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Экспертные системы на базе VP-Expert

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Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue einoeooo yeaeo?iieee e iaoaiaoeee

(oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao)

eaoaae?a EOAN

Iiynieoaeueiay caienea e eo?niaiio i?iaeoo ii aeenoeeieeia «yenia?oiua
nenoaiu» ia oaio:

«Yenia?oiay nenoaia ia aaca VP-expert»

Auiieieee

nooaeaiou

a?oiiu AI-101

Iaoooei A.A.

Iaoonia A.A.

Eoeeia I.I.

Naeaii _________ 199 a

Ioeaiea___________

Iineaa 1996 a.

1. AAAAeAIEA

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee ii iooe
oeo/oaiey oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue
noa?o aa i?eiaiaiey a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa. Iiyaeaiea ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iaeaa/eoue aeinooi e YAI oe?ieiio
e?oao niaoeeaeenoia ec ?acee/iuo iaeanoae i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoee e
oaoieee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?e iiiiue YAI ?acee/iua oeiu caaea/
?aoathony n aieueoie yooaeoeaiinoueth:

Au/eneeoaeueiua caaea/e – a eioi?uo a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaiiui
aeai?eoiii e iiiaeanoaii aoiaeiuo aeaiiuo iieo/atho iiiaeanoai
?acoeueoaoia. Aeai?eoi a oaeeo caaea/ao aunooiaao a ea/anoaa no?iaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua caaea/e – iaoiaeaeaiea /anoe aacu aeaiiuo,
niioaaonoaothuae aiaoiaio cai?ino. Aeai?eoi caeanue –
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiii – iieneiauo i?ioeaaeo?, a
aaca aeaiiuo – iaai? aeaeea?aoeaiuo ciaiee.

Caaea/e ANO i?eiyoey ?aoaiee – eiaaea ia iniiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a
e?eoa?eaa ec iiiaeanoaa aeueoa?iaoea auae?aaony iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuay aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Oeaee e e?eoa?ee
iiaoo auoue eae iinoiyiiuie, oae e eciaiyoueny a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey
caaea/e.

Eiae/aneea caaea/e, a eioi?uo ii iienaieth ia/aeueiie e oeaeaaie
neooaoeee ec eiathuaainy iaai?a aeaenoaee neioace?oaony aeai?eoi
aeinoeaeaiey oeaee. Aeey ?aoaiey aeaoo iineaaeieo oeiia caaea/
iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny iaoiaeu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, iniiaaiiua
ia ciaieyo. Iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae nenoai, eniieuecothueo yoe
iaoiaeu, yaeythony yenia?oiua nenoaiu (YN). Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iiiuoeo nicaeaiey /aeiaaei-iaoeiiuo eiiieaenia aeey ?aoaiey
neaai oi?iaeecoaiuo caaea/ eee caaea/ aiiaua ia eiathueo
aeai?eoie/aneiai ?aoaiey.

Iiaeii aeaoue neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea yenia?oiie nenoaia:

Yenia?oiay nenoaia – yoi eiiiuethoa?iay i?ia?aiia, niaea?aeauay
iaeiieaiiua ciaiey niaoeeaeenoia a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe,
Yoa i?ia?aiia niiniaia au?aaaouaaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eaeea au aeae
yenia?o-/aeiaae, cai?aoeaay i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Yenia?oiua nenoaiu iiaoo ?aaioaoue ia oii aea o?iaia /oi
e yenia?ou, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iie eo/oa, iioiio /oi a iaa
aeiaeai eieeaeoeaiue iiuo eo nicaeaoaeae.

2. AEAeU E OI?IU I?AAeNOAAEAIEss CIAIEE

Ii?aaeaeei ciaiey eae nenoaio iiiyoee e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie.
Caaea/a, iiaeeaaeauay ?aoaieth n iiiiuueth yenia?oiie
nenoaiu, oi?ioee?oaony a oa?ieiao i?eiyouo a yoie nenoaia. Aoaeai
?acee/aoue a eiie?aoiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe neaaeothuea oeiu ciaiee:
iiiyoeeiua, eiino?oeoeaiua, i?ioeaaeo?iua, oaeoia?aoe/aneea e
iaoaciaiey.

Iiiyoeeiua – iaai? iiiyoee, eioi?uie iieuecothony i?e ?aoaiee
aeaiiie caaea/e. Yoio oei ciaiee au?aaaouaathony a ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
iaoeao e oai?aoe/aneeo ?acaeaeao i?eeeaaeiuo iaoe.

Eiino?oeoeaiua – yoi ciaiey i iaai?ao aiciiaeiuo no?oeoo?
iauaeoia e acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo eo /anoyie. Iieo/aiea yoiai oeia
ciaiee oa?aeoa?ii aeey oaoieee e aieueoae /anoe i?eeeaaeiuo iaoe.

I?ioeaaeo?iua ciaiey – eniieuecoaiua a aua?aiiie i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe iaoiaeu, aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiu, iieaciua aeey aeaiiiai
eiie?aoiiai i?eeiaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue, ia?aaeaaaoue
e iauaaeeiyoue a aeaeeioaee.

Oaeoia?aoe/aneea – eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoia
e yaeaiee.

Iaoaciaiey – ciaiey i ii?yaeea e i?aaeeao i?eiaiaiey ciaiee.

Iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe eae

(iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe)=

(iiiyoeeiua ciaiey)+

(eiino?oeoeaiua ciaiey),

a aaco ciaiee:

(aaca ciaiee)=

(iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe)+

(i?ioeaaeo?iua ciaiey)+

(iaoaciaiey)+

(oaeoia?aoe/aneea ciaiey).

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi?iu i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee. I?e
i?aeoe/aneie ?ac?aaioea yenia?oiuo nenoai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aua
anaai eniieuecothony ya?enoe/aneea iiaeaee – iaai? n?aaenoa, (a
i?eioeeia, ethauo) ia?aaeathueo naienoaa e iniaaiiinoe i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe. I?eia?ii ya?enoe/aneie iiaeaee iiaoo neoaeeoue naoaaua,
o?aeiiaua e i?iaeoeoeeiiiua iiaeaee.

A aieueoeinoaa yenia?oiuo nenoai a aaca ciaiee o?aiyony
eniieuecoaiua a aeaiiue iiiaio i?aaeea e naaaeaiey i i?iaeaiiie
iaeanoe.

Iiaeoiae, iniiaaiiue ia i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo i?aaeeao,
/?acau/aeii ?ani?ino?aiai a yenia?oiuo nenoaiao. Eae i?aaeei, iie
eiatho oi?io ANEE … OIAAeA ….EIA*A…. .

Iai?eia?,

ANEE oei_yai = iee?i E

eeann_yai = n?aaeiee

OIAAeA yai = IBM_PC/XT CNF 65

EIA*A yai = AeAE-3 CNF 20 .

A i?eaaaeaiiii i?aaeea caeiaeaii ciaiea i oii, /oi anee auae?aaiue
oei YAI iee?i, a eeann aa n?aaeiee, oi n oaa?aiiinoueth 65% aeaeaoaeueii
i?eia?aoaiea eiiiuethoa?a IBM PC/XT . A i?ioeaiii neo/aa n
oaa?aiiinoueth 20% aeiionoei auai? AeAE-3. Iaai? i?aaee iiaeiaiie
no?oeoo?u – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee a aaca
i?iaeoeoeeiiiiai oeia.

A iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee n iiiiuueth naiaioe/aneeo naoae
eaaeeo oi?iaeecaoeey a aeaea a?aoa n iiia/aiiuie aa?oeiaie e aeoaaie.

Aa?oeiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeioi?ua nouiinoe (iauaeou, niauoey,
i?ioeannu, yaeaiey e ae?.), a aeoae – ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie. ?anniio?ei
i?inoaeooth naiaioe/aneoth naoue, au?aaeathuoth ciaiey: i?iecaaaeaia
eeanneoeeaoeey YAI ii oeiai – a caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
(iee?i, ieie, iaaa) e ii eeannai – ii eo noieiinoe (ieceay, n?aaeiyy,
aunieay, aieueoay). Aeoae aeaiiie naoe iaicia/atho niioaaonoaea.

?acee/iui iiaeaeyi YAI niioaaonoaotho ?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee eeannia e
oeiia, ?en. 1.

A iaeioi?uo oeiao yenia?oiuo nenoai i?eiaiyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea
ciaiee a aeaea o?aeiia. Yoi niaoeeoe/aneea iauaeou, niioaaonoaothuea
iiiyoeyi i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, eiathuea aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o a aeaea
neioia. Neioaie iiaoo auoue aeaiiua, i?aaeea, ae?oaea o?aeiu. O?aeiu –
aieaa neiaeiue niinia i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee, eniieuecoaiue a
iaeaieaa iiuiuo yenia?oiuo nenoaiao.

3. NINOAA E OOIEOeEIIE?IAAIEA YENIA?OIIE NENOAIU

Iau/ii n/eoaaony, /oi i?aaiaoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey e yenia?oiie
nenoaia naiaeyony e oiio, /oi iia aeieaeia auoue i?aaeiacia/aia
aeey oaeiaiie, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe.
Iiae?acoiaaaaony iaee/ea ?acaeoiai aeeaeiaa, iaania/eaathuaai
iiieiaiea aoiaeiuo niiauaiee, auiieiaiea ioaeiuo i?ioeaaeo? e
auaea/a ?acoiiuo niiauaiee a oaeiaiie oi?ia. N/eoatho, /oi niiauaiey
?acoiiu, anee iie caneoaeeaatho aeiaa?ey e “i?ic?a/iu”.

No?oeoo?a oeie/iie yenia?oiie nenoaiu i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.2. Eae

i?aaeei, a aa ninoaa aoiaeyo:

– Eioa?oaen, iaania/eaathuee iauaiea iieueciaaoaey n yenia?oiie
nenoaiie a oaeiaiie aeey iaai oi?ia, ii iicaieyao ia?aaeaaaoue
ae eioi?iaoeeth, ninoaaeythuoth niaea?aeaiea aacu aeaiiuo,
ia?aoeoueny e nenoaia n aii?inii eee ca iauyniaieai.

– ?aai/ay iaiyoue, o?aiyuay aeaiiua (aaca aeaiiuo),
niioaaonoaothuea iauaeoai, naycue iaaeaeo eioi?uie caaeaaony i?aaeeaie a
aaca ciaiee.

