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Iaeaaeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea

1. ?aaioa n ye?aiiui iaith Oo?ai Ne

2. Aaiae – auaiae aeaiiuo

3. Iia?aoi?u e iia?aoeee.

4. Ooieoeee

5. Oeiu eiinoaio. Eniieueciaaiea eiinoaio aOo?ai Ne

6. Oi?aaeythuea no?oeoo?u

7. Ianneau a ON++

Caaea/e

Aaaaeaiea

Aaaeiie aaoie a ?acaeoee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey yaeeinue nicaeaiea e oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea ycuea N++. Yoio ycue, nio?aiea n?aaenoaa noaaoaai
iauai?eciaiiui noaiaea?oii aeey iaienaiey nenoaiiuo e i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii ycuea N (i?ioeaaeo?ii-i?eaioe?iaaiiue ycue), aaae a i?aeoeeo
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aiciiaeiinoe iiaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, iieo/eaoaai iacaaiea
“iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea”. Aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia?aaeeaiu aeaao ?acaeoea
iiauo iaeanoae eioi?iaoeee, cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea o?iaiy
oaoiieiae/iinoe nicaeaaaaiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, nie?auaiea cao?ao ia
?ac?aaioeo e nii?iaiaeaeaiea i?ia?aii, eo iiaoi?iia eniieueciaaiea,
aiaea/aiea a i?ioeann ?anoe?aiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae YAI.
Iauaeoiue iiaeoiae eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae
ana aieaa oniaoii i?eiaiyaony a ea/anoaa iniiau aeey no?oeoo?ecaoeee eo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo io?aaeaiee e, a /anoiinoe , aac ciaiee.

N++ – yoi ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey iauaai iacia/aiey, oi?ioi ecaanoiue
naiae yooaeoeaiinoueth, yeiiiie/iinoueth, e ia?aiineiinoueth. Oeacaiiua
i?aeiouanoaa N++ iaania/eaatho oi?ioaa ea/anoai ?ac?aaioee ii/oe ethaiai
aeaea i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Eniieueciaaiea N++ a ea/anoaa
eino?oiaioaeueiiai ycuea iicaieyao iieo/aoue auno?ua e eiiiaeoiua
i?ia?aiiu. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?ia?aiiu, iaienaiiua ia N++, n?aaieiu ii
nei?inoe n i?ia?aiiaie, iaienaiiuie ia ycuea annaiaea?a.

Ia?a/eneei iaeioi?ua nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe ycuea N++:

– N++ iaania/eaaao iieiue iaai? iia?aoi?ia no?oeoo?iiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey;

– N++ i?aaeeaaaao iaiau/ii aieueoie iaai? iia?aoeee. Iiiaea iia?aoeee
N++ niioaaonoaotho iaoeiiui eiiaiaeai e iiyoiio aeiioneatho i?yioth
o?aineyoeeth a iaoeiiue eiae. ?aciiia?acea iia?aoeee iicaieyao auae?aoue
eo ?acee/iua iaai?u aeey ieieiecaoeee ?acoeueoe?othuaai eiaea;

N++ iiaeaea?aeeaaao oeacaoaee ia ia?aiaiiua e ooieoeee. Oeacaoaeue ia
iauaeo i?ia?aiiu niioaaonoaoao iaoeiiiio aae?ano yoiai iauaeoa.
Iin?aaenoaii ?acoiiiai eniieueciaaiey oeacaoaeae iiaeii nicaeaaaoue
yooaeoeaii auiieiyaiua i?ia?aiiu, o.e. oeacaoaee iicaieytho nnueaoueny
ia iauaeou oai aea naiui iooai, eae yoi aeaeaao YAI. N++ iiaeaea?aeeaaao
a?eoiaoeeo oeacaoaeae, e oai naiui iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue aeinooi e iaieioeyoeee n aae?anaie iaiyoe.

Iaeiaei, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aeiouanoaa ycuea N++ noaiiayony
i/aaeaeiuie i?e ?aaeecaoeee aieueoeo i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoia. Ia?aua aea
oaae i?e i?ia?aiie?iaaiee ia N++ o?aaotho io nooaeaioa ouaoaeueiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?ia?aiiu, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie aeenoeeieeiu i?e
i?ia?aiie?iaaiee.

Ia?aay /anoue iaoiaee/aneeo oeacaiee aeey i?iaaaeaiey eaai?aoi?iuo ?aaio
ii aeenoeeieeia “Aeai?eoie/aneea ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey” aeeth/aao
i?eia?u i?ia?aii e caaea/e aeey i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, i?eaioe?iaaiiua a
iniiaiii ia eco/aiea neioaene/aneeo eiino?oeoeee ycuea TURBO C++.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 1

(6 /ania)

Ni?aai/iee ii EN?

Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea eioaa?e?iaaiiie N?aaeu ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii TURBO
C++.

TURBO C++ oi?iuaao i?ioeann i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e aeaeaao aai aieaa
yooaeoeaiui. I?e ?aaioa a TURBO C++ aanue eiiieaen eino?oiaioaeueiuo
n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iaienaiey, ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey, eiiieeyoeee,
eiiiiiiaee e ioeaaeee i?ia?aii, ieacuaaaony iiae ?oeie o iieueciaaoaey.

Aanue yoio eiiieaen aiciiaeiinoae caeeth/ai a Eioaa?e?iaaiiie N?aaea
?ac?aaioee (EN?).

E?iia oiai, N?aaea ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii TURBO C++ i?aaeinoaaeyao
neaaeothuea aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua aua aieueoa oi?iuatho
i?ioeann iaienaiey i?ia?aii:

Aiciiaeiinoue ioia?aaeaiey ia ye?aia iiieoi?a cia/eoaeueiiai /enea ieii
, eioi?ua iiaeii ia?aiauaoue ii ye?aio e ?acia?u eioi?uo iiaeii
eciaiyoue.

Iaee/ea iiaeaea?aeee “iuoe”.

Iaee/ea aeieia aeeaeiaa.

Iaee/ea eiiaiae oaeaeaiey e anoaaee (i?e yoii aeiioneaaony eiie?iaaiea
ec ieia HELP e iaaeaeo ieiaie EDIT).

Aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai auciaa ae?oaeo i?ia?aii e ia?aoiiai aica?aoa.

Iaee/ea a ?aaeaeoi?a iae?iycuea.

EN? niaea?aeeo o?e aecoaeueiuo eiiiiiaiou: no?ieo iaith o aa?oiaai e?ay
ye?aia, ieiiioth iaeanoue a n?aaeiae /anoe ye?aia e no?ieo ninoiyiey o
ieaeiaai e?ay ye?aia. A ?acoeueoaoa auai?a iaeioi?uo yeaiaioia iaith ia
ye?ai aoaeoo auaeaaaoueny aeiee aeeaeiaa.

No?iea iaith e iaith

No?iea iaith i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaiia n?aaenoai aeinooia ei anai
eiiaiaeai iaith. No?iea iaith ieacuaaaony iaaeaeeiie eeoue ai a?aiy
i?iniio?a eioi?iaoeee , ioia?aaeaaiie i?ia?aiiie e ai a?aiy ia?aoiaea e
ae?oaie i?ia?aiia.

Ieia TURBO C++

Aieueoay /anoue oiai, /oi aeaeii e aeaeaaony a n?aaea TURBO C++ ,
i?ienoiaeeo a ieia. Ieii – yoi iaeanoue ye?aia, eioi?oth iiaeii
ia?aiauaoue , ?acia?u eioi?ie iiaeii ia?aiauaoue, eciaiyoue, eioi?oth
iiaeii ?aniaoeaaoue ia aanue ye?ai, i?eaioe?iaaoue anoue n ae?oaeie
ieiaie.

A TURBO C++ iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue i?iecaieueiia /enei ieii, ii a eaaeaeue
iiiaio aeoeaii oieueei iaeii ieii. Aeoeaiui yaeyaony oi ieii, a eioi?ii
a ianoiyuee iiiaio i?ienoiaeeo ?aaioa.

