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АРМ и перспективы его развития

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aaeaoeeiiiue Einoeooo

(oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao)

Oaeoeueoao yeiiiieee e iaiaaeaeiaioa

Eaoaae?a nenoai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeie iauaeoaie

? A O A ? A O

ii eo?no : iniiau aaoiiaoecaoeee nenoai oi?aaeaiey

oaia:

AAOIIAOECE?IAAIIIA ?AAI*AA IANOI

E IA?NIAEOEAU AAI ?ACAEOEss

Auiieiee nooaeaio a?oiiu 207 Eacaioeaa TH.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeioe. Eieanieeia I.H.

a. Iineaa 1995 a.

I E A I

1. Anooieaiea

2. Ninoaa e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey A?I ia aaca IYAI.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea ninoaaa n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee A?I.

4. ?aca?au i?iecaiaenoaa i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa A?I.

Nia?aiaiiua ianooaau e oaiiu aiaae?aiey n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee
oi?aaeaiey a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa n iniaie ino?ioie noaaeo caaea/o
i?iaaaeaiey eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaiee, naycaiiuo ni ananoi?iiiei
eco/aieai e iaiauaieai aicieeathueo i?e yoii i?iaeai eae
i?aeoe/aneiai, oae e oai?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu aicieeaao eiioeaioeey ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo nenoai
oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii, aaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony eieaeueiay
ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee eaeae ?ani?aaeaeaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea aeey eaaeaeiai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey
e eaaeaeie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo iano
(A?I) ia aaca i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ia?niiaeueiuo YAI.

Aiaeece?oy nouiinoue A?I, niaoeeaeenou ii?aaeaeytho eo /aua anaai eae
i?ioanneiiaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua iaeua au/eneeoaeueiua nenoaiu,
?aniieiaeaiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ?aai/eo ianoao niaoeeaeenoia e
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee eo ?aaio.

Aeey eaaeaeiai iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey ioaeii i?aaeoniio?aoue
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa, niioaaonoaothuea eo
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth. Iaeiaei i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey A?I
aeieaeiu auoue iaueie: nenoaiiinoue, aeaeinoue, onoie/eainoue,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

Niaeanii i?eioeeio nenoaiiinoe A?I neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae
nenoaiu, no?oeoo?a eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueiui
iacia/aieai.

I?eioeei aeaeinoe icia/aao i?eniiniaeyaiinoue nenoaiu e aiciiaeiui
ia?ano?ieeai aeaaiaea?y iiaeoeueiinoe iino?iaiey anao iiaenenoai e
noaiaea?oecaoeee eo yeaiaioia.

I?eioeei onoie/eainoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi nenoaia A?I aeieaeia
auiieiyoue iniiaiua ooieoeee iacaaeneii io aicaeaenoaey ia iaa
aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo aiciiaeiuo oaeoi?ia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iaiieaaeee a
ioaeaeueiuo aa /anoyo aeieaeiu auoue eaaei ono?aieiu, a
?aaioiniiniaiinoue nenoaiu – auno?i ainnoaiiaeia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue A?I neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae eioaa?aeueiue iieacaoaeue
o?iaiy ?aaeecaoeee i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa i?eioeeiia, ioianaiiiai e
cao?aoai ii nicaeaieth e yenieoaoaoeee nenoaiu.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea A?I iiaeao aeaoue /eneaiiue yooaeo oieueei i?e
oneiaee i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ooieoeee e iaa?ocee iaaeaeo
/aeiaaeii e iaoeiiuie n?aaenoaaie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, yae?ii eioi?uo
yaeyaony YAI. Eeoue oiaaea A?I noaiao n?aaenoaii iiauoaiey ia
oieueei i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey, ii e
nioeeaeueiie eiioi?oiinoe niaoeeaeenoia.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey A?I
ia aaca ia?niiaeueiuo YAI, a caoai cao?iiai iaeioi?ua aii?inu
oaoie/aneiai e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey A?I.

?acaeoea yeaeo?iieee i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth iiaiai eeanna
au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei – ia?niiaeueiuo YAI (IYAI). Aeaaiia
aeinoieinoai IYAI – n?aaieoaeueii ieceay noieiinoue e a oi aea a?aiy
aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Oae, iai?eia?, anee
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue oa?aeoa?enoeee aieueoeo YAI ia/aea 60-o aiaeia,
ieie-YAI ia/aea 70-o aiaeia e IYAI 80-o aa., oi ieaaeaony, /oi
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaa. Ieceay noieiinoue,
iaaeaaeiinoue, i?inoioa ianeoaeeaaiey e yenieoaoaoeee ?anoe?yao noa?o
i?eiaiaiey IYAI i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao oao iaeanoae /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a eioi?uo ?aiueoa au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea ia
eniieueciaaeanue ec-ca aunieie noieiinoe, neiaeiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey e
acaeiiaeaenoaey. E oaeei iaeanoyi ioiineony e oae iacuaaaiay
o/?aaeaeai/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, aaea i?eiaiaiea IYAI

?en 1. Iaiauaiiay noaia IYAI:

1-iee?ii?ioeanni?, 2-iniiaiay iaiyoue, 3-ACO, 4-aeenieae, 5-eeaaeaoo?a,
6-ia/aoathuaa ono?ienoai, 7-nenoaiiay ia-aeno?aeue.

iicaieeei ?aaeueii iiauneoue i?oecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
niaoeeaeenoia, naycaiiuo n ia?aaioeie eioi?iaoeee. Yoio aniaeo
iniaaiii aeooaeai a nayce n oai, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea aei neo ii? ?inea e?aeia ieceeie oaiiaie. Oae ca
iineaaeiea 30 eao iia iiauneeanue a 2-3 ?aca, a oi aea a?aiy a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – a 14-15 ?ac. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey eioaineoeeaoeee
oinoaaiiiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea niaoeeaeenoia ?acee/iuo
i?ioannee ?ac?aaaouaathony e iieo/atho oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea A?I
eioi?ua ooieoeeiie?otho ia aaca IYAI.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua ninoaaeythuea yeaiaiou A?I ?aaioieeia
yeiiiie/aneeo neoaea, oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e ae?.,
ia?niaeoeau eo ?acaeoey e eniieueciaaiey. Ia ?en. 1
i?aaenoaaeaia iauay noaia IYAI, ninoaaeythuae oaoie/aneoth iniiao A?I.

Iniiaiui ono?ienoaii IYAI yaeyaony iee?ii?ioeanni?, eioi?ue
iaania/eaaao auiieiaiea ?acee/iuo iia?aoeee, niaea?aeaueony a
i?ia?aiia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
32-?ac?yaeiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u, ii oaea i/aaeaeii, /oi nei?i ia
niaio ei i?eaeoo 64-?ac?yaeiua iee?ii?ioeanni?u. ?ac?yaeiinoue
icia/aao aeeeio ?aai/aai neiaa a aeaie/iii eiaea. Iee?ii?ioeanni?u
oaeaea oaeaea ?acee/athony ii oaeoiaie /anoioa, n eioi?ie iie
?aaioatho. *ai aieueoa oaeoiaay /anoioa e ?ac?yaeiinoue, oai auoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanni?a. Auiieiaiea ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia
ieeeeiiia iia?aoeee a naeoiaeo yaeyaony iau/iui aeaeii aeey IYAI.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue IYAI caaeneo oaeaea e io eiee/anoaa
iaiyoe, n eioi?ie iia ?aaioaao. Iaiyoue auaaao iniiaiay e aiaoiyy.
Iniiaiay iaiyoue ninoieo ec aeaoo eiiiiiaioia: iinoiyiiiai
caiiieiathuaai ono?ienoaa (ROM eee ICO) e iia?aoeaiiai
caiiieiathuaai ono?ienoaa (RAM eee ICO). A ICO o?aieony
aeeiaie/aneay eioi?iaoeey i?ia?aiiu e ia?aaaouaaaiua aeaiiua. I?e
aueeth/aiee ieoaiey niaea?aeeiia ICO oa?yaony. ICO,eae i?aaeei,
ai?acaei iaiueoa ICO, eioi?iaoeey a iai o?aieony iinoiyiii e aa
eciaiaiea eeai aiiaua iaaiciiaeii, eeai aiciiaeii oieueei i?e iiiiue
niaoeeaeueiuo ono?ienoa (i?ia?aiiaoi?ia ICO). Aieinoue iaiyoe
8-?ac?yaeiuo YAI eae i?aaeei 64Ea – 640Ea, 16-?ac?yaeiuo – 1Ia,
32-?ac?yaeiuo – 4Ia e aieaa.