– Aeeniao/a?, ii?aaeaeythuee ii?yaeie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yenia?oiie nenoaiu, ieaie?othuee ii?yaeie iinoaiiaee e aeinoeaeaiey
oeaeae.

– Iaoeia auaiaea – oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneay nenoaia,
?aaeeciaaiiay a aeaea i?ia?aiiiiai iiaeoey, iicaieythuay eiae/anee
auaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iieueciaaoaey eioi?iaoeeth, enoiaey
ec naaaeaiee, ?aciauaiiuo a aaca ciaiee.

– Aaca ciaiee – niaieoiiinoue anao eiathueony naaaeaiee i i?iaeaiiie
iaeanoe, aeey eioi?ie i?aaeiacia/aia aeaiiay yenia?oiay nenoaia,
caienaiiuo n iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?iaeueiuo no?oeoo?
i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee (iaai?a i?aaee, o?aeiia, naiaioe/aneeo naoae e
i?.)

Aaaeiie eiiiiiaioie yenia?oiie nenoaiu yaeyaony aeie
iauyniaiee, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoaeth oaaaeeoueny
a iainiiaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aaiie ei io yenia?oiie nenoaiu,
iicaieythuee caaeaaaoue ae aii?inu, e ia iniiaaiee ?acoiiuo ioaaoia
i?iieeaoueny e iae aeiaa?eai.

Aeaa iiaeoiaea iieo/eee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?e nicaeaiee
iaoei eiae/aneiai auaiaea yenia?oiuo nenoai.

– Nenoaiu n i?yiui eiae/aneei auaiaeii, a eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeony
iiiaie?aoiia i?eiaiaiea anao i?aaee aacu ciaiee e aeinooiiui aeaiiui, n
aiciiaeiinoueth cai?ina iaaeinoathueo. I?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey aeaiiuo
iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaoeiu eiae/aneiai auaiaea i?ienoiaeeo aei oao ii?
iiea aiciiaeii eciaiaiea eo cia/aiee. Oi?iuaiiue aeai?eoi
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaeie yenia?oiie nenoaiu eiaao aeae (no?oeoo?a
yenia?oiie nenoaiu i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.2).

A ?aai/oth iaiyoue 2 /a?ac eioa?oaen 1 aaiaeyony iieueciaaoaeai cia/aiey
enoiaeiuo ia?aiaiiuo.

A aaca ciaiee 5 ii?aaeaeythony oa i?aaeea, a oneiaeyo eioi?uo
i?enoonoaotho ia?aiaiiua, eiathueany a ?aai/ae iaiyoe.

I?iecaiaeeony iiiuoea i?eiaiaiey i?aaee n iiiiuueth iaoeiu
eiae/aneiai auaiaea 4 e caianaiea ?acoeueoaoia a ?aai/oth iaiyoue.

Anee i?eiaiaiea oioy au iaeiiai i?aaeea ieacaeinue oniaoiui, oi ia?aoiae
e i.2.

Anee aeinoeaiooia ninoiyiea ?aai/ae iaiyoe (aacu aeaiiuo) ia iicaieyao
aieueoa i?eiaieoue ie iaeii ec i?aaee aacu ciaiee, oi i?ioeann
eiae/aneiai auaiaea caeai/eaaaony e aeeniao/a? 3 i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i
auaea/a iieueciaaoaeth /a?ac eioa?oaeniue aeie eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie a
?acoeueoaoa i?eiaiaiey i?aaee.

Nenoaiu n i?yiui eiae/aneei auaiaeii aieaa i?inou a iino?iaiee,
?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou o ieo iau/ii yaeyaony oeaeue iaeao aeaiiuo, ii eo
yooaeoeaiinoue ia anaaaea niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi i?aeoe/aneeo
caaea/.

A nenoaiao ia?aoiiai auaiaea iaia/aaony ia?a/aiue eiia/iuo
oeaeae – ia?aiaiiuo, cia/aiey eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue.
Aeaeaa i?iecaiaeeony iiene i?aaee, ii?aaeaeythueo yoe oeaee.
Au/eneythony cia/aiey anao ia?aiaiiuo, aoiaeyueo a oneiaey
i?aaeea. Anee ia?aiaiiua ii?aaeaeythony ae?oaeie i?aaeeaie,
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae e auyniaieth enoeiiinoe eo oneiaee, a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa cia/aiey ia?aiaiiuo cai?aoeaathony o iieueciaaoaey.
I?ioeann yenia?oecu caeai/eaaaony iinea oiai, eae aoaeoo iaeaeaiu
ana iinoaaeaiiua oeaee eiinoeueoaoeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeieaeia
auoue auyniaia enoeiiinoue anao ia?aiaiiuo, aoiaeyueo a
caaeaenoaiaaiiua i?aaeea. Oi?iuaiiue aeai?eoi ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yenia?oiuo nenoai ia?aoiiai auaiaea iiaeii

i?aaenoaaeoue a neaaeothuai aeaea.

Caaeaaony iaai? oeaeae – ia?aiaiiuo, cia/aiea eioi?uo o?aaoaony
ii?aaeaeeoue n iiiiuueth yenia?oiie nenoaiu. Nienie yoeo ia?aiaiiuo
/a?ac eioa?oaen aaiaeeony a ?aai/oth iaiyoue.