Ethaua aaiaeeiua eiiaiaeu eee aaiaeeiue oaeno, eae i?aaeei, ioiinyony
oieueei e aeoeaiiio ieio.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei oeiia ieii , ii aieueoay eo /anoue eiaao
neaaeothuea iauea yeaiaiou:

no?ieo caaieiaea;

ia?ea? cae?uoey ieia;

iieinu i?ie?ooee;

oaie eciaiaiey ?acia?a ieia;

ia?ea? ?aniaoeaaiey ieia ia aanue ye?ai;

iiia? ieia.

No?iea ninoiyiey

No?iea ninoiyiey, ?aniieiaeaiiay o ieaeiaai e?ay ye?aia, auiieiyao
neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

Iaiiieiaao ia iniiaiuo eeaaeoao e eeaaeoao aeoeaecaoeee, eioi?ua a
ianoiyuee iiiaio iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu e aeoeaiiio ieio.

Iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue oeacaoaeue iuoe ia iaicia/aiey eeaaeo e
e?aoeia?aiaiii iaaeaoue eiiieo iuoe aeey auiieiaiey oeacaiiiai
aeaenoaey, aianoi oiai, /oiau auae?aoue eiiaiaeu ec iaith eee iaaeeiaoue
niioaaonoaothuea eeaaeoe.

Niiauaao, eaeia aeaenoaea auiieiyaony i?ia?aiiie.

I?aaeeaaaao ninoiyuea ec iaeiie no?iee niaaou e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ethaie
aua?aiiie eiiaiaea iaith e yeaiaioai aeiea aeeaeiaa.

Aeiee aeeaeiaa

Anee ca yeaiaioii iaith ?aniieaaaaony iiiaioi/ea, oi a ?acoeueoaoa
auai?a aeaiiie eiiaiaeu aoaeao ioe?uo aeie aeeaeiaa , iaania/eaathuee
oaeiaiue niinia i?iniio?a e caaeaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?aiao?ia.

I?e caaeaiee cia/aiey a aeiea aeeaeiaa ?aaioa i?ienoiaeeo n iyoueth
aaciauie oeiaie n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey: oeacaoaeyie auai?a,
ia?aeeth/aoaeyie ninoiyiey, eiiieaie aeaenoaey, aeieaie aaiaea e aeieaie
nienea.

?aaioa n ye?aiiui iaith Oo?ai Ne.

IAITH (nenoaiiia)

Ioia?aaeaaony o eaaiai e?ay no?iee iaith. Aeey auciaa neaaeoao iaaeaoue
ALT -i?iaae. I?e auciaa yoiai iaith ioia?aaeathony eiiaiaeu:

About

I?e auai?a aeaiiie eiiaiaeu iiyaeyaony aeie aeeaeiaa, a eioi?ii
niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey ii aaoi?neei i?aaai e iiia? aa?nee TURBO C++.
Aeaiiia ieii cae?uaaaony iaaeaoeai eeaaeoe ESC eee ENTER.

Clear Desktop

Cae?uaaao ana ieia e noe?aao ana nienee i?aaeunoi?ee. Yoa eiiaiaea
iieacia a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia/eiaaony ?aaioa iaae iiaui i?iaeoii.

Repaint Desktop

Inouanoaeyao ?aaaia?aoeeth ecia?aaeaiey ia ye?aia.

Yeaiaiou iiaeiaith Transfer

A yoii iiaeiaith iieacaiu eiaia anao i?ia?aii, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu n
iiiiuueth aeiea aeeaeiaa Transfer, aucuaaaiiai eiiaiaeie
Options/Transfer. Aeey caionea i?ia?aiiu iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue aa eiy ec
nenoaiiiai iaith.

Iaith File(ALT F)

Yoi IAITH iicaieyao ioe?uaaoue a ieiao EDIT e nicaeaaaoue enoiaeiua
oaeeu i?ia?aii, nio?aiyoue aianaiiua eciaiaiey, auiieiyoue ae?oaea
aeaenoaey iaae oaeeaie ,auoiaeeoue a iaiei/eo DOS e caaa?oaoue ?aaioo n
TURBO C++.

Open(F3)

Eiiaiaea FILE OPEN ioia?aaeaao aeie aeeaeiaa, a eioi?ii auae?aaony
enoiaeiue oaee i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ue aoaeao ioe?uo a ieia EDIT.

Yoio aeie aeeaeiaa niaea?aeeo aeie aaiaea, nienie oaeeia, e eiiiee OPEN,
REPLACE, CANCEL e HELP, a oaeaea eioi?iaoeeiiioth iaiaeue.

Caeanue iiaeii auiieieoue iaeii ec aeaenoaee:

1) Aaanoe iieiia eiy oaeea e aua?aoue oeacaoaeue REPLACE eee OPEN.

A ?acoeueoaoa auai?a Open oaee caa?oaeaaony a iiaia ieii Edit. Aeey
auai?a Replace aeieaeii eiaoueny aeoeaiia ieii Edit; a ?acoeueoaoa
auiieiaiey Replace niaea?aeeiia ieia caiaiyaony aua?aiiui oaeeii.

2) Aaanoe eiy oaeea n iaoaneiaieaie. Yoi iicaieyao iooeeueo?iaaoue
nienie oaeeia a niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeoeeaoeeae.

Iaaeaoue (, /oiau aua?aoue niaoeeoeeaoeeth oaeea ec nienea i?aaeunoi?ee,
eioi?ue niaea?aeeo aaaaeaiiua ?aiaa niaoeeoeeaoeee oaeeia.

3) I?iniio?aoue niaea?aeeiia ae?oaeo eaoaeiaia, aua?aa eiy eaoaeiaa ec
nienea oaeeia.

Aeie aaiaea iicaieyao yaii aaanoe eiy oaeea eee aaanoe eiy oaeea n
iaoaneiaieaie DOS (* e ?). Anee aaanoe eiy iieiinoueth e iaaeaoue Enter,
Turbo C++ ioe?iao oeacaiiue oaee. (Anee aaanoe eiy oaeea, eioi?ue
nenoaia Turbo C++ ia iiaeao iaia?oaeeoue, iia aaoiiaoe/anee nicaeano e
ioe?iao iiaue oaee n oaeei eiaiai.)

Anee iaaeaoue ? , eiaaea eo?ni? iaoiaeeony a aeiea aaiaea,. oi iiae yoei
aeieii iiyaeyaony nienie i?aaeunoi?ee, niaea?aeauee iineaaeiea ainaiue
eiai oaeeia, eioi?ua auee aaaaeaiu ?aiaa.

New

Eiiaiaea File New iicaieyao ioe?uaaoue iiaia ieii Edit ni noaiaea?oiui
eiaiai NONAMExx. N (aaea aianoi aoea oo caaeaaony /enei a aeeaiaciia io
00 aei 99). Oaeeu n eiaiai NONAME eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa a?aiaiiiai
aooa?a aeey ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey; eiaaea oaee n iiaeiaiui eiaiai nio?aiyaony
ia aeenea, Turbo C++ cai?aoeaaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia eiy oaeea.

Save (F2)

Eiiaiaea File Save caienuaaao ia aeene oaee, iaoiaeyueeny a aeoeaiii
ieia Edit (anee aeoeaii ieii Edit a ianoiyuee iiiaio, anee iao, oi
aeaiiui yeaiaioii iaith iaeuecy ainiieueciaaoueny.) Anee oaee eiaao
eniieueciaaiiia ii oiie/aieth eiy (NONAMEOO.C e o.i.) TurboC++ ioe?iao
aeie aeeaeiaa Save Editor File, eioi?ue iicaieyao ia?aeiaiiaaoue aeaiiue
oaee e nio?aiyoue aai a ae?oaii eaoaeiaa eee ia ae?oaii aeeneiaiaea.

Save As

Eiiaiaea File Save As iicaieyao nio?aieoue oaee a aeoeaiii ieia Edit
iiae ae?oaei eiaiai, a ae?oaii eaoaeiaa eee ia ae?oaii aeeneiaiaea.

