniieueciaaiee iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, eiathuay
neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe e iniaaiiinoe:

I?inoie e eiooeoeaiue iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio
iiae/ee auno?i ia/eiatho iieiioeaiioth ?aaioo n eiiiuethoa?ii;

Niaianoeiinoue n i?ia?aiiaie e ae?aeaa?aie aeey aieaa ?aiieo aa?nee
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai (iiaeaea?aeeaathony i?eeiaeaiey aeey Windows 3.o e
MS-DOS);

Iiiaicaaea/iinoue (ianeieueei i?eeiaeaiee iiaoo auiieiyoueny
iaeiia?aiaiii);

Iiaeaea?aeea ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo e ea?iauo i?ia?aii;

Ano?iaiiay iiaeaea?aeea naoe iicaieyao auno?i e i?inoi iiaeeeth/eoue e
iano?ieoue eiiiuethoa? aeey ?aaiou a naoe. IE ia aaca Windows 95 iiaeao
eiaoue ianeieueei eeeaioneeo /anoae e ?aaioaoue a iaiaeii?iaeiie naoaaie
n?aaea n ?aciuie na?aa?aie iaeiia?aiaiii. E?iia oiai, aiciiaeiinoue
oaeaeaiiiai aeinooia e naoe ii oaeaoiiiui eaiaeai, eiathuayny a Windows
95, iaania/eaaao i?inoie, iaaeaaeiue e aaciianiue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee
a naoe ii oaeaoiiiie eeiee, iai?eia?, ec ae?oaiai ai?iaea;

Oaoiieiaey Plug and Play iicaieyao aaoiiaoece?iaaoue neiaeiue i?ioeann
aeiaaaeaiey e IE iiauo ono?ienoa. Aeaaiaea?y iiaeaea?aeea Plug and Play,
eaaei inouanoaeyaony aaoiiaoe/aneay onoaiiaea e iano?ieea aeiaaai/iuo
ono?ienoa. Anee au onoaiiaeoa Windows 95 ia nenoaio, eioi?oth au
eniieuecoaoa naaiaeiy, e eoieoa aeiiieieoaeueiia ono?ienoai,
iiaeeeth/aaiia ia iniiaa Plug and Play, oi niiaeaoa onoaiiaeoue yoi
ono?ienoai, i?inoi iiaeeeth/ea aai a ioaeiia aiacaei e aeeth/ea nenoaio.
Plug and Play aa?ao ia naay caaioo i anao iai?eyoiuo i?ioeaaeo?ao ii
onoaiiaea e iano?ieea;

Aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie, eioi?ua oi?iuatho aeenoaioeeiiiia
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea e aeatho aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue iiaua i?eeeaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu ii oi?aaeaieth nenoaiie. Windows 95 i?aaeeaaaao eio?ano?oeoo?o
oi?iuaao iiiaea aaeieieno?aoeaiua caaea/e, oae eae aeeth/aao
aiciiaeiinoe aeenoaioeeiiiie iano?ieee ianoieueiie nenoaiu e iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony
oi?aaeaiea ianoieueiuie nenoaiaie, eiaaioa?ecaoeey aiia?aoiuo e
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa e aaeieieno?e?iaaiea eniieuecoaiiai II;

Iiaeaea?aeea «iea?e?othueo» iieueciaaoaeae, o.a. iieueciaaoaeae,
ia?aoiaeyueo n eiiiuethoa?a ia eiiiuethoa?. Windows 95 iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeyoue ?acee/iua eiioeao?aoeee ?aai/ae n?aaeu a caaeneiinoe io
oiai, eoi iuoaaony iieo/eoue aeinooi e nenoaia. Yoa iioeey iicaieyao
iieueciaaoaeyi aoiaeeoue a nenoaio ni naiae nianoaaiiie eiioeao?aoeeae
ia ?acee/iuo iaoeiao naoe;

Ano?iaiiua aaaiou aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aca?ae?iaaiey ianoieueiuo nenoai.
Windows 95 aeeth/aao II, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey nicaeaiey ?aca?aiuo eiiee
ianoieueiie nenoaiu i?e iiiiue nenoaiu ?aca?ae?iaaiey ia aaca na?aa?a.
Aaaiou ?aca?ae?iaaiey, ano?iaiiua a Windows 95, niaianoeiu n naiuie
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie na?aa?iuie nenoaiaie.

O?aaiaaiey e ?ano?nai eiiiuethoa?a aeey Microsoft Windows 95.

eiiiuethoa? n i?ioeanni?ii 386DX eee auoa;

iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 8 Ia eee auoa;

40 Ia i?ino?ainoaa aeanoeiai aeenea;

iuoue;

VGA–niaianoeiue iiieoi?.

Oeacaiiua auoa o?aaiaaiey yaeythony ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey
?aaiou Windows 95. Iaeiaei ia/aeueiay eiioeao?aoeey, ia eioi?oth noieo
i?eaioe?iaaoueny i?e iieoiee eiiiuethoa?a naaiaeiy, auaeyaeeo
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

eiiiuethoa? n i?ioeanni?ii Pentium MMX 200MHz eee auoa;

iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 16 Ia eee auoa;

1.6 Aa i?ino?ainoaa aeanoeiai aeenea;

iuoue;

SVGA–niaianoeiue iiieoi?.

Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0

Microsoft® Windows NT® Workstation 4.0 (?onneay aa?ney) — yoi
iaaeaaeiay, onoie/eaay e iiuiay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, eioi?ay
iiaeoiaeeo aeey ethaie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n eiiiuethoa?iie
ia?aaioeie aeaiiuo. Windows NT Workstation 4.0 yaeyaony iaeeo/oei
auai?ii aeey iieueciaaoaeae a noa?a na?ueaciiai aeciana, ?ac?aaio/eeia
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, a oaeaea aeey oao, eoi caieiaaony a?aoeeie e
aeecaeiii.

Windows NT Workstation 4.0 oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie noaiaiueth
onoie/eainoe e iaaeaaeiinoe. Yoi iaania/eaaaony eiiieaeniie nenoaiie
caueou i?eeiaeaiee e naiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, ?aaeeciaaiiie a
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation. A Windows NT Workstation 16–?ac?yaeiua
i?eeiaeaiey, oae aea eae e 32–?ac?yaeiua, ?aaioatho a caueuaiiii
aae?aniii i?ino?ainoaa, /oi iaania/eaaao caueoo io naiaa aeey ethauo
i?eeiaeaiee. ssae?i iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, ae?aeaa?u ono?ienoa e aeaiiua
caueuaiu io iaei??aeoiuo aeaenoaee i?eeiaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaea a
neo/aa aaa?eeiiai naiy a ?aaioa eaeiai–eeai i?eeiaeaiey, aaoa
iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia aianoa n inoaeueiuie ?aaioathueie i?eeiaeaieyie
iaoiaeeony a iieiie aaciianiinoe. Yoa iniaaiiinoue Windows NT
Workstation aeaeaao aa eaeaaeueiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie aeey
neooaoeee, eiaaea e iaania/aieth aaciianiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee i?aaeuyaeythony iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey.

Iniaaiiinoe Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0

I?inoioa eniieueciaaiey A Windows NT Workstation 4.0 ?aaeeciaai
eioa?oaen iieueciaaoaey oaeie aea, eae e a ?onneie aa?nee Windows 95.
Yoio eioa?oaen iaania/eaaao i?inoioo e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey. A
nenoaio aeeth/aiu noaiaea?oiua eino?oiaiou Windows 95: iaith Ione,
I?iaiaeiee, ianoa?a e o.ae.

Ieceay noieiinoue eniieueciaaiey. I?e aiaae?aiee Windows NT Workstation
4.0 iauea cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoeeth ?acei nieaeathony ii n?aaiaieth n
Windows 3.1 e Windows 95 aeaaiaea?y iiauoaiiie onoie/eainoe e
aiciiaeiinoe oaeaeaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Yooaeoeaiia aaeieieno?e?iaaiea.

Aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Onoie/eainoue e aaciianiinoue.

Aeey 16–?ac?yaeiuo i?eeiaeaiee auaeaeyaony ioaeaeueiia aae?aniia
i?ino?ainoai: aaa?eeiia caaa?oaiea iaeiiai 16–?ac?yaeiiai i?eeiaeaiey ia
auciaao naiy ae?oaeo i?eeiaeaiee eee naiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu (a
ioee/ea io Windows 95 aaea naie iaeiiai 16–?ac?yaeiiai i?eeiaeaiey
iaieioaii i?eaiaeeo e naith inoaeueiuo 16–?ac?yaeiuo i?eeiaeaiee e,
aiciiaeii, e?aoo nenoaiu a oeaeii).

ssae?i iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, ae?aeaa?u ono?ienoa e aeaiiua iieiinoueth
caueuaiu io iaei??aeoiuo aeaenoaee i?eeiaeaiee. Aeaaea a neo/aa
iai?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee iieueciaaoaey iie ia aoaeoo iia?aaeaeaiu.

O?aaiaaiey e ?ano?nai eiiiuethoa?a aeey Microsoft Windows NT 4.0
Workstation.

eiiiuethoa? n i?ioeanni?ii 486DX eee auoa;

iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 12 Ia e auoa (?aeiiaiaeoaony 16);

110 Ia i?ino?ainoaa aeanoeiai aeenea;

ono?ienoai aeey /oaiey eiiiaeo–aeeneia;

iuoue;

VGA–niaianoeiue iiieoi?.

Eae e aeey Windows 95, oeacaiiay eiioeao?aoeey yaeyaony ieieiaeueiie. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ?aeiiaiaeoaony neaaeothuay:

eiiiuethoa? n i?ioeanni?ii Pentium MMX eee Pentium II 233MHz e auoa;

iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 32 Ia e auoa;

2,5 Aa i?ino?ainoaa aeanoeiai aeenea;

ono?ienoai aeey /oaiey eiiiaeo–aeeneia;

iuoue;

SVGA–niaianoeiue iiieoi?.

I?eeiaeaiey

N?aaiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?ia Intel Pentium e AMD K6

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?uiea Socket-7 i?ioeanni?ia i?enoonoaotho
ianeieueei eiieo?e?othueo i?iaeoeoia. Iaeaieaa iiioey?iu Intel Pentium
MMX e AMD K6. Iaeiaei iineaaeiee, a neeo enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei, iieoiaaony
ia oae oi?ioi, /oi ia nianai niioaaonoaoao aai aiciiaeiinoyi. Ioee/ey a
oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao yoeo aeaoo i?ioeanni?ia i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea.

AMD K6 Intel Pentium MMX

Clock speeds (MHz) 166, 200, 233 166, 200, 233; mobile: 133, 150, 166

Level one (L1) cache 32K instruction, 32K data 16K instruction, 16K data

Level two (L2) cache Controlled by chip set Controlled by chip se

tL2 cache speed Same as bus Same as bus

Type of bus Socket 7 Socket 7

Bus speed (MHz) 66 60-66

Instructions per clock cycle 2 2

MMX units 1 2

Pipelined FPU N y

Out-of-order execution Y n

Process technology 0.35µ CMOS 0.35µ CMOS

Die size 162 mm2 128 mm2

Transistors 8.8 million 4.5 million

Aeey iieo/aiey iauaeoeaiie ea?oeiu auee i?ioanoe?iaaiu aeaa aiaeiae/iuo
eiieo?e?othueo i?iaeoeoa Intel Pentium 200 MMX e AMD K6/PR2-200.
Oanoe?iaaiea i?iaiaeeeinue a nenoaia n iaoa?eineie ieaoie EliteGroup
P5TXBpro (n /einaoii i430TX) c 32 Ia iaiyoe SDRAM, aeanoeei aeeneii
Ouantum Fireball ST 2.1 Aa e aeaeaiea?oie S3 Virge/DX c 4 Ia EDO. Ieaea
i?eaiaeyony ?acoeueoaou yoiai n?aaiaiey.

WinBench 97

Aeey n?aaiaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe nenoai iiae oi?aaeaieai Windows 95,
aue eniieueciaai iiioey?iue oano Ziff-Davis WinBench 97, iiaeaee?othuee
?aaioo iniiaiuo i?eeiaeaiee. Oanoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue a MS Windows
95 OSR 2 Rus n onoaiiaeaiiuie iao/ai aeey iiaeaea?aeee /einaoa TX e
BusMastering ae?aeaa?aie io Intel. Onoaiiaeaiiia ?ac?aoaiea
1024o768o32bit. A yoie nenoaia i?inoi iaiyeenue i?ioeanni?u aac
eciaiaiey eiioeao?aoeee e onoaiiaie.

Ia iniiaaiee yoeo aeaiiuo naeaeaoue auaiae i aaciaiai?i/iii
i?aainoiaenoaa Pentium iaeuecy, oae eae ii i?aainoiaeeo K6 eeoue ii
CPU16. E oiio aea nouanoaaiiue a?aoiaio a iieueco K6 – aai oeaia. Ia
iiiaio iaienaiey yoiai iaoa?eaea iia ninoaaeyao $213 ca i?ioeanni? Intel
Pentium 200 MMX e $160 ca AMD K6/PR2-200 (i?eaaaeaiu oeaiu aeey aeeea?ia
iinea iiya?ueneiai nieaeaiey). Anee iino?ieoue aeeaa?aiio a ianooaaa
Bench ia $, oi anoue ?acaeaeea ?acoeueoao ia noieiinoue, oi
i?aainoiaenoai K6 i/aaeaeii.

Ionthaea iiaeii caeeth/eoue /oi yoio i?ioeanni? eaeaaeai aeey ioeniiai
i?eiaiaiey e ?aaiou iiae oi?aaeaieai Windows 95.

Xing Media Player

Aoi?ui oanoii, auiieiaiiii ia yoeo i?ioeanni?ao noaea ioeaiea ea/anoaa
aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaeai, ecia?yaiay /anoioie eaae?ia Xing Media Player.

Caeanue Pentium iieacae aieaa aunieea ?acoeueoaou a aaniethoiii
ecia?aiee. Ii oa?aeoa?enoeea Bench ia $ o K6 auoa:

Oaeei ia?acii, K6 ieacuaaaony aieaa auaiaeiie iieoieie. A oi aea a?aiy,
anee iaiaoiaeeia aieueoay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, oi i?eaeaony aueiaeeoue
ianeieueei aieueoaa eiee/anoai aeaiaa.

Quake

Yoio oano caeioa?anoao ethaeae, i?iaiaeyueo a?aiy ca eiiiuethoa?ii
ea?ath/e. Ecia?yeinue FPS a ia/aea ea?u (ia noiaey n ianoa) i?e
ioeeth/aiiii caoea.

Caeanue Pentium oaeaea ieacaeny aia?aaee a aaniethoiii ecia?aiee,
cia/eoaeueii iaiaiaa K6. Oaeia ?acee/ea a ?acoeueoaoao iauyniyaony oai,
/oi eioaeianeee i?ioeanni? eiaao aiciiaeiinoue auiieiyoue iia?aoeee n
oeaeuie e ae?iaiuie /eneaie iaeiia?aiaiii, /oi eniieuecoaony a eiaea
ea?u. A E6 oaeay aiciiaeiinoue ia ?aaeeciaaia. Iaeiaei n auoiaeii
neaaeothuae aa?nee E6+ yoa i?iaeaia aoaeao ?aoaia. Ai?i/ai, anee
iiaen/eoaoue eaae?u a naeoiaeo ia aeieea?, oi ii yoiio iieacaoaeth E6 e
Pentium i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiau.

Intel Media Benchmark

Yoio oano aue ?ac?aaioai eiiiaieae Intel aeey oanoe?iaaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe MMX-nii?ioeanni?a. ?acoeueoaou:

Iiaeoeue IIO oe?ia Intel ecaioiaeea aieaa auno?iaeaenoaothuee, /ai
eiieo?aio, iaeiaei K6 ana ?aaii inoaaony aieaa auaiaeiui i?eia?aoaieai
aeaaiaea?y iaaunieie oeaia.

Nei?inoue ?aaiou n iaiyoueth

A caeeth/aiea, auea ecia?aia nei?inoue ?aaiou ?acee/iuo i?ioeanni?ia n
iaiyoueth e eaoaie ia?aiai e aoi?iai o?iaiae. O?aaeeoeeiiii, i?ioeanni?u
eiieo?aioia auaeaeyeenue aunieie nei?inoueth ?aaiou n iaiyoueth, iaeiaei
ia yoio ?ac ?acoeueoaou a Ia/n oaeiau:

Eao L1 (/oaiea/caienue) Eao L2 (/oaiea/caienue) Iaiyoue
(/oaiea/caienue)

IP200MMX 1346/1346 227/90 127/86

AMD K6/PR2-200 732/755 253/128 127/74

Ooo iaiy iinoeaei iaaieueoia ?aci/a?iaaiea, oae eae y iaeeaeae aieaa
aunieeo ?acoeueoaoia io K6. Iaeiaei ia noieo ?anno?aeaaoueny, oae eae n
?aaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth yoe oeeo?u naycaiu ia oeaei.

?acaii

Iieeiiieee e iieeiiieoeu i?ioeanni?ia Intel iiaoo cayaeoue, /oi Pentium
?acaiiyaony eo/oa. Iaeiaei iie iaaethaeaiey yoi ia iiaeoaa?aeeee. Iaa
yecaiiey?a (?ann/eoaiiua ia 200 IAoe), eiathueany o iaiy, aac i?iaeai
?aciaiaeenue aei 262.5 IAoe, ii ia aieaa. *oi eanaaony oaieiioaiaea, oi
i?ioeanni? K6 a?aaony neeueiaa Pentiuma, ii e nio?aiyao
?aaioiniiniaiinoue i?e aieaa aunieie oaiia?aoo?a.

Niaianoeiinoue

A caeeth/aiee oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeaiu n
ia?aaioiniiniaiinoueth ?yaea i?eeiaeaiee, eioi?ua auee i?enoue
i?ioeanni?o AMD K5, o i?ioeanni?a AMD K6 ia iaaethaeaeenue. Ana aaciaia
e ioeniia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea auiieiyeinue aac ioeaie e naiaa.

?acthia

Eoae, ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi “ana
i?iaeoeou oi?ioe, auae?ae ia aeon”. E6 i?aaeinoaaeyao iieueciaaoaeyi
aieaa auaiaeii aeiaeeoue naie aeaiueae, a oi a?aiy eae Pentium i?eaeaony
ii aeono ethaeyi, no?aiyueiny e aieaa aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e
ethayuei ?ane?o/aiiua oi?aiaua ia?ee. Oae /oi auai? ca Aaie.

Ae?oaea i?ioeanni?iua oanou

N?aaiaiea i?ioeanni?ia IDT C6 200Mhz, Cyrix 6x86MX-PR200 e Intel Pentium
MMX 200Mhz

Iaaeaaiaa i?eia?aoaiea eiiiaiee Cyrix ei?ii?aoeeae National
Semiconductor iiaeao oneeeoue aa iiceoeee, eneeth/ea caaeneiinoue io
aiaoieo ecaioiaeoaeae iee?inoai. (A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana iee?inoaiu Cyrix
ecaioaaeeaathony ia caaiaeao IBM Microelectronics). Ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo National ianeieueei ionoaeay oaoiieiaey, ii yoa eiiiaiey
auno?i aeaeaeaony a iai?aaeaiee ia?aueaaiey naiaai iioaioeeaea. National
ieaie?oao neiioeaio?e?iaaoue oneeey, a /anoiinoe, ia nicaeaiee auniei
eioaa?e?iaaiiuo ono?ienoa “IE ia e?enoaeea”, i?iaeaeioa ia oaa aia?aae
eiioeaioeeth Cyrix MediaGX.