A aaca ciaiee iaoeia eiae/aneiai auaiaea auaeaeyao nienie i?aaee, ec
eioi?uo iiaeii iaeoe iaecaanoiua ia?aiaiiua a ?aai/ae iaiyoe.

Ec oneiaee auaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, ii?aaeaeythony inoaeueiua
ia?aiaiiua, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?eiaiaiey i?aaee.

Ii?aaeaeyaony, eaeea ec iaeaeaiiuo a i.3 ia?aiaiiuo iiaeii iieo/eoue
ec i?aaee aacu ciaiee.

Aeiiieiyaony nienie oeaeae ia?aiaiiuie iaeaeaiiuie a i.4.

Cia/aiey ia?aiaiiuo ec nienea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a i.3, ca eneeth/aieai
iaeaeaiiuo a i.4, cai?aoeaathony o iieueciaaoaey.

I?iecaiaeeony iiiuoea i?eiaiaiey i?aaee aacu ciaiee aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Anee ia ana oeaee aeinoeaioou (ia oaeaeinue i?eiaieoue ana i?aaeea,
ii?aaeaeythuea eioa?anothuea ian ia?aiaiiua), i?iecaiaeeony ia?aoiae e
i.2, eneeth/ea ec nienea oeaeae iaeaeaiiua ia?aiaiiua.

Ii aeinoeaeaieth anao ia?aiia/aeueii iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae
aeeniao/a? i?ae?auaao ?aaioo iaoeiu eiae/aneiai auaiaea e /a?ac
eioa?oaen auaiaeeo iieueciaaoaeth cia/aiey yoeo ia?aiaiiuo. Eiae/aneee
auaiae i?ae?auaaony oaeaea, anee iaeuecy aeinoe/ue iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

A aieueoeinoaa ?aaeueii ?aaioathueo yenia?oiuo nenoai, eae
i?aaeei, eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee e eiiaeiaoeee
?anniio?aiiuo auoa aeai?eoiia.

4. INIAAIIINOE NICAeAIEss YENIA?OIUO NENOAI

I?iaeoe?iaaiea yenia?oiuo nenoai eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua ioee/ey io
nicaeaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Nooue yoiai ioee/ey a
oii, /oi ?ac?aaio/eee ia iuoathony n?aco iino?ieoue eiia/iue i?iaeoeo, a
nicaeatho i?ioioei yenia?oiie nenoaiu. I?ioioei aeieaeai
oaeiaeaoai?youe iniiaiui o?aaiaaieyi e nenoaia i?e ieieiaeueiie
o?oaeiaieinoe i?e aai nicaeaiee. Aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoei o?aaiaaieyi
eniieuecothony ?aciiia?aciua eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa
(niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ycuee eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, iaiei/ee
yenia?oiuo nenoai e ae?.) onei?ythuea i?ioeann ?ac?aaioee. Aiciiaeii,
/oi iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny nicaeaiea ia iaeiiai , ianeieueeeo i?ioioeiia,
aace?othueony ia ?acee/iuo niiniaao i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee, n

iineaaeothuei auai?ii iaeaieaa oaea/iiai. B oii neo/aa eiaaea
aeinoeaiooa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay ?aaioa i?ioioeia ii anaio eiiieaeno
caaea/, aiciiaeii i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia ieii/aoaeueiii
ia?ai?ia?aiie?iaaiee anae nenoaiu ia ycueao ieceiai o?iaiy, n oeaeueth
oeo/oaiey aa oa?aeoa?enoee – oaaee/aiey auno?iaeaenoaey, oiaiueoaiey
caieiaaiie iaiyoe, iiauoaiey y?aiiiie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia eioa?oaena.

Iiuo ?ac?aaioee yenia?oiuo nenoai iicaieyao auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuea yoaiu i?e eo nicaeaiee:

– Eaeaioeoeeaoeey – ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu, ?ano?nia, oeaeae,
yenia?oia, i?iecaiaeeony iaoi?iaeueiia (aa?aaeueiia) iienaiea
i?iaeaiu.

– Eiioeaiooaeecaoeey – auaeaeaiea eeth/aauo iiiyoee nenoaiu,
ioiioaiee e oa?aeoa?enoee, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey iieiiai e aeaoaeueiiai
iienaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaiu.

– Oi?iaeecaoeey – au?aaeaiea aaaaeaiiuo iiiyoee ia iaeioi?ui
oi?iaeueiui ycuea, iino?iaiea iiaeaee enneaaeoaiie iaeanoe.

– Yoai auiieiaiey – nicaeaiea iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo i?ioioeiia.

– Yoai oanoe?iaaiey – ioeaiea aua?aiiiai iaoiaea i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee
e ?aaioiniiniaiinoe anae nenoaiu a oeaeii ia iniiaa i?iaa?ee i?ioioeia.

– Yoai iiuoiie yenieoaoaoeee – i?iaa?ea i?eaiaeiinoe nenoaiu aeey
eiia/iiai iieueciaaoaey.

