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Анализ и оценка аппаратных средств современных ПЭВМ

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii nayce e eioi?iaoeea

IINEIANEEE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO NAssCE

E EIOI?IAOEEE

Eaoaae?a AO e ON

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii oaia

Aiaeec e ioeaiea aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa nia?aiaiiuo IYAI

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaio a?. A19301

?uaaeei N.I.

I?iaa?ee:

ae.o.i. Eicu?aaa

Iineaa

1997

Aaaaeaiea

A iaoa a?aiy o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi aac eiiiuethoa?ia iiaeii
iaieoenue. A aaaeue ia oae aeaaii, aei ia/aea 70-o aiaeia
au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu auee aeinooiiu aanueia ia?aie/aiiiio e?oao
niaoeeaeenoia, a eo i?eiaiaiea, eae i?aaeei, inoaaaeinue ieooaiiui
caaanie nae?aoiinoe e iaei ecaanoiui oe?ieie ioaeeea. Iaeiaei a1971 a.
i?iecioei niauoea, eioi?ia a ei?ia eciaieei neooaoeeth e n
oaioanoe/aneie nei?inoueth i?aa?aoeei eiiiuethoa? a iianaaeiaaiue
?aai/ee eino?oiaio aeanyoeia ieeeeiiia ethaeae. A oii aia anyeiai
niiiaiey ciaiaiaoaeueiii aiaeo aua ii/oe ieeiio ia ecaanoiay oe?ia Intel
ec iaaieueoiai aia?eeaineiai ai?iaeea n e?aneaui iacaaieai Naioa-Eea?a
(oo. Eaeeoi?iey), auionoeea ia?aue iee?ii?ioeanni?. Eiaiii aio iu
iaycaiu iiyaeaieai iiaiai eeanna au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai – ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?uie oaia?ue iieuecothony, ii nouanoao, ana, io
o/aueony ia/aeueiuo eeannia e aooaaeoa?ia aei ianoeouo o/aiuo e
eiaeaia?ia. Yoei iaoeiai, ia caieiathuei e iieiaeiu iiaa?oiinoe
iau/iiai ienueiaiiiai noiea, iiei?ythony ana iiaua e iiaua eeannu
caaea/, eioi?ua ?aiaa auee aeinooiiu (a ii yeiiiie/aneei niia?aaeaieyi
/anoi e iaaeinooiiu – neeoeii aei?iai oiaaea noieei iaoeiiia a?aiy
iyeio?aeiia e ieie-YAI) eeoue nenoaiai, caieiaaoei ia iaeio nioith
eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia. Iaaa?iia, ieeiaaea i?aaeaea /aeiaae ia eiae a naieo
?oeao eino?oiaioa, iaeaaeathuaai noieue eieinnaeueiie iiuueth i?e noieue
iee?ineiie/aneeo ?acia?ao.

I?ioeanni?u

Ia?aue oaa

15 iiya?y 1971 a. iiaeii n/eoaoue ia/aeii iiaie y?u a yeaeo?iieea. A
yoio aeaiue eiiiaiey i?enooieea e iinoaaeai ia?aiai a ie?a
iee?ii?ioeanni?a Intel 4004 – eiaiii oaeia iaicia/aiea iieo/ee ia?aue
i?eai?, iineoaeeaoee ioi?aaiie oi/eie aaniethoii iiaiio eeanno
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ono?ienoa.

Nicaeaa iiaue ?uiie e caoaaoea ia iai ainiiaenoaothuea auniou, Intel oai
ia iaiaa no?aieeanue ?anoe?eoue aai a?aieoeu, e ca 25 eao i?ioeanni?u
i?iaeaeaee iienoeia aeaaioneee iooue.

?anniio?ei oeiu i?ioeanni?ia, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony a aeaiiia a?aiy:

80286

I?ioeanni? i80286 aue aiiine?iaai 1 oaa?aey 1982 a. A?oeoaeoo?a e
oa?aeoa?enoeee /eia ieacaeenue aanueia aia/aoeythueie. Inoaaoenue
16-?ac?yaeiui i?eai?ii, ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iiaue OeI a 3—6 ?ac
i?aacioae naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea (i8086) i?e oaeoiaie /anoioa ia?aie
iiaeeoeeaoeee 8 IAoe. Aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth iiiaiauaiaeiiai ei?iona
?ac?aaio/eee niiaee i?eiaieoue noaio n ?acaeaeueiuie oeiaie aae?ania e
aeaiiuo. 24 ?ac?yaea aae?ana iicaieeee ia?auaoueny e oece/aneie iaiyoe
iauaiii aei 16 Iaaeo — oaeoth aea aieinoue eiaee oiaaea e noa?oea
iiaeaee aieueoeinoaa iyeio?aeiia. Ano?iaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
iaiyoueth e n?aaenoaa aa caueou ioe?uaaee oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey II a iiiaicaaea/iuo n?aaeao. E?iia oiai, aiia?aoo?a
i80286 iaania/eaaea ?aaioo n ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoueth iauaiii aei 1 Aaaeo.

Iiaue OeI eiae aeaa ?aaeeia ?aaiou – ?aaeueiue e caueuaiiue. A ia?aii
neo/aa ii aini?eieiaeny eae auno?ue OeI i8086 n ianeieueei ?anoe?aiiie
nenoaiie eiiaiae e i?ae?anii iiaeoiaeee oai iio?aaeoaeyi, aeey eioi?uo,
iiieii nei?inoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, aeeciaiii aaaeiui auei nio?aiaiea
nouanoaothuaai caaeaea II. ?aaioa a caueuaiiii ?aaeeia iicaieyea
eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa i?eai?a a iieiii iauaia, e i?aaeaea anaai —
aieueoie iauai iniiaiie iaiyoe.