Aiaoiea caiiieiathuea ono?ienoaa (ACO) oaeaea auaatho
?aciuo oeiia. Eaioi/iua iaeiieoaee neoaeao aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee ia
iaaieoiie eaioa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaoo o?aieoue aei ianeieueeeo
aeaaaaeo (1Aa = 1024 Ia) eioi?iaoeee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoe
ono?ienoaa iiyaeeenue aeiaieueii aeaaii iie aei neo ii? oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu, aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca aieueoiai iauaia aiauaaiuo
aeaiiuo, e eniieuecothony a iniiaiii aeey ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey e
aeeeoaeueiiai o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee.Aeeneiaua iaeiieoaee a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu. Eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia
ianeieueei a?oii:

a) Iaeiieoaee ia aeaeeo aeeneao (oeiiie
aeeneao). Ianiio?y ia n?aaieoaeueii ieceoth aieinoue aeeneao (io 1 aei
3Ia) a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i/aiue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aeaaiui ia?acii
ec-ca ieceie noieiinoe.

a) Iaeiieoaee ia aeanoeeo aeeneao
(aei/anoa?u).?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeaea oe?iei, eae e iaeiieoaee ia
aeaeeo aeeneao, ii eiatho ai?acaei aieueooth nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo, aieueooth aieinoue e iaaeaaeiinoue o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee.
Noieiinoue aei/anoa?ia iinoiyiii iaaeaao, a nei?inoue, iaaeaaeiinoue e
aieinoue (aeanoeei aeeneii iauaiii 1-2Aa nae/an oaea ieeiai ia
oaeeaeoue) aic?anoatho. Ana yoi aeaeaao eo iacaiaieiui ao?eaooii
ethaie ia?aiaiiie IYAI.

a) Ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iieo/atho iaeiieoaee ia eaca?iuo aeeneao (CD-ROM). Ianiio?y ia
?yae iaaeinoaoeia CD-ROM (iaaieueoay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e
iaaiciiaeiinoue ia?acaiene) iie caieiatho ana aieaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue
eae n?aaenoai o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee aeaaiaea?y oiio /oi iiaoo o?aieoue
aieueoie iauai eioi?iaoeee (ii?yaeea 500Ia), iaania/eaatho auni/aeooth
iaaeaaeiinoue e i?e yoii eo naaanoieiinoue iaiiiaei auoa noieiinoe
aeaeeo aeeneia. Nei?aa anaai /a?ac ianeieueei eao eaca?iua aeenee noaioo
iau/iui aeaeii aeey ethaie IYAI.

a) Nouanoaoao oaeaea oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo ACO
ii ?aciui i?e/eiai ia iieo/eaoeo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey (iaaieoiiioe/aneea aeenee, aeenee Aa?ioeee,
WORM-aeenee e ae?.). Iaeioi?ua aeaeu iaeiieoaeae (ia?oieaiou,
ia?oiea?ou, iaaieoiua aa?aaaiu e i?.) neeueii onoa?aee e a
nia?aiaiiuo IYAI aiiaua ia eniieuecothony.

Aeenieae – iniiaiia ono?ienoai aeey ioia?aaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee. Oa?aeoa?ecothony ?acia?ii ye?aia, iaeneiaeueiui
?ac?aoaieai e i?. *ai aieueoa ?acia? ye?aia e /ai aieueoa
?ac?aoaiea, oai, niioaaonoaaiii aieueoa eioi?iaoeee iiaeii ia iai
?acianoeoue.

Eeaaeaoo?a – iniiaiia ono?ienoai aeey aaiaea eioi?iaoeee.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea ono?ienoaa, iaeaa/athuea
?aaioo iia?aoi?a, oaeea, eae iuoue, naaoiaia ia?i e i?. Oaeaea
aeey aaiaea eioi?iaoeee oe?iei eniieuecothony neaia?u. Aieueoia
aoaeouaa ca ono?ienoaaie ?aniiciaaaiey e neioaca ?a/e, ?aniiciaaaiey
ecia?aaeaiey.

Bna ono?ienoaa IYAI acaeiiaeaenoaotho /a?ac nenoaiioth iaaeno?aeue.
Iaeiaei ec ACO eioi?iaoeey nia/aea aeieaeia auoue ia?aienaia a ICO
e eeoue oiaaea iia noaiiaeoueny aeinooiiie i?ioeanni?o.

Haiiiiei, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie
eniieueciaaiey IYAI yaeyaony nicaeaiea ia eo aaca A?I eiie?aoiuo
niaoeeaeenoia (yeiiiienoia, noaoenoeeia, aooaaeoa?ia,
?oeiaiaeeoaeae), iineieueeo oaeay oi?ia ono?aiyao
ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e iaoeiie.

Iaeiieaiiue iiuo iiaeneacuaaao, /oi A?I aeieaeai ioaa/aoue
neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

naiaa?aiaiiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie e au/eneeoaeueiie
iio?aaiinoe niaoeeaeenoa.

ieieiaeueiia a?aiy ioaaoa a cai?inu iieueciaaoaey.

aaeaioaoeey e o?iaith iiaeaioiaee iieueciaaoaey e aai
i?ioanneiiaeueiui cai?inai.

i?inoioa inaiaiey i?eaiia ?aaiou ia A?I e eaaeinoue iauaiey,
iaaeaaeiinoue e i?inoioa ianeoaeeaaiey.

oa?ieiinoue ii ioiioaieth e iieueciaaoaeth.

aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai iao/aiey iieueciaaoaey.

aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a ninoaaa au/eneeoaeueiie naoe.

Iaiauaiiay noaia A?I i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 2.

?en 2. Noaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai ?aai/aai ianoa.

Iauaa i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea (II) iaania/eaaao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, ?ac?aaioeo e iiaeeeth/aiea iiauo i?ia?aii.
Nthaea aoiaeyo iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu, nenoaiu i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e
ianeoaeeaathuea i?ia?aiiu.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay i?eaioaoeey A?I ii?aaeaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueiie
/anoueth II (OII). Eiaiii caeanue caeeaaeuaaaony i?eaioaoeey ia
eiie?aoiiai niaoeeaeenoa, iaania/eaaaony ?aoaiea caaea/ ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae.

I?e ?ac?aaioea OII i/aiue aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aii?inai
i?aaiecaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey “/aeiaae-iaoeia”. Iieueciaaoaeth
eioa?anii e oaeaeaoaeueii ?aaioaoue ia YAI oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
ii /oanoaoao, /oi ii caieiaaony iieaciui, na?ueaciui aeaeii. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa aai aeaeoo iai?eyoiua iuouaiey. Iai?ioanneiiae
iiaeao ii/oanoaiaaoue naay iaieaeaiiui e aeaaea a /ai-oi ouaieaiiui
oieueei iioiio, /oi ii ia ciaao iaeeo “ienoe/aneeo” eiiaiae, iaai?a
neiaieia, aneaaenoaea /aai o iaai iiaeao aicieeiooue aeoaieay
aeinaaea ia ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea eee neoaeeoaeae eoeueoa YAI.