– Iiaeeoeeaoeey nenoaiu – iieiia ia?ai?ia?aiie?iaaiea eee
aeiaaaeaiea i?ioioeia aei ninoiyiey i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ecaanoiu o?e iniiaiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe eniieiaiey yenia?oiuo nenoai:

– Yenia?oiua nenoaiu, auiieiaiiua a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, ia
iaeioi?ii aeai?eoie/aneii ycuea, aaca ciaiee eioi?uo yaeyaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii /anoueth yoie i?ia?aiiu. Eae i?aaeei, oaeea nenoaiu
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ a iaeiie oeene?iaaiiie i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe. I?e iino?iaiee oaeeo nenoai i?eiaiythony eae o?aaeeoeeiiiua
i?ioeaaeo?iua ycuee PASCAL, C e ae?., oae e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ycuee
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa LISP, PROLOG.

– Iaiei/ee yenia?oiuo nenoai – i?ia?aiiiue i?iaeoeo, iaeaaeathuee
n?aaenoaaie i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoiuo
iaeanoae. Caaea/a iieueciaaoaey caeeth/aaony ia a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
i?ia?aiie?iaaiee, a a oi?iaeecaoeee e aaiaea ciaiee n eniieueciaaieai
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo iaiei/eie aiciiaeiinoae. Iaaeinoaoeii yoeo nenoai
iiaeii n/eoaoue iaaiciiaeiinoue ioaaoa iaeiie nenoaiie anao
nouanoaothueo i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae. I?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue
EIOA?YENIA?O, ?N+, VP-Expert.

– Aaia?aoi?u yenia?oiuo nenoai – iiuiua i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iieo/aiey iaiei/ae, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia oi eee
eiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ciaiee a caaeneiinoe io ?anniao?eaaaiie
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. I?eia?u yoie ?aciiaeaeiinoe – nenoaiu KEE, ART e
ae?..

5. IAEANOE E E?EOA?EE I?EIAIEIINOE YENIA?OIUO NENOAI

Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue ia iiae?iaiii ia?a/ia iiiai/eneaiiuo
iaeanoae i?eiaiaiey, ioiaoei eeoue iaeioi?ua io?anee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa ?acaeouo no?ai, a eioi?uo iaoiaeieiaey yenia?oiuo nenoai
auea oniaoii ii?iaiaaia: oeiey, naeueneia oicyenoai, yeaeo?iieea,
ia?aciaaiea, oeiainu, aaieiaey, iaaeeoeeia, aiaiiia aeaei, i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Ec ia?a/iy iniiaiuo oeiia ?aoaaiuo eie caaea/ iiaeii auaeaeeoue
eioa?i?aoaoeeth, i?iaiic, aeeaaiinoeeo, i?iaeoe?iaaiea,
ieaie?iaaiea, oi?aaeaiea, iaaethaeaiea, ioeaaeea, ?aiiio, iao/aiea.

A nienea iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ca
?oaaaeii yenia?oiuo nenoai e eo iaiei/ae iiaeii auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuea iaeiaiiaaiey: INSIGT, LOGIAN, NEXPERT, RULE MASTER,
KDS, PICON, KNOWLEDGE CRAFT, KESII, S1, TIMM e ae?.

A ea/anoaa e?eoa?eaa, ii eioi?ui iiaeii noaeeoue i aiciiaeiinoe
nicaeaiey yenia?oiie nenoaiu neaaeoao ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea:

– Iaiaoiaeeiinoue neiaieueiuo ?annoaeaeaiee, i/aaeaeii, iao niunea
?ac?aaaouaaoue yenia?oioth nenoaio aeey /eneaiiuo ?an/aoia, iai?eia?,
aeey i?aia?aciaaiee Oo?uea, eioaa?e?iaaiey, ?aoaiey nenoai
aeaaa?ae/aneeo o?aaiaiee e ae?.

– Iaee/ea yenia?oia, eiiiaoaioiuo a eca?aiiii e?oaa aii?inia, eioi?ua
niaeaniu nio?oaeie/aoue i?e nicaeaiee YN.

– Iinoaaeaiiay i?iaeaia aeieaeia auoue aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie e
aeooaeueiie. Yoi iiaoo auoue i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuea aunieiai o?iaiy
yenia?oecu, eeai i?inoua, ii o?oaeiaieea iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?ythueany
i?iaa?ee. Iao niunea o?aoeoue a?aiy ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai, eioi?ua
aicieeatho ?aaeei e iiaoo auoue ?ac?aoaiu /aeiaaeii n iau/iie
eaaeeoeeaoeeae.

– Iaiaoiaeeii /aoei ia?aie/eaaoue e?oa ?aoaaiuo caaea/, o.a.
i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue auae?aaony aeinoaoi/ii “oceie”, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
“eiiaeiaoi?iiai ac?uaa” iauaia eioi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
eiiiaoaioiiai ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e.

– Iaiaoiaeeia niaeaniaaiiinoue iiaiee yenia?oia i oii, eae
neaaeoao ?aoaoue iinoaaeaiiua caaea/e, eaeea oaeou iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue e eaeiau iauea i?aaeea auianaiey noaeaeaiee. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa iaaiciiaeii ?anoe?eoue aaco ciaiee ca i?aaeaeu iiuoa iaeiiai
/aeiaaea e inouanoaeoue nieaa yenia?oiuo ciaiee ec ianeieueeeo
iaeanoae.