Ia?aaiaoe 32-?ac?yaeiuo nenoai

Ia?aaiaoe 32-?ac?yaeiuo nenoai i80386 aue i?aaenoaaeai 17 ieoya?y
1985 a. e eiae ana i?aaa ia caaiea i?ioeanni?a aeey YAI iauaai
iacia/aiey. Eniieueciaaiea EIII-oaoiieiaee n i?iaeoiuie ii?iaie 1
iei e aeaoiy o?iaiyie iaoaeeecaoeee iicaieeei ?acianoeoue ia e?enoaeea
275 oun. o?aicenoi?ia e ?aaeeciaaoue iieiinoueth 32-?ac?yaeioth
a?oeoaeoo?o OeI. 32 ?ac?yaea aae?ana iaania/eee aae?anaoeeth oece/aneie
iaiyoe iauaiii aei 4 Aaaeo e ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoe aieinoueth aei 64
Oaaeo. Iiieii ?aaiou n ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoueth aeiioneaeenue iia?aoeee n
iaiyoueth, eiaaoae no?aie/ioth i?aaiecaoeeth. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay auai?ea
eiiaiae, aooa? ia 16 eino?oeoeee, eiiaaea? eiiaiae e aiia?aoiay
?aaeecaoeey ooieoeee i?aia?aciaaiey aae?ana cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeee
n?aaeiaa a?aiy auiieiaiey eiiaiaeu. Aeaaiaea?y yoei a?oeoaeoo?iui
iniaaiiinoyi, i?ioeanni? iia auiieiyoue 3 – 4 iei. eiiaiae a naeoiaeo,
/oi i?eia?ii a 6 – 8 ?ac i?aauoaei aiaeiae/iue iieacaoaeue aeey II
i8086. Aaconeiaii, iiaue i?eai? inoaeny niaianoeiui ni naieie
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie ia o?iaia iauaeoiuo eiaeia.

Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyee o?e ?aaeeia ?aaiou e?enoaeea ( ?aaeueiue,
caueuaiiue e ?aaeei ae?ooaeueiiai II i8086. A ia?aii iaania/eaaeanue
niaianoeiinoue ia o?iaia iauaeoiuo eiaeia n ono?ienoaaie i8086 e i80286,
?aaioathueie a ?aaeueiii ?aaeeia. I?e yoii a?oeoaeoo?a i80386 auea ii/oe
eaeaioe/ia a?oeoaeoo?a 86-ai i?ioeanni?a, aeey i?ia?aiienoa aea ii
aiiaua i?aaenoaaeyeny eae OeI i8086, auiieiythuee niioaaonoaothuea
i?ia?aiiu n aieueoae nei?inoueth e iaeaaeathuee ?anoe?aiiie nenoaiie
eiiaiae e ?aaeno?aie. Aeaaiaea?y yoei ea/anoaai 32-?ac?yaeiiai i?iaeoeoa
eiiiaiey nio?aieea i?aaeieo eeeaioia, eioi?ua oioaee iiaea?iece?iaaoue
naie nenoaiu, ia ioeacuaaynue io eiaaoaainy caaeaea a iaeanoe
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, e i?eaeaeea oao, eiio ecia/aeueii o?aaiaaeanue
aunieay nei?inoue ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeii ec iniiaiuo ia?aie/aiee ?aaeueiiai ?aaeeia auei naycaii n
i?aaeaeueiui iauaiii aae?anoaiie iaiyoe, ?aaiui 1 Iaaeo. Io iaai
naiaiaeai caueuaiiue ?aaeei, iicaieythuee ainiieueciaaoueny anaie
i?aeiouanoaaie a?oeoaeoo?u iiaiai OeI. ?acia? aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa a
yoii neo/aa oaaee/eaaeny aei 4 Aaaeo, a iauai iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo i?ia?aii
aei 64 Oaaeo. Nenoaiu caueuaiiiai ?aaeeia iaeaaeaee aieaa aunieei
auno?iaeaenoaeai e aiciiaeiinoyie i?aaiecaoeee enoeiiie
iiiaicaaea/iinoe.

Iaeiiaoe, ?aaeei ae?ooaeueiiai II ioe?uaae aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai
eniieiaiey IN e i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii. iaienaiiuo aeey II i8086, i80286
e80386. Iineieueeo iauai iaiyoe, aae?anoaiie 386-i i?ioeanni?ii, ia
ia?aie/ai cia/aieai 1 Iaaeo, ii iicaieye oi?ie?iaaoue ianeieueei
ae?ooaeueiuo n?aae i8086.

10 ai?aey 1989 a. ei?ii?aoeey Intel iauyaeea i ia/aea auionea 32
?ac?yaeiiai i?eai?a aoi?iai iieieaiey – i80486, noaaoaai iinea ono?ienoa
i8080 e !8086 aua iaeiei aeieaiaeeoaeai.

Pentium

No?aieoaeueiia oneiaeiaiea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e iinoiyiiia
?anoe?aiea noa?u i?eiaiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia ianoiyoaeueii o?aaiaaee
nouanoaaiiiai ?inoa au/eneeoaeueiie iiue oeaio?aeueiuo i?ioeanni?ia IE.
Ei anaio i?i/aio ia iyoee noaee ianooiaoue e RISC-i?ioeanni?u. Oioy a
eiioea 80-o aiaeia iaeioi?ua yenia?ou i?aaeneacuaaee aeeceee eiiaoe
e?enoaeeia NISC, ei?ii?aoeey Intel aiieia ni?aaaaeeeai iin/eoaea, /oi
aei yoiai aua aeaeaei e a iee?ii?ioeanni?ao eniieueciaaiu ia ana
aiciiaeiinoe NISC-a?oeoaeoo?u. E?iia oiai, oe?ia a?yae ee i?inoeee au
ioeac io i?ia?aiiiie niaianoeiinoe n i?aaeoanoaothueie iiaeaeyie –
noieiinoue iaeiieaiiiai nenoaiiiai e i?eeeaaeiiai II oaea ecia?yeanue a
ieeeea?aeao aeieea?ia.

Eae yoi neo/aeinue ia ?ac, i?i?aaioee iiaiai i?ioeanni?a ia/aeenue,
eiaaea i?iaeo nicaeaiey 486-ai II anooiee a caeeth/eoaeueioth noaaeeth.
A iniiao i?iaeoeoa auea iieiaeaia noia?neaey?iay a?oeoaeoo?a (aua iaeei
ao?eaoo ec ie?a iyeio?aeiia), eioi?ay e aeaea aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue
iyoee?aoiia iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n iiaeaeueth
486DO. Aunieay nei?inoue auiieiaiey eiiaiae aeinoeaaeanue aeaaiaea?y
aeaoi 5-nooiai/aoui eiiaaea?ai, iicaieyaoei iaeiia?aiaiii eniieiyoue
ianeieueei eino?oeoeee. Aeey iinoiyiiie caa?ocee iaieo eiiaaea?ia ec
eyo’a o?aaoaony oe?ieay iieina i?iioneaiey . Niaiauaiiue aooa? eiiaiae e
aeaiiuo iaania/eoue aa ia iia, e ?ac?aaio/eee ainiieueciaaeenue ?aoaieai
ec a?naiaea RISC-i?ioeanni?ia, inianoea Pentium ?acaeaeueiuie aooa?aie
eiiaiae e aeaiiuo. I?e yoii iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n iaiyoueth /a?ac eyo
aeaiiuo inouanoaeyeny niaa?oaiii iacaaeneii io i?ioeanni?iiai yae?a, a
aooa? eino?oeoeee aue naycai n iei /a?ac aunieinei?inoioth
256-?ac?yaeioth aioo?aiithth oeio. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi iiaue e?enoaee aue
ni?iaeoe?iaai eae 32-?ac?yaeiue, aeey nayce n inoaeueiuie eiiiiiaioaie
nenoaiu eniieueciaaeanue aiaoiyy 64-?ac?yaeiay oeia aeaiiuo n
iaeneiaeueiie i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth 528 Iaaeo/n. Aua iaeiie
«ecthieieie» a?oeoaeoo?u, iicaeinoaiaaiiie o i?aaenoaaeoaeae
oieaa?naeueiuo YAI noaea noaia i?aaeneacaiey ia?aoiaeia.