Cyrix 6×86 noae ia?aui Pentium-niaianoeiui i?ioeanni?ii, iiyaeaoeiny ia
?uiea. Iinea iau/iie caaea?aeee, aucaaiiie oaoie/aneeie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie o?oaeiinoyie, 6×86 i?eieiaee iaaeeaiii, oae eae Cyrix
iacia/eea neeoeii aunieoth oeaio – ioeai/ii iieaaay, /oi oae eae ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aa iee?inoaia niiinoaaeia n i?ioeanni?ii Intel, aa
oeaia iiaeao auoue oaeie aea. Eiaaea Cyrix eciaieea naie iiceoeee, e
noaea i?aaeeaaaoue aeaoaaoth aeueoa?iaoeao Intel, iauaiu i?iaeaae
cia/eoaeueii aic?inee.

Eiaaea aieueoay /anoue ?uiea ia?aianoeeanue a iai?aaeaiee IIO, Cyrix
iieiinoueth ia?aoea ia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo e?enoaeeia 6x86MX. Yoi
i?iecaiaeiua io 6×86, aeiiieiaiiua eino?oeoeeyie IIO, n ianeieueei
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiui ono?ienoaii n ieaaathuae caiyoie, a/aoaa?i
oaaee/aiiui eyoai ia?aiai o?iaiy (iauee iauai 64 Eaaeo) e oeo/oaiiie
noaiie oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth.

A?oeoaeoo?a 6×86 a iniiaiii inoaeanue noa?ie – n aeaooeiiaaea?iie
noaiie, eae o Pentium, ii aieaa aeaeay. Intel Pentium II e AMD K6
i?eiaiytho aieaa neiaeiue iiaeoiae, i?e eioi?ii eino?oeoeee o86
i?aia?acothony a i?inoua aioo?aiiea, eioi?ua caoai ia?aaaouaathony a
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiii yae?a i?ioeanni?a, niiniaiii auiieiyoue /aou?a e
aieaa eino?oeoeee a ia?aeeaeue. Iiaeoiae Cyrix aeaao eo/oea iieacaoaee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia oanoao Winstone i?e iaeiie e oie aea oaeoiaie
/anoioa, ii iiaeoiae Intel e AMD iicaieyao aeinoeaaoue aieaa aunieeo
oaeoiauo /anoio.

A ioee/ea io AMD, Cyrix i?iaeieaeaao a 6x86MX noaio iaicia/aiee PR.
6x86MX-PR233 ?aaioaao i?e oaeoiaie /anoioa anaai 187,5 IAoe, oai ia
iaiaa iia?aaeay ia oanoao Business Winstone Pentium MMX/233 eee 200-IAoe
Pentium Pro eae iiae Windows 95, oae e iiae Windows NT. Yoei ii e
caneoaeee naia iaicia/aiea PR233. Ia naiii aeaea, a iaoeo eniuoaieyo ia
oanoao Business Winstone 6x86MX-PR233 ?aaioae ia 10-11% auno?aa, /ai
Pentium MMX/233, oioy a oanoao High-End Winstone ii aue anaai ia 3%
auno?aa a eiioeao?aoeee n 32 Iaaeo iaiyoe e cia/eoaeueii ionoae a
eiioeao?aoeee n 64 Iaaeo iaiyoe. A oanoao aea Business Winstone ii
ieacaeny aeaaea ia?aaia n Pentium II 233MHz.

Iaeiaei, eae e AMD K6, i?ioeanni? 6×86 ionoaao ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
i?e iia?aoeeyo MMX e FP – i?e ?aaioa n yoeie ooieoeeyie ii aeaaea
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai E6. A ?acoeueoaoa, aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e ?aaioa
n 3D-a?aoeeie aeiaieueii iecea. I?e yioeyoeee ooieoeee 3D-a?aoeee
6x86MX-PR233 i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae anaai 63% io auno?iaeaenoaey Pentium MMX
233MHz. Aeaaea n oi?ioae a?aoe/aneie ieaoie ?acieoea inoaaaeanue
cia/eoaeueiie – 27%, /oi aeaeaao iiaeaee 6x86MX ooaeoeie aeey
i?eeiaeaiee yoiai oeia.

6x86MX i?aainoiaeii ?aaioaao a AutoCAD, oioy e ionoaao io Pentium II. A
Photoshop ii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai 233-IAoe iiaeaee eae K6, oae e Pentium MMX.

Oanoiaua i?ia?aiiu

Oanoe?iaaeinue ia eiiiuethoa?a, iino?iaiiii ia nenoaiiie ieaoa Abit PX5
rev1.14, 64Mb SDRAM, Diamond Viper v330.

IDT C6 200Mhz Cyrix 6x86MX-PR200 Intel Pentium MMX 200Mhz

Norton Utilites 2.0 47 62 58

WinBench98 CPUmark32 374 441 429

WinBench98 FPUwinmark 322 377 782

QUAKE v1.08 (for DOS)

?ac?aoaiea IDT C6 200Mhz Cyrix 6x86MX-PR200 Intel Pentium MMX 200Mhz

800×600

Demo 1 8.2 8.1 12.4

Demo 2 9.2 8.9 13.8

640×480

Demo 1 11.1 11.2 17.3

Demo 2 12.3 12.1 19.1

320×200

Demo 1 25.8 27.2 44.2

Demo 2 26.2 27.2 44.7

Ia yoio ?ac a iie ?oee iiiae i?ioeanni? Cyrix 6x86MX-PR200,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiue oe?iie OaoiiEii (oeaia $105.00). Ia i?ioeanni?a
iaienaii: Cyrix® 6x86MX™-PR200 66MHz Bus 2.5x 2.9V FAN/HEATSINK
REQUIRED. I?ioeanni? ?aaioaao ia /anoioa 166MHz (66×2.5) e oaaoao
aeaieiiai ieoaiey, ii PR (Pentium Rating) aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe Intel Pentium 200MHz. E yoi aa?ii aeey
oeaei/eneaiiuo iia?aoeee, a iia?aoeeyo n ieaaathuae oi/eie, ii ii/oe a
aeaa ?aca ionoaao io Pentium. Ana auei onoaiiaeaii, eae iaienaii ia
i?ioeanni?a. ?acoeueoaou iieo o?oaeia au iiaeeoa aeaeaoue a oaaeeoea.
Iiaue i?ioeanni? io Cyrix a?aaony oae aea neeueii eae e aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieee. A aio ?acaiiyaony ooaea. Oaea ia /anoioa 188MHz
(75×2.5) ia/eiaee i?iyaeyoueny ioeaee i?e ?aaioa a Windows’95. Iia
oaeaeinue ?aciaiaoue aai i?aaeoanoaaiieea aei 200MHz, i?e noaiaea?oiuo
150MHz. ?aiaa Cyrix aeoeaii i?iaeaeaae nenoaiioth oeio n /anoioie 75MHz,
a iiaie iiaeaee ii aa?ioeny ia /anoioo 66MHz. Cyrix, ii iiaio,
aaeeinoaaiiay eiiiaiey, eioi?ay ia eeoeaice?iaaea MMX o Intel
(eeoeaiceiiiinoue MMX o IDT C6 auyniyaony). Cyrix cayaeyao, /oi aai MMX
eiiaiaeu iieiinoueth niaianoeiu n MMX eiiaiaeaie io Intel, ii ia
neieueei yoi niioaaonoaoao enoeia neacaoue iiea o?oaeii.

IDT N6 iiaeaea?aeeaaao oiiiaeaiea ia 2, 3 e 4. Noaiaea?oiay /anoioa oeiu
66 MHz. Aio ia ioaeii aeaieiia ieoaiea. Ii i/aiue ieioi ?acaiiyaony. I?e
aunoaaeaiee /anoiou 225Mhz (75×3), aianoi noaiaea?oiie 200Mhz (66×3),
i?eaiaeeei e iinoiyiiui naiyi Windows’95. Pentium ia /anoioa 225Mhz
aaeeeieaiii ?aaioae. Oeaia IDT N6 a Iineianie oe?ia “OaoiiEii”, eioi?ay
ethaacii i?aaeinoaaeea aai aeey oanoe?iaaiey, ninoiaeyao $105.00.
I?ioeanni? caaacai a Iineao iaaieueoie ia?oeae, e i?e aieaa e?oiiuo
iinoaaeao aai oeaia aeieaeia nieceoueny. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio ca yoo oeaio
eo/oa i?eia?anoe Cyrix 6x86MX-PR200 a oe?ia OaoiiEii. Aaeeinoaaiiia
i?eaiouanoai IDT C6 yoi oi, /oi aio ia o?aaoaony aeaieiia ieoaiea, ii
yoiio ii oi?ioi iiaeoiaeeo aeey iiaea?iecaoeee noa?uo nenoai.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iaoa?eineeo ieao ia /einaoa i430TX n iaiyoueth
aieaa 64 Iaaeo

Aieueoeinoai ethaeae, ?aaioathueo a aeaiiue iiiaio ia eiiiuethoa?a oeia
PC, eiatho i?ioeanni? Pentium e iaoa?eineoth ieaoo ia aaca /einaoa Intel
430 TX. Yoio /einao caaiaaae ia?iiioth iiioey?iinoue o iieueciaaoaeae e
ii/oe ieeoi ia caaeoiuaaaony i aai iaaeinoaoeao, aeaaiue ec eioi?uo –
eaoe?oaiinoue oieueei 64 Iaaeo iaiyoe. Yoi cia/eo, /oi i?e
eniieueciaaiee aieueoeo iauaiia iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, i?e ia?auaiee e
aae?anai, eaaeauei auoa 64I aeaiiua aoaeoo /a?iaoueny ia ec
auno?iaeaenoaothuaai eaoa, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec iaiyoe. Anoanoaaiii,
yoi caiaaeeeo ?aaioo i?eeiaeaiee.

Iu ?aoeee iiiuoaoueny ioeaieoue yoi caiaaeeaiea e i?ioanoe?iaaee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu ia aaca /einaoa Intel 430 TX i?e ?aaioa n
64 e 96 Iaaeoaie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. Aeey ecia?aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
aue aua?ai iiioey?iue oano ZD WinBench 97, eioi?ue iiaeaee?oao ?aaioo
?aaeueiuo ioeniuo e high-end i?eeiaeaiee. I?e oanoe?iaaiee auee
eniieueciaaiu eiiieaeoothuea: iaoa?eineay ieaoa Asus TX97, 32 Iaaeoiua
iiaeoee SDRAM Hyundai, i?ioeanni? Intel Pentium 200 MMX, aeanoeee aeene
Quantum Fireball ST 2.1 Aa e aeaeaieiio?ieea? ia aaca iee?inoaiu Virge
DX c 4 Ia EDO RAM. Oanoe?iaaiea i?iaiaeeeinue iiae iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiie Windows 95 OSR2 n onoaiiaeaiiuie ae?aeaa?aie Bus Mastering io
Intel.

64 Ia 96 Ia

CPUMark16 444 444

CPUMark32 443 432

Business Disk Winmark 2630 1880

High-End Disk Winmark 5770 4460

Business Graphics Winmark 44.2 43.9

High-End Graphics Winmark 26.7 26.6

Eae iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea nei?inoe
?aaiou ii anai oa?aeoa?enoeeai. Ii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeia
iieiaeaiea aauae iaaethaeaaony a neo/aa, eiaaea eiathuaainy iauaia
iaiyoe caaaaeiii oaaoaao aeey ?aaiou i?eeiaeaiee. Anoanoaaiii, ?aaioa
aac eaoe?iaaiey ana-?aaii auno?aa, /ai naaiiaaiea ia aeanoeee aeene.
Iiyoiio i?e ?aaioa n aieueoeie iauaiaie aeaiiuo i?eiaiyoue aieueoa /ai
64 Iaaeoa iiaeii. Oioy ai?acaei eo/oa eniieueciaaoue /einaou, eioi?ua ia
iaeaaeatho oaeei iaaeinoaoeii, iai?eia? VIA Apollo VP-3.

Oanoe?iaaiea /einaoia Intel 440BX e Intel 440LX

Aio e iiyaeeenue, iaeiiaoe, iaoa?eineea ieaou ia /einaoa Intel 440BX,
ia?aii Pentium II-/einaoa, iiaeaea?aeeaathuai oeio 100 Iaoe. Oaeea ieaou
i?aaenoaaeee iaeiia?aiaiii iiiaea i?iecaiaeeoaee, oae eae Intel
i?aaeinoaaee naith ?ac?aaioeo caaeieai aei aa ioeoeeaeueiiai iauyaeaiey.
Iai aea a ?oee iiiaea iaoa?eineay ieaoa ASUS P2B, ia iniiaaiee eioi?ie
iu e i?iaiaeeee oanoe?iaaiea iiaiai iaai?a iee?inoai.

Niaoeeoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeaiiie iaoa?eineie ieaou neaaeothuay:

ASUS P2B

Oeii?acia? ATX

Onoaiiaeaiiue BIOS Award

Iaai? iee?inoai Intel 440BX

*enei neioia SIMM/DIMM 0/3

*enei neioia ISA/PCI 3/4

Neio AGP Anoue

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua /anoiou oeiu, MHz 66, 75, 83, 100, 103, 112

Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua oiiiaeaiey 2o – 8o

Ieoaiea ATX

Ii?ou USB/IrDa +/+

Aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe Oaiia?aoo?iue eiio?ieue

Oeaeueth iaoeo oanoia yaeyeinue onoaiiaeoue, ianeieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ieaou ia /einaoa 440BX ioee/aaony io
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ieaou ia /einaoa 440LX, a oaeaea auynieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey 100-iaaaaa?oeiaie oeiu. Iiae?iaiia
iienaiea iniaaiiinoae /einiaoa 440BX i?eaaaeaii caeanue. I?e
oanoe?iaaiee, iiieii iaoa?eineie ieao ASUS P2B (i440BX) e ASUS P2L97
(i440LX), eniieueciaaeenue 64 Iaaeoa iaiyoe SDRAM 10ns Hyundai, aeanoeee
aeene Maxtor DiamondMax iauaia 1.6 Aaaeoa, aeaeaiea?oa ASUS 3DExplorer
AGP-V3000 n 4 Iaaeoaie iaiyoe, a oaeaea i?ioeanni?u Pentium II. Ana
oanou auiieiyeenue iiae oi?aaeaieai iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu Windows 95 n
onoaiiaeaiiuie ae?aeaa?aie Bus Mastering, eioi?ua, enoaoe, inoaeenue aua
io i?aaeuaeouaai /einaoa, oae eae a 440BX aoiaeeo oio aea eiio?ieea?
PIIX4. Ieeaeeo iiauo eee iniaaiiuo ae?aeaa?ia iaoa?eineay ieaoa ia iiaii
/einaoa ia iio?aaiaaea.

Iaiyoue

Eiioeao?e?iaaiea iaiyoe aeey /einaoa BX ianeieueei ioee/aaony. Yoi
naycaii n oai, /oi iaiyoue n yoei /einaoii ?aaioaao ia /anoioa 100 IAoe.
Oi, /oi aiai?ee Intel ii iiaiaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaiyoe PC100
i?e yoie aiaoiae /anoioa – iai?aaaea. Aeaaea eniieueciaaiea SPD
ioeeth/aaony a?o/ioth ec Setup, /oi iicaieyao i?iaanoe ?o/iia oi?aaeaiea
oeeeeaie caaea?aeie. Ana iii?iaiaaiiua iaie iiaeoee ?aaioaee ia /anoioa
100 IAoe aac i?iaeai, n?aaee ieo ana auee 10-iaiinaeoiaeiua, n SPD e
aac, i?e/ai ia BX-ieaoa ?aaioaee aeaaea iiaeoee, naiyuea i?e
eniieueciaaiee ia 100-iaaaaa?oeiauo Socket-7 ieaoao. Oae /oi iianaoueny
i?iaeai n iaiyoueth ia noieo.

?acoeueoaou oanoia

BX i?ioea LX

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ieao ecia?yeanue oanoaie
WinBench98 e WinStone98, eioi?ua caioneaeenue a ?ac?aoaiee
1024x768x16bit. A yoeo oanoao a ieaou onoaiaaeeaaeny i?ioeanni? Intel
Pentium II, ?aaioathuee ia /anoioa 233 IAoe. A iaieo neo/ayo yoa /anoioa
aeinoeaaeanue i?e onoaiiaea aiaoiae /anoiou 66 IAoe e oiiiaeaiey ia 3.5.

?acoeueoaou:

ASUS P2B Intel 440BX ASUS P2L97Intel 440LX

Business WinStone 98 18.9 19.3

CPUMark32 589 604

FPUMark32 1210 1210

Business Graphics Winmark 103 106

HighEnd Graphics Winmark 119 121

Eae iu aeaeei, ieaoa ia 440BX iieacaea aeaaea aieaa ieceea ?acoeueoaou,
/ai ieaoa ia 440LX. Yoi nei?aa anaai naycii ia n i?iaeaiaie /einaoa,
eioi?ue ai iiiaii iiaoi?yao naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea, e a?yae ee yaeyaony
aieaa iaaeeaiiui, a n iaaei?aaioaiiinoueth BIOS (enoaoe, aa?nee 1.0) e
naiie ieaou. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii neacaoue iaaa?iyea, yoi oi, /oi
/einao 440BX ii auno?iaeaenoaeth iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia 440LX.

66 IAoe i?ioea 100 IAoe

Ai aoi?ie /anoe oanoia iu ?aoeee auynieoue, eaeie i?e?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iiaeii iieo/eoue, iieuecoynue 100-iaaaaa?oeiaie
oeiie. Aeey yoiai i?iaiaeeeinue oanoe?iaaiea iaoa?eineie ieaou ASUS P2B
ia iaai?a iee?inoai 440BX oanoii WinStone98. I?e yoii i?eiaiyeny
i?ioeanni? Pentium II, ?aaioathuee ia /anoioa 300 IAoe. Yoa /anoioa
aunoaaeyeanue eae 66o4.5 e eae 100o3.

?acoeueoaou iieo/eeenue neaaeothuea:

Business WinStone 98

PII 300 (4.5 x 66 IAoe) 22.1

PII 300 (3 x 100 IAoe) 22.7

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi i?e?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?e eniieueciaaiee
oeiu 100 IAoe anaai 4%. Aaaeii aua eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?e onoaiiaea
/anoiou i?ioeanni?a iaiaa 300 IAoe, iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue
100-iaaaaa?oeiaoth oeio, oae eae a yoii neo/aa ia ?aaioaao eao L2. N /ai
yoi naycaii -iaecaanoii, iaeiaei oaeo inoaaony oaeoii.