Change Dir

Eiiaiaea File Change Dir iicaieyao caaeaoue eaeaioeoeeaoi? e eiy
eaoaeiaa, eioi?ua neaaeoao naeaeaoue oaeoueie. Oaeouei yaeyaony oio
eaoaeia, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a Turbo C++ aeey nio?aiaiey e iienea
oaeeia. (I?e eniieueciaaiee ioiineoaeueiuo ia?o?ooia a Options
Directories iie caaeathony oieueei ioiineoaeueii oaeouaai eaoaeiaa).

Print

Eiiaiaea File Print ia/aoaao niaea?aeeiia aeoeaiiai ieia Edit Turbo C++
“?ane?uaaao” neiaieu oaaoeyoeee (caiaiyao eo niioaaonoaothuei /eneii
i?iaaeia), a caoai iinueaao oaee ia ono?ienoai ia/aoe, caaeaiiia a DOS.
Aeaiiay eiiaiaea aoaeao “cai?auaia”, anee niaea?aeeiia aeoeaiiai ieia ia
iiaeao auoue auaaaeaii ia ia/aoue. Aeey auaiaea ia ia/aoue oieueei
auaeaeaiiiai oaenoa neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue Ctrl-K P.

Get Info

Eiiaiaea File Get Info ioia?aaeaao aeie, a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony
eioi?iaoeey ioiineoaeueii oaeouaai oaeea.

Oaaeeoea: Cia/aiey aeiea Get Info

CIA*AIEA NIUNE

Current directory Eiy eaoaeiaa ii oiie/aieth

Current file Eiy oaeea a aeoeaiii ieia

Extended memory usage Iauai aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe, ca?aca?ae?iaaiiie
aeey Turbo C++

Expanded memory usage Iauai ?anoe?aiiie iaiyoe, ca?aca?ae?iaaiiie aeey
Turbo C++

Lines compiled *enei ioeiiieee?iaaiiuo no?ie

Total warnings *enei auaeaiiuo nenoaiie i?aaeoi?aaeaeathueo niiauaiee

Totals errors *enei naaia?e?iaaiiuo ioeaie

Total time A?aiy iineaaeiaai auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu

Program loaded Noaoon ioeaaeee

Program exit Eiae aica?aoa io iineaaeiae caaa?oeaoaeny i?ia?aiiu

Available memory Iauai aeinooiiie iaiyoe DOS (640 E)

Last step time A?aiy auiieiaiey iineaaeiaai oaaa ioeaaeee

DOS Shell

Eiiaiaea File DOS Shell iicaieyao a?aiaiii aueoe ec Turbo C++, /oiau
auiieieoue eiiaiaeo DOS eee caionoeoue i?ia?aiio. Aeey aica?aoa a Turbo
C++ iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe n eeaaeaoo?u EXIT e iaaeaoue Enter.

Eiiaaea iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi ai a?aiy ioeaaeee ia oaaoaao iaiyoe
aeey auiieiaiey yoie eiiaiaeu. A yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii caaa?oeoue
naain ioeaaeee eiiaiaeie Run Program Reset (Ctrl-F2).

Quit (Alt-x)

Eiiaiaea File Quit inouanoaeyao auoiae ec nenoaiu Turbo C++, oaeaeyao
aa ec iaiyoe e ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea DOS. Anee aianaiu eciaiaiey, eioi?ua
aua ia auee nio?aiaiu, oi ia?aae auoiaeii Turbo C++ auaeano cai?in ia eo
nio?aiaiea.

Iaith Edit(Alt-E)

Iicaieyao auiieiyoue oaeaeaiey, eiie?iaaiea e anoaaeo oaenoa a ieiao
Edit. Iiaeii oaeaea ioe?uoue ieii oaenoiaiai aooa?a aeey i?iniio?a eee
?aaeaeoe?iaaiey aai niaea?aeeiiai. Aua?aoue oaeno yoi cia/eo auaeaeeoue
aai oeaaoii:

1) Iaaeaoue Shift n iaeiia?aiaiiui iaaeaoeai no?aeee.

2) Iaaeaoue Ctrl-K B, /oiau iiiaoeoue ia/aei auaeaeyaiiai aeiea.

Caoai ia?aianoeoue eo?ni? a eiiaoe o?aaiaioa oaenoa e ia aeaoue

Ctrl-K K.

3)Aeey auai?a no?iee iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaoue Ctrl-K L.

Iinea auaeaeaiey o?aaiaioa oaenoa noaiiayony aeinooiiuie eiiaiaeu,
?aniieiaeaiiua a iaith Edit, e iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oaenoiaue aooa?
(Clipboard).Ii acaeiiaeaenoaoao n eiiaiaeaie iaith Edit:

Restore Line

Yoa eiiaiaea ioiaiyao aeaenoaea iineaaeiae eiiaiaeu ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey,
i?eiaiaiiie e eaeie-eeai no?iea. Iia aeaenoaoao oieueei iaae iineaaeiae
io?aaeaeoe?iaaiiie no?ieie.

Cut (Shift-Del)

Oaeaeyao auaeaeaiiue o?aaiaio oaenoa ec aeieoiaioa e caiineo aai a
oaenoiaue aooa?. Caoai iiaeii anoaaeoue oaeno a ae?oaie aeieoiaio iooai
auai?a Paste.

Copy (Ctrl-Ins)

Yoa eiiaiaea ia eciaiyao auaeaeaiiue oaeno, ii caiineo a oaenoiaue
aooa? aai oi/ioth eiieth. Caoai iiaeii anoaaeoue oaeno a ae?oaie
aeieoiaio eiiaiaeie Paste. Iiaeii neiie?iaaoue oaeno ec ieia Help;
neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue Shift e eeaaeoe oi?aaeaiey eo?ni?ii.

Paste (Shift-Ins)

Yoa eiiaiaea anoaaeyao oaeno ec oaenoiaiai aooa?a a oaeouaa ieii a
iiceoeee eo?ni?a.

Show Clipboard

Yoa eiiaiaea ioe?uaaao ieii Clipboard, a eioi?ii o?aiyony o?aaiaiou
oaenoa, oaeaeaiiiai e neiie?iaaiiiai ec ae?oaeo ieii.

Clear (Ctrl-Del)

Yoa eiiaiaea oaeaeyao aua?aiiue o?aaiaio oaenoa ,ii ia caiineo aai a
oaenoiaue aooa?. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ainnoaiiaeoue oaeaeaiiue oaeno
iaeuecy.

Iaith Search (Alt-S)

Iaith Search auiieiyao iiene oaenoa, iauyaeaiee ooieoeee, a oaeaea
ianoiiieiaeaiea ioeaie a oaeeao.

Eiiaiaea Search Find ioia?aaeaao aeie aeeaeiaa Find, eioi?ue iicaieyao
aaanoe ia?acaoe iienea e caaeaoue ia?aiao?u, aeeythuea ia i?ioeann
iienea. Yoa eiiaiaea iiaeao auoue oaeaea aucaaia n iiiiuueth (Ctrl Q F).

Replace (Ctrl Q A)

Eiiaiaea Search Replace ioia?aaeaao aeie aeeaeiaa aeey aaiaea eneiiiai
oaenoa e oaenoa, ia eioi?ue aai neaaeoao caiaieoue.

Search Again (Ctrl L)

Eiiaiaea Search Again iiaoi?yao aeaenoaea iineaaeiae eiiaiaeu Find eee
Replace. Ana ia?aiao?u, eioi?ua auee caaeaiu i?e iineaaeiai ia?auaiee e
eniieueciaaiiiio aeieo aeeaeiaa(Find eee Replace), inoathony
aeaenoaeoaeueiuie i?e auai?a aeaiiie eiiaiaeu.

Iaith Run (Alt-R)

Eiiaiaeu yoiai iaith auiieiytho i?ia?aiio, a oaeaea eieoeeaeece?otho e
caaa?oatho naain ioeaaeee.

Run(Ctrl-F9)

Eiiaiaea Run auiieiyao i?ia?aiio, eniieuecoy oa a?aoiaiou, eioi?ua
ia?aaeaiu i?ia?aiia n iiiiuueth eiiaiaeu Run Arguments.