Ii nei?inoe auiieiaiey eiiaiae n ieaaathuae oi/eie Pentium a iyoue –
naiue ?ac i?aacioae i?ioeanni? 486DX2/50 e ii/oe ia ii?yaeie –
iee?inoaio 486DX/33.

Pentium Pro

27 ia?oa 1995 a. Intel i?aaenoaaeea iee?ii?ioeanni? oanoiai iieieaiey,
iieo/eaoee iacaaiea Pentium Pro. No?aieaiea auaeaoue ec CISC-a?oeoaeoo?u
i?aeoe/anee ana, ia /oi iia niiniaia, canoaaeei ?ac?aaio/eeia yoiai
i?iaeoeoa iieueciaaoueny ii/oe anaie oaoie/aneeie ?aoaieyie, eioi?ua
?aiaa i?eiaiyeenue a noia? YAI e iyeio?aeiao (aeaai, aeinoeaiooay
noaiaiue eioaa?aoeee yoi oaea iicaieyea). I?aaeaea anaai ?a/ue eaeao ia
eniieueciaaiee iaoaiecia aeeiaie/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey ii?yaeea auiieiaiey
eiiaiae ianeieueeeo iiiainooiai/aouo eiiaaea?ia aianoi aeaoo
5-nooiai/aouo eiiaaea?ia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey Pentium. Iiaue OeI eiaao eo
o?e, a eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo 14 nooiaiae. Iiaeiaiue iiiaioaciue eiiaaea?
iicaieee iaania/eoue aunieoth oaeoiaoth /anoioo i?ioeanni?a (133 IAoe a
ia?aie iiaeaee). Aeey inouanoaeaiey iinoiyiiie caa?ocee eiiaaea?a
iaiaoiaeeiu aunieiyooaeoeaiue eyo eiiaiae e aunieiea/anoaaiiay noaia
i?aaeneacaiey ia?aoiaeia. Iiyoiio a ioee/ea io naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea,
eiaaoaai aeaooaoiaeiaie annioeeaoeaiue eyo eino?oeoeee, Pentium Pro
iaeaaeaao aieaa yooaeoeaiui /aou?aoaoiaeiaui eyo’ai, a oaeaea noaiie
i?aaeneacaiey aaoaeaiee ia 512 aoiaeia. E?iia oiai, aeey iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe auea i?eiaiaia aooa?iay iaiyoue aoi?iai o?iaiy
aieinoueth 256 Eaaeo, ?aniieiaeaiiay a ioaeaeueiii /eia e niiioe?iaaiiay
a oii aea ei?iona, /oi e i?ioeanni?. E?enoaee eyo’a naycai n
i?ioeanni?ii nianoaaiiie neio?iiiie 64-?ac?yaeiie oeiie, ?aaioathuae ia
oaeoiaie /anoioa i?ioeanni?a .

Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaiai OeI iaania/eee aio onoie/eaue nauo a
naeoi?a aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo na?aa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee, ia aeieth
eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony iiea iaeaieueoee iauai i?iaeaae e?enoaeea. *oi
eanaaony ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, oi caeanue ?ani?ino?aiaiea Pentium
Pro iiea naea?aeeaaaony ioiineoaeueii aunieie noieiinoueth e
iaaeinoaoi/iui iauaiii i?eeeaaeiiai II, a iieiie ia?a eniieuecothuaai
ana i?aeiouanoaa i?ioeanni?a.

Iaoa?eineea ieaou

Ii/oe ana nia?aiaiiua ieaou eniieuecotho oeio PCI e iiaeaea?aeeaatho
niaoeeoeeaoeeth PCI-2.0. A?oeoaeoo?a nenoaiiuo ieao n oeiie PCI ca
aeiaieueii ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey, iai?aaeaiiua a eiia/iii n/aoa, ia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, — io ?NI Bridge aei ?NI Host Concurrent Bus,
aeiioneathuae eiieo?aioiua oeeeeu i?ioeanni?-iaiyoue e PCI-iaiyoue.

CHIPSET

Iiyaeaiea chipset Triton oe?iu Intel, ni cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?aiiuie ii
n?aaiaieth n ?aiieie aa?neyie aiciiaeiinoyie ii oi?aaeaieth oeiie e
i?eiaiaieth iiauo oeiia iaiyoe, onoaiiaeei iiaue noaiaea?o ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua nenoaiu ia iniiaa i?ioeanni?ia oeia Pentium (90, 100,
120 MHz e o. ae.).

Triton (82430FX PCIset) iiaeaea?aeeaaao:

niaoeeoeeaoeeth ?N1 ?N12.0 (Triton VX— ?N1 2.1); aiaoiea oaeoiaua
/anoiou 50/ 60/ 66 MHz;

iaiai ii oeia ?N1 ia /anoioao 25/30/33 MHz;

256 eee 512 KB eyo-iaiyoe aoi?iai o?iaiy — pipeline burst SRAM,
aneio?iiioth SRAM;

io 4 aei 128 MB EDO DRAM eee FPM DRAM;

niaea?aeeo ano?iaiiue Bus Master IDE eiio?ieea? ia 4 ono?ienoaa (?aaeeiu
PIO mode 4 e MultiWord DMA mode 2).

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ana iiaua iiaeaee chipset ii naiei aiciiaeiinoyi
iaoiaeyony i?eia?ii ia o?iaia Triton e, e?iia oiai, iiaeaea?aeeaatho e
Pentium, e i?ioeanni?u E5 e I1 oe?i AMD e Cyrix.