Aiaeec aeeaeiaiauo nenoai n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaiecaoeee yoiai aeeaeiaa
iieacae, /oi eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue (ii i?eioeeio acaeiiaeaenoaey
iieueciaaoaey e iaoeiu) ia:

nenoaiu n eiiaiaeiui ycueii

“/aeiaae a ie?a iauaeoia”

aeeaeia a oi?ia “iaith”

I?eiaiaiea eiiaiaeiiai ycuea a i?eeeaaeiuo nenoaiao yoi ia?aiin eaeae
iino?iaiey eioa?i?aoaoi?ia eiiaiae aeey ieie- e iee?i YAI. Iniiaiia
aai i?aeiouanoai – i?inoioa iino?iaiey e ?aaeecaoeee, a iaaeinoaoie –
i?iaeieaeaiea eo aeinoieinoa: iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiiieiaiey eiiaiae e
eo ia?aiao?ia, iiaoi?aiea ioeai/iiai aaiaea, ?aca?aie/aiea
aeinooiiinoe eiiaiae ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo e i?. Oaeei ia?acii a
nenoaiao n eiiaiaeiui ycueii iieueciaaoaeue aeieaeai eco/aoue ycue
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Aiaoia i?ioeaiiieiaeiue iiaeoiae “/aeiaae a ie?a
iauaeoia” – ionoonoaotho eiiaiaeu e /aeiaae a i?ioeanna ?aaiou
“aeaeaeaony” ii naiaio iauaeoo n iiiiuueth eeaaeo oi?aaeaiey
eo?ni?ii, niaoeeaeueiuo oeacuaathueo ono?ienoa (iuoue, ia?i),
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eiiaeiaoeee eeaaeo. Aeeaeia a oi?ia iaith “iaith”
i?aaenoaaeyao iieueciaaoaeth iiiaeanoaa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aeaenoaee, ec
eioi?uo ii auae?aao ioaeiua. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen, ni/aoathuee a naaa
naienoaa aeaoo iineaaeieo. A iai ana ?aai/aa i?ino?ainoai ye?aia
aeaeeony ia o?e /anoe (iauaeoa). Ia?aay (iau/ii ?aniieaaathuayny aaa?oo)
iacuaaaony no?ieie eee iieinie iaith. N aa iiiiuueth iieueciaaoaeue
iiaeao caaeaenoaiaaoue ?acee/iua iaith, ninoaaeythuea “neaeao”
i?ia?aiiu, n eo iiiiuueth i?iecaiaeeony aeinooi e ae?oaei iauaeoai (a
o./. oi?aaeythuei). Aoi?ay /anoue (iau/ii ?aniieaaaaony aieco eee a
iaaieueoeo i?ia?aiiao iiaeao aiiaua ionoonoaiaaoue) iacuaaaony
no?ieie ninoiyiey. N aa iiiiuueth iiaoo auno?i aucuaaoueny
iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaeua iauaeou eee aea ioia?aaeaoueny
eaeay-eeai oaeouay eioi?iaoeey. O?aouey /anoue iacuaaaony ?aai/ae
iiaa?oiinoueth (iiaa?oiinoueth noiea) – naiay aieueoay. Ia iae
ioia?aaeathony ana oa iauaeou, eioi?ua aucuaathony ec iaith
eee no?iee ninoiyiey. Oaeay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeeaeiaa /aeiaaea e
iaoeiu iaeaieaa oaeiaia (ii e?aeiae ia?a ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
ie/aai eo/oaai ia i?eaeoiaii) e ana nia?aiaiiua i?ia?aiiu a oie eee eiie
ia?a eniieuecotho aa. A ethaii neo/aa iia aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue
noaiaea?oo NUA (Common User Access) oe?iu IBM.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue aeaa iiaeoiaea e ?ac?aaioea A?I. Ia?aue iiaeoiae –
ooieoeeiiaeueiue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaoiiaoecaoeeth iaeaieaa
oeie/iuo ooieoeee.

Iiniio?ei, eae aaeaioaoe?oaony ooieoeeiiaeueiia II (OII) e eiie?aoiui
oneiaeyi i?eiaiaiey. Ioiaoei i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua yaeythony
aaciauie i?e A?I aeey ?acee/iuo i?ioannee, naycaiiuo n ia?aaioeie
aeaeiaie eioi?iaoeee e i?eiyoeai oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Ia?auie iiyaeeenue i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee o?oaea
oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea, /oi iaoneiaeaii, aa?iyoii, aeueoie
oi?iaeecaoeeae auiieiyaiuo eie ooieoeee. Iaeaieaa oeie/iui
i?eia?ii yaeythony oaenoiaua ?aaeaeoi?u (i?ioeanni?u). Iie iicaieytho
auno?i aaiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth, ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue aa, naie inouanoaeytho
iiene ioeaie, iiiiaatho iiaeaioiaeoue oaeno e ?ania/aoea.
I?eiaiaiea oaenoiauo ?aaeaeoi?ia iicaieyo cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea iaoeienoie.

Niaoeeaeenoai /anoi i?eoiaeeony ?aaioaoue n aieueoeie iauaiaie
aeaiiuo, n oai /oiau iaeoe o?aaoaiua naaaeaiey aeey iiaeaioiaee
?acee/iuo aeieoiaioia. Aeey iaeaa/aiey oaeiai ?iaea ?aaio auee
nicaeaiu nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo (NOAAe: DBASE, RBASE,
ORACLE e ae?.). NOAAe iicaieytho o?aieoue aieueoea iauaiu eioi?iaoeee,
e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, auno?i iaoiaeeoue ioaeiua aeaiiua. Oae,
iai?eia? i?e ?aaioa n ea?oioaeie iinoiyiii ioaeii ia?a?uaaoue aieueoea
a?oeau aeaiiuo aeey iienea ioaeiie eoi?iaoeee, iniaaiii anee
ea?oi/ee ioni?oe?iaaiu ia ii ioaeiiio i?eciaeo. NOAAe ni?aaeony n yoie
caaea/ae ca n/eoaiiua naeoiaeu.

Aieueoia /enei niaoeeaeenoia naycaii oaeaea n ia?aaioeie ?acee/iuo
oaaeeoe, oae eae a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yeiiiie/aneay eioi?iaoeey
i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea oaaee/iuo aeieoiaioia. EYO (e?oiiioi?iaoiua
yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu) iiiiaatho nicaeaaaoue iiaeiaiua aeieoiaiou.
Iie i/aiue oaeiaiu, oae eae naie ia?an/eouaatho ana eoiaiaua e
i?iiaaeooi/iua aeaiiua i?e eciaiaiee enoiaeiuo. Iiyoiio iie oe?iei
eniieuecothony, iai?eia? i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee iauaiia nauoa e aeioiaeia.

Aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth a o/?aaeaeaieyo iieuecothony
i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa A?I aeey eiio?iey e eii?aeeiaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, aaea any oi?aaeai/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
iienuaaaony eae niaieoiiinoue i?ioeannia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao
aeaou ia/aea, eiioea e ioaaonoaaiiuo eniieieoaeae. I?e yoii
aeayoaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea oaycuaaaony n inoaeueiuie. oaeei
ia?acii nicaeaaony ieai-a?aoee ?aaio. Iaeao iiaeao aaoiiaoe/anee
i?e ianooieaiee n?iea oi?ie?iaaoue caaeaiey eniieieoaeyi,
iaiiieiaoue i n?iea caaa?oaiey ?aaiou e iaeaieeaaoue aeaiiua
ia eniieieoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe nio?oaeieeia.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a o/?aaeaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ea?aao
iia?aoeaiue iaiai aeaiiuie, eioi?ue caieiaao aei 95% a?aiaie
?oeiaiaeeoaey e aei 53% a?aiaie niaoeeaeenoia. A nayce n yoei
iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea i i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa oeia
“yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa”. Eo eniieueciaaiea iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue ?annueeo
aeieoiaioia aioo?e o/?aaeaeaiey, ioi?aaeyoue, iieo/aoue e ia?aaaouaaoue
niiauaiey n ?acee/iuo ?aai/eo iano e aeaaea i?iaiaeeoue niaauaiey
niaoeeaeenoia, iaoiaeyueony ia cia/eoaeueiii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io
ae?oaa. I?iaeaia iaiaia aeaiiuie oanii naycaia n i?aaiecaoeeae
?aaiou APM a ninoaaa au/eneeoaeueiie naoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e nicaeaieth oae
iacuaaaiuo eioaa?e?iaaiiuo iaeaoia, eioi?ua aiauatho a naay
aiciiaeiinoe e oaenoiauo ?aaeaeoi?ia, e oaaeeoe, e a?aoe/aneeo
?aaeaeoi?ia. Iaee/ea aieueoiai /enea ?acee/iuo i?ia?aii aeey
auiieiaiey a nouiinoe iieiaeiauo iia?aoeee – nicaeaiey e
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai o?ao ?acee/iuo iniiaiuo aeaeia
eioi?iaoeee: /eneiaie, oaenoiaie e a?aoe/aneie. Aeey o?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee /aua anaai eniieuecothony NOAAe, eioi?ua iicaieytho
niaaeeiyoue ana yoe oeiu aeaiiuo a aaeeiia oeaeia. Nae/an eaeao ao?iia
?acaeoea aeaoo ae?oaeo aeaeia eioi?iaoeee: caoeiaie e aeaeaieioi?iaoeee.
Aeey ieo oaea nicaeaiu naie ?aaeaeoi?u e ia eneeth/aii /oi a
nei?ii a?aiaie yoe aeaeu eioi?iaoeee noaioo iaioaieaiie /anoueth
aieueoeinoaa aac aeaiiuo.

Oioy nia?aiaiiia OII ioaa/aao ii/oe anai o?aaiaaieyi, iaeaaaaiuo ia
iaai ?aaioieeaie ?acee/iuo i?ioannee, /aai-oi ana ?aaii anaaaea ia
oaaoaao. Iiyoiio aieueoei iethnii oaeiai II yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
aai aei?aaioee e eciaiaiey. *oi aea eanaaony ?ac?aaioee iiauo
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa a A?I, oi iia aaaeaony ii aeaoi iai?aaeaieyi:
nicaeaiea iiaiai II aeey iiauo i?ioannee e niaoeeaeecaoeey II aeey
nouanoaothueo i?ioannee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey
ia?aoiaea e nicaeaieth A?I i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey. Iii
au?aaeaaony a neaaeothuai:

o/ao ?aoaaiuo caaea/

acaeiiaeaenoaea n ae?oaeie nio?oaeieeaie

o/ao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo i?eau/ae e neeiiiinoae

?ac?aaioea ia oieueei OII, ii e niaoeeaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
(iuoue, naoue, aaoiiaoe/aneee iaai? oaeaoiiiuo iiia?ia e i?.)

Iniauaiea niaoeeaeenoia oaeeie A?I iicaieyao iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea o/?aaeaeai/aneeo ?aaioieeia, nie?aoeoue eo
/eneaiiinoue e i?e yoii iiaaneoue nei?inoue ia?aaioee
yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee e aa aeinoiaa?iinoue, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey
yooaeoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue ii?aaeaeaiea ninoaaa n?aaenoa au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee eiiieaenia A?I (ia i?eia?a nenoaiu iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii).

Iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa a eiiieaenao
A?I aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyony a iauai eiioaenoa ?anniao?eaaaiuo
i?ioeannia iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii (IOI) i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, oeaeaaay ooieoeey eioi?uo – ieieiece?iaaoue cao?aou
anao aeaeia ?ano?nia ia ecaioiaeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie iiiaieeaoo?u
i?aaeiaoia o?oaea.

Neioac iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?aiiii – oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa i?e i?aaenoaaeaiee AN IOI eae eiiieaenia A?I
oic?an/aoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eieeaeoeaia aeieaeiu i?ieoe aeaa
noaaeee: noaaeeth ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa n?aaenoa AO e
noaaeee ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia au/eneeoaeueiie
nenoaiu eiiieaenia A?I ii eiia/iui aa iio?aaeoaeyi.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ainieuecoainy noi?ioee?iaaiiie
oeaeaaie ooieoeeae i?ioeanna ?acaeoey, ii?aaeaeyaiie eae
“ieieiece?iaaoue cao?aou ?ano?nia ia i?ioeann ?acaeoey NOI II”

F1t (R) ——————> min
(1)

t {t’r}

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey cia/eii cao?aaeaathony o?e aeaea ?ano?nia:
r1, r2, r3 – o?oaeiaua, a?aiaiiua e iaoa?eaeueiua. I?e/ai
cao?aaeaathony eae ?ano?nu caeac/eea, oae e ?ano?nu ?ac?aaio/eea.
Ia?aiaiiua, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia oeaeaaoth ooieoeeth, iiiaiia?aciu
ii naiaio ninoaao, e iaiaeii?iaeiu ii aaeeieoeai ecia?aiey. Inoaaeyy
iinooeaoii iauoth noieiinoioth ioeaieo cao?ao ?ano?nia F1t (R),
?anniio?ei ia?a/aiue e niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo iaeaieaa cia/eiuo /anoiuo
ioeaiie.

Ana ia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaieoiiinoue eiiaeie?iaaiiuo
ni/aoaiee, aeinooiiuo caeac/eeo aeey i?eia?aoaiey n?aaenoa AO e
aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. ?ani?aaeaeei yoe ia?aiaiiua ii aeaoi
a?oiiai: eae oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo eiiaeiaoeee, nouanoaaiiua aeey
iaaeo noi?ii ?acaeoey i?ioeanna IOI ?I (oi anoue e aeey ?ac?aaio/eea e
aeey caeac/eea), oae e nouanoaaiiua oieueei aeey ?ac?aaio/eea. E ia?aie
a?oiia oa?aeoa?enoee ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

Oaoie/aneay (aiia?aoiay) niaianoeiinoue iiauo n?aaenoa AO ii ioiioaieth
e nouanoaothuaio ia?eo AO o caeac/eea e e ia?eo AO, i?iaiice?oaiiio
aeey i?eia?aoaiey a aeaeueiaeoai.I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi yoio
iieacaoaeue iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo, i?eieiaaiue ai aieiaiea i?e auai?a AO.
Oaiaeaioeey i?eia?aoaiey n?aaenoa AO aiia?aoii niaianoeiuo n
eiathueieny naycaia ni iiiaeie iauaeoeaiuie e noauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie,
aaea ia iineaaeiaa ianoi caieiaao e ineoieiaey caeac/eea, aai
/oanoai oaa?aiiinoe a oniaoa i?eiaiaiey eiaiii yoiai eeanna aiia?aoiuo
n?aaenoa.