Orace Into(F7)

Yoa eiiaiaea auiieiyao i?ia?aiio ii iia?aoi?ai. Ii aeinoeaeaieth auciaa
ooieoeee aoaeao auiieiyoueny eaaeaeue aa iia?aoi? aianoi oiai, /oiau
auiieieoue yoo ooieoeeth ca iaeei oaa. Yoie eiiaiaeie neaaeoao
iieueciaaoueny aeey ia?aiauaiey auiieiaiey a ooieoeeth, eioi?ay
aucuaaaony ec ioeaaeeaaaiie ooieoeee.

Program Reset(Ctrl-F2)

Eiiaiaea Run Program Reset i?ae?auaao oaeouee naain ioeaaeee,
inaiaiaeaeaao iaiyoue i?ia?aiiu e cae?uaaao ana ioe?uoua oaeeu, eioi?ua
eniieueciaaeenue a i?ia?aiia.

Over

Eiiaiaea Run Step Over auiieiyao neaaeothuee iia?aoi? a oaeouae
ooieoeee aac aoiaeaeaiey a ooieoeee aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy, aeaaea anee
yoe ooieoeee aeinooiiu ioeaae/eeo. Eiiaiaeie Step Over neaaeoao
iieueciaaoueny a neo/ayo, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii ioeaaeeoue ooieoeeth a
iiiia?aoi?iii ?aaeeia auiieiaiey aac aoiaeaeaiey a ae?oaea ooieoeee.

Arguments

Eiiaiaea Run Arguments iicaieyao caaeaoue auiieiyaiie i?ia?aiia
a?aoiaiou eiiaiaeiie no?iee oi/ii oae aea, eae anee au iie aaiaeeeenue a
eiiaiaeiie no?iea DOS. Eiiaiaeu ia?aiacia/aiey aaiaea/auaiaea DOS aoaeoo
eaii?e?iaaoueny.

Compile ( C)

Eiiaiaeu ec iaith Compile eniieuecothony aeey eiiieeyoeee i?ia?aiiu a
aeoeaiii ieia, a oaeaea aeey iieiie eee ecae?aoaeueiie eiiieeyoeee
i?iaeoa:

EXE File

Eiiaiaea Compile Make EXE File aucuaaao Iaiaaeaea? i?iaeoia aeey
nicaeaiey EXE-oaeea.

Link EXE File Oieueei i?e iieiii iaai?a iaith

Eiiaiaea Compile Link EXE File eniieuecoao oaeouea OBJ e LIB-oaeeu e
eiiiiioao eo, ia i?iecaiaey ecae?aoaeueiie eiiieeyoeee.

Iaith Debug (Alt F9)

Eiiaiaeu iaith Debug oi?aaeytho anaie aiciiaeiinoyie eioaa?e?iaaiiiai
ioeaae/eea.

Inspect (Alt F4)

Eiiaiaea Debug Inspect ioe?uaaao ieii Inspector, eioi?iio iicaieyao
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue e iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue cia/aiey yeaiaioa aeaiiuo.

Iaith Options(Alt-O)

Iaith O?tions niaea?aeeo eiiaiaeu, eioi?ua iicaieytho i?iniao?eaaoue e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue noaiaea?oiua ia?aiao?u, ii?aaeaeythuea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea Turbo C++.

Caaeaiea: Eniieuecoy eiiaiaeu ye?aiiiai iaith File, iaeoe, ioe?uoue e
ia?aeiaiiaaoue eaeie-eeai oaee ec eaoaeiaa i?eia?ia iaeaoa Turbo C++.

Eniieuecoy eiiaiaeu ye?aiiiai iaith Edit, io?aaioaoue i?eaiu
?aaeaeoe?iaaiey.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu.

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao nio?aieoue ia aeenea oaee, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony a
aeoeaiii ieia?

Eaeay eiiaiaea ioia?aaeaao ia ye?aia aeie aeeaeiaa, iicaieythuee
ioe?uoue oaee?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao ?aniaoeaaoue ia aanue ye?ai aeoeaiia ieii?

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea Change Dir?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue oeeeee/aneia ia?aiauaiea io
iaeiiai ioe?uoiai ieia e neaaeothuaio?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao auiieiyoue i?ia?aiio a ?aaeeia ioeaaeee n
ioneaaeeaaieai aioo?e ooieoeee?

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea Inspect?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao auiieiyoue i?ia?aiio a ?aaeeia ioeaaeee ,
auiieiyy ooieoeeth ca iaeei oaa?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao oaeaeeoue oaeno ec ieia ia iiiauay aai a
oaenoiaue aooa??

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea Arguments?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao eiie?iaaoue aua?aiiue oaeno a oaenoiaue aooa??

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao caiineoue aua?aiiue oaeno a oaenoiaue aooa? e
oaeaeyoue aua?aiiue oaeno ec ieia?

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea Trace Into?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao ioia?aaeaoue ia ye?aia eaae? eiioaenoiie
iiaeneacee?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao inouanoaeoue ia?aoiae e i?aaeuaeouae ioeaea?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao eieoeeaeece?iaaoue i?ia?aiio?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao eiiieee?iaaoue a OBJ-oaee?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao auiieiyoue i?ia?aiio?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao auiieiyoue i?ia?aiio aei no?iee, ia eioi?ie
onoaiiaeai eo?ni??

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea DOS Shell?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao aeeth/eoue eee aueeth/eoue iieiue iaai? iaith?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao ?aaaia?e?iaaoue ecia?aaeaiea ia ye?aia?

Eaeay eiiaiaea iicaieyao nio?aieoue oaee iiae ae?oaei eiaiai?

Aeey /aai neoaeeo eiiaiaea Get Info?

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 2

Aaiae – auaiae aeaiiuo

(2 /ana)

Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea no?oeoo?u eniieiyaiiai oaeea, oeiia aeaiiuo e
iia?aoi?ia aaiaea-auaiaea nenoaiu TURBO C++.

Ooieoeey Main

Eaaeaeue eniieiyaiue oaee nenoaiu (Oo?ai) Ne (i?ia?aiia) aeieaeai
niaea?aeaoue ooieoeeth main.

Eiae- caaeathuee oaei ooieoeee main, caeeth/aaony a oeao?iua neiaee
{e}.

Iauay no?oeoo?a ooieoeee main oaeiaa:

main()

{

/* Eiae, ?aaeecothuee main */

}

Eiiiaioa?ee

Oaeno ia (Oo?ai) Ne, caeeth/aiiue a neiaee /* e */, eiiieeyoi?ii
eaii?e?oaony. Eiiiaioa?ee neoaeao aeaoi oeaeyi: aeieoiaioe?iaaoue eiae e
iaeaa/eoue ioeaaeeo. Anee i?ia?aiia ?aaioaao ia oae, eae iaaei, oi
eiiaaea ieacuaaaony iieaciui caeiiiaioe?iaaoue /anoue eiaea ( o.a.
auianoe aa a eiiiaioa?ee ) , caiiai neiiieee?iaaoue i?ia?aiio e
auiieieoue aa . Anee iinea yoiai i?ia?aiia ia/iao ?aaioaoue i?aaeeueii,
oi cia/eo, caeiiiaioe?iaaiiue eiae niaea?aeeo ioeaeo e aeieaeai auoue
eni?aaeai .

Aee?aeoeau Include

Ai iiiaea i?ia?aiiu ia (Oo?ai) Ne iiaenoaaeythony iaeei eee ianeieueei
oaeeia, /anoi a naiia ia/aei eiaea aeaaiie ooieoeee main.

Iiyaeaiea aee?aeoea

#include

#include “oaee_2”

#include

i?eaiaeeo e oiio , /oi i?ai?ioeanni? iiaenoaaeyao ia ianoi yoeo
aee?aeoea oaenou oaeeia oaee_1, oaee_2 , … , oaee_n niioaaonoaaiii.

Anee eiy oaeea caeeth/aii a oaeiaua neiaee <...> , oi iiene oaeea
i?iecaiaeeony a niaoeeaeueiii ?acaeaea iiaenoaiiai/iuo oaeeia. A ioee/ea
io iiiaeo ae?oaeo iia?aoi?ia (Oo?ai) Ne aee?aeoeaa Include ia aeieaeia
ieai/eaaoueny oi/eie n caiyoie .