– Aeieaeii auoue aeinoaoi/ii enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey i?iaa?ee
?aaioiniiniaiinoe yenia?oiie nenoaiu a aua?aiiie i?aaeiaoiie

iaeanoe, /oiau ?ac?aaio/eee niiaee oaaaeeoueny a aeinoeaeeiinoe
iaeioi?iai caaeaiiiai o?iaiy aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

– Aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny aiciiaeiinoue iinoaiaiiiai ia?aueaaiey
nenoaiu. Aaca ciaiee aeieaeia eaaei ?anoe?youeny e ei??aeoe?iaaoueny,
oae eae i?aaeea /anoi iaiythony n iiyaeaieai iiauo oaeoia.

Oeaiiinoue eniieueciaaiey YN i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo
aniaeoao:

– A nai?a, iia?aoeaiii ooi/iaiee, eiaee?iaaiee e
?ani?ino?aiaiee yenia?oiuo ciaiee.

– A yooaeoeaiii ?aoaiee i?iaeai, neiaeiinoue eioi?uo i?aauoaao
/aeiaa/aneea aiciiaeiinoe e aeey eioi?uo o?aaothony yenia?oiua ciaiey
ianeieueeeo iaeanoae.

– A nio?aiaiee iaeaieaa oycaeiie oeaiiinoe eieeaeoeaa –
eieeaeoeaiie iaiyoe.

Nicaeaiea aac ciaiee ioe?uaaao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua
iaoneiaeaiu aacioeai/iinoueth e ouaoaeueiinoueth, i?enoueie YAI e
neioacii ciaiee yenia?oia. Anee aaca ciaiee iauaaeeiyao eioi?iaoeeth
ii ianeieueeei aeenoeeieeiai, oi oaeie “nieaa” ciaiee i?eia?aoaao
aeiiieieoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

Yenia?oiay nenoaia iicaieyao ?aoeoue i?iaeaio nio?aiaiey
yenia?oiuo ciaiee, naycaiioth n oo?aoie iaeaieaa
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo yenia?oia a ?acoeueoaoa eo i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaa,
nia?oe, ia?aoiaea ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo eee auoiaea ia iaineth, a
oaeaea iicaieeo naeaeaoue ciaiey eaaei aeinooiiuie aeey oao, eoi
caeiao ianoa ooaaeoeo yenia?oia.

Ia?aie/eaoenue iaiaoiaeeiui ieieioiii eceiaeaiey oai?aoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaea, a aeaeueiaeoai nin?aaeioi/ei aieiaiea ia i?aeoe/aneeo
aniaeoao i?eiaiaiey yenia?oiuo nenoai.

6. E?AOEIA IIENAIEA YENIA?OIIE NENOAIU VP-Expert

?anniao?eaaaiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “ionooth” iaiei/eo,
oi?ioi ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaooth e iieo/eaooth aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea. aa i?eiaiaiea aiciiaeii ia IBM niaianoeiuo
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao n iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie MS DOS, eiathueo ia
iaiaa 256 E iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe e aaeaioa?u a?aoe/aneeo aeenieaaa
iiaeiaiua CGA, EGA eee HERKULES. Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth iaiei/ee,
nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ythuae aa aiciiaeiinoe, yaeyaony niaianoeiinoue n
oaeeaie nicaeaiiuie dBASE II, dBASE III e dBASE III+.

Aeey oniaoiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu iaiaoiaeei iaai? ec
neaaeothueo oaeeia VPX.EXE, VPX.TXT, VPXE.EXE, VPXH.EXE, VPXHELP.DBF,
VPXHELP.HLP, VPXHELP.TXT, VPXI.EXE, VPXM.EXE, VPXT.EXE.

Ia?a/eneaiiua oaeeu aeaeaoaeueii ia?aienaoue n aeeneaou a
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiioth aee?aeoi?eth. Noa?o yenia?oiie nenoaiu
i?iecaiaeeony caioneii oaeea VPX.EXE ia eniieiaiea (aiciiaeii n
oeacaieai oaeea aacu ciaiee n ?anoe?aieai .KBS).

7. Auiieiaiea eo?niaie ?aaiou

Aeey auiieiaiey eo?niaie ?aaiou auea aua?aia iaeanoue- iieiiee a
aeaeaaoaeyo e niiniau eo ono?aiaiey. A oiaea ?aaiou aue iaienai
iiaeoeue, auiieiyy eioi?ue iiaeii iieo/eoue eiinoeueoaoeeth.

Enoiaeiue oaeno iiaeoey :

RUNTIME;

EXECUTE;

BKCOLOR = 0;

ACTIONS

cls color = 9

display

“Aan i?eaaonoaoao nenoaia iienea iaeni?aaiinoae!

auae?aeoa neiioiiu- iieo/aeoa niinia ono?aiaiey

(iaaeieoa ethaoth eeaaeoo aeey i?iaeieaeaiey.) ”

cls

FIND bug_method

display “iaoiae ono?aiaiey iaeni?aaiinoe {#bug_method}.”;

ask prich1: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-iao oiieeaa a ea?ath?aoi?a