I?ia?aiiiay niaianoeiinoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony niaianoeiinoueth
aiia?aoii-?aaeeciaaiiie nenoaiu eiiaiae, niaianoeiinoueth oi?iaoia
i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo, niaianoeiinoueth o?aineyoi?ia, NOAAe e o.ae.
Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea yoiai iieacaoaey ia ?anoiae ?ano?nia
iiaeao iauyniyony iaee/eai aieueoeo iauaiia ?aiaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
ii?iaoeaiuo, a?oeaiuo e noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, a oaeaea
niaoeeaeecaoeeae iiaeaioiaeaiiiai ia?niiaea ia i?aaei?eyoee, eiathuaai
iiuo ?aaiou n eiie?aoiuie aaciauie n?aaenoaaie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Yenieoaoaoeeiiiay niaianoeiinoue aioo?e i?eia?aoaiiiai eiiieaena
n?aaenoa AO, eioi?ay iicaieyao a neo/aa auoiaea ec no?iy ioaeaeueiuo
iiaeoeae A?I eeai iia?aoeaii i?iecaiaeeoue caiaio auoaaeoaai ec no?iy
iiaeoey, eeai i?iaanoe ia?aiacia/aiea eniieuecoaiuo ono?ienoa
iaaeaeo eiie?aoiuie A?I a i?aaeaeao au/eneeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia anao
eiiieaenia ( aioo?e oeaoiaiai eiiieaena, aioo?e iaaeoeaoiaiai
eiiieaena, aioo?e nenoaiu anyeiai i?aaei?eyoey).

Iaaeaaeiinoue n?aaenoa AO ii oaoie/aneei oneiaeyi e aa niioaaonoaea
eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi ?aaiou: aea?aoeee, ieeneaieth, iuee,
caaaciaaiiinoe, nea/eai iai?yaeaiey e o.ae. o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa caueou.

Niaieoiiay nei?inoue ?aoaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ ii aeaeai A?I
eiiieaena – nei?inoue ia?aaioee nouanoaothueo iauaiia aeaiiuo a
?acee/iuo ?aaeeiao ?aaiou. Iau/ii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey cia/aiee yoiai
iieacaoaey iaaeinoaoi/ii ciaoue oieueei iauaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aacu eiie?aoiiai A?I e ianii?oiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Iiyoiio aeey i?eaeeceoaeueiie (ii?yaeeiaie) ioeaiee cia/aiee yoiai
iieacaoaey nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony eeai iiuo yenieoaoaoeee ia aeeceeo
ii eeanno iauaeoao AO, eeai ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua ia eieoaoeeiiiuo
iiaeaeyo, aaea aacu aeaiiuo niioaaonoaotho ii iauaiai e no?iaieth
aeaiiuo ?aaeueiui. Aii?ieneie?iaaiea aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo ia
eiio?ieueiuo i?eia?ao, iiaeao i?eaanoe e iia?aoiinoe ?acoeueoaoia,
ioee/athueony ia ii?yaeie io iieo/aiiuo caoai ?aaeueiuo ioeaiie a oiaea
yenieoaoaoeee nenoaiu. Enoi/ieeii iia?aoiinoe /aua anaai yaeyaony
iaiaeiicia/iinoue aeai?eoiia ?aaiou, ooeeeo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai,
i?ioieieia nayce, ae?aeaa?ia e aaciauo ycueiauo n?aaenoa i?e
yenieoaoaoeee nenoai a iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneii iiiaicaaea/iii
?aaeeia ia i?aaeaeueiuo ?ano?nao au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai eee aeey eo
yeaiaioia iauaiao. A yoii neo/aa aiciiaeiinoe i?yiiai ?an/aoa n
eniieueciaaieai oa?aeoa?enoee auno?iaeaenoaey i?ioeanni?ia,
aioo?eiaoeiiuo eaiaeia nayce, eaiaeia nayce naoae, nei?inoe aeinooia e
aeaiiui ii aeaeai aiaoieo ono?ienoa eniieueciaaoueny iayooaeoeaii ia
iiaoo. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?yaeiinoue iiiaeo i?ioeanni?ia e
?aaeeciaaiiuo i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ieo ycueiauo n?aaenoa ia iicaieyao
iaania/eaaoue ana iioaioeeaeueiia iiiaeanoai caaea/ NO III
iaiaoiaeeiie oi/iinoueth au/eneaiee. Iiyoiio i?e ii?aaeaeaiee cia/aiee
yoiai iieacaoaey iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe aeaoaeecaoeeth ii eeannai caaea/
eiie?aoiuo aeaeia A?I n i?eayceie e ?anniio?aiiie eiiaeiaoeee n?aaenoa
AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Noieiinoue ?aaeecaoeee “ae?oaeanoaaiiiai eioa?oaena” aeeth/aao e
i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey e aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey ni?aaie a i?ioeanna
?aaiou ia A?I i niiniaao i?iaeieaeaiey eee ieii/aiey aeeaeiaa.

Aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiey ninoaaa e niaea?aeaiey ?aaeecoaiuo ia eiie?aoiuo
A?I ooieoeee, a oii /enea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo ia?niiaeii.

Iaania/aiea o?aaiaaiee caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia aeey
aac ciaiee e aac aeaiiuo, a oaeaea iaania/aiey eo “i?ic?a/iinoe” a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Noieiinoue iaania/aiey i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiuo naycae ai aioo?eoeaoiauo
eiiieaenao A?I, iaaeaeo aioo?eoeaoiauie eiiieaenaie A?I e A?I IOI n
ae?oaeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaania/aiea oeacaiiuo aeaeia naycae e?iia yoiai iiaeao auoue oaeaea
aeaoaeece?iaaiii a niioaaonoaee n oa?ieiieiaeae, i?eiyoie aeey
eieaeueiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo naoae, a eiaiii: ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo, yioeyoeey
oa?ieiaeia, aeinooi e oaeaeaiiui ?ano?nai, aeeth/ay aeinooi e
aeaiiui e caione caaea/. Iniai iiaeao auoue auaeaeai iieacaoaeue
iiaeaea?aeee noaiaea?oiuo i?ioieieia iaiaia a naoyo YAI.

Aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey eiiieaenia AO ca n/ao ia?aueaaiey oaoie/aneeo
ono?ienoa (aeieaie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, aiaoieie caiiieiathueie
ono?ienoaaie, aeiiieieoaeueiuie i?ioeanni?aie, i?eioa?aie e o.ae).

Oaeiau iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua iieacaoaee ec a?oiiu iaueo, aeeythuea ia
cao?aou o?oaeiauo e a?aiaiiuo ?ano?nia e ?ac?aaio/eea e
caeac/eea i?e eniieueciaaiee eiie?aoiie eiioeao?aoeee
i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa eiiieaenia A?I e aeeythuea ia eo auai?.