Iae?i

N iiiiuueth aee?aeoeau #define, aneaae ca eioi?ie ieooony eiy iae?i e
cia/aiea iae?i, ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui oeacaoue i?ai?ioeanni?o, /oiau ii
i?e ethaii iiyaeaiee a enoiaeiii oaeea ia (Oo?ai) Ne aeaiiiai eiaie
iae?i caiaiye yoi eiy ia niioaaonoaothuea cia/aiey iae?i .

Iai?eia?, aee?aeoeaa

#define pi 3.1415926

naycuaaao eaeaioeoeeaoi? pi ni cia/aieai 3.1415926. Iinea cia/aiey iae?i
(;) ia noaaeony.

Oeiu aeaiiuo

A (Oo?ai) Ne ia?aiaiiua aeieaeiu auoue iienaiu, a eo oei niaoeeoe?iaai
aei oiai, eae yoe ia?aiaiiua aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu.

I?e iienaiee ia?aiaiiuo i?eiaiyaony i?aoeeniay caienue , i?e eioi?ie
aia/aea oeacuaaaony oei, a caoai – eiy ia?aiaiiie.

Iai?eia?:

float weight;

int exam_score;

char ch;

N oeiii aeaiiuo naycuaathony e iaai? i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiuo cia/aiee, e
iaai? iia?aoeee, eioi?ua iiaeii auiieiyoue iaae ia?aiaiiie aeaiiiai
oeia.

Ia?aiaiiua iiaeii eieoeeaeece?iaaoue a ianoa eo iienaiee.

I?eia?:

int height = 71 ;

float income =26034.12 ;

I?inoaeoeie neaey?iuie oeiaie, i?aaeii?aaeae?iiuie a (Oo?ai) Ne,
yaeythony

char I?aaenoaaeyaony eae iaeiiaaeoiaia oeaeia /enei

int Aeaoaaeoiaia oeaeia

long *aou??oaaeoiaia oeaeia

float *aou??oaaeoiaia aauanoaaiiia

double Ainueieaaeoiaia aauanoaaiiia

Iia?aoi? printf: auaiae ia oa?ieiae

Ooieoeeth printf iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey auaiaea ethaie eiiaeiaoeee
neiaieia, oeaeuo e aauanoaaiiuo /enae, no?ie, aacciaeiauo oeaeuo,
aeeeiiuo oeaeuo e aacciaeiauo aeeeiiuo oeaeuo.

I?eia?:

printf(“\nAic?ano Y?eea – %d. Aai aeioiae $%.2f”,age,income);

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi oeaeie ia?aiaiiie age (aic?ano) e aauanoaaiiie
ia?aiaiiie income (aeioiae) i?enaiaiu eaeea-oi cia/aiey.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue neiaieia “\n” ia?aaiaeeo eo?ni? ia iiaoth no?ieo.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue neiaieia “Aic?ano Y?eea -” aoaeao auaaaeaia n
ia/aea iiaie no?iee. Neiaieu %d – yoi niaoeeoeeaoeey aeey oeaeie
ia?aiaiiie age. Neaaeothuay eeoa?iay no?iea ” Aai aeioiae $ “. %2f – yoi
niaoeeoeeaoeey ( neiaie i?aia?aciaaiey oi?iaoa ) aeey aauanoaaiiiai
cia/aiey, a oaeaea oeacaiea oi?iaoa aeey auaiaea oieueei aeaoo oeeo?
iinea aeanyoe/iie oi/ee. Oae auaiaeeony cia/aiea ia?aiaiiie income

Neiaie

oi?iaoa

Oei auaiaeeiiai iauaeoa

%n char

%s no?iea

%d int

%o int ( a ainueia?e/iii aeaea )

%u unsigned int

%x int ( a oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iii aeaea )

%ld long ( a aeanyoe/iii aeaea )

%lo long ( a ainueia?e/iii aeaea )

%lu unsigned long

%lx long ( a oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iii aeaea )

%f float/double ( c oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie)

%e float/double ( a yeniiiaioeeaeueiie oi?ia )

%g float/double ( a aeaea f eee a a caaeneiinoe io cia/aiey )

%lf long float ( c oeene?iaaiiie oi/eie )

%le long float ( a yeniiiaioeeaeueiie oi?ia )

%lg long float ( a aeaea f eee a a caaeneiinoe

io cia/aiey )

Iia?aoi? scanf: aaiae n eeaaeaoo?u

Iia?aoi? scanf yaeyaony iaeiie ec iiiaeo ooieoeee aaiaea, eiathueony ai
aiaoieo aeaeeioaeao.

Eaaeaeie aaiaeeiie ia?aiaiiie a no?iea ooieoeee scanf aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue niaoeeoeeaoeey. Ia?aae eiaiaie ia?aiaiiuo iaiaoiaeeii
inoaaeoue neiaie &. Yoio neiaie icia/aao “acyoue aae?an”.

I?eia?:

#include

main()

{

int weight, /*aan*/

height; /*?ino*/

printf(” Aaaaeeoa aao aan: “);

scanf(“%d”, &weight);

printf(” Aaaaeeoa aao poco: “);

scanf(“%d”, &height);

printf(“\n\nAan = %d, ?ino = %d\n”,

weight,height);

}

Caaeaiea:

Ninoaaeoue e ?ania/aoaoue i?ia?aiio auaiaea ia ye?ai naieo aieaoiuo
aeaiiuo ?acee/iiai oeia: – aaiaeeiuo n eeaaeaoo?u,

– n iiiiuueth aee?aeoeau define,

– eieoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?e iienaiee.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 3

Iia?aoi?u e iia?aoeee

(2 /ana)

Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea a?eoiaoe/aneeo, eiae/aneeo iia?aoeee e iia?aoeee
ioiioaiey e i?enaaeaaiey.

Iniiao ycuea (Oo?ai) Ne ninoaaeytho iia?aoi?u. Iia?aoi?ii-au?aaeaiey
iacuaatho au?aaeaiea, aneaae ca eioi?ui noieo oi/ea n caiyoie. A (Oo?ai)
Ne oi/ee n caiyoie eniieuecothony aeey ?acaeaeaiey iia?aoi?ia. I?eiyoi
a?oiie?iaaoue ana iia?aoi?u a neaaeothuea eeannu: i?enaaeaaiey, aucia
ooieoeee, aaoaeaiey e oeeeea.

A iia?aoi?a i?enaaeaaiey eniieuecoaony iia?aoeey i?enaaeaaiey = ,

Iai?eia?:

c = a * b;

Aeaenoaea oaeiai iia?aoi?a iiaeii iienaoue neaaeothueie neiaaie: ” n
i?enaaeaaaony cia/aiea a, oiiiaeaiea ia b “. Cia/aiea, i?enaaeaaaiia
ia?aiaiiie n, ?aaiyaony i?iecaaaeaieth oaeoueo cia/aiee ia?aiaiiuo a e
b.

Iia?aoi?u /anoi ioiinyony aieaa /ai e iaeiiio ec /aou?ao eeannia.

Iai?eia?: iia?aoi?:

if ( ( c = cube( a * b ) ) > d )

ninoaaeai ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae neaaeothueo eeannia: i?enaaeaaiey, aucia
ooieoeee, e aaoaeaiea.

E iiiyoeth iia?aoi?a aieioioth i?eiueaao iiiyoea iia?aoeee.

?acee/atho neaaeothuea a?oiiu iia?aoeee (Oo?ai) Ne : a?eoiaoe/aneea
iia?aoeee, iia?aoeee ioiioaiey, iia?aoeee i?enaaeaaiey, eiae/aneea
iia?aoeee, iiaeoiaua iia?aoeee, iia?aoeey au/eneaiey ?acia?a (sizeof) e
iia?aoeey neaaeiaaiey (caiyoay).

A?eoiaoe/aneea iia?aoeee

E a?eoiaoe/aneei iia?aoeeyi ioiinyony: neiaeaiea (+), au/eoaiea (-),
aeaeaiea (/) , oiiiaeaiea (*) e inoaoie (%). Ana iia?aoeee (ca
eneeth/aieai inoaoea) ii?aaeaeaiu aeey ia?aiaiiuo oeia int , char ,
float. Inoaoie ia ii?aaeaeai aeey ia?aiaiiuo oeia float. Ana
a?eoiaoe/aneea iia?aoeee n ieaaathuae oi/eie i?iecaiaeyony iaae
iia?aiaeaie aeaieiie oi/iinoe.