Ec oanoia iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi anee ia eniieueciaaoue iiaua
i?ioeanni?u Pentium II 350 e 400 IAoe, oi no?aieoueny e i?eia?aoaieth
/einaoa 440BX, a iauai-oi, iaca/ai. Yoi, a iauai-oi, iaoaeeaeoaeueii.
Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi i?eiineo auea?uo i?e eniieueciaaiee oeiu 100 IAoe ia
440BX, yoi – nei?inoue ia?auaiey e iaiyoe. Ii ia iooe io i?ioeanni?a e
iaiyoe noieo aua e L2 eao, nei?inoue ?aaiou eioi?iai io /anoiou
nenoaiiie oeiu ia caaeneo.

?acaii

Aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaiia o ieao ia BX e LX aiaeiae/iua, /anoiou ia
nenoaiiie oeia, ia PCI e AGP i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea ieaea.

Aiaoiyy /anoioa, IAoe *anoioa ia PCI, IAoe *anoioa ia AGP, MAoe

66 33 66

75 37 75

83 41 83

100 33 66

103 33 67

112 37 75

Iaoe aea eniuoaiey iieacaee, /oi i?ioeanni?u ?acaiiythony ia iaieo
i?ioanoe?iaaiiuo ieaoao niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiai.

Caeeth/eoaeueiua caia/aiey

*oi eanaaony niaianoeiinoe, oi n iae i?iaeai iao, oae eae /einao 440BX –
yoi ii/oe 440LX. Io a iieoiaoue BX, ia iao acaeyae, iiea niunea iniaiai
iao, oae /oi n?aco ii aeaeeiuo i?aeiouanoa ia aeano, a aeaiaa noieo
aieueoa.

Aeaaii iaeeaeaaiay oeia 100 IAoe ia aeaao aeaeeiuo i?aeiouanoa aaeaeo
oiai, /oi ?aaioa eaoa aoi?iai o?iaiy ia caaeneo io aiaoiae /anoiou.
Iiyoiio ai?acaei ?aciiiaa ia?aueaaoue /anoiou nenoaiiie oeiu ia Socket-7
iaoa?eineeo ieaoao.

N?aaiaiea nei?inoe ?aaiou nenoai n EDO RAM e SDRAM

Iiiaea iieueciaaoaee PC a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aoatho aii?in i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaiu EDO RAM, onoaiiaeaiiie a nenoaia, ia SDRAM, eioi?ay
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony aieaa iiioey?iie. ?anniio?ei iethnu e ieionu
oaeiai ia?aoiaea.

SDRAM a ianoiyuee iiiaio, aaconeiaii, yaeyaony aieaa ia?niaeoeaiie oioy
au ca n/ao oiai, /oi aa iiaeaea?aeeaatho ana iiaua /einaou. A oae eae
/eiu SDRAM onoaiaaeeaathony iau/ii ia iiaeoeyo DIMM, ?acuaiu iiae
eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony ia iaoa?eineeo ieaoao /aua, /ai ?acuaiu iiae
SIMM, i?eiaiaiea EDO, auioneaaiie a iiaeoeyo SIMM, noaiiaeony ana aieaa
cao?oaeieoaeueiui.

Iaeiaei ia ana oae i?inoi. Ai-ia?auo, i?eiaiyaiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiaeoee SDRAM, ia aoaeoo ?aaioaoue n /einaoii 440BX e aoaeoo eiaoue
i?iaeaiu n 440LX, a neeo oiai, /oi eie ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
niaoeeoeeaoeey Intel SPD. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiyoue oeia SDRAM ia i?eiaiyaony a
nenoaiao n i?ioeanni?ii Pentium Pro, yaeythueiny eo/oei a na?aa?iuo
i?eiaiaieyo.

Coa?ay iaiyoue oeia EDO iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?aeoe/anee ai anao nenoaiao, eiathueo ?acuaiu iiae SIMM. Nei?inoue
?aaiou EDO RAM ia iaiiiai ieaea, /ai o SDRAM. Oai?aoe/anee iia
ioee/aaony eeoue a?aiaiai ia?aaea/e aoi?iai e iineaaeothueo aeaieiuo
neia, eaeoueo iiae?yae, /oi ano?a/aaony ia oae oae e /anoi.
Aaeeinoaaiiue e?oiiue iethn a iieueco SDRAM, yoi oi, /oi iia ?ann/eoaia
ia ?aaioo ia aieaa aunieeo aiaoieo /anoioao – aei 100 MHz.

Iaie auea i?ioanoe?iaaia nei?inoue ?aaiou nenoaiu n iaiyoueth oeia EDO e
SDRAM ia aaca iaoa?eineie ieaou Asus TX97-E, i?ioeanni?a Intel Pentium
200 MMX, ?aciaiaiiiai aei 225 MHz, aei/anoa?a Quantum Fireball ST 2.1 Gb
e aeaeaiea?ou Virge/DX 4 Mb EDO. A nenoaia i?inoi caiaiyeenue iiaeoee
iaiyoe. I?e yoii auee iieo/aiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou:

EDO RAM SDRAM

CPUMark16 438 439

CPUMark32 428 429

Business Disk Winmark 1120 1150

HighEnd Disk Winmark 4070 4180

Business Graphics Winmark 41,0 41,0

HighEnd Graphics Winmark 26,2 26,2

Xing MPEG Player, FPS 65,1 65,1

Quake, FPS 43,8 43,9

Eae iiaeii caiaoeoue, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoaiu n ?acee/iuie oeiaie
iaiyouee i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony. O/eouaay oio oaeo, /oi noieiinoue
?acee/iuo oeiia iaiyoe iaeeiaeiaa a neeo oaoiieiaee aa i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi iaiyoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy EDO RAM ia
SDRAM ia oeaeaniia?acii. Eo/oa yoi naeaeaoue aiineaaenoaee, eiaaea
iiyaeony iaiyoue n iiaeaea?aeeie Intel SPD. A i?eia?aoay iiaoth nenoaio,
anoanoaaiii eo/oa acyoue SDRAM, eae aieaa iiaoth oaoiieiaeth.

Niioaaonoaea aiaoieo /anoio, a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae e a?aiaie aeinooia
aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia iaiyoe

Ieaeaneaaeothuea oaaeeoeu niaea?aeao cia/aiey o?aaoaiiai a?aiaie
aeinooia e RAM aeey ?acee/iuo aiaoieo /anoio e a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae
(wait state), a oaeaea oaeoe/aneea aeieoiaioe?iaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
/eiia iaiyoe. I?eaaaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea eciuoeaiey, ia i?aeoeea ana
iiaeao ioee/aoueny eae a eo/ooth, oae e a ooaeooth noi?iio.

A?aiaiiua ia?aiao?u nenoaiu

O?aaiaaiey nenoaiu e a?aiaiiui ia?aiao?ai iaiyoe (ns)

A?aiaiiua ia?aiao?u iaiyoe ii niaoeeoeeaoeee (ns)

Oeeeeu a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae

Aiaoiyy /anoioa (MHz)

Ia?eiae oaeia?a (ns)

tAA

tPC

tRAC

Oei RAM

tAA tPC tRAC

6-3-3-3

50

20

60

60

100

-70 FPM   35   40 70

60

16.7

50

50

83.5

-70 FPM   35   40 70

66

15

45

45

75

-70 FPM   35   40 70

75

13.3

40

40

66.5

-60 FPM   30   35 60

83

12

36

36

60

-60 FPM   30   35 60

6-2-2-2

50

20

40

40

100

-70 EDO   35   30 70

60

16.7

33.4

33.4

83.5

-60 EDO   30   25 60

66

15

30

30

75

-60 EDO   30   25 60

75

13.3

26.6

26.6

66.5

-50 EDO   25   20 50

83

12

24

24

60

-50 EDO   25   20 50

5-2-2-2

50

20

40

40

80

-70 EDO   35   30 70

60

16.7

33.4

33.4

66.8

-60 EDO   30   25 60

66

15

30

30

60

-60 EDO   30   25 60

75

13.3

26.6

26.6

53.2

-50 EDO   25   20 50

83

12

24

24

48

-50 EDO   25   20 50

Yeaeaaeaioiua oaeieiae aeey SDRAM

SDRAM Aiaoiyy /anoioa (MHz) Ia?eiae oaeia?a (ns) tAA (ns) Ia?ee?iaea
a?aiaie aeinooia tRAC (ns) SDRAM Aiaeiae/iia a?aiy aeinooia aeey
aneio?iiiie iaiyoe