Chipset oe?iu Acer Laboratory Inc. iiae iacaaieai Aladdin M1511/12/13
i?aaeiacia/ai eae aeey aeaooi?ioeanni?iuo, oae e iaeiii?ioeanni?iuo
eiioeao?aoeee. ?ann/eoai ia i?ioeanni?u Pentium (io 60/66 MHz ia 5V aei
150 MHz, 2.5 V). A iaeiii?ioeanni?iie eiioeao?aoeee iiaeii i?eiaiyoue
oaeaea Cyrix I1 e AMD E5. I?aaeoniio?aia iiaeaea?aeea pipeline burst
SRAM e EDO DRAM. Eiaaony ano?iaiiue eiio?ieea? Enhanced IDE.

Iiaua chipset aeey i?ioeanni?ia naiaenoaa 486, iai?eia? ALI I 1489
oe?iu, eniieuecotho iaeioi?ua ?aoaiey, ?ac?aaioaiiua aeey Pentium, a
/anoiinoe, aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iaiyoe oeia EDO DRAM, a oaeaea
iiaeaea?aeeaatho i?ioeanni?u MISC oe?iu Cyrix e Enhanced 486 oe?iu AMD.

EIINO?OEOEAIUA INIAAIIINOE E ANO?IAIIUA ONO?IENOAA

Ai anao iiauo iiaeaeyo nenoaiiuo ieao aeey Pentium i?aaeoniio?aia
iiaeaea?aeea i?ioeanni?ia ia oieueei ia 90/100 MHz, ii e 120, 133, 150
MHz, a a iaeioi?uo —155, 167, 180 e 200 MHz. ?aciua cia/aiey iai?yaeaiey
ieoaiey, o?aaothueany aeey ?aciuo iiaeaeae i?ioeanni?ia, iaania/eaathony
?aaoeyoi?aie iai?yaeaiey, eae ano?iaiiuie, oae e a aeaea aiaoieo
iiaeoeae Voltage Regulator Module — VRM (aeey ieo i?aaeoniio?aiu
niaoeeaeueiua ?acuaiu). I?aeoe/anee iaycaoaeueiuie noaee ano?iaiiua
eiio?ieea?u Enhanced IDE ia 4 ono?ienoaa n iiaeaea?aeeie ?aaeeiia PIO
mode 3, 4 e DMA Mode 2 (Bus Master IDE). Ia ii/oe ai ana nenoaiiua
ieaou, eae aeey Pentium, oae e aeey naiaenoaa 486, ano?aeaatho oaeaea
eiio?ieea?u oeiiie-aeeneia e Enhanced Ports. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiua ii?ou,
aeaaiaea?y i?eiaiaieth oieaa?naeueiiai aneio?iiiiai i?eaiiia?aaeao/eea
UART 16550 n FIFO ?aaeno?ii, iicaieytho inouanoaeyoue aacioeai/iue
aunieinei?inoiie iaiai aeaiiuie. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?aaeoniio?aia
oaeaea iiaeaea?aeea iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai eio?ae?aniiai ii?oa Infrared
(IrDA). Niioaaonoaothuee iiaeoeue iiaeeeth/aaony /a?ac 5-oou?ueeiaue
?acuai. IrDA iaania/eaaao iaiai aeaiiuie ia ?annoiyiee aei iaeiiai iao?a
ni nei?inoueth 115 kbps. Eio?ae?aniuie ii?oaie niaaaeathony a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iiiaea ia?aiiniua ono?ienoaa (notebook, laptop), a oaeaea
i?eioa?u.

Nenoaiiua ieaou oeia AII-In-One, a eioi?uo e?iia ano?iaiiuo eiio?ieea?ia
e ii?oia eiaaony oaeaea e a?aoe/aneee aaeaioa? e, ca/anooth, caoeiaay
ieaoa, auioneathony a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao, iniaaiii oe?iie Intel.
I?eiaiaiea ieao All-In-One ia?aie/eaaeinue anaaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
eniieueciaaiey niaoeeaeueiiai ei?iona oeia slim, ultra slim, super slim
e, e?iia oiai, iaaieueoei /eneii neioia ?anoe?aiey e iaaeinoaoi/iuie
aiciiaeiinoyie aeey aeaeueiaeoae iiaea?iecaoeee. Oai ia iaiaa,
oaiaeaioeey eioaa?e?iaaoue, eae iiaeii aieueoa ono?ienoa a nenoaiioth
ieaoo i?ineaaeeaaaony aiieia io/aoeeai (e ia iaycaoaeueii oieueei a
ieaoao oeia AII-In-One). Oae, iai?eia?, ano?iaiiua SCSI-aaeaioa?u
i?eiaiythony oaea aeinoaoi/ii aeaaii.

NENOAIIUA IEAOU PENTIUM

Oe?ia ASUSTeK auioneaao oe?ieee iaai? nenoaiiuo ieao iiae Pentium, eae a
iaeiii?ioeanni?iie, oae e a aeaooi?ioeanni?iie eiioeao?aoeee.
Eniieuecothony chipset oe?iu Intel (Triton, Neptune), a oaeaea oe?iu
SiS. Ai anao ieaoao i?eiaiaiu aa?nee BIOS oe?iu AWARD e SCSI BIOS oe?iu
NCR, ?aaeeciaaiiua ia iniiaa Flash EPROM aieinoueth 1 M bit.

I?eia?: Iiaeaeue ?N1/1-?55O?4OA ?ann/eoaia ia i?ioeanni?u ?54N n
oaeoiauie /anoioaie 75, 90, 100, 120, 133, 150 MHz. A iae eniieuecoaony
chipset Intel Triton. Ano?iaiiue Bus Master Enhanced IDE eiio?ieea?
iaania/eaaao iaiai aeaiiuie a ?aaeeiao ?10 mode 3 e 4 e DMA mode 2.
Eiathony eiio?ieea?u oeiiie-aeeneia e Enhanced Ports. BIOS oe?iu Award
iiaeaea?aeeaaao ?aaeei Plug&Play. Ieaoa niaaaeaia aeiiieieoaeueiui
neioii MediaBus, eioi?ue iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny niaianoii ni neioii ?N1
aeey iiaeeeth/aiey eiiaeie?iaaiiuo aaeaioa?ia, iai?eia? a?aoe/aneiai,
niaiauaiiiai ni caoeiaie ieaoie (oeia MediaBus yaeyaony iaeei aiaeiaii
oeiu ISA, oieueei auaaaeaia ia ae?oaie ?acuai).