Iia?aoeee ioiioaiey

A ycuea ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea iia?aoeee ioiioaiey: i?iaa?ea ia
?aaainoai (==), i?iaa?ea ia ia?aaainoai (!=), iaiueoa (<), iaiueoa eee ?aaii (<=), aieueoa (>), aieueoa eee ?aaii (>=).

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua iia?aoeee au?aaaouaatho ?acoeueoao oeia int. Anee
aeaiiia ioiioaiea iaaeaeo iia?aiaeaie enoeiii, oi cia/aiea yoiai oeaeiai
– aaeeieoea, a anee eiaeii, oi ioeue.

Ana iia?aoeee oeia aieueoa-iaiueoa eiatho ?aaiue i?ei?eoao, i?e/ai ii
auoa , /ai i?ei?eoao iia?aoeee == e !=. I?ei?eoao iia?aoeee i?enaaeaaiey
ieaea i?ei?eoaoa anao iia?aoeee ioiioaiee. Aeey caaeaiey i?aaeeueiiai
ii?yaeea au/eneaiee eniieuecothony neiaee.

Eiae/aneea iia?aoeee

A ycuea eiathony o?e eiae/aneea iia?aoeee:

&& iia?aoeee E (and)

|| iia?aoeee EEE (or)

! io?eoeaiea

A?aoiaioaie eiae/aneeo iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue ethaua /enea, aeeth/ay
caaeaaaaiua a?aoiaioaie oeia char. ?acoeueoao eiae/aneie
iia?aoeee-aaeeieoea, anee enoeia, e ioeue, anee eiaeue. Aiiaua ana
cia/aiey, ioee/iua io ioey, eioa?i?aoe?othony eae enoeiiua.

Eiae/aneea iia?aoeee eiatho ieceee i?ei?eoao, e iiyoiio a au?aaeaieyo n
oaeeie iia?aoeeyie neiaee eniieuecothony ?aaeei.

Au/eneaiea au?aaeaiee, niaea?aeaueo eiae/aneea iia?aoeee, i?iecaiaeeony
neaaa iai?aai e i?ae?auaaony (onaeaaony), eae oieueei oaeaaony
ii?aaeaeeoue ?acoeueoao. Anee au?aaeaiea ninoaaeaii ec eiae/aneeo
ooaa?aeaeaiee (o.a. au?aaeaiey, au?aaaouaathuea cia/aiey oeia int),
niaaeeiaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iia?aoeeae E (&&), oi au/eneaiea au?aaeaiey
i?ae?auaaony, eae oieueei oioy au a iaeiii eiae/aneii ooaa?aeaeaiee
au?aaaouaaaony cia/aiea ioeue. Anee au?aaeaiea ninoaaeaii ec eiae/aneeo
ooaa?aeaeaiee, niaaeeiaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iia?aoeeae EEE (||), oi
au/eneaiea au?aaeaiey i?ae?auaaony, eae oieueei oioy au a iaeiii
eiae/aneii ooaa?aeaeaiee au?aaaouaaaony iaioeaaia cia/aiea.

Aio ianeieueei i?eia?ia, a eioi?uo eniieuecothony eiae/aneea iia?aoeee:

if( i > 50 && j == 24)