7-1-1-1

CL3

(tAC = 8 ns) 66 15 41 “-15” 83 CL3 -70

75 13.3 37.6   74.5

<-7083 12 35 "-12" 6860100 10 31 "-10" 58<-605-1-1-1CL2(tAC = 9 ns) 66 15 27 "-10" 54 CL2   -5075 13.3 25.3   48.9 83 12 24   45 100 10 22   39  -40Aeey SDRAM: tAA = (CL-1)*(Ia?eiae oaeia?a) + tAC + tSUtSetUp = 3 nstRAC = (2*CL-1)*(Ia?eiae oaeia?a) + tAC?anniio?aiea oaaeeoe iieacuaaao i?aeiouanoaa 7–1–1–1 SDRAM. A "–10" (100 MHz) SDRAM ?aaioaao /ooue auno?aa, /ai "–60" aneio?iiiay iaiyoue.Caiaoueoa, /oi o SDRAM "–10" nouanoaoao yeaeaaeaio. O SDRAM tRAC 58ns i?e CL3–100MHz, a 54ns i?e CL2–66MHz ia 4ns auno?aa. O SDRAM tAA i?e CL3–100MHz ia 4ns iaaeeaiiae, /ai CL2-66MHz!SDRAM "–10" ?aaioathuay n CL3 (7–1–1–1) iiaeao ia ?aaioaoue i?e CL2 (5–1–1–1)!Nenoaiiua oeeeeu caaea?aeeeOa aea eioi?iaoeey, /oi e auoa, ii i?aaenoaaeaia a ae?oaie oi?ia. Ii yoie oaaeeoea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea onoaiiaee oeeeeia iaeeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu aeey eiie?aoiie iaiyoe.Oa?aeoa?enoeee DRAMAiaoiyy /anoioa e ia?eiae [MHz (ns)]Oei RAM tRAC tPC ortCK 50 MHz(20 ns) 60 MHz(16.7 ns) 66.6 MHz(15 ns) 75 MHz(13.3 ns) 83 MHz(12 ns)70ns FPM 70ns 40 5-2-2-26-3-3-3 6-3-3-3 6-3-3-3 6-3-3-37-4-4-4 6-3-3-37-4-4-460ns FPM 60ns 35 4-2-2-26-3-3-3 5-3-3-36-3-3-3 5-3-3-36-3-3-3 6-3-3-3 6-3-3-370ns EDO 70ns 30 5-2-2-26-2-2-2 5-2-2-26-2-2-2 6-2-2-2*6-2-2-2 6-2-2-27-3-3-3 6-2-2-26-3-3-360ns EDO 60ns 25 4-2-2-26-2-2-2 5-2-2-26-2-2-2 5-2-2-2*6-2-2-2 6-2-2-2 6-2-2-27-3-3-350ns EDO 50ns 20 4-1-1-15-2-2-2 4-2-2-25-2-2-2 5-2-2-2 5-2-2-2 5-2-2-2CL3 SDRAM 5 cycles+ tAC 10 7-1-1-1 7-1-1-1 7-1-1-1 7-1-1-1 7-1-1-1CL2 SDRAM 3 cycles+ tAC 12 5-1-1-1 5-1-1-1 5-1-1-1 5-1-1-1 5-1-1-1X-Y-Y-Y — Oeeeeu ii?iaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae.X-Y-Y-Y — Ieieiaeueiua caaea?aeee.X-Y-Y-Y — Iai?aaeeueiua, ii aiciiaeii ?aai/ea caaea?aeee. ?aaioa iaiyoe a yoeo ?aaeeiao ia aa?aioe?oaony.* — Eniieueciaaiea yoeo a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeae aiciiaeii i?e a?aiioiii aeecaeia iiaeoey iaiyoe.I?e ninoaaeaiee yoie oaaeeoeu iu ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue neaaeothueie i?eioeeiaie:Ia?aia /enei aeieaeii iaania/eaaoue caaea?aeeo aieueoa /ai tRAC, iethn iaeei oeeee ia onoaiiaeo aae?ana.Onoaiiaea iineaaeothueo aae?ania i?iecaiaeeony ai a?aiy iaeeaeaiey tRAC. (Oi anoue onoaiiaea aoi?iai aae?ana i?ioiaeeo iacaiaoii e ia o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo caaea?aeae)Oaeieiae, niioaaonoaothuea inoaeueiui /eneai ia iiaoo i?aauoaoue tPC.Eiio?ieea?u UltraWideSCSINaaiaeiy ia ?uiea i?aaenoaaeaii aieaa iaeiiai eiio?ieea?a e i?e i?eia?aoaiee aicieeaao i?iaeaia auai?a. Aeey ia/aea iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny ioaeai ee eioaa?e?iaaiiue a iaoa?eineoth ieaoo eiio?ieea? eee a aeaea ieaou ?anoe?aiey. I?aeiouanoaa iaeiiai aa?eaioa yaeythony iaaeinoaoeaie ae?oaiai. Iaieia?: noieiinoue, oaeianoai iiaea?iecaoeee, caieiaaiia ianoi (neio). N ae?oaie noi?iiu ana, /oi iiaeoiaeeo iiae ii?aaeaeaiea UltraWideSCSI ii aiciiaeiinoyi i/aiue iioiaea. Caeanue a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeaii n?aaiaiea eiio?ieea?ia ii nei?inoe. Iaeeaeaeinue, /oi aeaaiia ioee/ea aoaeao a ?acoeueoaoao oanoia ia caa?oceo i?ioeanni?a e iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe ia?aaea/e.Eiioeao?aoeey:CPU iPII-262 (75x3.5), MB ASUS P2L97-S (BIOS: #401A0-0105s), 64MB SDRAM, HDD WDE4360-07 UltraWide SCSI 4.3G. Windows95 OSR2PE.Eiio?ieea?u:Adaptec AIC 7880 — eioaa?e?iaaiiue ia iaoa?eineoth ieaoo. Aiaeia ieaou Adaptec 2940UW.Tekram DC–390F — PCI UltraWide SCSI eiio?ieea? ia SYM 53C875.(iaaeaaii Adaptec eoiee SymBios Logic e ?acoeueoaou yoiai neeyiey aeey iieueciaaoaeae i?aaeneacaoue o?oaeii)Neiaeii iaeoe ioee/ea a eo aiciiaeiinoyo: caa?ocea n ethaiai SCSI ID/LUN, caa?ocea n CD, iiaeaea?aeea SCAM, onoaiiaea ia?aiao?ia ono?ienoa, flash BIOS (o DC–390F noieo iee?inoaia flash e anoue i?ia?aiia aeey i?ioeaee, a Adaptec BIOS iiaeii eaaei aienaoue a BIOS iaoa?eineie ieaou). Iiaeaea?aeea ae?aeaa?aie anoue aeey aieueoeinoaa IN o iaieo (y /anoii i?iaiaae ieioo iyoue aniiiieoue ia i/aiue yecioe/aneoth IN, a eioi?ie iie ia ca?aaioatho, ii ia niia). Iiyoiio e auea iinoaaeaia oeaeue iaeoe nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea a nei?inoe.Caia/aiea: i?e anao oanoao eao naiiai aeanoeiai aeenea ia caienue aue aueeth/ai (naiue i?inoie niinia ii?aaeaeeoue yoi - iiniio?aoue ia ?acoeueoaou /oaiea/caienue ii hddspeed). Yoi caaiaeneay onoaiiaea aeey aeaiiiai aeenea. Eni?aaeoue iieiaeaiea iiaeii n iiiiuueth ooeeeou ASPI-WCE eee aieaa eioa?aniie i?ia?aiiu Adaptec EZ SCSI. I?e yoii aieueoeinoai oanoia ia caienue iieacuaatho aieaa aunieea ?acoeueoaou, ii niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiio?ieea?aie inoaaony aiaeiae/iui. Aa?iyoii cai?auaiea yoiai eaoa iiiiaaao aeiaeoueny aieaa aunieeo ?acoeueoaoia i?e ?aaioa a WindowsNT/Netware n eo nianoaaiiuie i?ia?aiiuie eaoaie.Oano ia?aue: WinBench97Adaptec Tekram UNITSBusiness Disk WinMark 97 1180 1180 Thousand Bytes/SecHigh-End Disk WinMark 97 3800 3730 Thousand Bytes/SecDisk Playback/BusOverall 1180 1180 Thousand Bytes/SecPublishing 1410 1410 Thousand Bytes/SecDatabase 1150 1160 Thousand Bytes/SecWP/SS 1110 1110 Thousand Bytes/SecDisk Playback/HEOverall 3800 3730 Thousand Bytes/SecApp Dev 12800 13000 Thousand Bytes/SecImage Editing 4160 3860 Thousand Bytes/SecCAD/3-D 2950 2970 Thousand Bytes/SecAVS 1930 1950 Thousand Bytes/SecMicroStation 6900 7030 Thousand Bytes/SecPhotoshop 4460 3830 Thousand Bytes/SecPicture Publisher 3890 3890 Thousand Bytes/SecPV-WAVE 2820 2800 Thousand Bytes/SecVisual C++ 12800 13000 Thousand Bytes/SecDisk/Read, CPU Utilization 70.2 57 Percent UsedDisk/Write, CPU Utilization 20.4 21.3 Percent Used?acoeueoaou iiiaeo oanoia niaiaaeatho iieiinoueth, iioiaea, /oi oanou aeenea ia caaenyo io eiio?ieea?a. Eaaeaony iaiiiai no?aiiui, /oi WDE ii iaeioi?ui oanoai auea?uaaao o i/aiue auno?iai aeenea Seagate Cheetach. Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi Winbench aiciiaeii neeoeii eiiieaeniue oano e e aai ?acoeueoaoai ioaeii ioiineoueny aieiaoaeueii.Oano aoi?ie: HDDSPEED 1.9AdaptecTekramAverage Seek Time 9.1 ms8.8 msMaximal Seek Time 16.6 ms16.3 msTrack-To-Track Seek Time 3.3 ms2.7 msAverage Access Time 13.3 ms13.0 ms(MBytes/sec.) Read Write Read WriteLinear Speed At Track 1 7.7 2.8 7.9 2.8Linear Speed At Track  528 6.1 2.4 6.0  2.4   Average Linear Speed 8.7 2.7 8.7 2.7Min. Linear Speed 6.1 2.4 6.0 2.4Max. Linear Speed 10.1 2.8 10.1 2.8Max. Cache Read Speed 26.5 MBytes/sec.30.9 MBytes/sec.Random Read Speed 1.9 MBytes/sec1.9 MBytes/secDisk Speed Index 668681Caia/aiey HDDSPEED. Eaaeaony iai?aaeeueiui, /oi a?aiy aeinooia aeenea iiaeao caaenaoue io eiio?ieea?a, iaeiaei oano iieacuaaao yoi. Ioiaoei, /oi ia iaieo eiio?ieea?ao nei?inoue a?auaiey aeenea ana-oaee inoaeanue iinoiyiiie - 7200 RPM. Enoaoe aeey SCSI yoio ia?aiao? iiaeii ociaoue i?ia?aiii (ia iin/eoaoue) i?inoi ni?inea o aeenea (eae ide_info aeey IDE aeeneia).Auaiaeu:1. nei?inoue nei?aa ii?aaeaeyaony aeanoeei aeeneii, /ai eiio?ieea?ii2. aeey eiio?ieea?a aaaeiaa i?aaeeueiua ae?aeaa?a e oi?ioay iiaeaea?aeea i?iecaiaeeoaeai3. o eioaa?e?iaaiiuo eiio?ieea?ia aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai — oeaia, a o ieao ?anoe?aiey — aeaeinoue i?e iiaea?iecaoeee4. anee ia oi?iieoueny, iiaeii i?aaeeueii onoaiiaeoue ethaie eiio?ieea?5. i?e iieoiea eiio?ieea?a ioaeii /aoei ciaoue, /oi aea Au iieoiaaoa, /oi–au iioii ia iuoaoueny aeiaeoueny io iaai oiai, /oi ii ia oiaao. I?e yoii aaaeiaa eioi?iaoeey i?iecaiaeeoaey e oi?ioeo ae?ocae, iaaeaee i?iaeaaoea6. aieueoeinoai «aieueoeo» oanoia aiieia io?aaeatho auno?iaeaenoaea nenoaiu e iicaieytho n?aaieaaoue eae aeenee, oae e eiio?ieea?uOanoe?iaaiea nia?aiaiiuo aeanoeeo aeeneiaA ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?uiea eiaaony ia?iiiia iiiaeanoai aeanoeeo aeeneia io ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Yoe aeanoeea aeenee ioee/athony eae iauaiii (io 1Aa aei 12Aa), oae e oeaiie. A oanoiaie eaai?aoi?ee «Naaaa+» auei i?iaaaeaii oanoe?iaaiea iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iiaeaeae aei/anoa?ia n oeaeueth n?aaieoue eae eo oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, oae e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.OanouWinBench 98: Business Disk WinMark - ioeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aei/anoa?a i?e ?aaioa n Business i?eeiaeaieyie a n?aaea Windows 95 (98) (oaenoiaua ?aaeaeoi?u, yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu, aacu aeaiiuo e o.ae.)WinBench 98: Hi-End Disk WinMark - ioeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aei/anoa?a i?e ?aaioa n Hi-End i?eeiaeaieyie a n?aaea Windows 95 (98) (nenoaiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e o.ae.)HDDSpeed – oano, iaeaieaa ?aaeueii io?aaeathuee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeanoeiai aeenea.CheckIt – noaiaea?oiue oano, iiaen/eouaathuee a?aiaia aeinooia e nei?inoue /oaiey (n?aaeithth).Norton Utilities 3.0: SysInfo - noaiaea?oiue oano nei?inoue /oaiey aeaiiuo n aeanoeiai aeenea a n?aaea Windows 95 (98).Aaaeiaeoea oa?aeoa?enoeee aei/anoa?a, aeeythuea ia iieacaoaeue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoeDisk Rotation Speed – nei?inoue a?auaiey iiaa?oiinoae aeanoeiai aeeneaAverage Access Time – n?aaeiaa a?aiy aeinooia e neo/aeiiio naeoi?o ia aeeneaLinear Read Speed – nei?inoue eeiaeiiai /oaiey aeaiiuo n aeeneaBuffer Size – ?acia? aooa?a aeeneaEiioeao?aoeey oanoiaiai eiiiuethoa?aMB: SuperMicro P6SLA 440LXCPU: Intel Pentium-II 233MHzRAM: 64Mb SDRAMVideo: Diamond Viper 330 PCIA ea/anoaa iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu auea aua?aia Windows'98 beta 3, o.e. a iae eiaaony ano?iaiiay iiaeaea?aeea IDE Bus Master.Ana aei/anoa?u iiaeeeth/aeenue eae Secondary Master. Primary Master n onoaiiaeaiiui II aue aeanoeee aeene Quantum Fireball ST 4.3Gb.A oaaeeoea i?aaenoaaeaiu oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee oanoe?oaiuo aei/anoa?ia.AEanoeee aeene Iiaeaeue Iauai Eyo RPM SMART UltraDMA P Mng Oie (iA)Seagate Medalist 1.7Gb ST31722A 1625 128 4600 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoSeagate Medalist 2.1Gb ST32122A 2014 128 4600 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoSeagate Medalist 3.2Gb ST33232A 3077 128 4600 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoSeagate Medalist 4.3Gb ST34342A 4103 128 4600 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoSeagate Medalist Pro 2.5Gb ST32520A 2401 256 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoSeagate Medalist Pro 6.4Gb ST36451A 6149 448 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue iao aeaiiuoQuantum Fireball ST 1.6Gb QST1.6A 1539 81 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue  Quantum Fireball ST 2.1Gb QST2.1A 2014 81 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue  Quantum Fireball ST 3.2Gb QST3.2A 3079 81 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue  Quantum Fireball ST 4.3Gb QST4.3A 4110 81 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue  Quantum Fireball SE 2.1Gb QSE2.1A 2014 80 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 720/650Quantum Fireball SE 3.2Gb QSE3.2A 3079 80 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 720/650Quantum Fireball SE 4.3Gb QSE4.3A 4110 80 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 720/650Quantum Fireball SE 8.4Gb QSE8.4A 8063 80 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 720/650Fujitsu 2.1Gb M1624TAU 2014 128 5400 Anoue Iao Anoue  Fujitsu 2.6Gb MPA3026ATU 2503 128 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 500/300Fujitsu 3.2Gb MPB3032ATU 3093 128 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 500/300Fujitsu 4.3Gb MPB3043ATU 4125 128 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 500/300Western Digital Caviar 1.2Gb AC11200L 1222 256 4300 Anoue Anoue Anoue 480/270Western Digital Caviar 2.1Gb AC12100L 2014 256 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 580/230Western Digital Caviar 3.2Gb AC33200L 3098 256 4300 Anoue Anoue Anoue 480/270Western Digital Caviar 4.3Gb AC34300L 4104 256 4300 Anoue Anoue Anoue 560/270Western Digital Caviar 5.1Gb AC35100L 4924 256 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 580/230Western Digital Caviar 6.4Gb AC36400L 6149 256 5400 Anoue Anoue Anoue 580/230Eiiiaioa?ee e oaaeeoea:RPM (Rotations Per Minute) — nei?inoue a?auaiey aeenea (ia/iei) — /ai aieueoa, oai eo/oaP Mng (Power Management) — ?aaeecoaony ee a iaeiieoaea ooieoeey naa?aaeaiey yia?aee.Oie — iaeneiaeueiue iio?aaeyaiue oie (/ai ii iaiueoa, oai iaiueoa aei/anoa? a?aaony)Iauai — ?aaeueiue iauai aeenea a Ia (1Ia = 1024Ea = 1048576 aaeo)SMART — eiaaony ee iiaeaea?aeea oaoiieiaee S.M.A.R.T. (oaoiieiaey naiioanoe?iaaiey e aiaeeca ninoiyiey aeanoeiai aeenea. Ao?eaoou S.M.A.R.T. niioaaonoaotho ?acee/iui ?aai/ei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iaeiieoaey e eiaaea cia/aiea ao?eaooa nieaeaaony ieaea iaeiai onoaiiaeaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaeai ii?iaa, oi aiciiaeai ioeac iaeiieoaey. Oaoiieiaey S.M.A.R.T. iicaieyao i?aaeoi?aaeeoue yoe ioeacu)?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaieyAEanoeee aeene WinBench 98HDD Speeed 2.0Nu 3.0 Checkit 3.0  Business Hi-End Index Av.L.Sp. Av.Seek T-T seek Rnd Read Sysinfo Read Av seek T-T seekSeagate Medalist 1.7Gb 861 2360 256 4,90 11,10 3,30 1,20 2,40 2055,00 10,90 3,40Seagate Medalist 2.1Gb 872 2330 297 5,80 11,30 3,20 1,30 2,50 2055,00 10,70 3,10Seagate Medalist 3.2Gb 868 2320 289 5,80 12,00 4,50 1,20 2,40 2027,00 11,20 4,00Seagate Medalist 4.3Gb 876 2350 295 5,80 11,80 4,60 1,20 2,40 2005,00 10,60 4,20Seagate Medalist Pro 2.5Gb 943 2470 368 7,00 9,00 2,10 1,30 3,20 2386,00 9,70 1,90Seagate Medalist Pro 6.4Gb 1200 2970 451 7,30 11,40 2,90 1,60 3,20 3983,00 9,40 2,60Quantum Fireball ST 1.6Gb ia oano. ia oano. 521 7,60 8,20 2,60 1,70 ia oano. ia oano. ia oano. ia oano.Quantum Fireball ST 2.1Gb ia oano. ia oano. 468 6,80 8,10 2,50 1,60 ia oano. ia oano. ia oano. ia oano.Quantum Fireball ST 3.2Gb 1170 2880 546 7,90 8,10 2,50 1,70 3,70 2845,00 7,70 2,20Quantum Fireball ST 4.3Gb ia oano. ia oano. 480 7,40 8,70 2,70 1,60 3,60 2845,00 7,90 2,30Quantum Fireball SE 2.1Gb 1140 2850 644 9,60 8,30 2,60 1,70 3,60 3894,00 8,10 2,40Quantum Fireball SE 3.2Gb 1140 2860 624 9,50 8,60 2,80 1,70 3,60 3894,00 8,50 2,50Quantum Fireball SE 4.3Gb 1150 2890 640 9,60 8,30 2,90 1,70 3,60 3828,00 8,00 2,60Quantum Fireball SE 8.4Gb 1160 2910 654 10,20 9,00 2,70 1,70 3,70 3779,00 8,90 2,40Fujitsu 2.1Gb 824 2210 330 6,00 9,90 4,30 1,30 3,20 2466,00 8,90 3,90Fujitsu 2.6Gb 1040 2610 455 7,10 9,30 3,10 1,60 3,20 2466,00 8,90 2,70Fujitsu 3.2Gb 1030 2660 529 8,50 9,30 3,10 1,60 3,20 3983,00 9,40 3,20Fujitsu 4.3Gb 1030 2670 535 8,50 9,30 3,60 1,60 3,20 4000,00 8,30 2,70Western Digital Caviar 1.2Gb 1000 2580 422 7,30 11,00 2,40 1,40 3,10 2466,00 11,00 2,20Western Digital Caviar 2.1Gb 1130 2810 569 8,80 9,10 2,20 1,60 3,20 4000,00 8,80 1,40Western Digital Caviar 3.2Gb 1070 2680 412 7,20 11,20 2,50 1,40 3,20 2386,00 11,20 1,90Western Digital Caviar 4.3Gb 1150 2870 430 7,20 10,60 2,40 1,50 3,20 2477,00 10,00 1,80Western Digital Caviar 5.1Gb 1140 2820 580 8,90 9,00 2,70 1,70 3,20 4038,00 8,90 2,30Western Digital Caviar 6.4Gb 1140 2840 563 8,80 9,20 2,00 1,60 3,20 3983,00 8,90 2,10I?eia/aiea: ia oano. — ia oanoe?iaaenyWinBench 98: Business & Hi–End Disk — i?ia?aiia caioneaao iaai? i?eeiaeaiee iiae Windows 95 e canaeaao a?aiy auiieiaiey eaaeaeiai i?eeiaeaiey. A eoiaa iiaen/eouaaaony nei?inoue /oaiey/caiene aeaiiuo eaaeaeui i?eeiaeaieai. ?acoeueoaoii oanoa WinBench 98: Disk Winmark yaeyaony nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a Ea/c.HDDSpeed 2.0: Index — ia iniiaa ecia?aiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee au/eneyaony eiaeaen nei?inoe aeanoeiai aeenea (/ai ii aieueoa, oai aieueoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aei/anoa?a i?e ?aaioa n ?aaeueiuie i?eeiaeaieyie).Av seek (Average seek time) — n?aaeiaa a?aiy aeinooia e neo/aeiiio naeoi?o ia aeenea. Yoio aaaeiue ia?aiao? oa?aeoa?ecoao nei?inoue iienea eioi?iaoeee e io?aaeaao ?aaeueiia auno?iaeaenoaea aei/anoa?a i?e /oaiee o?aaiaioe?iaaiiuo oaeeia, i?e ia?aeeaeueiii eniieueciaaiee aeenea ianeieueeeie caaea/aie a iiiaicaaea/iie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia.T–T seek (Track to Track Seek Time) — n?aaeiaa a?aiy ia?aoiaea aieiaie ia ninaaeithth aei?iaeeo.Av.L.Sp. (Average Linear Read Speed) — n?aaeiyy nei?inoue eeiaeiiai /oaiey/caiene aeaiiuo. ssaeyaony aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie nei?inoe aeanoeiai aeenea. Io?aaeaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo i?eeiaeaiee i?e /oaiee/caiene aieueoeo iai?a?uaiuo oaeeia, caiene ioeeo?iaaiiiai aeaeai a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie.Rnd. read (Random Read Speed) — nei?inoue /oaiey neo/aeii ?aca?inaiiuo ii anaio aeeneo aeieia ?acia?ii io 0.5Ea aei 64Ea. Oaeoe/anee yoi iaeooaeoay nei?inoue, eioi?oth iiaeao iieacaoue iaeiieoaeue i?e /oaiee/caiene neo/aeii ?aniieiaeaiiuo iaeeeo oaeeia.Quantum: ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aei/anoa?u Quantum SE yaeythony naiuie auno?uie IDE iaeiieoaeyie. Aaeeinoaaiiui eo iaaeinoaoeii yaeyaony oi, /oi iie aeiaieueii neeueii ooiyo e neeueii a?athony.Seagate: aeaeii yaiia ionoaaaiea a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iaeiieoaeae Seagate na?ee Medalist. Naycaii yoi n ieceie nei?inoueth a?auaiey aeenea (4500 iai?ioia a ieiooo). Iaeiieoaee na?ee Medalist Pro eiatho nei?inoue a?auaiey 5400 iai?ioia a ieiooo e, eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, iieacaee aieueooth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Iaaeaaii eiiiaiey Seagate iauyaeea i auionea IDE iaeiieoaeae ni nei?inoueth a?auaiey 7000 iai?ioia a ieiooo, iiyaeaiey eioi?uo iu n iaoa?iaieai aeaeai.Fujitsu: n?aaee anao i?ioanoe?iaaiiuo aei/anoa?ia iie yaeythony naiuie oeoeie e iie iaiueoa anaai a?athony. AEanoeea aeenee iineaaeiae na?ee (3.2Aa e 4.3Aa) iieacaee i/aiue oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.Western Digital: i?inoi i/aiue oi?ioea aei/anoa?u. Iie iieacaee ioee/iua ?acoeueoaou ii oanoai (iniaaiii iiaeaee 2.1Aa, 5.1Aa, 6.4Aa), iie iaei a?athony e oeoi ?aaioatho.Eo/oea ae?noeea aeenee IDESpeed Index Top 1001. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE8.4A 7.8GB 66702. Quantum FIREBALL SE6.4A 6.0GB 65303. Quantum FIREBALL SE2.1A 2.0GB 63704. Quantum FIREBALL SE4.3A 4.0GB 63505. Maxtor 88400D8 7.8GB 61406. Maxtor 82160D2 2.0GB 61007. IBM-DHEA-36480 6.0GB 58108. WDC AC36400L 6.0GB 57509. IBM-DHEA-34330 4.0GB 56010. Quantum FIREBALL ST3.2A 3.0GB 551Average Linear Read Speed Top 1001. Maxtor 88400D8 7.8GB 10.4 MB/sec02. Maxtor 82160D2 2.0GB 10.3 MB/sec03. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE 8.4A 7.8GB 10.2 MB/sec04. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE 6.4A 6.0GB 10.1 MB/sec05. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE 4.3A 4.0GB 9.6 MB/sec05. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE 2.1A 2.0GB 9.6 MB/sec06. WDC AC36400L 6.0GB 8.7 MB/sec07. FUJITSU MPB3052ATU 4.9GB 8.6 MB/sec08. WDC AC35100L 4.8GB 8.5 MB/sec08. FUJITSU MPB3043ATU 4.0GB 8.5 MB/sec08. FUJITSU MPB3021ATU 2.0GB 8.5 MB/sec09. IBM-DHEA-36480 6.0GB 8.4 MB/sec09. Quantum FIREBALL ST6.4A 6.0GB 8.4 MB/sec10. Maxtor 83240D3 3.0GB 8.3 MB/secAverage Access Time Top 1001. Maxtor MXT-540 AT 540MB 14.1 ms *02. Quantum FIREBALL ST3.2A 3.0GB 14.6 ms03. IBM-DHEA-36480 6.0GB 14.8 ms03. Quantum FIREBALL ST1.6A 1.5GB 14.8 ms04. Quantum FIREBALL ST2.1A 2.0GB 14.9 ms05. IBM-DCAA-34330 4.0GB 15.0 ms06. IBM-DHEA-34330 4.0GB 15.1 ms07. SAMSUNG WNR-31601A 1.5GB 15.3 ms07. IBM DeskStar 3 DAQA-32160 2.0GB 15.4 ms07. Quantum FIREBALL ST4.3A 4.0GB 15.4 ms08. Micropolis 4110A 1.0GB 15.5 ms *08. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE4.3A 4.0GB 15.5 ms08. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE2.1A 2.0GB 15.5 ms09. Quantum FIREBALL_TM2110A 2.0GB 15.6 ms09. Quantum FIREBALL ST6.4A 6.0GB 15.6 ms09. QUANTUM FIREBALL ST4.3A 4.0GB 15.6 ms09. QUANTUM FIREBALL SE8.4A 7.8GB 15.6 ms09. WDC AC36400L 6.0GB 15.6 ms* - Ciyou n ipiecaiaenoaa.Eo/oea ae?noeea aeenee SCSISpeed Index Top 1001. IBM DGHS-39110 9.1GB 120802. Seagate Cheetah 4LP ST34501N 4.5GB 111103. IBM DCHS-34550 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 4.5GB 72304. IBM DCHS-39100 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 7.8GB 70505. Seagate Barracuda ST19171W Ultra Wide 8.0GB 69006. Quantum Atlas XP34550W UW SCSI-2 4.2GB 67707. Seagate Hawk ST34555W 4.2GB 64608. Western Digital WDE 4360W 4.0GB 64309. Micropolis Tomahawk 3.8GB 60110. IBM UltraStar XP Wide/Fast SCSI-2 4.2GB 520Average Linear Read Speed Top 1001. IBM DGHS-39110 9.1GB 12.8 MB/sec02. Seagate Cheetah 4LP ST34501N 4.5GB 12.5 MB/sec03. Seagate Barracuda ST19171W Ultra Wide 8.0GB 9.5 MB/sec04. IBM DCHS-39100 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 7.8GB 9.2 MB/sec05. Western Digital WDE 4360W 4.0GB 8.8 MB/sec05. IBM DCHS-34550 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 4.5GB 8.8 MB/sec06. Seagate Hawk ST34555W 4.2GB 8.6 MB/sec07. Quantum Atlas XP34550W UW SCSI-2 4.3GB 8.3 MB/sec08. Micropolis Tomahawk 3.8GB 8.2 MB/sec09. IBM UltraStar XP Wide/Fast SCSI-2 4.2GB 6.9 MB/sec10. IBM DCAS-34330W 4.0GB 6.7 MB/secAverage Access Time Top 1001. IBM DGHS-39110 9.1GB 10.9 ms02. Seagate Cheetah 4LP ST34501N 4.5GB 11.6 ms03. IBM DCHS-34550 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 4.5GB 12.4 ms04. Quantum Atlas XP34550W UW SCSI-2 4.3GB 12.6 ms05. Seagate ST32550N SCSI-2 2.0GB 12.9 ms06. Seagate Barracuda SCSI-2 2.0GB 13.0 ms06. Western Digital WDE 4360W 4.0GB 13.0 ms07. Quantum Atlas SCSI-2 1.0GB 13.3 ms07. Seagate Barracuda ST15150N SCSI-2 4.0GB 13.3 ms07. IBM DCHS-39100 Ultrastar 2XP F/W SCSI 7.8GB 13.3 ms08. IBM UltraStar XP Wide/Fast SCSI-2 4.2GB 13.6 ms09. Seagate Hawk ST34555W 4.2GB 13.7 ms10. Micropolis Tomahawk 3.8GB 13.9 ms* - Ciyou n ipiecaiaenoaa.Niaoeeoeeaoeee aeanoeeo aeeneiaTotal Size, Cache Size Average Seek Time, ms. Maximal Seek Time, ms. Average Access Time, ms. Track to Track, ms. Average Linear Speed, MB/sec. Cache Read Speed, MB/sec HDD SpeedIDXWestern DigitalWestern Digital 40MB 17,6 N/A 28,2 4,9 0,7 N/A 24WDA-L42 32kWestern Digital 81MB 18,3 3,8 28,7 5,4 0,6 3,6 21WDA-L80 32kWestern Digital 40MB 13,2 21,8 21,9 2,4 0,8 1,9 37WDC CU140 M 32kWestern Digital 80MB 16,5 25,9 28,5 4,7 0,7 1,5 27WDC AC280 32kWDC AC2340H 325MB 12,2 21 22,8 2,2 1,5 2,8 69128KBWestern Digital 202MB 12,2 21,6 22,8 2,3 1,1 1,6 51WDC AC1210F 64KBWestern Digital 360MB 9,2 15,8 17,6 2,4 1,8 2,1 102WDC AC1365F 64kWestern Digital 610MB 10,2 19,7 17,7 2,8 2,9 8,6 166WDC AC2635F 64KBWestern Digital 700MB 9,5 16,2 17,5 2,5 1,7 2 97WDC AC2700F 64kWestern Digital 420MB 12,4 21,6 23,7 2,4 1,6 7,3 71WDC AC2420H 64kWestern Digital 515MB 9,1 16 17 2,6 3 9 182WDC AC2540F 64KBWestern Digital 540MB 11,4 20,7 19,6 2,9 2,5 8,5 130WDC AC2540H 128kWDC AC2850F 813MB 10,1 19,5 17,9 2,7 R=3,0 9 17464kWestern Digital 1GB 10,6 18,5 18,1 3 2,7 4,3 154WDC AC31000F 64kWestern Digital 1GB 10,2 19,6 17,8 3,2 2,8 7,5 162WDC AC31200F 64kWDC AC21000H 1,0GB 10 18,6 17 2,7 R=4,9 9,4 298128KBWDC AC11000H 1006M 10,6 21 17,6 2,3 R=6,5 15,1 376128KBWDC AC21200H 1,2GB 9,8 19,2 17,1 2,2 R=5,0 12,6 299128KBWestern Digital 1,2GB 10,4 21,2 17,8 2,5 5,5 11,4 320WDC AC21200H(new) 128KBWDC AC11200L 1,2GB 10,6 20 17,9 3,1 R=7,2 14 414256KBWDC AC31600H 1,5GB 9,2 17,7 16,3 2,3 R=5,0 15,8 312128KBWDC AC21600H 1,5GB 10 19,9 17,1 2,1 R=6,0 16 361128KBWestern Digital 2GB 11,1 21,8 18,1 2,3 5,8 13,9 324WDC AC32100H 128kWestern Digital 1,9GB 10,8 20,6 18 2,9 R=7,2 15,7 408WDC AC22000L 256KBWestern Digital 2,0GB 10,4 21 17,3 2,3 6,2 15,3 365WDC AC22100H 128KBWDC AC32500H 2,4GB 10,9 21 17,9 2,4 6,5 8,5 369128KBWDC AC22500L 2,4GB 10,5 19,8 17,4 3 R=7,7 17,5 451256KBWDC AC33100H 2,9GB 11,2 21,7 17,9 2,3 R=6,6 9,2 375128KBWDC AC34000L 3,7GB 11,4 21,6 18,3 2,9 R=7,4 13,9 413256KBWDC AC34200L 3,9GB 10,8 20,4 17,2 2,1 R=7,2 14,7 429256KBWDC AC34300L 4,0GB 11,1 20,7 17,1 2,7 R=7,1 13,3 428256KBWDC AC35100L 4,8GB 11,2 21,4 17,5 2,6 R=8,5 17,3 498256KBWDC AC36400L 6,0GB 9,1 18,6 15,6 2,1 R=8,7 14,6 575256KBWestern Digital WDE 4,0GB 9 16 13 2,7 8,8 26,2 6434360W EnterpriseQuantumQUANTUM 40MB 20,1 N/A 37,7 6,6 0,3 3 8P40A 940-40-94xx 64kQUANTUM ELS85A 81MB 18,1 N/A 28,1 6,2 0,4 2,2 1332kQUANTUM ELS127A 121MB 18,3 3 28,3 6,5 0,4 2,5 1332kQUANTUM LPS170A 162MB 14 22,3 24 3,9 1,4 5,9 6298KBQUANTUM LPS210A 201MB 14,7 23,6 24,7 4,2 1,6 2,3 6898KBQUANTUM LPS240A 240MB 17,1 N/A 27,2 5,8 0,8 1 31GM240A01X 256kQUANTUM LPS270A 270MB 11,8 21,7 20,4 3,6 1,9 2,4 9796kQUANTUM LPS340A 340MB 13,3 20,9 23,5 4,2 1,5 4,2 6698kQUANTUM LPS420A 402MB 13,2 20,9 23,4 4,1 1,7 4,4 7698KBQUANTUM LPS525A 500MB 10,4 19,8 17,3 3,1 R=1,2 2,3 69256KBQUANTUM LPS540A 540MB 11,3 18,9 19,5 3,3 2 2,1 10896kQUANTUM 270MB 14,3 21,7 22,9 4,2 1,9 5,4 83MAVERICK 270A 98kQUANTUM 540MB 13,6 21,7 22,9 4,2 2 4,2 90MAVERICK 540A 98kQUANTUM 360MB 11,5 19 20 3,8 2,4 3,6 126LIGHTNING 365A 96kQUANTUM 720MB 8,2 12,4 19,4 2,2 2,6 5,9 140LIGHTNING 730A 96kQUANTUM TRB420A 402MB 13,3 21,7 21,4 3,5 2,6 N/A 12796KBQUANTUM TRB850A 809MB 13,6 22,2 21,6 3,9 R=3,0 5,2 14096kQUANTUM 611MB 9,5 18,9 16,2 3,3 R=5,2 12,7 332FIREBALL640A 83KBQUANTUM 1GB 11,5 20,4 16,7 3,3 4,2 5,1 252FIREBALL1080S SCSIQUANTUM 1,0GB 9,6 19,3 16,1 3,2 R=5,1 8,2 322FIREBALL1080A 83KBQUANTUM 1,2GB 9,9 19,4 16,3 2,8 R=5,6 14,7 352FIREBALL1280A 83kQUANTUM 1GB 9,7 17,5 18,1 2,7 4,4 12,4 251FIREBALL_TM1080A 76kQUANTUM FIREBALL_TM 1,2GB 9,9 17,6 17,5 2,8 R=5,5 12,3 3221280A 76KBQUANTUM 1,6GB 8,3 14,8 15,9 3,2 5,7 N/A 361FIREBALL_TM1700A 76KBQUANTUM 2,0GB 8,3 13,9 16 2,9 6,1 9,6 391FIREBALL_TM2110A 76KBQUANTUM 2,4GB 9,3 16,9 17,3 3,2 R=5,8 13,6 342FIREBALL_TM2550A 76KBQUANTUM FIREBALL_TM 3,0GB 9,7 16,9 17,5 3,8 R=5,7 13,6 3353200A 76KBQUANTUM 3,6GB 9,4 16,9 17,3 3,7 R=5,8 13 344FIREBALL_TM3840A 76KBQUANTUM 1,2GB 15,3 23,6 25,2 6,3 4,5 7,3 182BIGFOOT1280A 87kQUANTUM 2,0GB 13,8 21,7 23,3 5,7 4,9 10,8 215BIGFOOT2100A 87KBQUANTUM BIGFOOT_CY2 2,0GB 11,4 20,5 20,7 3,4 R=5,8 11,7 286160AQUANTUM BIGFOOT_CY4 4,0GB 12,9 22,2 22,1 3,8 R=6,0 11,7 279320AQUANTUM 1,6GB 9,5 17,1 17,3 3,5 4,2 11,7 247SIROCCO1700A 75kQUANTUM 2,4GB 9,6 17,4 17,3 3,9 4,2 12 251SIROCCO2550A 75KBQUANTUM FIREBALL 1,5GB 8,1 14,8 14,7 2,5 R=7,9 14,2 549ST1,6A 81KBQUANTUM FIREBALL 2,0GB 8,1 14,7 14,9 2,4 R=6,8 11,7 469ST2,1A 81KBQUANTUM FIREBALL 3,0GB 8 14,7 14,6 2,5 R=7,9 13,7 551ST3,2A 81KBQUANTUM FIREBALL 4,0GB 8,7 15,7 15,6 2,6 R=7,4 14,7 486ST4,3A 81KBQUANTUM FIREBALL ST 6,0GB 8,7 15,7 15,6 2,6 R=8,4 16,2 5476,4A 81KBQUANTUM FIREBALL SE 2,1GB 8,4 15 15,5 2,7 R=9,6 14,2 6372,1A 80KBQUANTUM FIREBALL SE 4,0GB 8,6 15,3 15,5 2,9 R=9,6 17,3 6354,3A 80KBQUANTUM FIREBALL SE 6,0GB 8,8 15,6 15,8 2,8 R=10,1 17,1 6536,4A 80KBQUANTUM FIREBALL SE 7,8GB 8,8 15,8 15,6 2,7 R=10,2 17,1 6678,4A 80KBQUANTUM Pioneer 1,0GB 12,3 18,7 19,8 5,9 5,4 8,7 277SG 1,0A 40KBQUANTUM Atlas 1,0GB 8,9 16,9 13,3 3,7 6,1 8,3 470XP31070W SCSI-2QUANTUM 2,0GB 9,6 18,1 14,2 3,4 5,6 8,1 407XP32150 SCSI-2QUANTUM Atlas 4GB 9,6 18,1 14 3 5,7 14,2 415XP34300W SCSI-2QUANTUM Atlas2 4,2GB 8,2 16,3 12,4 2,1 R=8,5 32,6 704XP34550W UW SCSI-2Seagate TechnologySeagate Technology 42MB 27,5 N/A 33,4 9,2 R=0,4 5 12ST157A 2KBSeagate ST351A/X 40MB 26,2 32,9 4,9 0,3 0,4 N/A 108kSeagate ST9080A 61MB 16,4 25,6 29 6,5 0,6 1,4 2032kSeagate st3096AT 85MB 14,1 25,1 24,7 4,3 0,4 0,9 1632kSeagate st3120AT 100MB 14,6 N/A 25,4 3,7 0,3 1,5 1432kSeagate st3144AT 124MB 16,4 N/A 27,4 3,8 0,3 1,5 1332KBST9235AG 174MB 16,3 25,4 28,7 6,5 0,9 1,3 3164KBST9240AG 200MB 10,9 17,5 25,2 3,8 1,4 4,1 58120KBSeagate ST3250A-XR 210MB 14,9 25,5 27,9 4,6 1,1 3,3 38120kSeagate ST3491A 408MB 12,3 22,8 23,1 3,9 1,6 6,2 70120KBSeagate ST9546A 520MB 12,8 19,6 22,4 4,6 2,4 6,2 109120kSeagate ST3660A 520MB 13,4 25,9 24,7 3,8 1,9 3,1 77120kSeagate ST3630A 600MB 13,2 27 25 4,2 2 6,8 83120kST3780A 688MB 11,5 20,5 18,6 3,9 2,8 13,1 153256KBST9810A 772MB 15 24,7 26,9 4,9 2,7 3,6 103120KBSeagate ST3850A 810MB 14,8 5,5 26,4 4,4 R=2,1 6,6 83120kSeagate ST5850A 850MB 11,5 19,6 17,8 3,8 3,4 10,8 195256kSeagate ST31220A 1GB 11,8 21 18,9 4,1 2,9 11,3 157256kSeagate Technology 1,0GB 12 21 19,3 4 3,7 9,6 1981080MB - ST31081ASeagate Technology 1,0GB 12,3 20,2 19,5 4,1 3,5 8,9 1861080MB - ST31082ASeagate ST51080A 1GB 11,4 21 18,1 4,8 3,7 12,3 208128kSeagate ST31276A 1,2GB 12,4 22 19,6 4,2 3,9 8,6 197Seagate ST31277A 1,2GB 10,3 16,5 19,3 3,9 R=5,8 8,2 306Seagate ST51270A 1,2GB 11 21,3 18,1 3,7 R=4,0 10,4 224128kST91351AG 1,3GB 12,6 21,7 21 4,2 3,2 10,8 15664KBSeagate ST31621A 1,5GB 5,3 25,2 22,5 1,9 3,2 5,9 146Aka Conner CFS1621AST31720A 1,6GB 11,7 21,3 20,8 4,3 5,2 11,4 258Seagate ST5180N 1GB 12,7 22,1 18,9 6,7 4 8,3 217Fast SCSI-2 128kSeagate HAWK LP 1GB 10,5 20,1 16,2 2,2 4,1 N/A 261ST31230N SCSI-2 512kSeagate Hawk 2,0GB 11,6 19,2 18,4 4,5 4,8 N/A 267Seagate ST32140A 2GB 10,4 19,6 17,3 3 R=4,1 10,4 243128kSeagate ST32550N 2GB N/A N/A 12,9 N/A 6 N/A 474SCSI-2Seagate ST52520A 2,4GB 9,9 18,3 16 3,5 6,8 14,6 437Medalist Pro 112kST32531A 2,4GB 11,9 21 20,9 4,3 5,3 9,6 261ST36450A 6,0GB 10 18,6 16,1 2,7 7,1 16,3 449448KBST36451A 6,0GB 10,1 18,7 16,1 3 7,3 13,5 464448KBSeagate Barracuda 2,0GB 8,4 17,1 13 1,9 5,8 N/A 459SCSI-2Hawk ST34555W 4,2GB 3,6 3,6 13,7 3,6 8,6 N/A 646SCSI-2Seagate Barracuda 4,0GB 8,8 17,5 13,3 2,1 5,9 5,9 451ST15150N SCSI-2Seagate Barracuda 8,0GB N/A N/A 14,1 N/A 9,5 N/A 690ST19171W SCSI-2Seagate ST34501N 4,2GB N/A N/A 11,6 1,4 12,5 N/A 1111Cheetah Ultra-SCSIConner PeripherialsConner Peripherals 39MB 21,2 N/A 38,6 6,1 R=0,5 N/A 1440MB - CP3000 4KBConner CP30084E 85MB 16,1 N/A 26,5 5,4 2 N/A 7832kConner CP30104H 120MB 17,4 20,3 28,8 6,7 0,6 1,8 2032kConner Peripherals 162MB 12,8 21,3 22,3 4,7 R=1,0 2,5 45170MB - CP30174 32KBConner CP30254 240MB 13 N/A 20,8 4,5 1,6 4,2 8132kConner Peripherals 326MB 13,7 22,2 22,7 4,3 R=1,7 2,2 75340MB - CP30344 64KBConner CFS210A 210MB 13,7 23 23,3 4,5 1,9 4,4 8232kConner CFA210A 210MB 13,8 22,7 23,5 4,6 1,8 3 7932kConner CFA270A 270MB 10,1 16,7 17 3,4 2,3 6 140Conner CFA340A 340MB 13,5 22,2 22,3 4,1 1 2,5 4564kConner CFS420A 420MB 13,6 22,6 23,4 4,4 1,9 4,2 8164kConner CFS425A 420MB 13,7 22,8 23,3 5,4 2,4 9 10764kConner CFS540A 540MB N/A N/A 24 N/A 2,2 5,9 9764kConner CFS541A 540MB N/A 20,8 22,8 N/A 3,1 6,8 104Conner Peripherals 608MB 13,5 24,1 22,6 6,4 R=2,5 9,8 111635MB - CFS635A 64KBConner CFA540S 540MB 11,1 17,9 19,1 3,9 2,9 4,1 155Conner CFS850A 850MB 13,1 23,6 22,7 N/A 2,2 9,4 10064kConner CFA850A 850MB N/A N/A 18,3 N/A 3,4 12,7 189256kConner CFP1060S 1GB 9 15,5 14,5 3,5 3,6 7,6 252Fast SCSI-2 512kConner CFP2105E 2,0GB 9,1 16,4 14,8 3,3 R=4,4 9 304SCSIConner CFS1081A 1GB N/A 25 22,3 1,6 3,2 9,1 148Conner CFS1275A 1,2GB N/A N/A 18,2 N/A 3,6 10,3 19964kConner CFS1276A 1,2GB 12,3 21,7 19,4 4,1 3,8 11,7 19964kConner CFS1621A 1,6GB 13,5 25,1 22,4 4,1 3,2 9 147Maxtor CorpMaxtor 7131 AT 125MB 15,6 N/A 27,3 4,5 0,8 3,6 3164KBMaxtor 7171 AT 164MB 14,1 N/A 24,8 4,6 0,9 1,3 3764KBMaxtor 7270 AV 270MB 8,1 13 24,4 2,2 2 N/A 8232kMaxtor 7345 AT 340MB 14,2 N/A 25,6 4,8 0,8 4,3 3164kMaxtor 7346 AT 520MB 9,4 15,5 21,3 2,2 R=3,0 5,1 142256kMaxtor 7420 AV 400MB 9,9 18,2 25,8 2,5 R=1,7 2,4 6632kMaxtor 7540 AV 514MB 10,7 