NENOAIIUA IEAOU 486

Oe?ia ASUSTeK iinoaaeyao eeanne/aneea, i/aiue ouaoaeueii
neiino?oe?iaaiiua iiaeaee ieao aeey i?ioeanni?ia naiaenoaa. 486.
Eniieuecoaony chipset oe?i Intel e SiS. Ana ieaou iiaeaea?aeeaatho
oe?ieoth iiiaieeaoo?o i?ioeanni?ia i?iecaiaenoaa Intel (aeeth/ay Pentium
OverDrive ?24O), AMD, Cyrix, UMC. Oioy eieaeueiay oeia VLB,
?ac?aaioaiiay a naia a?aiy niaoeeaeueii iiae i?ioeanni?u naiaenoaa 486,
nae/an aeoeaii auoaniyaony oeiie ?N1, ia ?uiea ana aua eiaaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai ea/anoaaiiuo a?aoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo aaeaioa?ia, auiieiaiiuo a
yoii eiino?oeoeaa. Iiyoiio ?acuai iiae oeio VLB nio?aiai aeaaea a
nenoaiiuo ieaoao, eniieuecothueo ?N1. Iiaeaeue PVI-486SP3 (n oeiaie
PCI/VLB/ISA) nia?aia ia chipset SiS 85N496&85N497, eniieuecoao BIOS
oe?iu Award e iiaeaea?aeeaaao aei 512 KB eyo-iaiyoe. Ieaoa eiaao iieiue
iaai? ano?iaiiuo eiio?ieea?ia. Iiaeaeue PVI-486AP4 eniieuecoao chipset
Intel Green PC 824.20EX PCIset (Intel Aries) e niaea?aeeo oieueei
Enhanced IDE eiio?ieea?. Iaeiiaoe iiaeaeue VL/1-486SV2GX4 ia iiioey?iie
iee?inoaia SiS 471 i?eaioe?iaaia ia oeio VLB (2 neioa). N?aaee
iniaaiiinoae iiaeii ioiaoeoue iiaeaea?aeeo eyo-iaiyoe aieueoiai iauaia –
aei 1IA. Iiaua aa?nee ieao PVI i?aaeoniao?eaatho Plug&Play, aeey aieaa
noa?uo aiciiaeai upgrade aeey BIOS.

I?IECAIAeEOAEUeIINOUe

Nenoaiiay ieaoa aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue aeinoeaeaiea iaeneiaeueii aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eae i?ioeanni?a e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe, oae e ae?oaeo
/anoae eiiiuethoa?a — a?aoe/aneeo aaeaioa?ia, aeanoeeo aeeneia e i?i/eo.
Iiyoiio oanoe?iaaiea nenoaiiie ieaou ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue,
i?aaeiieaaathuaa ioeaieo auno?iaeaenoaey i?aeoe/anee anao eiiiiiaioia,
aeaao iieacioth eioi?iaoeeth ia oieueei i iae naiie, ii e ia yoeo
eiiiiiaioao. Niiinoaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia iiaeao iiii/ue a auai?a oiai eee
eiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey e eiie?aoiuo oeiia eiiieaeoothueo. Neaaeoao
n?aco iaiai?eoueny, /oi ia noieo aaniethoece?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou
eaeiai-eeai oanoe?iaaiey. Eaeaaeueiuo oanoia ia auaaao, iie a oie eee
eiie ia?a ?ann/eoaiu ia ioeaieo eeai auaeaeaiiuo iiaenenoai
eiiiuethoa?a, eeai ia iaeioi?ua eioaa?aeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. A aeaiiii
neo/aa yoi ia aieaa /ai i?eaioe?, iniaaiii iieaciue i?e iano?ieea
nenoaiu. Eo/oee oano – yoi eiie?aoiay ?aai/ay n?aaea eiie?aoiiai
iieueciaaoaey.

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia oanoe?iaaiey iieacuaaao, /oi oioy i?eiaiaiea iiauo
oeiia iaiyoe e aeaao iaeioi?ue auea?uo a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii
iaaaeee. Yoi eaaei iiiyoue n o/aoii oiai, /oi aeaaea noaiaea?oiay
eyo-iaiyoue aoi?iai o?iaiy iaania/eaaao aeey oeiiauo caaea/ aeinooi e
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ni nei?inoueth, aeinoaoi/ii aeeceie e iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiie aeey aeaiiiai oeia i?ioeanni?a, oae /oi aeaeueiaeoaa
onei?aiea aeaaony n aieueoei o?oaeii e ia iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueiui.
Oai ia iaiaa, i?eiaiaiea iiauo oeiia iaiyoe yaeyaony aiieia
ii?aaaeaiiui, oae eae iicaieyao iiaeiyoue ?aaeueioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e ?aaioa ni iiiaeie i?eeiaeaieyie e a
ioeueoecaaea/iie n?aaea. Ec iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeia e ioaeeeaoeee iiaeii
naeaeaoue e aua iaeei aaaeiue auaiae. Ii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeaaiia
n?aaenoai iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe anao iiaenenoai eiiiuethoa?a,
aeeth/ay a?aoe/aneoth e, n iaeioi?uie iaiai?eaie, aeanoeea aeenee, — yoi
eniieueciaaiea aieaa iiuiiai i?ioeanni?a.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue

I?aeoe/anee ana eiiiuethoa?u eniieuecotho o?e aeaea iaiyoe:
iia?aoeaioth, iinoiyiioth e aiaoithth.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey o?aiaiey ia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeee,
eae iia aeiioneaao eciaiaiea naiaai niaea?aeeiiai a oiaea auiieiaiey
iee?ii?ioeanni?ii au/eneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, yoio aeae
iaiyoe iaania/eaaao ?aaeeiu caiene, n/eouaaiey e o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee.
Iineieueeo a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie aeinooi iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny e
i?iecaieueii aua?aiiie y/aeea, oi yoio aeae iaiyoe iacuaatho oaeaea
iaiyoueth n i?iecaieueiie auai?eie — RAM (Random Access Memoiy). Aeey
iino?iaiey caiiieiathueo ono?ienoa oeia RAM eniieuecotho iee?inoaiu
noaoe/aneie e aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe.