2-iao eiioeuenia aunieiai iai?yaeaiey

3-iao eiioeuenia oiea ia eaoooea caaeeaaiey

4-iao aunieiai iai?yaeaiey ia naa/ao

5-iai?aaeueii iiaeniaaeeiaiu aunieiaieueoiua i?iaiaea

6-iai?aaeeueiue caci? a naa/ao

7-o?aueia ia ecieyoi?a naa/ae

8-iai?aaeeueiue iiiaio caaeeaaiey

9-iaeni?aaai ye.iaa. eeaiai

10-ia ioe?uaaaony aicaeooiay caneiiea ”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich1_1: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-cani?aiu oiieeaii?iaiaeu

2-cani?aiu oeeueo?u

3-iani?aaai oiieeaiue ianin”

;

RULE 6

IF prich=1 and

prich1=1 and

prich1_1=1

THEN

bug_method=1

display “i?i/enoeoue oiieeaii?iaiae~”

;

RULE 7

IF prich=1 and

prich1=1 and

prich1_1=2

THEN

bug_method=2

display “i?i/enoeoue eee caiaieoue oieueo?u~”

;

RULE 8

IF prich=1 and

prich1=1 and

prich1_1=3

THEN

bug_method=3

display “ii/eieoue ianin~”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich1_2: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-ia?ua i?iaiaeia eiiiooaoi?a

2-iani?aaai aaneiioaeoiue aeao/ee”

;

RULE 10

IF prich=1 and

prich1=2 and

prich1_2=1

THEN

bug_method=4

display “i?iaa?eoue i?iaiaea eiiiooaoi?a~”

;

RULE 11

IF prich=1 and

prich1=2 and

prich1_2=2

THEN

bug_method=5

display “ii/eieoue aeao/ee~”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich1_3: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-ia?ua i?iaiaeia eaoooee caaeeaaiey

2-iaeni?aaai eiiiooaoi?

3-ia caiueathony eiioaeou aueeth/aoaey caaeeaaiey”

;

RULE 13

IF prich=1 and

prich1=3 and

prich1_3=1

THEN

bug_method=6

display “i?iaa?eoue i?iaiaea~”

;

RULE 14

IF prich=1 and

prich1=3 and

prich1_3=2

THEN

bug_method=7

display “ii/eieoue eiiiooaoi?~”

;

RULE 15

IF prich=1 and

prich1=3 and

prich1_3=3

THEN

bug_method=8

display “ii/eieoue eiioaeou~”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich1_4: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-iia?aaeaeaiea ecieyoeee i?iaiaeia aun.iai?.

2-eciin eiioaeoiiai oaieueea

3-iia?aaeaeaiea e?uoee ?ani?aaeaeeoaey

4-iia?aaeaeaiea ?ioi?a

5-ioeac ?acenoi?a

6-iia?aaeaeaia eaoooea caaeeaaiey ”

;

RULE 17

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_4=1

THEN

bug_method=8

display “i?iaa?eoue i?iaiaea~”

;

RULE 18

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_4=2

THEN

bug_method=9

display “iniio?aoue e?uoeo ?ani?aaeaeeoaey, i?i/enoeoue oaieae~”

;

RULE 19

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_3=3

THEN

bug_method=10

display “caiaieoue e?uoeo ?ani?aaeaeeoaey~”

;

RULE 20

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_3=4

THEN

bug_method=11

display “caiaieoue ?ioi? ?ani?aaeaeeoaey~”

;

RULE 21

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_3=5

THEN

bug_method=12

display “caiaieoue ?acenoi?~”

;

RULE 22

IF prich=1 and

prich1=4 and

prich1_3=6

THEN

bug_method=13

display “caiaieoue eaoooeo caaeeaaiey~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 23

IF prich=1 and

prich1=5

THEN

bug_method=14

display “i?iaa?ueoa i?aaeeueiinoue i?eniaaeaiaiey i?iaiaeia~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 24

IF prich=1 and

prich1=6

THEN

bug_method=15

display “i/enoeoa naa/e e io?aaoee?oeoa caci? iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 25

IF prich=1 and

prich1=7

THEN

bug_method=16

display “caiaieoue naa/e~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 26

IF prich=1 and

prich1=8

THEN

bug_method=17

display “io?aaoee?oeoa iiiaio caaeeaaiey~”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich1_9: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-ia?ua i?iaiaeia aeiea oi?aaeaiey eeaiaiii

2-iaeni?aaai aeie oi?aaeaiey eeaiaiii

3-iaeni?aaai eeaiai”

;

RULE 28

IF prich=1 and

prich1=9 and

prich1_9=1

THEN

bug_method=18

display “ainnoaiiaeoa niaaeeiaiea~”

;

RULE 29

IF prich=1 and

prich1=9 and

prich1_9=2

THEN

bug_method=19

display “ii/eieoue aeie oi?aaeaiey eeaiaiii~”

;

RULE 30

IF prich=1 and

prich1=9 and

prich1_9=3

THEN

bug_method=20

display “caiaieoue eeaiai~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 31

IF prich=1 and

prich1=10

THEN

bug_method=21

display “io?aaoee?oeoa caneiieo~”

;

ask prich2: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-ia io?aaoee?iaai oieinoie oiae

2-iani?aaai ea?ath?aoi?