17,4 25,2 3 2,1 N/A 8632KBMaxtor 7540 AQ 540MB 10,8 17,8 25,3 4,5 2,2 N/A 9064kMaxtor MXT-540 AT 504MB 8,6 15,2 14 1,9 R=2,7 3,4 195256kMaxtor 7541 A 517MB 9,3 11,4 24,7 2,9 3,7 10,9 15564KBMaxtor 7850 AV 850MB 11,7 19,4 26,1 4 2,5 N/A 9864kMXT-1240S SCSI 1,1GB 9,6 16,7 14,3 3,2 R=3,5 8,7 253Maxtor 71084 A 1,0GB 10 15,6 24,6 3,5 3,8 13,7 15964KBMaxtor 71260 AP 1,3GB 11,1 17,6 24,7 3,2 3,7 6,8 150128kMaxtor 71629 AP 1,5GB 10,8 17,8 19,6 4,2 4,1 12,7 217128KBMaxtor 72004 AP 1,9GB 11,8 20,2 20 4,5 R=4,3 12,7 219128KBMaxtor 81620D2 1,5GB 10,5 17,7 16,9 3 R=8,2 13,1 495256KBMaxtor 82160D2 2,0GB 10,7 18,6 17,3 3,3 R=10,3 13,1 610256KBMaxtor 82560A4 2,4GB 9,9 18,7 16,4 3 R=7,7 14,5 481256KBMaxtor 83240D3 3,0GB 10,9 18,7 17,8 3,2 R=8,3 8,7 480256KBMaxtor 83500 A8 3,3GB 12,9 24,5 19,8 5,1 R=4,6 12,9 237128KBMaxtor 85120 A8 4,8GB 10 18,8 16,4 3 R=7,6 14,7 471256KBMaxtor 88400D8 7,8GB 10,5 18 17,3 3,2 R=10,4 13,1 614256KBFujitsuM2681TA 251MB 12,2 24,5 21,4 3,8 R=1,5 10,1 71256KBM2682TA 335MB 12,1 24,5 21,8 3,7 R=1,4 11,1 64256KBFUJITSU M2684TAM 528MB 12,1 24,5 21,9 5,2 2,1 10,8 95256kM1603TA 519MB 9,7 18,8 17,9 4,5 3,4 10,6 194256KBFUJITSU M1606TA 1GB 9,5 18,6 18 4,5 3,4 5 193256kM1614TA 1,0GB N/A 20,7 18,9 3,9 R=4,0 11,9 21764KBFUJITSU M2694ESA 1GB 10,2 19,5 17,1 2,5 2,9 3,1 174Fast SCSI-2FUJITSU M1606S 1GB 9,6 18,5 16,8 6,4 3,9 2,8 238Fast SCSI-2FUJITSU M1636TAU 1,2GB 10,1 17,8 19 4 6,2 11,4 337128KBFUJITSU M1623TAU 1,6GB 10,2 17,8 18,7 4,2 R=6,0 12 326128kFUJITSU M1624TAU 2,0GB 10,2 17,1 18,2 4,3 R=6,0 11 340128kFUJITSU M1638TAU 2,4GB 10,2 18 18,6 3,9 6,5 11,7 357128kFUJITSU MPA3017AT 1,6GB 9,3 17,4 16,2 2,7 R=7,1 15,5 446256KBFUJITSU MPA3026AT 2,4GB 9,5 17,1 16,2 3,2 R=7,0 14,3 445256KBFUJITSU MPA3035AT 3,3GB 9,3 17,1 16,1 3,1 R=7,1 14,3 449FUJITSU MPA3043AT 4,1GB 9,3 17,2 16,2 3,5 R=7,1 12,8 448FUJITSU MPA3052AT 4,9GB 9,8 17,5 16,4 4 R=7,1 11,2 444FUJITSU MPB3021ATU 2,0GB 9,4 17,4 16,1 3,1 R=8,5 12 540FUJITSU MPB3043ATU 4,0GB 9,4 17,4 16,2 3,5 R=8,5 12,4 539FUJITSU MPB3052ATU 4,9GB 9,3 N/A 16,2 N/A R=8,6 15,1 542SamsungSamsung Electronics 115MB 16,3 N/A 29,7 4,5 0,3 4,8 11120MB SHD-3062A 32KBSAMSUNG SHD-3121A 119MB 14,6 24,6 25,2 4,2 R=0,5 1,9 22(APOLLO) 64KBSAMSUNG SHD-30420A 420MB 12,1 22,9 23,9 3,5 1,5 6 65(APRO-5) SSI 126kSAMSUNG SHD-30560A 540MB 12,5 22,9 24,1 3,8 1,6 4,1 66(APRO-5) SSI 126kSAMSUNG PLS-30854A 810MB 11,2 20,3 18,9 3,4 3 10,7 163256kSAMSUNG PLS-31084A 1GB 11,7 21,1 19,5 3,7 3,2 8,3 169256kSAMSUNG PLS-31274A 1,2GB 11,1 20,7 18,5 3,4 3,2 10,4 176256kSAMSUNG WN312016A 1,1GB 9,6 16,9 15,8 3,5 1,7 1,9 110(1200MB) 108KBSAMSUNG WNR-31601A 1,5GB 9,3 16,6 15,3 3,6 3,3 4 222(1600MB) /4300 RPM 256KBSAMSUNG WNR-31601A 1,5GB 9,1 16,8 15,5 3,4 R=3,6 11,1 237(1,6GB) /3600 RPM 109KBSAMSUNG WN321620A 2,0GB 10,7 17,4 18,7 7,4 2,4 5,2 132(2,16 GB) 109KBMicropolisMicropolis 4110A 1GB 9 18,4 15,5 1,4 3,7 9,3 247508kMicropolis Tomahawk 3,8GB 10,1 16,9 13,9 3,4 R=8,2 20,9 6014341WS UW SCSIIBMIBM-DBOA-2360 344MB 13,3 21,8 22,3 4,3 2,4 4,7 11264KBIBM-DALA-3540 504MB 10,8 17,4 19,9 2,8 3 7,1 15296KBIBM-DJAA-31700 1,6GB 10,6 18 19,7 2,4 4 8,4 20896kIBM-DAQA-32160 2GB 9,1 14,8 15,7 3,2 R=5,8 13,1 37796kIBM-DCAA-33610 3,4GB 8,6 15 15,1 2,4 R=6,7 12 45596kIBM-DCAA-34330 4,0GB 8,5 15 15,1 2,6 R=6,8 12 46296KBIBM-DHEA-34330 4,0GB 8,7 14,9 15,1 2,6 R=8,2 16,5 560476KBIBM-DHEA-36480 6,0GB 8,6 14 14,8 2,3 R=8,4 15,5 581476KBIBM DORS 32160 2,0GB 10,2 16,5 15,9 4 4,8 5,7 308SCSIIBM UltraStar ES 2,0GB N/A N/A 15,7 N/A 4,8 5,7 314UltraWide SCSI-2 512kDCAS-32160 /UW SCSI 2,0GB 8,8 15,1 15,4 3,1 6,5 17,8 435Ultrastar 2ESIBM DCAS-34330W 4,0GB 9,2 15,5 15,7 2,9 R=6,7 33,2 438UW SCSI-2IBM UltraStar XP 4,2GB 9,2 16,8 13,6 3,1 6,9 N/A 520Wide/Fast SCSI-2IBM DCHS-34550 4,5GB N/A N/A 12,4 N/A 8,8 N/A 723UltraStar 2XP SCSIIBM Ultrastar 2XP 7,8GB N/A N/A 13,3 2,3 R=9,2 N/A 705DCHS-39100 F/W SCSI 512KBIBM DGHS-39110 7,8GB N/A N/A 10,9 N/A R=12,8 N/A 1208UW SCSI-2 1MBNEC CorporationNEC Corporation 1,0GB N/A N/A 21,5 N/A 3,8 N/A 182D3745 66KBNEC Corporation 1,6GB N/A N/A 20,7 N/A 5 N/A 246DSE1700A 64KHewlett PackardHP SureStoreDisk 2GB 10,7 19,1 17,6 3,7 4,7 8,1 272C3725S Fast SCSI-2HP C2247-300 996MB 10,7 18,9 18 4,5 R=2,8 3 160SCSI-2TEAC CorpSD-3250N 240MB 18 N/A 28,4 3,2 0,8 1,8 29128KBTEAC SD-3540N 520MB 12 21,3 20,2 2,6 1,7 3,4 86128kKalokKalok P3250AN 240MB 18,1 N/A 28,6 3,2 0,8 1,5 28128kMiniscribe CorpMiniscribe 8051A 40MB 26,5 N/A 35,5 6 0,4 1,4 11ToshibaTOSHIBA MK1924FCV 503MB 14,5 24,1 23,3 6,9 R=1,4 1,4 60128KBJTS CorporationJTS Corp, PALLADIUM 1,1GB N/A N/A 23,2 5,6 1,4 2,2 63Model P1200-2AF 32KBJTS Corp, CHAMP 1,2GB 14,6 N/A 23,1 4,2 R=1,8 10 80Model C1300-2AF 128KBJTS Corp, CHAMP 1,9GB 14,5 N/A 22,9 3,7 R=1,8 6,7 79Model C2000-3AF 128KBDECDEC RZ35-C 812MB 11,4 20,2 17,3 4,4 R=2,2 6,6 130SCSIDEC DSP3107LS 1019MB 11,4 20,8 17,3 4,7 R=3,8 5 227SCSI-2Naiaeiay oaaeeoea ia?aiao?ia iiieoi?iaOa?aeoa?enoeeeIiaeaeue O?oaea*anoiou ?acaa?oie?ac?aoaieaVideoBand Noaiaea?oia eceo/aiey I?eia/aiey  Aeeaa. Ca?ii, iiai?ec./aeeaa. Ai?.kHz Aa?o.Hz Iaec. ?aeii. width,MHz    HITACHICM500ET 15" .23/.28 30-69 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 85 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFCM500U/E Pro 15" .23/.28 30-69 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 85 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFCM600ET 17" .22/.28 30-64 47-104 [email protected] [email protected] 100 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFCM620ET 17" .22/.28 30-69 47-130 [email protected] [email protected] 110 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFCM611ET 17" .21/.26 25-86 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 135 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDFCM630ET 17" .21/.26 25-86 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 135 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDFCM751ET 19" .22/.27 31-92 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 180 TCO`95 AEADF, OSD, DDCCM802E 21" .21/.26 31-100 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 200 MPR II AEADF, OSD, DDCCM802ET 21" .21/.26 31-100 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 200 TCO`95 AEADF, OSD, DDCCM803ET 21" .21/.26 31-115 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 240 TCO`95 AEADF, OSD, DDCCM2112MET 21" .21/.26 31-110 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 220 TCO`92 AEADF, OSD, DDCSAMSUNG3Ne 14" /.28 31-48 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Analog, DDC500s 15" /.28 30-54 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 56 MPR II DDC500Ms 15" /.28 30-54 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 56 MPR II DDC, MM500b 15" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC500Mb 15" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM500p 15" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, DDF500Mp 15" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM700s 17" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 80 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) DDF, OSD700Ms 17" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 80 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDF, MM700b 17" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, DDF700Mb 17" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM700p 17" /.26 30-85 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, DDF700Mp 17" /.26 30-85 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM1000p 20" /.26 30-107 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 230 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, DDFDAEWOOCMC 1427X 14" /.28 30-50 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II AnalogCMC 1502B1 15" /.28 30-65 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDCCMC 1511B 15" /.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDCCMC 1509B 15" /.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDC, MMCMC 1703B 17" /.28 30-64 48-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDCCMC 1704C 17" /.28 24-86 50-150 [email protected] [email protected] 100 MPR II OSD, DDCCMC 1705B 17" /.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDC, MMCMC 1707B 17" /.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 85 MPR II OSD, DDCCMC 2000M 20" /.28 30-82 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 120 MPR II DigitalCMC 2102M 21" /.28 30-82 50-120 [email protected] 1280x10[email protected] 110 MPR II DigitalGOLDSTAR Studioworks1466LRs 14" /.28 31-48 56-87 [email protected] not tested 65 MPR II Analog45i 14" /.28 30-54 50-90 [email protected] not tested 65 MPR II Digital, DDC44i 14" /.28 30-50 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDC44m 14" /.28 30-50 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDC, MM1505s 15" /.28 31-48 56-87 [email protected] not tested 65 MPR II Analog54i 15" /.28 30-54 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II OSD, DDC54m 15" /.28 30-50 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II OSD, DDC, MM55i 15" /.28 30-54 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDC56i 15" /.28 30-65 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDC57i 15" /.28 30-69 50-110 [email protected] not tested 110 MPR II OSD, DDC56m 15" /.28 30-60 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDC, MM5D 15" /.28 30-65 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 100 MPR II OSD, DDC, MM7D 17" /.28 30-65 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDC, MM74i 17" /.39 30-50 50-90 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDC76i 17" /.28 30-65 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDC77i 17" /.28 30-69 50-160 [email protected] not tested 110 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDF78i 17" /.26 30-85 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDF1725s 17" /.28 30-65 50-120 [email protected] not tested 111 MPR II Digital, DDC78D 17" .25/ 30-85 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II OSD, DDC, Diamondtron20i 20" /.28 30-85 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 130 MPR II OSD, DDC28i 21" /.28 30-85 50-120 [email protected] not tested 150 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFSONY Multiscan100sx 15" .25/ 30-65 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 120 MPR II OSD, DDC100sf 15" .25/ 30-80 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 120 TCO`92 OSD, DDC100ES 15" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae MPR II OSD, DDC100GST 15" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae TCO'95 OSD, DDC120AS 15" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae MPR II OSD, DDC200sx 17" .25/ 30-70 50-150 [email protected] [email protected] 120 MPR II OSD, DDC200sf 17" .25/ 30-80 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 120 TCO`92 OSD, DDC200pst 17" .25/ 30-92 48-160 [email protected] [email protected] i/ae TCO`95 OSD, DDC, MALS200EST 17" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae TCO`92 OSD, DDC, MALS200GST 17" .25/ 30-85 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae TCO`95 OSD, DDC, MALS400PST 19" .25/ 30-94 48-160 [email protected] not tested i/ae TCO`95 OSD, DDC, MALS300sft 20" .30/ 30-86 49-150 [email protected] [email protected] 150 TCO`95 OSD, DDC20sell 20" .25/ 30-96 48-160 [email protected] [email protected] 160 TCO`95 OSD, DDC20sh 20" .25/ 30-107 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 180 TCO`92 OSD, DDCVIEWSONICE641 14" /.28 30-54 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDCE655 15" /.28 30-70 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDCG653 15" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 110 TCO'95 OSD, DDC15GA 15" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 86 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDF, MM15GS 15" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 86 TCO`92 OSD, DDCE771 17" /.27 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 100 MPR II OSD, DDCEA771 17" /.27 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 86 MPR II OSD, DDCEA771B 17" /.27 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 120 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDf, MM17GA 17" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 86 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDF, MM17GS 17" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 135 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDF17PS 17" /.25 30-86 50-160 1600x1280 [email protected] 135 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFPT770 17" .25/ 24-82 50-130 1600x1280 [email protected] 120 MPR II OSD, DDC, SonictronP775 17" .25/ 30-95 50-180 [email protected] [email protected] 205 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDFPT775 17" .25/ 30-96 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 200 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDF, SonicTronG771 17" /.27 30-70 50-180 [email protected] not tested 108 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFGS771 17" /.27 30-70 50-180 [email protected] not tested 108 TCO`95 OSD, DDCG733 17" /.26 30-70 50-160 [email protected] not tested 110 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDFGT770 17" /.25 31-64 50-120 [email protected] not tested 86 TCO`92 OSD, DDCGT775 17" /.25 30-86 50-160 [email protected] not tested 135 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFG790 19" /.26 30-95 50-180 1600x1280 not tested 200 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDFG800 20" /.28 30-86 50-120 1600x1280 [email protected] 135 TCO'92 OSD, DDC, DDFG810 21" /.25 30-89 50-160 [email protected] not tested 154 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFP810 21" .22/.25 30-95 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 200 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDF21PS 21" /.25 30-86 50-160 1600x1280 [email protected] 135 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFPT810 21" /.30 30-96 50-120 1600x1280 [email protected] 200 TCO`92 OSD, DDCPT813 21" /.28 30-107 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 230 TCO`95 OSD, DDC, DDF, SonictronPT815 21" /.25 30-115 50-160 1800x1440 [email protected] 250 TCO`92 OSD, DDC29GA 29" .75 Stripe Pt. 15-64 45-160 [email protected] not tested i/ae i/ae OSD, DDC, MMOptiquestV641 14" /.28 31,37,48 50-90 1024x768 not tested 65 MPR II Analog, DDCQ41 14" /.28 30-48 50-90 1024x768 not tested 65 MPR II Digital, DDCV655 15" /.28 30-70 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDCQ53 15" /.28 30-70 50-90 [email protected] not tested 110 MPR II Digital, DDCQ51 15" /.28 30-54 50-90 [email protected] not tested 65 MPR II Digital, DDCQ71 17" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 135 MPR II OSD, DDCV773 17" /.26 30-70 50-180 [email protected] not tested 89 MPR II OSD, DDCV775 17" /.26 30-85 50-120 [email protected] not tested 135 MPR II OSD, DDCV95 19" /.26 30-95 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 200 TCO`92 OSD, DDCQ100 20" /.28 30-86 50-120 [email protected] not tested 135 MPR II OSD, DDCV115 21" /.26 30-95 50-160 1600x1280 not tested 200 TCO`92 OSD, DDCMAG Innovision410V2 14" /.28 30-50 50-100 [email protected] not tested   MPR II DDCD410 14" /.28 30-54 50-100 [email protected] not tested 65 MPR II DDC510V2 15" /.28 30-50 50-100 [email protected] not tested n/a MPR II DDC710V2 17" /.28 30-65 50-120 [email protected] not tested n/a MPR II OSD, DDC720V2 17" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested n/a MPR II OSD, DDCDX15T 15" .25/ 30-64 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 80 MPR II OSD, DDC, TrinitronDJ530 15" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 80 MPR II OSD, DDCXJ530 15" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 80 TCO'92 OSD, DDCDX700T 17" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested 100 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDF, TrinitronDX715T 17" .25/ 30-86 50-160 [email protected] not tested 135 MPR II OSD, DDC, DiamondtronDJ700 17" /.26 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested n/a MPR II OSD, DDCXJ700 17" .25/ 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 100 TCO'95 OSD, DDCDJ702e 17" /.28 30-65 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] i/ae MPR II OSD, DDC, MicrofilterDJ702 17" /.26 30-70 50-120 [email protected] not tested i/ae MPR II OSD, DDC, MicrofilterDJ707 17" .22/.26 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 100 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDCDJ717 17" .22/.26 30-86 50-160 [email protected] not tested 135 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDCDJ800 19" .22/.26 30-86 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDCDJ920 21" /.28 30-110 50-160 [email protected] not tested 200 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDCPhilips104S 14" .24/.28 31-48 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 45 MPR II DDC104B 14" .24/.28 30-54 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II DDC105S 15" .24/.28 30-54 50-100 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II OSD, DDC105B 15" .24/.28 30-70 50-110 [email protected] [email protected] 108 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM107S 17" .24/.