Iinoiyiiay iaiyoue iau/ii niaea?aeeo oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay ia
aeieaeia iaiyoueny a oiaea auiieiaiey iee?ii?ioeanni?ia i?ia?aiiu.
Iinoiyiiay iaiyoue eiaao nianoaaiiia iac-aaiea — ROM (Read Only Memory),
eioi?ia oeacuaaao ia oi, /o’i iia iaania/eaaao oieueei ?aaeeiu
n/eouaaiey e o?aiaiey. Iinoiyiiay iaiyoue iaeaaeaao oai i?aeiouanoaii,
/oi iiaeao nio?aiyaue eioi?iaoeeth e i?e ioeeth/aiiii ieoaiee. Yoi
naienoai iieo/eei iacaaiea yia?aiiacaaeneiinoue. Ana iee?inoaiu
iinoiyiiie iaiyoe ii niiniao caianaiey a ieo eioi?iaoeee
(i?ia?aiie?iaaieth) aeaeyony ia iani/iua (ROM), i?ia?aiie?oaiua
ecaioiaeoaeai, iaeiie?aoii i?ia?aiie?oaiua iieueciaaoaeai (Programmable
ROM) e iiiaie?aoii i?ia?aiie?oaiua iieueciaaoaeai (Erasable PROM).
Iineaaeiea a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeythony ia noe?aaiua yeaeo?e/anee
e n iiiiuueth oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai iaeo/aiey. E yeaiaioai A?ROM n
yeaeo?e/aneei noe?aieai eioi?iaoeee ioiinyony e iee?inoaiu oeyo-iaiyoe.
Io iau/iuo EPROM iie ioee/athony aunieie nei?inoueth aeinooia e noe?aiey
caienaiiie.eioi?iaoeee. Aaoiyy iaiyoue ?aaeeciaaia iau/ii ia iaaieoiuo
iineoaeyo.

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue ninoaaeyao ia aieueooth, ii, aaconeiaii, aaaeiaeooth
/anoue ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a. Anee io oeia i?ioeanni?a caaeneo
eiee/anoai aae?anoaiie iaiyoe, oi auno?iaeaenoaea eniieuecoaiie
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue ?aaiou i?ioeanni?a, e
a eiia/iii eoiaa aeeyao ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue anae nenoaiu.

I?aeoe/anee ethaie ia?niiaeueiue IBM-niaianoeiue eiiiuethoa? iniauai
iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth, ?aaeeciaaiiie iee?inoaiaie aeeiaie/aneiai oeia n
i?iecaieueiie auai?eie. (DRAM, Dynamic Random Access Memory). Eaaeaeue
aeo oaeie iaiyoe oece/anee i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea iaee/ey (eee ionoonoaey)
ca?yaea ia eiiaeainaoi?a, ia?aciaaiiii a no?oeoo?a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaiai
e?enoaeea. Iineieueeo a?aiy o?aiaiey ca?yaea eiiaeainaoi?ii ia?aie/aii
(ec-ca «ia?aceoiuo» ; ooa/ae), oi, /oiau ia iioa?youe eiathueany
aeaiiua, iaiaoiae]eii ia?eiaee/aneia ainnoaiiaeaiea caienaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia e auiieiyaony a oeeeeao ?aaaia?aoeee (refresh
cycle). Yoi yaeyaony, iiaeaeoe, iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iaaeinoaoeia
aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe, a oi a?aiy, eae ii e?eoa?eth, oaaee/eaathuaio
eioi?iaoeeiiioth aieinoue, noieiinoue e yia?aiiio?aaeaiea, yoio oei
iaiyoe ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa noaoe/aneie iaiyoe (SRAM,
Static RAM). Iineaaeiyy a ea/anoaa yeaiaioa?iie y/aeee iaiyoe
eniieuecoao oae iacuaaaiue noaoe/aneee o?eaaa?. Yoio oei iaiyoe
iaeaaeaao aunieei aunociaeaenoaeai e, eae i?aaeei, eniieuecoaony a naiuo
«oceeo». ianoao nenoaiu, iai?eia?, aeey i?aaiecaoeee iaiyae.

Ei?iona e ia?ee?iaea

Yeaiaiou aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe aeey ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia auaatho
eiino?oeoeaii auiieiaiu eeai a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo iee?inoai a ei?ionao
oeia DIP (Dual In line Package), eeai a aeaea iiaeoeae iaiyoe oeia
SIP/SIPP (Single In line Pin Package) eee oeia SIMM (Single In line
Mernory Module). Iiaeoee iaiyoe i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaieueoea
oaenoieeoiaua ieaou n ia/aoiui iiioaaeii n onoaiiaeaiiuie ia ieo
iee?inoaiaie iaiyoe a DIP-ei?ionao. I?e yoii aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e
nenoaiiie ieaoa ia SIMM eniieuecoaony ia/aoiue («iiaeaaie») ?acuai, a
ia iiaeoeyo SIP — oou?aaie.

Eiae/aneay i?aaiecaoeey iaiyoe

Eniieuecoaiue a IBM PC/XT i?ioeanni? i8086 /a?ac naie 20 aae?aniuo eeiee
iiaeao eiaoue aeinooi e i?ino?ainoao iaiyoe anaai a 1 Iaaeo. Ii a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea iiyaeeenue yoe eiiiuethoa?u, aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/aiey
aeinooiiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe a 10 ?ac (ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie 64
Eaaeo) auea i?inoi oaioanoe/aneie. Ionthaea iaaa?ii e iiyaeeanue
«aiethioa?enoneay» oeeo?a — 640 Eaaeo. Yoe ia?aua 640 Eaaeo aae?anoaiiai
i?ino?ainoaa a IBM-niaianoeiuo eiiiuethoa?ao iacuaatho iau/ii
noaiaea?oiie iaiyoueth (conventional memory). Inoaaoeany 384 Eaaeo auee
ca?aca?ae?iaaiu aeey nenoai eniieueciaaiey e iinyo iacaaiea iaiyoe a
aa?oieo eee aunoeo aae?anao (UMB, Upper Memory Blocks). Yoa iaeanoue
iaiyoe ?aca?ae?oaony iiae ?aciauaiea nenoaiiiai ROM BIOS (Read Only Iao
Basic Input Output System), aeaeaiiaiyoe e ROM-iaiyoe, iieieoaeueiuo
aaeaioa?ia.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay, eee ao?anded-iaiyaue