Iaicia/ei iiiaeanoai yoeo iieacaoaeae eae

A = { e1, e2, … , en1 } (2)

a iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiuo eiiaeiaoeee, aeinooiiuo n?aaenoa AO e
aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, eae

Ae = { d1, d2, … , dn2 } (3)

Tiaaea ooieoeey ieieiecaoeee cao?ao o?oaeiauo e a?aiaiiuo
?ano?nia, caaenyuay io auai?a AO, aoaeao eiaoue aeae:

F2t (E,Ae) ————> min (4)

t {t’e}

A ea/anoaa ia?aie/aiee a yoie ooieoeee aoaeoo aunooiaoue cia/aiey
iieacaoaeae, ii?aaeaeyaiuo caeac/eeii e ?ac?aaio/eeii, a /anoe eo
aiciiaeiinoae ii eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia e cia/aiey iieacaoaeae ii
eiie?aoiie eiiaeiaoeee n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey:

Ae > Aemin,

r1c < const11, r1s < const12, (5)r2c < const21, r2s < const22.Aoi?ay a?oiia iieacaoaeae, nouanoaaiiia aeeythueo i?e auai?a n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia cao?aou a?aiaiiuo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia oieueei ?ac?aaio/eea, ninoieo ec iaaieueoiai /enea oa?aeoa?enoee. Aiaoia yoa a?oiia auaeyaeeo eae ii?aaeaeyaiay aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iieacaoaeae ia?aie a?oiiu, eae eo naiaia?aciay iiaeaea?aeea, oioy e eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe.Nei?inoue nicaeaiey i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey aac ciaiee e eiiieaenia A?I. Ioeaiea iieacaoaey iiaeao auoue iieo/aia yenia?oiui iooai, ia iniiaa iiuoa ii ecaioiaeaieth aiaeiaia, n o/aoii i?aaeiieaaaaiie oaoiieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey nenoai e o?iaiy eaaeeoeeaoeee eieeaeoeaa eniieieoaeae.Iaeeaeaaiua cao?aou ia nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey aac ciaiee eiiieaenia A?I. Noieiinoiay ioeaiea cao?ao ?ac?aaio/eea a /anoe ?anoiaea anao aeaeia ?ano?nia iiaeao ii?aaeaeyony, eae e ii i?aaeuaeouaio iieacaoaeth, oae e yenia?oiui iooai.Oaeianoai nii?iaiaeaeaiey nicaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iieacaoaeue a aeaiiii neo/aa noaoenoe/aneee, ii?aaeaeyaiue a?oiiie oaeoi?ia, oaeeo, eae aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiea ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia A?I, ia cao?aaeaay iauaai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eiiieaena A?I, nei?inoue e cao?aou ia iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ?aaiou.Iieiioa iaania/aiey noaiaea?oiuie n?aaenoaaie caueou aeaiiuo e iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea o?aaiaaiee eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey e ?ac?aaio/eea.A aieueoae /anoe ioeaiea iieacaoaeae yoie a?oiiu aace?oaony ia ioeaiea ia?ae/iuo yeaiaioia aaciauo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo ?anniao?eaaaiua n?aaenoaa AO. A i?eiyoie oa?ieiieiaee yoi oa?aeoa?enoeee iyoe ninoaaeythueo: oaenoiaua i?ioeanni?u, e?oiiioi?iaoiua yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoea, n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo, n?aaenoaa aeaeiaie a?aoeee e n?aaenoaa iiaeaea?aeee naoaaiai iaiaia.Iaicia/ei iiiaeanoai iieacaoaeae aoi?ie a?oiiu eaeH = { h1, h2, ... , hn3 } (6)oiaaea ooieoeey ieieiecaoeee cao?ao o?oaea, a?aiaie e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, caaeneiay io auai?a n?aaenoa AO ii iieacaoaeyi aoi?ie a?oiiu, aoaeao eiaoue aeae:F3t (H,Ae)————> min (7)

t {t’r}

n ia?aie/aieyie

r2s <= const21, r2s <= const21, r3s <= const22.Cao?aou iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia caeac/eea r3c a /anoe i?eia?aoaiey iieiinoueth niioaaonoaotho a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa oeaia n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (di), a a /anoe yenieoaoaoeee - io /anoe oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aie a?oiiu. Iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui ?anoe?eoue ooieoeeth e aa ia?aie/aiey, aaaaey caaeneiinoue e ia?aie/aiey ii iaoa?eaeueiui ?ano?nai caeac/eea.F4t (E,Ae) ————> min (8)

t {t’e}

c aeiiieieoaeueiui ia?aie/aieai

r3n <= const22.I?ioeaaeo?a iienea iioeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee ooieoeee (4) e (7) iiaeii ioi?ieoue aaeeiie i?ioeaaeo?ie neioace?iaaiiie ooieoeee. Aeey yoiai anoue aeinoaoi/iua iniiaaiey. Aeiionoeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi cao?aou nenoaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ia ?ac?aaioeo e nii?iaiaeaeaiea aaciaie aa?nee nenoaiu iaania/eaaoue ca n/ao a?oiiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee caeac/eeia.Oaeei ia?acii, caaea/a auai?a n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey oi?ioee?oaony eaeF5t (E,H,Ae) ————> min (9)

t {t’e}

i?e ia?aie/aieyo

Ae > Aemin,

r1c < const11, r2c < const21, r3c < const31,r1s < const12, r2s < const22, r3s < const32,Aeeyiea ?anniio?aiiuo iieacaoaeae aeaoo a?oii ia ?aoaiea iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e iaiaeeiaeiai, e yoi aiieia anoanoaaiii. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iaoi?iaeecoaiuo i?ioeannia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia eo cia/aiea. Aeey oiai, /oiau o/anoue a iiaeaee eo aeeyiea, aaaaeai aeiiieieoaeueioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo: ioeaieo i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe iieacaoaey e ii?aaeaeei iiiaeanoai aa aeiionoeiuo cia/aiee. Ionoue aeeaiacii eciaiaiey cia/aiee ioeaiee ii?aaeaeai iaoo?aeueiui /eneii io 0 aei n1 + n3 e noiia ioeaiie ii anai iieacaoaeyi ia?aie/aia /eneii n1 + n3. I?e ioeaiea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe iieacaoaey ?aaiie 0, ii a i?ioeaaeo?a iioeiecaoeee ia o/anoaoao. Iaicia/ei iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiuo ioeaiie eaeW = { w1, w2, ... , wn4 } (10)Oaia?ue neioace?iaaiiay caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey naiaeeony e iau/iie caaea/a eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e eiaao aeae:F6t (E,H,Ae) ————> min (11)

t {t’e}

——————

c ia?aie/aieyie (9), aaea Wj = {Wi, Wn4} ? W, j ? 1…n4.

Oi anoue auai? iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey aiciiaeai aeey ?acee/iuo
aa?eaioia o/aoa iieacaoaeae. A iieiii neo/aa o/eouaathony ana
iieacaoaee, a /anoiii neo/aa – /anoue oieueei iaeaieaa aaaeiuo.

I?aaenoaaeaiea naiaiaeu auai?a a aa?eaioiinoe ?aoaiee,
iauaeoeaii aiai?y, iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue auai? eiie?aoiie
eiiaeiaoeee n?aaenoa AO e aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey a oneiaeyo
/anoe/iiai ionoonoaey ciaiee i ieo, e e?iia yoiai iicaieyao
nieaeaoue ?acia?iinoue caaea/e, eniieuecoaiie aeey ?aoaiey iiaeaee a
oeaeyo iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa AO.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue yeiiiieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?aca?au i?-aa i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa A?I.

Nia?aiaiiua ianooaau ?aaio ii i?iecaiaenoao i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa
(IN) au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, eae i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii
– oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey, o?aaotho iacaiaaeeeoaeueiiai ?aoaiey
iaeiiai ec aaaeiuo aii?inia a aeaiiie iaeanoe: ?aceiai iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia?niiaea, caiyoiai a ?ac?aaioea IN.
Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?aaioieeia, naycaiiuo n
i?ia?aiie?iaaieai aic?inea i?eia?ii a 2-3 ?aca, oiaaea eae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue AO iiauneeanue i?eaioe?iai/ii ia aeaa ii?yaeea. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy iiaeii iaeeaeaoue nea/ea a ?inoa
ni?ina ia caeinoaoaiua IN, iniaaiii iaeaou i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii
(III), naycaiiiai n oe?ieei aiaae?aieai a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo iano, a oii /enea ia iniiaa ia?niiaeueiuo
YAI. Aiaeec i?aaeeaaaaiuo ?aoaiee ii ono?aiaieth neeaaeuaathuaeny
aeeni?iii?oeee iieacuaaao, /oi eo iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a aeaa
iai?aaeaiey:

yenoaineaiia, naycaiiia n ?anoe?aieai naoe i?aaiecaoeee ii ?ac?aaioea,
i?iecaiaenoao e iinoaaea IN;

eioaineaiia, ii cao?aaeaathuaa eeoue aii?inu ?inoa ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eeia IN ca n/ao oao
enoi/ieeia, eioi?ua ii aiaeiaee n ae?oaeie io?aneyie iiaeii ioianoe
e oaoie/aneei oaeoi?ai: i?eiaiaiea nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa
?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii.