if( value1 < value2 && (value3 > 50 || value4 < 20) )...Iia?aoeee i?enaaeaaieyE iia?aoeeyi i?enaaeaaiey ioiinyony =, +=, -=, *= e /=, a oaeaea i?aoeeniua e iinooeeniua iia?aoeee ++ e --. Ana iia?aoeee i?enaaeaaiey i?enaaeaatho ia?aiaiiie ?acoeueoao au/eneaiey au?aaeaiey. Anee oei eaaie /anoe i?enaaeaaiey ioee/aaony io oeia i?aaie /anoe, oi oei i?aaie /anoe i?eaiaeeony e oeio eaaie.A iaeiii iia?aoi?a iia?aoeey i?enaaeaaiey iiaeao ano?a/aoueny ianeieueei ?ac. Au/eneaiey i?iecaiaeyony ni?aaa iaeaai.Iai?eia?:a = ( b = c ) * d;Aia/aea ia?aiaiiie d i?enaaeaaaony cia/aiea n, caoai auiieiyaony iia?aoeey oiiiaeaiey ia d, e ?acoeueoao i?enaaeaaaony ia?aiaiiie a.Iia?aoeee +=, -=, *= e /= yaeythony oei?i/aiiie oi?iie caiene iia?aoeee i?enaaeaaiey. Eo i?eiaiaiea i?ieeethno?e?oai i?e iiiiue neaaeothuaai iienaiey:a += b icia/aao a = a + b.a -= b icia/aao a = a - b.a *= b icia/aao a = a * b.a /= b icia/aao a = a / b.I?aoeeniua e iinooeeniua iia?aoeee ++ e -- eniieuecotho aeey oaaee/aiey (eie?aiaio) e oiaiueoaiey (aeae?aiaio) ia aaeeieoeo cia/aiey ia?aiaiiie.Naiaioeea oeacaiiuo iia?aoeee neaaeothuay:++a oaaee/eaaao cia/aiea ia?aiaiiie a ia aaeeieoeo aei eniieueciaaiey yoie ia?aiaiiie a au?aaeaiee.a++ oaaee/eaaao cia/aiea ia?aiaiiie a ia aaeeieoeo iinea eniieueciaaiey yoie ia?aiaiiie a au?aaeaiee.--a oiaiueoaao cia/aiea ia?aiaiiie a ia aaeeieoeo aei eniieueciaaiey yoie ia?aiaiiie a au?aaeaiee.a-- oiaiueoaao cia/aiea ia?aiaiiie a ia aaeeieoeo iinea eniieueciaaiey yoie ia?aiaiiie a au?aaeaiee.Iia?aoeeth sizeof (?acia?) iiaeii i?eiaieoue e eiinoaioa, oeio eee ia?aiaiiie. A ?acoeueoaoa aoaeao iieo/aii /enei aaeoia, caieiaaiuo iia?aiaeii.Iai?eia?:printf ( "\n?acia? iaiyoe iiae oeaeia %d", sizeof( int) );printf ( "\n?acia? iaiyoe iiae ceiaie %d", sizeof( nhar) );Caaeaiea: Cinoaaeoue e ?ania/aoaoue i?ia?aiio, eniieuecothuoth iia?aoi? i?enaaeaaiey, a?eoiaoe/aneea iia?aoeee e iia?aoeeth sizeof.Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 4Ooieoeee(2 /ana)Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea eiae/aneie i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?aiiu e i?inoaeoaa eniieueciaaiea ooieoeee a Oo?ai Ne.I?ioeann ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeaeaiea neiaeiie caaea/e ia iaai? aieaa i?inouo caaea/ e caaeaiee. A (Oo?ai) Ne iiaeaea?aeeaathony ooieoeee eae eiae/aneea aaeeieoeu (aeiee oaenoa i?ia?aiiu) , neoaeauea aeey auiieiaiey eiie?aoiiai caaeaiey.Aaaeiui aniaeoii ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey yaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeaeiiiiceoeey.Ooieoeee eiatho ioeue eee aieaa oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia e aica?auatho cia/aiea neaey?iiai oeia, oeia void (ionoi) eee oeacaoaeue. I?e auciaa ooieoeee cia/aiey, caaeaaaaiua ia aoiaea, aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue /eneo e oeio oi?iaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia a iienaiee ooieoeee. Anee ooieoeey ia aica?auaao cia/aiey (o.a. aica?auaao void), oi iia neoaeeo aeey oiai, /oiau eciaiyoue naie ia?aiao?u (aucuaaoue iiai/iue yooaeo) eee aeiaaeueiua aeey ooieoeee ia?aiaiiua.Iai?eia?, ooieoeey, aica?auathuay eoa aa aauanoaaiiiai a?aoiaioa:double cube( double x ){return x * x * x ;}A?aoiaio o oeia double niaoeeoeoee?oaony aneaae ca ia?aie ioe?uaathuae neiaeie. Iienaiea extern , iiiauaaiia a ooieoeeth main , yaeyaony nnueeie aia?aae , iicaieythuae eniieueciaaoue ooieoeeth cube a ooieoeee main. Eeth/aaia neiai extern iiaeii iioneaoue, ii naia nnueea aia?aae ia iienaiea ooieoeee yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie.Eiae/aneay i?aaiecaoeey i?inoie i?ia?aiiu ia Oo?ai Ne.(Oo?ai) Ne i?aaeinoaaeyao iaiau/aeii aunieoth aeaeinoue aeey oece/aneie i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?aiiu eee i?ia?aiiiie nenoaiu.A oaae.1 iieacaia oeie/iay i?aaiecaoeey iaaieueoie i?ia?aiiu ia (Oo?ai) Ne./* Caaieiaee e eiiiaioa?ee, iienuaathuea i?ia?aiio *//* Aee?aeoeau include */#include eiy_oaeea_1...#include eiy_oaeea_n/* Iae?i */#define iae?i_1 cia/aiea_1...#define iae?i_n cia/aiea_n/* Iienaiea aeiaaeueiuo ia?aiaiiuo */oei_aeaiiuo aeiaaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_1;...oei_aeaiiuo aeiaaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_n;main(){/* iienaiea extern, iaania/eaathuea nnueeo aia?aae ia ooieoeee e eniieuecoaiua a oaea ooieoeee main *//* Iienaiea eieaeueiuo ia?aiaiiuo */oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_1;...oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_m;/* Oaei ooieoeee main */...}/* Ooieoeee, eniieuecoaiua a i?ia?aiia main */Oei_aeaiiuo eiy_ooieoeee_1( oi?iaeueiua ia?aiao?u ){/* Iienaiea extern, iaania/eaathuaa nnueeo aia?aae ia ooieoeee e eniieuecoaiua a oaea aeaiiie ooieoeee *//* Iienaiea eieaeueiuo ia?aiaiiuo */oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_1;...oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_u;/* Oaei ooieoeee - 1 */...}...Oei_aeaiiuo eiy_ooieoeee_n( oi?iaeueiua ia?aiao?u ){/* Iienaiea extern, iaania/eaathuay nnueeo aia?aae ia ooieoeee e eniieuecoaiua a oaea aeaiiie ooieoeee n *//* Iienaiea eieaeueiuo ia?aiaiiuo */oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_1;...oei_aeaiiuo eieaeueiay_ia?aiaiiay_r;/* Oaei ooieoeee n */...}Co?oeoo?a eaaeaeie ooieoeee niaiaaeaao ni no?oeoo?ie aeaaiie i?ia?aiiu (main). Iiyoiio ooieoeee eiiaaea aua iacuaatho iiaei?ia?aiiaie.Iiaei?ia?aiiu ?aoatho iaaieueooth e niaoeeoe/aneoth /anoue iauae caaea/e.Caaeaiea: Ninoaaeoue e ?ania/aoaoue i?ia?aiio, au/eneythuoth eoau /enae, caaeaiiuo ?aciuie niiniaaie.Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 5Oeiu eiinoaio. Eniieueciaaiea eiinoaio a (Oo?ai) Ne(2 /ana)Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea eniieueciaaiey eiinoaio ?acee/iuo oeiia a Oo?ai Ne.A ycuea (Oo?ai) Ne eiathony /aou?a oeia eiinoaio: oeaeua, aauanoaaiiua (n ieaaathuae oi/eie), neiaieueiua e no?ieiaua.Eiinoaiou oeaeiai oeiaEiinoaiou oeaeiai oeia iiaoo caaeaaaoueny a aeanyoe/iie, aeaie/iie, ainueia?e/iie eee oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iie nenoaiao n/eneaiey.Aeanyoe/iua oeaeua eiinoaiou ia?acothony ec oeeo?. Ia?aie oeeo?ie ia aeieaeai auoue ioeue.Ainueia?e/iua eiinoaiou anaaaea ia/eiathony n oeeo?u ioeue, aneaae ca eioi?ie eeai ia noieo ie iaeiie oeeo?u, eeai noiyo ianeieueei oeeo? io ioey aei naia?ee.Oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iua eiinoaiou anaaaea ia/eiathony n oeeo?u ioeue e neiaiea o eee O, ana, ca eioi?uie iiaeao noiyoue iaeia eee aieaa oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iuo oeeo?.Oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iua oeeo?u - yoi aeanyoe/iua oeeo?u io 0 aei 9 e eaoeineea aoeau: a, b, c, d, e, f, eee A, B, C, D, E, F.Iai?eia?: caaeaiea eiinoaiou 3478 a aeanyoe/iii, ainueia?e/iii e oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iii aeaea:int a = 3478,b = 06626,c = 0oD96;E ethaie oeaeie eiinoaioa iiaeii ni?aaa i?eienaoue neiaie l eee L, e yoi aoaeao icia/aoue, /oi eiinoaioa - aeeeiiay oeaeay (long integer). Neiaie u eee U, i?eienaiiue e eiinoaioa ni?aaa, oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi eiinoaioa oeaeay aac ciaea (unsigned long).N/eoaaony, /oi cia/aiea ethaie oeaeie eiinoaiou anaaaea iaio?eoeaoaeueii. Anee eiinoaioa i?aaeoanoaoao ciae ieion, oi ii o?aeooaony eae iia?aoeey niaiu ciaea, a ia eae /anoue eiinoaiou.Eiinoaiou aauanoaaiiiai oeiaEiinoaiou n ieaaathuae oi/eie (iacuaaaiua aauanoaaiiuie) ninoiyo ec oeeo?, aeanyoe/iie oi/ee e ciaeia aeanyoe/iiai ii?yaeea a eee A. Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu ana aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou caiene eiinoaio aauanoaaiiiai oeia:1. 2e1 .1234 .1e3.1 2E1 1.234 0.0035e-61.0 2e-1 2.1e-12 .234Ceiaieueiua eiinoaiouCeiaieueiua eiinoaiou caeeth/athony a aiino?iou (eaau/ee). Ana neiaieueiua eiinoaiou eiatho a (Oo?ai) Ne cia/aiea oeia int (oeaeia), niaiaaeathuaa n eiaeii neiaiea a eiaee?iaea ASCII.Iaeie neiaieueiua eiinoaiou niioaaonoaotho neiaieai, eioi?ua iiaeii auaanoe ia ia/aoue, ae?oaea - oi?aaeythuei neiaieai, caaeaaaaiui n iiiiuueth esc - iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, o?aouee - oi?iaoe?othueie neiaieaie, oaeaea caaeaaaaiui n iiiiuueth esc - iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.Iai?eia?:neiaie " aiino?io " caaeaaony eae '\'', ia?aoiae ia iiaothno?ieo - eae '\', a ia?aoiue neyo - eae '\\'.Eaaeaeay esc - iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeieaeia auoue caeeth/aia a eaau/ee.Oi?aaeythuea eiaeu\n Iiaay no?iea\t Ai?eciioaeueiay oaaoeyoeey\v Aa?oeeaeueiay oaaoeyoeey\b Aica?ao ia neiaie\r Aica?ao a ia/aei no?iee\f I?iaii aoiaae aei eiioea no?aieoeu\\ Ia?aoiue neyo\' Iaeeia?iay eaau/ea\" Aeaieiay eaau/ea\a Caoeiaie neaiae\? Ciae aii?ina\ddd Eiae neiaiea a ASCII io iaeiie aei o?ao ainueia?e/iuo oeeo?\xhhh Eiae neiaiea a ASCII io iaeiie aei o?ao oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iuo oeeo?.No?ieiaua eiinoaiouNo?ieiaua eiinoaiou ninoiyo ec ioey eee aieaa neiaieia, caeeth/aiiuo a aeaieiua eaau/ee. A no?ieiauo eiinoaioao oi?aaeythuea eiaeu caaeathony n iiiiuueth esc - iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ia?aoiue neyo eniieuecoaony eae neiaie ia?aiina oaenoa ia iiaoth no?ieo.I?eia? iienaiey no?ieiauo eiinoaio:# include

main( )

{

char *str1, *str2;

str1=“ I?eia? eniieueciaaiey\n\n”;

str2=“no?ieiauo\

eiinoaio.\n\n”;

printf(str1);

printf(str2);

}

I?ia?aiia auaaaeao neaaeothuee oaeno:

I?eia? eniieueciaaiey

no?ieiauo eiinoaio.