Ii/oe ia anao ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao iaeanoue UMB ?aaeei
ieacuaaaony caiieiaiiie iieiinoueth. Ionooao, eae i?aaeei, iaeanoue
?anoe?aiey nenoaiiiai ROM BIOS /anoue aeaeaiiaiyoe e iaeanoe iiae
aeiiieieoaeueiua iiaeoee ROM. Ia yoii e aace?oaony niaoeeoeeaoeey
aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe EMS (Expanded Memory Specification), ?ac?aaioea
oe?iaie Lotus Development, Intel e Microsoft (iiyoiio iacuaaaiay eiiaaea
LIM-niaoeeoeeaoeeae) aua a 1985 a. e iicaieythuay eniieueciaaoue
iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue nauoa noaiaea?oiuo 640 Eaaeo aeey i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii. I?eioeei eniieueciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe iniiaai ia
ia?aeeth/aiee aeieia (no?aieoe) iaiyoe. A auaeaeyaony iacaiyoia «ieii»
(page frame) a 64-Eaaeo, eioi?ia ?acaeoi ia 16-eeeiaaeoiua no?aieoeu.
I?ia?aiiiua e aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa iicaieytho ioia?aaeaoue ethaie
16-eeeiaaeoiue naaiaio yoie aeiiieieoaeueiie expanded-eaieoe a ethaie ec
auaeaeaiiuo 16-eeeiaaeoiuo no?aieoe ieia. Oioy iee?ii?ioeanni? anaaaea
ia?auaaony e aeaiiui, o?aieiui a ieia (aae?an 1 Iaaeo), aae?ana yoeo
aeaiiuo iiaoo auoue niauaiu a aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiyoe ioiineoaeueii ieia
ia ianeieueei iaaaaaeo. Niaoeeoeeaoeey LIM/EMS 4.0 iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue aei 2048 eiae/aneeo no?aieoe e ?anoe?eoue iauai
aae?anoaiie iaiyoe aei 32 Iaaeo. E?iia yoiai, eae e a EMS, oece/aneea
no?aieoeu iiaoo auoue ?aniieiaeaiu a ethaii ianoa iaiyoe , ioee/iue io
16 Eaaeo. Oaeei ia?acii iiaoo caaeaenoaiaaoueny iaeanoe aeaeaiiaiyoe e
UMB. Aiciiaeiinoe niaoeeoeeaoeee iicaieytho, a /anoiinoe, i?aaieciaaoue
iiiaicaaea/iue ?aaeei ?aaiou.

Panoe?aiiay, eee ao?anded-iaiyaue

Eiiiuethoa?u, eniieuecothuea i?ioeanni? i80286 n 24-?ac?yaeiuie
aae?aniuie oeiaie, oece/anee iiaoo aae?aniaaoue 16 Iaaeo, a a neo/aa
i?ioeanni?ia i80386/486 — 4 Aaaeoa iaiyoe. Oaeay aiciiaeiinoue
iiyaeyaony oieueei i?e caueu?iiii ?aaeeia ?aaiou i?ioeanni?a (protected
mode), eioi?iai iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia MS DOS ia iiaeaea?aeeaaao.
?anoe?aiiay iaiyoue ?aniieaaaaony auoa iaeanoe aae?ania 1 Iaaeo. Aeey
?aaiou n extended-iaiyoueth iee?ii?ioeanni? aeieaeai ia?aoiaeeoue ec
?aaeueiiai a caueuaiiue ?aaeei e ia?aoii. Iee?ii?ioeanni?u i80386/486
auiieiytho yoo iia?aoeeth aeinoaoi/ii eaaei, /aai ia neaaeaoue i i80286.
I?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai i?ia?aiiiiai ae?aeaa?a ?anoe?aiioth
iaiyoue iiaeii yioee?iaaoue eae aeiiieieoaeueioth. Aiia?aoioth
iiaeaea?aeeo a yoii neo/aa aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue i?ioeanni? ia ieaea
i80386 eee aniiiiaaoaeueiue iaai? niaoeeaeueiuo iee?inoai.

Eyo-iaiyoue

Eyo-iaiyoue i?aaeiacia/aia aeey niaeaniaaiey nei?inoe ?aaiou
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeeaiiuo ono?ienoa, oaeeo, iai?eia? eae aeeiaie/aneay
iaiyoue n ioiineoaeueii auno?ui iee?ii?ioeanni?ii. Eniieueciaaiea
eyo-iaiyoe iicaieyao ecaaaaoue oeeeeia iaeeaeaiey a aai ?aaioa, eioi?ua
nieaeatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue anae nenoaiu.

O iee?ii?ioeanni?a, neio?iiece?oaiiai, iai?eia?, oaeoiaie /anoioie 33
IAoe, oaeoiaue ia?eiae ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 30 in. Iau/iua
nia?aiaiiua iee?inoaiu aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe eiatho a?aiy auai?ee io 60
aei 80 in. Ionthaea, a /anoiinoe, neaaeoao, /oi oeaio?aeueiue i?ioeanni?
auioaeaeai i?inoaeaaoue 2-3 ia?eiaea oaeoiaie /anoiou (o.a. eiaao 2-3
oeeeea iaeeaeaiey), iiea eioi?iaoeey ec niioaaonoaothueo iee?inoai
iaiyoe onoaiiaeony ia nenoaiiie oeia aeaiiuo eiiiuethoa?a. Iiiyoii, /oi
a yoi a?aiy i?ioeanni? ia iiaeao auiieiyoue ieeaeoth ae?oaoth ?aaioo.
Oaeay neooaoeey aaaeao iau/ii e oiio, /oi iauay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
nenoaiu nieaeaaony, /oi, ?acoiaaony, e?aeia iaaeaeaoaeueii.

N iiiiuueth oaoiieiaee ia?aaioee, eniieuecothuae eyo-iaiyoue, iau/ii
aeaeaaony iiiuoea niaeaniaaoue ?aaioo iaaeeaiiuo aiaoieo ono?ienoa n
auno?ui i?ioeanni?ii. A ia?aaiaea n aiaeeeneiai neiai «nanha» icia/aao
ia /oi eiia, eae oaaaeeua eee oaeiee. Yoe cia/aiey, i/aaeaeii, iiaeii
oieeiaaoue ii-?aciiio: e eae oi, /oi eyo, ii nooe, yaeyaony
i?iiaaeooi/iui aooa?iui caiiieiathuei ono?ienoaii, e eae oi, /oi ?aaioa
eyo-iaiyoe i?aeoe/anee i?ic?a/ia (o.a. iaaeaeeia) aeey iieueciaaoaey.
Enoaoe, a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a neiiieiii eyo-iaiyoe yaeyaony oa?iei
«naa?oiia?aoeaiay iaiyoue».