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II OSD, DDC107B 17" .24/.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 110 MPR II, TCO`92(iioe) OSD, DDC, MM201B 21" .22/.28 30-94 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 203 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDCBrilliance 105 15" .24/.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 108 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MMBrilliance 107 17" .22/.28 30-86 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 135 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MMBrilliance 109 19" .22/.28 30-95 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 203 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MMBrilliance 201 21" .22/.28 30-107 50-170 [email protected] [email protected] 220 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, DDF, MMBrilliance 201CS 21" .22/.28 30-107 50-170 [email protected] [email protected] 220 MPR II, TCO`95(iioe) OSD, DDC, MMPanasonicPanaSync, PanaFlat (PF), PanaMedia (PM)E15 15" /.27 30-61 50-90 [email protected] not tested 75 MPR II OSD, DDCPM15 15" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] not tested 86 MPR II OSD, DDC, MME50 15" /.27 30-61 50-120 [email protected] not tested 86 MPR II OSD, DDCS15 15" /.27 30-67 50-120 [email protected] not tested 85 MPR II OSD, DDCPro P15 15" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 86 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFPM17 17" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] not tested 86 MPR II OSD, DDC, MMS17 17" /.27 30-69 50-160 [email protected] not tested 86 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFS70 17" /.27 30-70 50-180 [email protected] not tested 108 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFPro P17 17" /.25 30-86 50-160 [email protected] not tested 135 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFPF17 17" /.24 30-86 50-160 [email protected] not tested 135 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFE21 21" /.25 30-89 50-160 [email protected] not tested 160 MPR II OSD, DDC, DDFS21 21" /.25 30-95 50-160 [email protected] not tested 202.5 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFPro P21 21" /.25 30-115 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 250 TCO`92 OSD, DDC, DDFBelinea10 40 10 14" /.28 30-54 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 65 MPR II Digital, DDC10 50 35 15" /.28 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 86 MPR II OSD, DDC10 50 45 15" /.27 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 86 TCO' 95 OSD, DDC10 50 76 15" /.27 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 86 TCO'95 OSD, DDC, MM10 70 20 17" /.28 30-70 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 100 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 70 15 17" /.27 30-70 50-180 [email protected] [email protected] 110 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 55 86 17" /.27 30-69 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 110 TCO'95 OSD, DDC, MM10 70 35 17" /.27 30-95 50-180 [email protected] [email protected] 158 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 55 96 17" .26/.25 30-85 50-120 [email protected] [email protected] 135 TCO'95 OSD, DDC, MM10 70 50 17" .25/ 30-95 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 160 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 60 90 19" /.26 30-95 50-150 [email protected] [email protected] 135 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 80 95 21" /.25 30-95 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 202.5 TCO'95 OSD, DDC10 80 15 21" /.26 30-115 50-160 [email protected] [email protected] 250 TCO'95 OSD, DDCNie?auaiey:Analog oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony iioaioeeiiao?aieDigital oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony eiiieaieOSD On Screen Display, ye?aiiia iaith iano?ieee iiieoi?aDDC Display Data Channel, eioa?oaen iaiaia aeaiiuie n iiieoi?iiMM Multimedia, ano?iaiiua eieiiee e iee?ioiiDDF Dual Dinamic Focus, nenoaia aeaieiie aeeiaie/aneie oieone?iaee, iaania/eaaao ?aceinoue ii e?ayi ecia?aaeaieyAEADF Advanced Elliptical Aperture with Dinamic Focus, nenoaia aeeiaie/aneie oieone?iaee, iaania/eaaao ?aceinoue ii anaio iieth ecia?aaeaieyMALS Multi Astigmatism Lens System, nenoaia i?aoeeceiiiie oieone?iaee ii anae iiaa?oiinoe ye?aian/a (i/ae) ia aeinooiii (naaaeaiey ia aeinooiiu eee ia oeacaiu)not tested oanoe?iaaiea ia i?iaiaeeeinueA nayce n iaoi/iinoueth, aiciiaeiinoueth ioeaee, iaaeia?iniaanoiinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeathueo eioi?iaoeeth e o.i. oaaeeoea iiaeao niaea?aeaoue iaaa?iua naaaeaiey. Iai?eia? i/aiue aieueoay i?iaeaia auynieoue iieino i?iioneaiey aeaeaioneeeoaey (bandwidth) iiieoi?a, a o iiieoi?ia SONY iia i?inoi iai?inoi ia oeacaia.?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo aeaeaiaenaea?aoi?iaA ea/anoaa noaiaea acyoa neaaeothuay nenoaia:I?ioeanni? Intel Pentium II 300 MHzIaoa?eineay ieaoa ASUS P2L97-S,Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue 96Mb SDRAMIia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia Windows 98 beta3 build 1677,A ea/anoaa iauaeoia eniuoaiee auee acyou aeaeaiieaou:Ec eeanna aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo 3D e 2D aenaea?aoi?ia a oeaiiaie eaoaai?ee $130-200:Canopus Total 3D V128 (/einao NVidia Riva128) PCI, 4MbCanopus Pure 3D (/einao 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics), PCI, 6MbDiamond Viper V330 PCI (/einao Nvidia Riva128) PCI, 4MbDiamond Viper V330 AGP (/einao Nvidia Riva128) AGP, 4MbDiamond Monster 3D (/einao 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics) PCI, 4MbMatrox Millenium (/einao Matrox MGA2064W) PCI, 4MbMatrox Millenium II (/einao Matrox MGA2164W) AGP, 4MbASUS AGP-V264GT3 (/einao ATI 3D Rage Pro AGP 2x), 6MbASUS 3DexPlorer V3000 AGP (/einao Nvidia Riva 128), 4MbATI [email protected] AGP (/einao ATI 3D Rage Pro AGP 2x), 4MbNumber Nine Revolution 3D PCI (/einao #9 Ticket To Ride), 4MbDiamond Fire GL 1000 Pro AGP (/einao 3DLabs Permedia-2),3DLabs AGP (/einao 3DLabs Permedia-2), 4MbASUS 3DexPlorer AGP-V2740 (*einao Intel 740), 8MbEc eeanna aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia n i?eaieaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth a oeaiiaie eaoaai?ee $35-70:Eagle S3 Virge GX-2 AGP, 4MbEagle S3 Virge DX PCI, 2MbAristo Trident 3D image 9750 AGP, 4MbAristo Trident 3D image 9850 AGP, 4Mbe aeey n?aaiaiey 4–o eaoiae aeaaiinoe Diamond Stealth 64 DRAM (S3 Vision 864) PCI, 2Mb.A ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa?ey oanoe?iaaiey auee acyou:Aai/ia?e-Aeaii Final Reality v.1.01 (Remedy Group & VNU Corp.)Ego Software XDEMO v.1.02, enoaoe, oaea auoea aa?ney 1.03.PC Player Direct 3D Benchmark v.1.10 (Einstainluggen)Ziff-Davis 3D-WinBench 97 v.1.0Ziff-Davis WinBench 97 v.1.0?acoeueoaouAeaeu oanoiaOeiu aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia e oneiaey oanoe?iaaieyCanopus Pure 3DDiamond Monster 3DCanopusTotal 3D V128Diamond Viper v33050 MHz 60 MHz50 MHz57 MHzPCIAGP v.1.023Ae?aeaa?u Win98beta3Ae?aeaa?u v.1.023Final Reality v.1.0125 Pixel160,22 140,1159,63159,78269,19264,43275,9285,5Robots32,86 34,934,0134,1232,7833,9434,7235,5Fill Rate12,6 12,6417,8217,8363,5261,4361,0160,56City Scene40,34 45,444,9745,0638,343,4944,0745,53D Perfomance3,07 3,163,213,213,493,593,613,65Radial Blur33,25 33,1733,7333,7633,7333,534,0933,24Chaos Zoomer49,95 49,4550,3250,1650,4850,4450,9249,92D Processing3,51! 3,51!3,56!3,55!3,563,543,593,512D Bus Transfer29,55 29,4229,6129,5829,2929,5728,1228,113D Bus Transfer23,31 23,3123,5723,4712,612,7812,5212,52Eoia ii Final Reality v.1.012,93 2,973,023,023,133,183,213,21XDEMO 1.02 (fps)50,9 56,749,349,34951,651,7160PC PLayer Direct3D (fps)32,4 32,3303041,342,442,5573D WinBench 97184 190261261262270WinBench97 (Business Benchmarks)Database Graphics- ---13,212,712,812,7Graphics Winmarks- ---134128132132Publishing Graphics- ---13,512,913,313,3WP/SS Graphics- ---13,613,213,413,4Aeaeu oanoia Oeiu aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia e oneiaey oanoe?iaaieyASUS AGP-264GT3ATi [email protected] AGPASUS AGP-V3000 3DexPlorerASUS AGP-V2740Ae?aeaa?u Win98beta3Ae?aeaa?u v.2.278Ae?aeaa?u 2.312turboFinal Reality v.1.0125 Pixel 166,29260,65263211,46279,9303,85Robots 20,7530,6131,630,3634,640,08Fill Rate 45,532,9632,939,7360,8787,92City Scene 21,941,9343,741,944,4751,273D Perfomance 2,823,393,443,393,623,63Radial Blur 34,3334,2534,233,3634,134,2Chaos Zoomer 50,851,3150,850,3450,8752,282D Processing 3,613,623,63,533,593,642D Bus Transfer 155,799,2399,24100,1730,29108,23D Bus Transfer 24,2218,9219,1615,9613,017,9Eoia ii Final Reality v.1.01 3,253,363,383,323,223,48XDEMO 1.02 (fps) 36,2141,84148,659,9453,85PC PLayer Direct3D (fps) 2936,1376256,457,63D WinBench 97 143142150141260273WinBench97 (Business Benchmarks)Database Graphics 1212131312,412,7Graphics Winmarks 121122123127129137Publishing Graphics 12,412,212,81313,210,8WP/SS Graphics 11,911,712,21212,912,7Aeaeu oanoiaOeiu aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia e oneiaey oanoe?iaaieyMatrox Millenium 1995 a.a.Matrox Millenium II AGP#9 Revolution 3D PCIDiamond FireGL 1000Pro3DLabs Permedia-2Final Reality v.1.01**25 Pixel13,617,7108,6256,88260,2Robots0,822610,9633,4233,5Fill Rate0,7219,823,2727,2628,2City Scene1,2135,615,0144,1442,83D Perfomance0,451,72,173,053,07Radial Blur34,2134,334,0434,0634,1Chaos Zoomer51,3151,3351,1350,7551,22D Processing3,613,623,63,593,62D Bus Transfer90107,7111,834,633,83D Bus Transfer9,0731,5238,8417,5718,7Eoia ii Final Reality v.1.011,942,52,792,942,98XDEMO 1.02 (fps)12,529,9223533,5PC PLayer Direct3D (fps)17,743,6***17,937,435,73D WinBench 974578129238239WinBench97 (Business Benchmarks)Database Graphics1313,412,612,612,6Graphics Winmarks129134135129129Publishing Graphics12,713,313,513,313,4WP/SS Graphics1313,713,812,812,8** ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai oanoa oaenoo?u i?i?eniauaaeenue iaiieiinoueth*** ia inouanoaeyeanue i?i?eniaea oaenoo?Aeaeu oanoia Oeiu aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia e oneiaey oanoe?iaaieyEagle S3 VirgeDiamond Stealth64 DRAM (S3 864) Trident 3D 9750 AGP Trident 3D 9850 AGPDX PCI GX-2 AGPFinal Reality v.1.0125 Pixel 97,7 125,75 N/A 119,43 210,96Robots 1,02 10,9 N/A 7,57 19,13Fill Rate 6,83 7,77 N/A 5,56 5,89City Scene 4,53 10,56 N/A 9,37 22,373D Perfomance 1,04 1,66 N/A 1,69 2,53Radial Blur 34,17 34,18 N/A 33,48 33,6Chaos Zoomer 52,04 52,05 N/A 50,72 50,892D Processing 3,63 3,63 N/A 3,55 3,562D Bus Transfer 67,37 109,49 N/A 31,06 94,943D Bus Transfer 21,9 43,9 N/A 30,23 96,84Eoia ii Final Reality v.1.01 1,97 2,54 N/A 2,21 3,15**XDEMO 1.02 (fps) 7,3 13,3 2,8** 11,23 14,2PC PLayer Direct3D (fps) 27*** 36,3*** 6,7** 23,1 9,9**3D WinBench 97 68,2 82,6 51 73,4 151**WinBench97 (Business Benchmarks)Database Graphics 9,5 10,7 5 8,57 9,5Graphics Winmarks 95 102 42,7 88,5 95,2Publishing Graphics 11 11 5,2 9,37 10,5WP/SS Graphics 8,7 9,7 3,8 8,73 9,8** ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai oanoa oaenoo?u i?i?eniauaaeenue iaiieiinoueth*** ia inouanoaeyeanue i?i?eniaea oaenoo?Auaiaeu. Aaeaioa?u noieiinoueth nauoa $100Aeaeaiaenaea?aoi? Canopus Pure 3D iieacae iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?e oaaee/aiee /anoiou n 50 aei 60 IAoe:ii 3D ia 3%,ii 2D iao oaaee/aiey,ii eoiao aai/ia?ea Final Reality — ia 1.4 %,ii XDEMO — ia 11.4 %Yoi aeaao iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi oaaee/aiea /anoiou aeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue yooaeo o aeaiiie ea?oi/ee.Aeaeaiaenaea?aoi? Diamond Monster 3D i?aeoe/anee ieeaeiai i?e?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?e oaaee/aiee /anoiou ia iieacae. Yoi aeaao iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi ianeieueei ae?oaay i?aaiecaoeey Canopus Pure 3D (aaea 6Mb iaiyoe) aeaeaao Pure 3D aieaa yooaeoeaiie.?acoeueoaou n?aaiaiey Pure 3D e Monster 3D aeiaieueii ?acii?a/eau: anee ii ?acoeueoaoai Final Reality Monster 3D iaiaiae Pure 3D, oi ii eoiaai XDEMO iaiai?io, Monster ionoae, /oi oaeaea iiaeoaa?aeeee ?acoeueoaou ii PC Player Direct 3D.Ii /enoi aecoaeueiui iaaethaeaieyi ieaoa Pure 3D auaeyaeeo eo/oa, iaaeaee Monster 3D, e ii ea/anoao ecia?aaeaiey, e ii aiciiaeiinoyi e iano?ieeai. Oaeaea, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou Pure 3D iiae Windows NT, o.a. iaee/ea ae?aeaa?ia aeey iieiioeaiiie ?aaiou, a ia oieueei /a?ac GLide.Iaaieueoia caia/aiea: iaee/ea 6 iaaaaaeo iaiyoe o Pure 3D ia iaania/eaatho ?aaioo a ?aaeeia 800o600 n Z-bufferingii o.e. «eeoiea» 2 Ia (ii n?aaiaieth n Diamond Monster 3D, iai?eia?) eniieuecothony aeey oaenoo?iie iaiyoe, a ia aeey aooa?a eaae?a.Iiaay ieaoa io oe?iu Canopus Total 3D V128 ionoue e iacia/eoaeueii, ana aea i?iea?aea ieaoa Diamond Viper V330 i?aeoe/anee ii anai iieacaoaeyi. Ooo oaea neiaeiue aii?in, iineieueeo iaa ieaou ia iaeiii e oii aea /einaoa Nvidia Riva128, ii Viper V330 ia eiaao aiciiaeiinoe aaiaea–auaiaea ecia?aaeaiey ia TV, a Total 3D V128 eiaao. Aiciiaeii, /oi aaea-oi, eae aiai?eony, «eceeoiyy» eiaeea oaea nua?aea i?eoi?iaaeeaathuoth ?ieue. Oai ia iaiaa, o/eouaay iacia/eoaeueiinoue i?iea?uoa ieaou Total 3D V128 e aa aiaaoua aiciiaeiinoe ii ?aaioa n aiaeiaiaui aaiaeii–auaiaeii, yoa ieaoa io Canopus'a i?aaenoaaeyao iaeioi?ue eioa?an, ii, e niaeaeaieth, aunieay oeaia ieaou noaaeo aa a ?ac?yae iaei iieoiaaiuo.Aeiiieiaiea: 15 ai?aey 1998 aiaea auoee iiaua ae?aeaa?a aeey yoie aeaeaiea?ou iiae Windows 95, aaea aaaaeaia iiaeaea?aeea Open GL e PAL a ooeeeoa V–Shot. Iaeiaei iiaeaea?aeea PAL a V–SHot ii ea/anoao inoaaeyao aeaeaoue eo/oaai, a ea/anoai eai/eiaa a Cinema KX e aei oiai auei ia i/aiue aunieei (ai anyeii neo/aa, ooeeeoa Live3000 io ASUSTeK aeey ea?ou V3000 aeaeaao aai ai?acaei ea/anoaaiiaa).Iaeie ec naiuo aunieeo ?acoeueoaoia iiaeaeeee iaaeaeo niaie ieaou ia aaca AGP: ASUS V3000 e Diamond Viper V330. Iaa — ia /einaoa Riva128. Ea?oa Viper V330 iieacaea iaiiiai aieaa aunieea ?acoeueoaou, ii iia ia iai?oaeiaaia ieeaeeie n?aaenoaaie TV–in/out, iiyoiio, niaei iiaeii ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea ASUS 3DexPlorer V3000 AGP. Ia naiii aeaea ieaoa Diamon Viper v330 auioneaaony a aa?eaioa n TV–in/out, ii, e niaeaeaieth oieueei n iiaeaea?aeei USA NTSC, e iiyoiio e iai ia iinoaaeyaony.Oanoe?iaaiea aeaeaiea?o Viper V330 i?ienoiaeeei ia 2–o aa?neyo ae?aeaa?ia: ia ano?iaiiuo a Windows 98 beta3 e v.1.023 io Diamond Multimedia. Iaauaiiiai oe?iie Diamond iiuiiai i?e?