Caaeaiea: Iaienaoue e ?ania/aoaoue i?ia?aiio, auaiaeyuoth ia ye?ai
no?ieiaoth eiinoaioo e /enei, ninoiyuaa ec oeeo? aaoaai aeiy ?iaeaeaiey,
caaeaiiia a aeaea aeanyoe/iie, ainueia?e/iie e oanoiaaeoeaoa?e/iie
eiinoaiou.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 6

Oi?aaeythuea no?oeoo?u (Oo?ai) Ne

(2 /ana)

Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea i?eaiia eniieueciaaiey iia?aoi?ia aaoaeaiey e
iia?aoi?ia oeeeeia a Oo?ai Ne.

Oi?aaeythuea no?oeoo?u eee iia?aoi?u oi?aaeaiey neoaeao aeey oi?aaeaiey
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth au/eneaiee a i?ia?aiia. Iia?aoi?u aaoaeaiey e
oeeeeu iicaieytho ia?aoiaeeoue e auiieiaieth ae?oaie /anoe i?ia?aiiu eee
auiieiyoue eaeoth-oi /anoue i?ia?aiiu iiiaie?aoii, iiea oaeiaeaoai?yaony
iaeii eee aieaa oneiaee .

Aeiee e ninoaaiua iia?aoi?u.

Ethaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iia?aoi?ia, caeeth/aiiay a oeao?iua neiaee,
yaeyaony ninoaaiui iia?aoi?ii(aeieii). Ninoaaiie iia?aoi? ia aeieaeai
caeai/eaaoueny (;), iineieueeo ia?aie/eoaeai aeiea neoaeeo naia
cae?uaathuayny neiaea. Aioo?e aeiea eaaeaeue iia?aoi? aeieaeai
ia?aie/eaaoueny (;).

Ninoaaiie iia?aoi? iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aacaea, aaea neioaenen ycuea
aeiioneaao i?eiaiaiea iau/iiai iia?aoi?a.

Ionoie iia?aoi?.

Ionoie iia?aoi? i?aaenoaaeyaony neiaieii (;), ia?aae eioi?ui iao
au?aaeaiey. Ionoie iia?aoi? eniieuecotho oai, aaea neioaenen ycuea
o?aaoao i?enoonoaey a aeaiiii ianoa i?ia?aiiu iia?aoi?a, iaeiaei ii
eiaeea i?ia?aiiu iia?aoi? aeieaeai ionoonoaiaaoue.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eniieueciaaiee ionoiai iia?aoi?a /anoi aicieeaao,
eiaaea aeaenoaey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue auiieiaiu a oaea oeeeea, oeaeeeii
iiiauathony a caaieiaea oeeeea.

Iia?aoi?u aaoaeaiey.

E iia?aoi?ai aaoaeaiey ioiinyony if, if else, ?,switch e go to. Iauee
aeae iia?aoi?ia aaoaeaiey neaaeothuee:

if (eiae/aneia au?aaeaiea)

iia?aoi?;

——————————————————————-

if (eiae/aneia au?aaeaiea)

iia?aoi?_1;

else

iia?aoi?_2;

——————————————————————-

? : ;

Anee cia/aiea eiae/aneiai au?aaeaiey enoeiii, oi au/eneyaony
au?aaeaiea_1, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa au/eneyaony au?aaeaiea_2.

——————————————————————-

switch (au?aaeaiea oeaeiai oeia)

{

case cia/aiea_1:

iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue_iia?aoi?ia_1;

break;

case cia/aiea_2:

iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue_iia?aoi?ia_2;

break;

. . .

case cia/aiea_n:

iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue_iia?aoi?ia_n;

break;

default:

iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue_iia?aoi?ia_n+1;

}

Aaoeo default iiaeii ia iienuaaoue. Iia auiieiyaony, anee ie iaeii ec
auoanoiyueo au?aaeaiee ia oaeiaeaoai?aii.

——————————————————————-

Iia?aoi? oeeeea.

A Oo?ai Ne eiathony neaaeothuea eiino?oeoeee, iicaieythuea
i?ia?aiie?iaaoue oeeeeu: while, do while e for. Eo no?oeoo?o iiaeii
iienaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

while( eiae/aneia au?aaeaiea)

iia?aoi?;

Oeeee n i?iaa?eie oneiaey iaaa?oo

————————————————————–

do

iia?aoi?;

while (eiae/aneia au?aaeaiea);

Oeeee n i?iaa?eie oneiaey aieco

————————————————————–

for (eieoeeaeecaoeey, i?iaa?ea, iiaia_cia/aiea)

iia?aoi?;

—————————————————————-

Caaeaiea:

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao /aoiuo /enae io
1 aei 1000.

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao ia/aoiuo /enae
io 1 aei 1000.

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao /enae,
caeai/eaathueony ia oeeo?o 5, io 1 aei 1000.

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao /enae,
caeai/eaathueony ia oeeo?o 2, io 1 aei 1000.

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao /enae,
caeai/eaathueony ia oeeo?o 3, io 1 aei 1000.

Ninoaaeoue e iieo/eoue ?ania/aoeo i?ia?aiiu auai?a anao /enae,
caeai/eaathueony ia oeeo?o 4, io 1 aei 1000.

Eaai?aoi?iay ?aaioa 7

Ianneau a ON++

(2 /ana)

Oeaeue ?aaiou: Eco/aiea i?eaiia iauyaeaiey e ia?auaiey e ianneaai,
eniieueciaaiey ooieoeee e aee?aeoeau define i?e ?aaioa n ianneaaie.

Ianneau – yoi iaai? iauaeoia iaeeiaeiaiai oeia, aeinooi e eioi?ui
inouanoaeyaony i?yii ii eiaeaeno a ianneaa. Ia?auaiea e ianneaai a
(Oo?ai) Ne inouanoaeyaony e n iiiiuueth oeacaoaeae .

Ianneau iiaeii iienuaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

oei_aeaiiuo eiy_ianneaa [ ?acia? ianneaa ];

Eniieuecoy eiy ianneaa e eiaeaen, iiaeii aae?aniaaoueny e yeaiaioai
ianneaa:

eiy_ianneaa [ cia/aiea eiaeaena ]

Cia/aiey eiaeaena aeieaeiu eaaeaoue a aeeaiaciia io ioey aei aaee/eiu,
ia aaeeieoeo iaiueoae, /ai ?acia? ianneaa, oeacaiiue i?e aai iienaiee.

Aio ianeieueei i?eia?ia iienaiey ianneaia:

char name [ 20 ];

int grades [ 125 ];

float income [ 30 ];

double measurements [ 1500 ];

Ia?aue ec ianneaia ( name ) niaea?aeeo 20 neiaieia. Ia?auaieai e
yeaiaioai ianneaa iiaeao auoue name [0], name [1], …,name[19].

Aoi?ie iannea ( grades ) niaea?aeeo 125 oeaeuo /enae. Ia?auaieai e
yeaiaioai ianneaa iiaeao auoue grades [0],grades [1],…,grades[124].

O?aoee iannea ( incom ) niaea?aeeo 30 aauanoaaiiuo /enae. Ia?auaieai e
yeaiaioai ianneaa iiaeao auoue income [0], incom[1],…,income[29].

*aoaa?oue iannea (measurements ) niaea?aeeo 1500 aauanoaaiiuo /enae n
aeaieiie oi/iinoueth. Ia?auaieai e yeaiaioai ianneaa iiaeao auoue
measurements[0],measurements[1],…,measurements[1499].

/* I?ia?aiia, eeethno?e?othuay eniieueciaaiea ianneaia */

/*Oaee array.n*/

#include

#define size 1000

int data [size];

main ( )

{

extern float average (int a[ ], int s );

int i;

for ( i=0; i

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