Ia caieiay aaaeiinoe ?aaio a ioia/aiiuo iai?aaeaieyo, iiaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ii
i?iecaiaenoao IN noaaeo aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea ?aaioieeia io?anee. Ii aeaeeiiio, a nicaeaiee IN yoe oaeoi?u
iiaoo eiaoue cia/aiea aaeaa ee ia aieueoaa , /ai a ae?oaeo
io?aneyo. Yoi iaoneiaeaii eae oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaenoaa , oae e
niaoeeoe/aneie iio?aaeoaeueiie oi?iie i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa, a
nicaeaiee eioi?iai ia?aie/aiey ii iaoa?eaeai e iniiaiui
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui oiiaeai eiatho ai?acaei iaiueoaa cia/aiea, iaaeaee
a ae?oaeo io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, e iniiaiui eeieoe?othuei
oaeoi?ii yaeyaony, eae ioia/aii auoa, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
?ac?aaio/eea.

Iaeiaei i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea ?aca?au i?iecaiaenoaa IN a
nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a cao?iioou aanueia iaaeinoaoi/ii e yoe ?aaiou
a iniiaiii naycaiu n o/aoii cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai IN, ii ia n
aii?inii eo nieaeaiey, iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
?ac?aaio/eeia IN e eo yaeioa?aniaaiiinoe a ea/anoaa ?acoeueoaoia.
Aianoa n oai oaea naaiaeiy iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu ec
nouanoaothuaai ninoiyiey aeae e noi?ioee?iaaoue ia eo iniiaa ?yae
i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Ia?aui ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oi, /oi a ea/anoaa aeeaeaeoaai
io?aneaaiai aiaeiaa aeey nicaeaiey IN ecae?aaony iaoeiino?iaiea.
Iniiaaieai aeey yoiai i?eiyoi n/eoaoue oi, /oi IN ?anniao?eaaaony eae
niaoeeoeoee?iaaiiia ecaeaeea. Iianiinoue caeeth/aaony a aeaeaiee
naio i?aaiecaoeeth ?aaio ii nicaeaieth IN i?iaanoe ii ia?aco e
iiaeiaeth i?ioioeiia ec iaoeiino?iaiey. I?e/ai i?aaeii/oaiea
e?oiiina?eeiiio e na?eeiiio i?iecaiaenoao, oiaaea eae
i?aiaeaaeathuay na?eeiinoue oe?aaee?iaaiey IN a aeanyoeao,
?aaeei nioiyo eee ouny/ao yecaiiey?ia nei?aa iiaeneacuaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaeieoe e iei eae e ecaeaeeyi iaeeina?eeiiai,
anee ia aaeeie/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii aeaaiui, ia /oi neaaeoao
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yaeythony ?acee/ey a
oa?aeoa?a o?oaea ?aaioieeia iaoeiino?iaiey e ?ac?aaio/eeia IN,
eioi?ua nouanoaotho a ianoiyuee iiiaio e nei?aa anaai
nio?aiyony a aoaeouai. I?aiaeaaeathuaa a iaoeiino?iaiee
iiiia?aoeeiiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ii noaaeeyi oaoi?ioeanna n
i?aaiecaoeeae iiae?acaeaeaiee ii yoei noaaeeyi a nicaeaiee in ia
i?ioiaeeo i?iaa?eo oe?ieie i?aeoeeie, oae eae oinoaaiiue o?oae ii
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth ai?acaei neiaeiaa ?acaeoue ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
oi?iaeecoaiuo iia?aoeee, ii?ie?iaaiea eioi?uo aeinoaoi/ii
aeinoiaa?ii o/eouaaao e oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia?niiaea, e niaoeeoeeo
iauaeoa aiaae?aiey ii?i. Anee noaaeoue aii?in ia aiaeiaao, oi
ai?acaei aeeaea e ?ac?aaioea IN ii oa?aeoa?o o?oaea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou e ?aaiou iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neiai
oa?aeoa?a (IEIE?). N o/aoii neiaeiinoe auaeaeaiey, oi?iaeecaoeee e
ii?ie?iaaiey ioaaeueiuo iia?aoeee ii nicaeaieth IN iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?aciie n oi/ee c?aiey onoaiiaeaiey oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee
e noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eeia IN neaaeoao i?eciaoue
i?aaiecaoeeth eo ?aaiou ia iniiaa caeac-ia?yaeia n ?an/aoaie ca
iieiinoueth naeaiioth i?ia?aiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Iniiaiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aaeeieoeae a oaeii neo/aa iiaeao yaeyoueny a?eaaaea,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay ia auiieiaiee oeeeea ?aaio ii auioneo eeai
aioiaiai ecaeaeey a iauaia III n?aaeiaai ?acia?a, eeai
ioaeaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa neiaeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena. Noaey ii
eeoa?aoo?a, ca ?oaaaeii nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie
iieiaeeoaeueiue iiuo a?eaaaeiie ?ac?aaioee IN, iaeiaei, e niaeaeaieth,
yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo a?eaaae ia ?anniao?eaathony.
O/eouaay iauaeoeaioth neaainoue iiiia?aoeeiiiie ii?iaoeaiie aacu
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, neaaeoao i?eciaoue aanueia i?eaeaeaoaeueiie
aeei?aeioth oi?io iieaou o?oaea a?eaaae, oai aieaa, /oi a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea neeaaeuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?iay
ii?iaoeaiay aaca ii oe?oiiaiiui ?aaioai nicaeaiey IN.

I?eiaiaiea aeei?aeiie nenoaiu aaconeiaii noeioee?oao nie?auaiea cao?ao e
n?ieia ?ac?aaioee IN a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie, iaaeaee
i?aiaeaaeathuay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a yoie iaeanoe nenoaia aeieaeiinoiuo
ieeaaeia.Ioeaieo ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou iaania/eaathueo
iiae?acaeaeaiee(AOe, IIOE, oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aaiea i?ia?aiiiuo
iiaeoeae, eiio?iey e i?eaiee IN, nenoaiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. ioi?ieaiey, ?aciiiaeaiey e auionea IN e ae?.)
iiaeii a oaeii neo/aa aanoe ii iauaio i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, a ia
i?ioeaioii io/eneaiee io noiiu caeac-ia?yaeia, /oi yaii ia noeioee?oao
iaania/eaathuea iiae?acaeaeaiey ia ?ino iauaiia e ea/anoaa oneoa.
Ieaie?iaaiea iauaiia e iiiaieeaoo?u oneoa aeieaeii aanoenue ia iniiaa
aioo?aiieo ieaiia-niaeaoaiee (aeiaiai?ia) iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie
iniiaiiai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa IN. Oaeei aea ia?acii
aiciiaeii i?iaanoe ioeaieo ?acoeueoaoia eniieueciaaiey iaeiei
iiae?acaeaeaieai-?ac?aaio/eeii IN i?ia?aiiiie i?iaeoeoeee ae?oaiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey (ia?aaea/a i?ia?aiiiuo iiaeoeae). A iniiao
ioeaiee acaeiinayce iiae?acaeaeaiee neaaeoao, ii-aeaeeiiio,
iieiaeeoue ii?iaoeaiua cao?aou a?aiaie (ia iiiia?aoeeiiiua) ia
?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aii e oneoae. Io yoeo cao?ao aiciiaeai a
aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie aeinoiaa?iue ia?aoiae e noieiinoiui ioeaieai
/a?ac ca?aaioioth ieaoo e nenoaio eiyooeoeeaioia a iae,
o/eouaathuoth i?i/ea ?anoiaeu.