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o ieaou Viper V330 i?e onoaiiaea iineaaeieo «Turbo» ae?aeaa?ia aa?nee 1.023 ia i?iecioei. Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeei a n?aaeiai oieueei 1%.Oanoe?iaaiea ieaou V264GT3 i?ienoiaeeei ia 3–o aa?neyo ae?aeaa?ia: ano?iaiiuo a Windows 98 beta3, v.2.278 e v.2.312 turbo (beta). E aio eioa?aniua ?acoeueoaou o ea?ou ASUS V264GT3 ia /einaoa ATI 3D Rage Pro AGP 2x, auiieiaiiie ia aaca AGP. Ii anai iieacaoaeyi iia yaii e neeueii i?iea?uaaao naiei eiieo?aioai ia /einaoa Riva128, iaeiaei ae, ii o?ainoa?o ii oeia iia yaii ai iiiai ?ac iia?aaeeea eo, /ai e aucaai aue iaeaieaa aunieee iauee ?acoeueoao ii Final Reality. Ii oanoo 3D Winbench yoa ea?oa i/aiue neeueii i?iea?aea eiieo?aioai ia /einaoa Riva 128.Aeaeaiieaoa Canopus Pure3D caneoaeeaaao any/aneiai aieiaiey, aeaeaiieaoo Canopus Total 3D V128 noieo i?eia?aoaoue oieueei a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaiou n «aeeaui» aeaeai, eia/a aeaoaaea eoieoue Viper V330 io Diamond'a, eioi?ue i?aainoiaeeo ii oanoai Total 3D, aeaeaiieaoo ASUS V264GT3 neaaeoao i?eia?aoaoue oaeaea, anee iaiaoiaeeia ?aaioa n «aeeaui» aeaeai (/oi i/aiue i?ae?anii ia yoie ea?oa i?aaieciaaii), iiiai ?aaiou n 2D–a?aoeeie, iniaaiii n aieueoeie oaenoo?aie (eniieueciaaiea AGP aoaeao yooaeoeaii). Aeaeaiea?oo Diamond Monster 3D iiaeii i?eia?aoaoue, anee ia aoaeao oaaoaoue n?aaenoa ia iaiiiaei aieaa aei?iaoth ieaoo Pure3D.N?aco aeaeii, /oi ae?aeaa?a io ATI Technologies, aeaaea ia naiua iineaaeiea, aeaee nouanoaaiiue i?e?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n ae?aeaa?aie, ii oiie/aieth iinoaaeyaiuie n Windows 98 beta3, e yoi iniaaiii iuooeii a 3D — ieiei 20% ii oanoai Final Reality e 15% ii XDEMO.A aio noieue ?ac?aeeaie?iaaiiiai ATI Technologies i?e?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe io onoaiiaee ae?aeaa?ia 2.312 Turbo ia i?iecioei. Ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouae aa?neae 2.278 i?e?ino ninoaaee a n?aaeiai 1.5%, /oi aeaeaei io iaauaiiuo 40%.Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae auynieeinue, ?aaioa aeaeaiieaou /a?ac oa eee eiua ae?aeaa?a aeaao neeueiua ioee/ey a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, n iiauie ae?aeaa?aie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeaeaiieaou ASUS AGP–V264GT3 ianeieueei i?eaeeceeanue e eeaea?ai ia /einaoa Riva128 (oioy aua aeaeaei, iniaaiii ii oanoai 3D–WinBench), /oi aeaao yoie ieaoa iaaieueoea i?aeiouanoaa, o/eouaay aa aiaeiaiaue aaiae–auaiae e i?ae?aniia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea io ATI Technologies.Aeaeaiieaoa ia oii aea /einaoa Rage Pro AGP 2x, ii i?iecaiaenoaa naiie ATI Technologies — [email protected] ia aaca AGP iieacaea i?aeoe/anee oa aea ?acoeueoaou, /oi e ASUS V264GT3, iaeiaei oaeeaeoaeueii «oaaaeaea» aia?aae ii oanoo PC Player 3D. Iaaeinoaoeii yoie ieaou iiaeii n/eoaoue ia/aoeia aea?aeaiea /anoiou ?acaa?oee (iia ieaaaao, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ?aaoey?iui iiaea?aeaaieai ye?aia).I aeaeaiieaoao io Matrox Graphics iiaeii naeaeaoue ianeieueei auaiaeia:a 1995 aiaeo aeaenoaeoaeueii auea naeaeaia iiuiaeoay ii 2D aeaeaiieaoa Millenium, eioi?oth oieueei NAAIAeIss aeiaiaee inoaeueiua ea?ou ii eeiee 2D, a oii /enea e ATI Technologies, eioi?ay aua 2–3 aiaea iacaae ee/eeanue, /oi o iaa ia ooaea, /ai o Matrox'a.Iaeiaei, Matrox Graphics inoaiiaeeanue ia aeinoeaiooii, «ii/eaay ia eaa?ao» ianeieueei eao, iiiiieaoenue aoi?iiyo naeaeaea Millenium II, eioi?ue, eae aeaeii, ia neeueii ioee/aaony a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe io naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea, ii a oeaia ioee/aaony aunieeie oeeo?aie.3D a?aoeee o «ia?aiai» Millenium'a aiiaua iao (aea e ia ioaeii, oae eae ia aeey yoiai caaeoiuaaeanue yoa ea?oa), ii ii/aio–oi, aianoi oiai, /oiau oneeeaaoue 2D o Millenium'a II (yoi «eiiae» o ea?o io Matrox'a), oe?ia aeiaaaeea oeeaiueeee 3D, i?aeoe/anee ia oeo/oeea 2D e auionoeea Millenium II.I aeaeaiea?oa io oe?iu «Nimber Nine» — #9 Revolution 3D. Ii oeaia yoi naiay aei?iaay aeaeaiieaoa ec anao oanoe?oaiuo. Oaeaea i iae iiiai auei ?aeeaiu i aa iiue, iaeiaei ae, oanou iieacaee i/aiue e i/aiue ne?iiiua ?acoeueoaou ii cayaeaiiie 3D a?aoeea (ii 2D a?aoeea iia — ia o?iaia inoaeueiuo), aeaaea iiae/an ooaea, /ai o aeaeaiieao ia /eia ATI 3D Rage Pro. Aio oae anee aeaaaoue niaao /aai IA iaaei iieoiaoue ieeiaaea, oae yoi ia yoie ieaoa!Enoaoe, ii 2D #9 Revolution iaiaiaea aeaaea Matrox Millenium II AGP! O.a., iiyoue aea cayaeaiiia oe?iie Matrox Graphics iainii?eiia i?aeiouanoai Millenium II ii 2D a?aoeea ieacaeinue oaeaea eiaeiui.Auaiaeu ii ieaoa Diamond Fire GL 1000 Pro. Iieacaea naay iaaeaaeiie ii ?aaioa, ae?aeaa?a anoaee aac i?iaeai, ii ii anai oanoai iia i?iea?aea ieaoai ia /einaoa Riva128, oaeaea ia ?yaea oanoia ia auei iieiie i?i?eniaee oaenoo? (iniaaiii a Final Reality). Oaeei ia?acii, n?aco iuouaeanue iai?aaeaiiinoue yoie ieaou oieueei ia i?ioanneiiaeueioth ?aaioo a 2D e 3D a?aoeea (eaeaaeueii iiaeoiaeeo aeey NAI?). Eniieueciaaeenue ae?aeaa?a eae io Diamond, oae e io 3DLabs, ?acoeueoaou iieo/eeenue i/aiue noiaee. O/eouaay ioiineoaeueii iaaieueooth oeaio yoie ea?ou, aa iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeey ethaeoaeae OpenGL. Ieaoa eiaao oaeaea auoiae ia 3D–i/ee.A aio ea?oa, oaeaea ia /einaoa Permedia–2, ii iaecaanoiiai «aaoi?a» (i?inoi iaienaii ia iae, /oi naeaeaia a Oaeaaia), ii oeaia iaiiiai ieaea i?aaeuaeouae iiaeaee n 4–iy iaaiaaeoaie iaiyoe, iieacaea i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaua ?acoeueoaou, /oi e Fire GL 1000 Pro. I?e iaee/ee iieiie iiaeaea?aeee a ae?aeaa?ao io i?iecaiaeeoaey /einaoa – 3DLabs iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeaaea yoo ea?oo ia?aaia n i?aaeuaeouae iiaeaeueth.Naiie iineaaeiae ii a?aiaie oanoe?iaaiey auea oieueei /oi auoaaeoay e iiyaeaoayny iinea 10 ai?aey a Iineaa aeaeaiieaoa io ASUSTeK V2740 ia aaca /einaoa i740 (AGP aa?eaio). Iia eiaao 8 iaaaaaeo ia?anoe?yaiie iaiyoe. Yoa ieaoa iieacaea iaeeo/oea ?acoeueoaou ec anao. E?iia oiai, ea/anoai ecia?aaeaiey o iaa n?aaieii n Matrox Millenium (ia aunieeo ?ac?aoaieyo). Oioy yoi ia yaeyaony ?aaiethoeeae a 3D, eae cayaeyea Intel, iaoaaeeaay naie /einao 740, ii aeey oeaiu a $128.00 iia aeaao iaeaunoee iieacaoaeue oeaia–i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Eae anaaaea, a ia?auo aa?neyo ae?aeaa?ia Open GL ionoonoaoao eae eeann.Auaiaeu. Aaeaioa?u noieiinoueth io $35 aei $70.Ia?auie oanoe?iaaeenue ieaou ia /einaoao S3 Virge. Io anee ne?iiiay ieaoa Eagle S3 Virge DX PCI e ii oeaia $35 aeaea oaeea aea ne?iiiua ?acoeueoaou (o/anoue oaeaea iaaei e oi, /oi o iaa auei anaai 2 iaaiaaeoa iaiyoe), oi ieaoa Eagle S3 Virge GX–2 AGP ii oeaia nauoa $70 iieacaea naay ioithaeue «ia ia yoo oeaio».Oaeaea, ieaoa S3 Virge GX–2 o?oaeii ia?aeeth/aea /anoiou ?acaa?oee, i?e onoaiiaea aunieeo ?ac?aoaiee (1024o768) ia ye?aia ea?oeiea auea caiooiaia (eniieueciaaeny iiieoi? Nokia 447Xav 17"), /aai ia auei ie o iaeiie ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeaiea?o.Ea?oa Aristo Trident 9750 AGP ia /eia Trident 3D image aiiaua iieacaea iaeooaeoee iieacaoaeue oeaia–ea/anoai, iineieueeo iia noieo aieaa $80, a ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe onooiaao i?aaeuaeouae ?anniio?aiiie ea?oa. Oaeaea nouanoaoao ?aciuoinoue ye?aia i?e aunieeo ?ac?aoaieyo.A aio n ?acoeueoaoaie Aristo Trident 9850 AGP ana neiaeiaa. Iia iieacaea ?acoeueoaou aeiaieueii aunieea ii aaee/eia, oaeei ia?acii ii auno?iaeaenoaeth iiaeao ninoycaoueny n oaeeie «aieeaie» eae ATI [email protected] e aeaaea #9 Revolution 3D, e aeaoaaea eo ?aca a 2–3, ii ii ea/anoao yoa ea?oa (eee yoio /einao) onooiaao anai ieaoai, e?iia Virge. Ana oanou iieacaee oaeaniia ea/anoai i?i?eniaie oaenoo?, aacaea auei aanueia iuooeii aecoaeueiia ionoaaaiea ii i?i?eniaeai aiiaua. Oioy ?aciuoinoe ye?aia, eae o i?aaeuaeouae iiaeaee, ia auei.Anee 3–4 aiaea iacaae aeaeaiieaoa Diamond Stealth 64 DRAM n/eoaeanue «yeeoiie», ii oeaia auea aeinooiia iaiiiaei, oi oaia?ue aa ?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey iaeiicia/ii iieacuaatho, /oi iia ia eiieo?aio aeaaea aeao?aui, ii nia?aiaiiui aeaeaiea?oai.AeiiieiaieaWindows 98 beta3 eniieueciaaeanue ii i?e/eia iaei??aeoiie ?aaiou iuia nouanoaothuaai ?aeeca OSR2.o n AGP. I?iaeaia a iaee/ea eiioeeeoa ii aae?anai iaaeaeo aeaeaiieaoie e iinoii 440LX – AGP. I?e/ai, ieeaeeie iano?ieeaie a?o/ioth yoi eni?aaeoue ia oaea?ony. Eae neaaenoaea — iaei??aeoiay ?aaioa AGP, /oi e auei auyaeaii ia AGP–oanoa io Final Reality. Windows 98 ?aaioaao n AGP i?aaeeueii, eiioeeeoia iao, aea e ia?eoa?ee ciaao iiaieueoa.Caia/aieaIeaou Diamond Monster e 3D Canopus Pure 3D ?aaioaee a ia?a n aenaea?aoi?ii Canopus Total 3D 128V.Oanoe?iaaiea AGP–aeaeaiea?oAaaaeaieaAeaeaiea?ou aeey AGP–neioa nae/an ia?aaeeaatho ?anoeaaao, iaeiaei ii n?aaiaieth n eo aiaeiaaie aeey oeiu PCI i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aic?anea ia neeoeii caiaoii. Naycaii yoi n ionoonoaeai iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Aioaaeoea a iaci? ea?oi/ee iiyaeeenue nianai iaaeaaii, e ae?aeaa?u aeey ieo au? aeinoaoi/ii «nu?u». Iaeiaei, iaeeaeaaiua ieii/aoaeueiua aa?eaiou ae?aeaa?ia aeieaeiu nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue eo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.Aei iaaeaaiaai aeiy iaeeo/oei aa?eaioii aeaeainenoaiu iiaeii auei n/eoaoue eiiaeiaoeeth Matrox Millennium’a a ea/anoaa iniiaiie ea?ou e Diamond Monster 3D eae o??oia?iiai onei?eoaey. Eiaiii n yoie eiiaeiaoeeae e noieo n?aaieaaoue ?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey. Matrox Millennium ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo eao aue iaeeo/oei auai?ii aeey 2D a?aoeee eae aeey Windows95, oae e aeey NT. Diamond Monster 3D — i?ae?anii ?aaeecoao ana o??oia?iua ooieoeee oanoa 3D Winbench, ca eneeth/aieai «For Vertex and Color Key Transparency» e «Fog Vertex and Alpha Transparency». Aeaaiui aai iaaeinoaoeii yaeyaony iaaiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a ieia. Au? iaeii ia?aie/aiea — iau?i iaiyoe: 2Ia aeey aooa?a ecia?aaeaiey e Z-aooa?a e 2Ia iiae oaenoo?u. Ec–ca yoiai iaeneiaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea a eioi?ii iiaeao ?aaioaoue Diamond Monster 3D — 640o480. Iiaua aeaeaiea?ou, aioaaeoea a aeaiiue iaci? iiaoo ?aaioaoue n aieueoeie ?ac?aoaieyie.Niaoeeoeeaoeee e aiciiaeiinoeMatrox Millennium & Diamond Monster 3D Asus 3DexPlorer 3000 ATI [email protected] / [email protected] Diamond Fire GL 1000 Pro Diamond Viper V330 NVidia RIVA 128 Reference Board Number Nine Revolution 3DA?aoe/aneee /einao Matrox MGA 2064W, 3Dfx Voodoo NVidia RIVA 128 ATI Rage Pro 3D Labs Permedia 2 NVidia RIVA 128 NVidia RIVA 128 Number Nine Ticket To RideIau?i onoaiiaeaiiie iaiyoe 4 MB WRAM, 4MB EDO RAM 4 MB SGRAM 4/6/8 MB SGRAM 8 MB SGRAM 4 MB SGRAM 4 MB SGRAM 8 MB WRAMIaeneiaeueiue iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue iauei iaiyoe8 MB, 16 MB4 MB8 MB16 MB (?)4 MB4 MB16 MB*anoioa RAMDAC 230 MHz, external 230 MHz, internal 230 MHz, internal 230 MHz, internal 230 MHz, internal 230 MHz, internal 230 MHz, externalIaeaunoay /anoioa iaiiaeaiey [Hz] i?e:1024x768 120 120 50 120 120 120 1421152x864 120 100 120 120 100 100 1261280x1024 100 100 100 100 100 100 1071600x1200 85 75 85 85 75 75 85Niaoeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe     SVideo out ([email protected] only) VR Glasses output SVideo in/out, AC3/PCM SVideo in/out  Iaeaunoaa ?ac?aoaiea a 3D (16 bit oeaao, Z-aooa?) 640x480 (3Dfx) 960x720 1600x1200 1280x1024 960x720 960x720 1280x1024Iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua 3D–ooieoeee (3D Winbench)Fog Vertex yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesFog Table yes (3Dfx) no no no no no noSpecular Highlights yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesColor Key Transparency yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesAlpha Transparency yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesLinear Filtering yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesLinear Mipmapping yes (3Dfx) yes, iaieioi yes, ii/oe oi?ioi yes, ia nianai oi?ioi yes, iaieioi yes, ia nianai oi?ioi yes, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiDithering yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes, ia nianai oi?ioi yes yes yes, ia nianai oi?ioiPerspective Correction yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesFog Vertex and Color Key yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yesFog Vertex and Alpha Transparency yes (3Dfx) yes yes yes yes yes yes?acoeueoaou2D Windows 95, 16 Bit oeaaoA oanoa Business Winstone 97 yaiue eeaea? — Revolution 3D. Inoaeueiua ea?oi/ee — ia o?iaia Millennium’a.Oano HighEnd Winstone ia auyaee yaiiai eeaea?a, iaeiaei noa?ue Millennium — /ooue–/ooue aea eo/oa.2D Windows 95, 32 Bit oeaaoA ?aaeeia true color eeaea?noai Revolution 3D ia aucuaaao niiiaiee. Aucuaaao oaeeaeaiea, /oi inoaeueiua ea?ou iaiaiaee Millennium, aeaaea «ea?ooa/iay» Riva 128.A HighEnd Winstone Revolution 3D oaeaea iaiaiaea eiieo?aioia. Inoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou iaiaiiiai ioee/athony io Millennium’a.2D Windows NT, 16 Bit oeaaoIiaua ae?aeaa?u Windows NT aeey Fire GL 1000 Pro ?aaioatho i?ae?anii, aeaeay aai aaciaiai?i/iui eeaea?ii.E caeanue Fire GL 1000 Pro — aia eiieo?aioeee, a Riva 128 i?inoi ia a ninoiyiee ninoycaoueny n inoaeueiuie.2D Windows NT, 32 Bit color DepthFire GL iieacuaaao ioee/iua ?acoeueoaou, eiieo?aio aeey iaai — oieueei Revolution 3D. NT e 32–o aeoiue oeaao yaii ia eii?e Riva 128.Caeanue eiiiaioa?ee ia o?aaothony.3D Windows 95Caeanue iu iaaethaeaai oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai eeaea?a. Ea?oi/ee ia iniiaa Riva 128 — yaiua iiaaaeeoaee.N aic?anoaieai iau?ia oaenoo? iie ia iiiauathony a iaiyoue ea?oi/ee e iiaea?oaeathony ec iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. Monster 3D aeinoeaaao i?aaeaea oaea ia 640x480 e «oi?iiceo» ec–ca iaaeeaiiie oeiu PCI. Iiaue «ei?ieue» 3D — Riva 128 eeaea? a yoii oanoa (e a inoaeueiuo 3D–oanoao oiaea).Riva 128 iieacuaaao iaeeo/oea ?acoeueoaou, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eiaao anaai 4 MB iaiyoe. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth iniiaiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ii oaoiieiaee AGP's DIME.Revolution 3D ia eniieuecoao AGP's DIME, ec–ca yoiai e oaeea ieioea ?acoeueoaou. E niaeaeaieth Riva 128 ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao 3D a ?ac?aoaiee 1024x768.Iaeaieaa eioa?aniue ?acoeueoao yoiai oanoa — i?aainoiaenoai Fire GL 1000 Pro iaae Monster 3D. Aiciiaeii yoi i?ienoiaeeo ec–ca neeoeii i?inouo oanoia 3D Winbench. NVidia's Riva 128 — aaconeiaiue eeaea?.OpenGL Windows NTOpenGL — neeueiay noi?iia Fire GL 1000 Pro. I?aainoiaenoai ia inoaeueiuie ea?oi/eaie — aaciaiai?i/iia.Oanou i?iaiaeeeenue ia eiiiuethoa?a n iaoa?eineie ieaoie MSI MS6111, i?ioeanni? — Pentium II 300 MHz. Aeey oanoia NT eniieueciaaeny aeene Seagate Cheetah ST34501W, iiaeniaaeei?iiue e DPT PM2144UW, oanou Windows 95 caioneaeenue ia Quantum Fireball ST 3.2 UDMA.STYLEREF "Caaieiaie 1" \* MERGEFORMAT I?eeiaeaiey PAGE 103

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