3-?aiaa caaeeaaiea

4-iia?aaeaeai oeaia aaeoiiiai oneeeoaey oi?iicia

5-iia?aaeaeaia i?ieeaaeea ai aioneiii eieeaeoi?a

6-iia?aaeaeaiu o?oaee ioai?a ?ac?yaeaiey”

;

RULE 33

IF prich=2 and

prich2=1

THEN

bug_method=22

display “io?aaoee?oeoa oieinoie oiae~”

;

!—————————————————————-

ask prich2_2: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-cani?aiu aeeeea?u eee eaiaeu ea?ath?aoi?a

2-aiaea a ea?ath?aoi?a

3-ia?ooaia aa?iaoe/iinoue aeeao?aaiu”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 35

IF prich=2 and

prich2=2 and

prich2_2=1

THEN

bug_method=23

display “i?iaeooue aeeeea?u e eaiaeu~”

;

RULE 36

IF prich=2 and

prich2=2 and

prich2_2=2

THEN

bug_method=24

display “oaeaeeoue aiaeo~”

;

RULE 37

IF prich=2 and

prich2=2 and

prich2_2=3

THEN

bug_method=25

display “caiaieoue aeeao?aaio~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 38

IF prich=2 and

prich2=3

THEN

bug_method=26

display “io?aaoee?oeoa iiiaio caaeeaaiey~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 39

IF prich=2 and

prich2=4

THEN

bug_method=27

display “caiaieoa iia?aaeaeaiiue oeaia~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 40

IF prich=2 and

prich2=5

THEN

bug_method=28

display “ainnoaiiaeoa i?ieeaaeeo~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 41

IF prich=2 and

prich2=6

THEN

bug_method=29

display “ainnoaiiaeoa o?oaee~”

;

RULE 42

IF prich=3

THEN

bug_method=30

display “caiaieoue i?oaeeiu a ?ani?aaeaeeoaea~”

;

ask prich4: “Iaeni?aaiinoue

1-iia?aaeaeaiu i?iaiaea a nenoaia caaeeaaiey

2-iia?aaeai eiioaeoiue oaieae

3-iiaeai?ae oeaio?aeueiue eiioaeo

4-i?iaa? ?ioi?a eee e?uoee

5-eciin yeaeo?iaeia eee caianeeaaiea naa/ae

6-iaeni?aaai eiiiooaoi?

7-iia?aaeaeaiea iiiaoiiiaeaaeoaeueiiai iaeiia/ieea ”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 41

IF prich=4 and

prich4=1

THEN

bug_method=31

display “caiaieoa iia?aaeaeaiiua i?iaiaea~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 42

IF prich=4 and

prich4=2

THEN

bug_method=32

display “caiaieoa eiioaeoiue oaieae~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 43

IF prich=4 and

prich4=3

THEN

bug_method=33

display “ca/enoeoa oeaio?aeueiue eiioaeo~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 44

IF prich=4 and

prich4=4

THEN

bug_method=34

display “caiaieoa ?ioi? eee e?uoeo~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 45

IF prich=4 and

prich4=5

THEN

bug_method=35

display “caiaieoa iaeni?aaiua naa/e~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 46

IF prich=4 and

prich4=6

THEN

bug_method=31

display “ii/eieoa eiiiooaoi?~”

;

!—————————————————————-

RULE 47

IF prich=4 and

prich4=7

THEN

bug_method=31

display “caiaieoa iaeiia/iee~”

;

ASK prich:”Aeaeaaoaeue

1-ia caioneaaony

2-iaonoie/eai ?aaioaao ia oieinoii oiaeo

3-iaonoie/eai ?aaioaao i?e aieueoeo iai?ioao

4-ia?aaie ai anao ?aaeeiao”;

CHOICES prich:1,2,3,4;

CHOICES prich1:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10;

CHOICES prich2:1,2,3,4,5,6;

CHOICES prich3:1,2,3;

CHOICES prich4:1,2,3,4,5,6,7;

CHOICES prich1_1:1,2,3;

CHOICES prich1_2:1,2;

CHOICES prich1_3:1,2,3;

CHOICES prich1_4:1,2,3,4,5,6;

CHOICES prich1_9:1,2,3;

CHOICES prich2_2:1,2,3;

8. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiou.

Iinea caionea nenoaiu iieueciaaoaeue aeaeeo ia ye?aia i?eaaonoaea:

Aieiaiea! I?eaaaeaiu eiiee ye?aiia i?e caionea nenoaiu ec-iiae
Windows95. I?e caionea iiae DOS i?ia?aiia ?aaioaao a iieiiye?aiiii
?aaeeia.

Iinea iaaeaoey ia ethaoth eeaaeoo ye?ai i/euaaony e iieueciaaoaeth
i?aaeeaaaaony aua?aoue aiaoiee i?eciae iaeni?aaiinoe aeaeaaoaey:

Ai a?aiy ?aaiou iieueciaaoaeue ioaa/aao ia ?yae aii?inia n iiiiuueth
auai?a aa?eaioia ec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo (Enter- auai? aa?eaioa, End-
i?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiou), iinea /aai aio i?aaeeaaaaony niinia ono?aiaiey
iaeni?aaiinoe. Neaaeothuea eiiee ye?aiia aac eiiiaioa?eaa iieacuaatho
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiou n nenoaiie.

Eo?niaie «Yenia?oiua nenoaiu» IAEYI(OO) 1996

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