Aaaaeaiea oaeeo ioiioaiee ai anao i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo o?iaiyo ?ac?aaioee
IN, aeeth/ay e ieciaua, iicaieeo iiaeeeciaaoue i?ioeaicao?aoiue
iaoaieci a eo i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi /?acau/aeii aaaeii i?e nouanoaothuai
ii?yaeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia INAO, eiaaea oeaia oeaia (Oe)
?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea, aeeceie e o?aaeeoeeiiiie:

Oe = N + Ii + Iae ,

aaea N – naaanoieiinoue ?ac?aaioee (?aciauo) e i?iecaiaenoaa
(oe?aaee?oaiuo) IN;

Ii – ii?iaoeaiay i?eaueue, onoaiaaeeaaaiay oeaio?aeeciaaiii, a
i?ioeaioao e N;

Iae – aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue, onoaiaaeeaaaiay a caaeneiinoe
io aaee/eiu yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa i?e yenieoaoaoeee IN.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue i?yiiai noeioee?iaaiey cao?ao a
oeaiiia?aciaaiee IN, eiaaea e ?ac?aaio/ee e i?iecaiaeeoaeue
caeioa?aniaaiu a ?inoa aaee/eiu N, /aai oai aieaa ia iniaaiii
neiaeii aeinoeaiooue i?e ionoonoaee iaueo ii?iaoeaia a ?ac?aaioea IN.
Aiaae?aiea aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ia o?iaia a?eaaae
(ioaeaeia, oeaoia) iiaeao ea?aoue ?ieue a nieaeaiee aaee/eiu N. Oiaaea
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ei n?aaenoaa ia ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aii oeene?iaaiu, a
o?aaoaiua cao?aou ?ano?nia (iniaaiii o?oaeiauo e iaoeiiuo)
ii?aaeaeythony yoeie aaeeieoeaie n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ei aieueoae
/anoe iieo/aiiie yeiiiiee a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee, /oi
aeecei e oneiaeyi aeei?aeii-i?aieaeueiie iieaou o?oaea. Iiiooii
caiaoei, /oi oieueei oiaaea noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui oi?ie?iaaiea
?aaeueiie ii?iaoeaiie aacu ia ?ac?aaioeo IN, oae eae ii?iaoeau aeieaeiu
oi?ie?iaaoueny iooai aiaeeca iiuoa o?oaea ia?niiaea,
caeioa?aniaaiiiai a eioaineaiie ?aaioa, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nouanoaoao a i/aiue iaeie noaiaie.

?aoay aii?inu iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eeia
e nie?auaiea cao?ao ia nicaeaiea IN, iaeuecy ia oaeaeeoue aieiaiey
e iiauoaieth noaiaie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe ?ac?aaio/eea a oeo/oaiee
ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa, naycaiiuo n
o/aoii eioa?ania aoaeoueo iieueciaaoaeae. N niaeaeaieai iaaei
ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaenoaothuay nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea
?ac?aaio/eea IN nei?aa auioaeaeaao aai iaieoenue ieieioiii oao
aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua ii iaycai i?aaeinoaaeoue iieueciaaoaeth
aeey yenieoaoaoeee i?ia?aii a eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo.

Iaeeo/oei ia?acii noeioee?iaaoue ea/anoai IN iiaeii /a?ac eo oeaio,
ii yoa aiciiaeiinoue eniieuecoaony iaaeinoaoi/ii. I?aaaea a ?an/aoa
oeaiu o/anoaoao ninoaaeythuay Iae, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie
yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io i?eiaiaiey IN. Ii, ai-ia?auo, ?an/ao
yooaeoa a iiiaio oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu i?e ia/aea iinoaaee eo ia ?uiie
aanueia iaaeinoiaa?ai, ai-aoi?uo, aeey oe?aaee?oaiuo IN aaee/eia
yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa iiaeao cia/eoaeueii ioee/aoueny aeey ?acee/iuo
iieueciaaoaeae ii iaeiiio e oiio aea IN, e, a-o?aoueeo, aaee/eia
yooaeoa iiaeao ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyoueny a noa?a oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii
i?eiaiaiey IN, eiaaea ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ia?aiiiiai
i?iaeoeoa eiatho einaaiiia cia/aiea. Ana yoi cao?oaeiyao i?yiie o/ao
ea/anoaa o?oaea ?ac?aaio/eea IN n oi/ee c?aiey aai ?acoeueoaoia.

Aeey oeo/oaiey oaeiai o/aoa oeaeaniia?acii a oeaio IN aeeth/eoue
ninoaaeythuoth, naycaiioth n eo ea/anoaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii,
a ia oieueei einaaiii /a?ac Iae. Aeey yoiai aaee/eio Iae,
eioi?ay ii nooe naiae anoue eiyooeoeeaio, iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae

Iae = Ii + Ey + Ei ,

aaea Ey – eiyooeoeeaio, naycaiiue n aaee/eiie yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa
io i?eiaiaiey IC;

Ei – eiyooeoeeaio, naycaiiue n ea/anoaii IN.

Aaee/eia Ei iiaeao ii?aaeaeyony enoiaey ec iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa IN
n oi/ee c?aiey iieueciaaoaey, naycaiiiai n eo inaiaieai e
yenieoaoaoeeae. A ea/anoaa iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth aai aaee/eiu
iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue iaoiae, iniiaaiiue ia i?eiaiaiee iaai?a iao?ee
iieacaoaeae ioeaiee IN. Eaaeaeiio ec naienoa iiaeii iinoaaeoue a
niioaaonoaea iaai? iieacaoaeae, aeiioneathueo oi?ie?iaaiea aeey
eaaeaeiai ec ieo eioa?aaeueiie , ii?yaeeiaie eee iiieiaeueiie oeaeu
cia/aiee Aeaeueiaeoay ioeaiea a aaeeao n o/aoii aaniauo eiyooeoeeaioia
cia/eiinoe naienoa ?acee/iuo IN, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ia
ianeoaeeaaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa iieueciaaoaeae, iicaieeo
nei??aeoe?iaaoue oeaio IN a caaeneiinoe io ea/anoaa eo ?ac?aaioee e
iiaeao neoaeeoue aeiiieieoaeueiui noeioeii aeey nicaeaiey i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoia eo/oaai ea/anoa.

Caaeyaeuaay a aoaeouaa, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, a oaeaea iianaianoiia aaaaeaiea IYAI e A?I ia
eo iiiaa aeieaeii i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio ?acaeoeth ioa/anoaaiiiai
?uiea IN e niioaaonoaaiii oneeaieth eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ay e
nae/an oaea iuouaaony aanueia cia/eoaeueii. A eiieo?aioeey, eae
ecaanoii, yaeyaony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii oiaiueoaiey oeai ia IN,
nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe eo nicaeaiey, a oaeaea oeo/oaiey eo ea/anoaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. “Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia ?aai/aa ianoi a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai”, Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia, Eaieia?aae, 1989a.

2. A.A.Oo?aeia. “Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia ?aai/aa ianoi aeey noaoe/aneie
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo”, 1990a.

3. E.E.Eaioa?ue. “Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa oi?aaeai/aneiai
aiia?aoa”, 1990a.

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