Niioaaonoaothuee eiio?ieea? eyo-iaiyoe aeieaeai caaioeoueny i oii, /oiau
eiiaiaeu e aeaiiua, eioi?ua aoaeoo iaiaoiaeeiu iee?ii?ioeanni?o a
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, ieacuaaeenue a eyo-iaiyoe eiaiii e yoiio
iiiaioo. I?e iaeioi?uo ia?auaieyo e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe niioaaonoaothuea
cia/aiey caiinyony a eyo. A oiaea iineaaeothueo iia?aoeee /oaiey ii oai
ea aae?anai iaiyoe ia?auaiey i?ienoiaeyo oieueei e eyo-iaiyoue, aac
cao?aou i?ioeanni?iiai a?aiaie ia iaeeaeaiea, eioi?ia iaecaaaeii i?e
?aaioa n iniiaiie aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoueth. A ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao
oaoiieiaey eniieueciaaiey eyo-iaiyoe iaoiaeeo i?eiaiaiea i?aaeaea anaai
i?e iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo iee?ii?ioeanni?ii e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoueth, a
oaeaea iaaeaeo iniiaiie iaiyoueth e aiaoiae (iaeiieoaeyie ia iaaieoiuo
iineoaeyo).

Ia e?enoaeea iee?inoaiu iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe SRAI iaoiaeeony ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai o?aicenoi?ia. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, i?eiui ?aaiou y/aeee
aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe ninoieo a nio?aiaiee ; ca?yaea ia e?ioa/iii
eiiaeainaoi?a, auiieiaiiii a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie no?oeoo?a e?enoaeea.
Iiiyoii, /oi aeey oiai /oiau ca?yaeeoue eiiaeainaoi? aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai
cia/aiey, iaiaoiaeeii iaeioi?ia a?aiy. *oiau eiiaeainaoi? ?ac?yaeeeny,
oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa
i?ioeannia ca?yaea e ?ac?yaea eiiaeainaoi?a y/aeea iaiyoe onoaiaaeeaaao
eeai a ninoiyiea 1, eeai a ninoiyiea 0. Iineieueeo aeey ca?yaea e
?ac?yaea eiiaeainaoi?a iaiaoiaeeii aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiia (e iaiaeia)
a?aiy, oi a yoii e e?iaony i?e/eia ia?aie/aiiiai auno?iaeaenoaey
aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe.

Noaoe/aneay aea iaiyoue iniiaaia ia o?eaaa?ao, a eioi?uo i?eiaiythony
eioaa?aeueiua o?aicenoi?u-ia?aeeth/aoaee. Oaeea o?aicenoi?u eniieuecotho
eeth/aaie i?eioeei ?aaiou: iie eeai cae?uou, eeai ioe?uou. Eiia/ii, ia
ia?aoiae o?aicenoi?a ec iaeiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii
eaeia-oi a?aiy, iaeiaei iii nouanoaaiii iaiueoa a?aiaie ca?yaea-?ac?yaea
eiiaeainaoi?a, auiieiythuaai ?ieue yeaiaioa iaiyoe. Ia?yaeo n oaeei
aeinoieinoaii, eae auno?iaeaenoaea ii ioiioaieth e aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe,
noaoe/aneay iaiyoue eiaao e iaaeinoaoee. Iia iio?aaeyao aieueoee oie e
eiaao aieaa neiaeioth a?oeoaeoo?o — ia iaeio y/aeeo iaiyoe o?aaoaony
aieueoa o?aicenoi?ia. Eae neaaenoaea yoiai, noaoe/aneay iaiyoue
nouanoaaiii aei?iaea aeeiaie/aneie. E?iia oiai, i?e iaeeiaeiaii
eiyooeoeeaioa eioaa?aoeee noaoe/aneay iaiyoue iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoae eioi?iaoeeiiiie aieinoueth.

I?e iaiaia aeaiiuie aicieeaao iioiaeay i?iaeaia. Aae?ana aeaiiuo,
eioi?ua anei?a iiiaaeiayony i?ioeanni?o aeey ia?aaioee, iaoiaeyony a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?yaeii n aae?anaie aeaiiuo, ia?aaaouaaaiuo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aeaiiia a?aiy. Iiyoiio eyo-eiio?ieea? aeieaeai oaeaea
caaioeoueny i ?aciauaiee anaai aeiea aeaiiuo a noaoe/aneie iaiyoe.

Iaoiae Write Through, iacuaaaiue oaeaea iaoiaeii neaiciie caiene,
i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea aeaoo eiiee aeaiiuo — iaeiie a iniiaiie iaiyoe, a
ae?oaie — a eyo-iaiyoe. Eaaeaeue oeeee caiene i?ioeanni?a a iaiyoue
eaeao /a?ac eyo. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao, eiia/ii, aunieoth caa?oceo nenoaiiie
oeiu, oae eae ia eaaeaeoth iia?aoeeth iiaeeoeeaoeee aeaiiuo i?eoiaeeony
aeaa iia?aoeee caiene. Iiyoiio eaaeaeia iaiiaeaiea niaea?aeeiiai
eyo-iaiyoe iuooeii neacuaaaony ia ?aaioa oeiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iee?ii?ioeanni? ii-i?aaeiaio auioaeaeai iaeeaeaoue ieii/aiey caiene a
iniiaioth iaiyoue.

Iaoiae Buffered Write Through yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth iaoiaea Write
Through e iacuaaaony oaeaea iaoiaeii aooa?eciaaiiie neaiciie caiene.
Aeey oiai /oiau eae-oi oiaiueoeoue caa?oceo oeiu, i?ioeann caiene
auiieiyaony a iaeei eee ianeieueei aooa?ia, eioi?ua ?aaioatho ii
i?eioeeio FIFO (First Input-First Output). Oaeei ia?acii, oeeee caiene
aeey iee?ii?ioeanni?a caeai/eaaaony i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii (o.a. eiaaea
aeaiiua caienaiu a aooa?), oioy eioi?iaoeey a iniiaiie iaiyoe aua ia
nio?aiaia. Nai aea iee?ii?ioeanni? iiaeao auiieiyoue aeaeueiaeooth
ia?aaioeo eiiaiae. Eiia/ii, niioaaonoaothuay eiaeea oi?aaeaiey aeieaeia
caaioeoueny i oii, /oiau naiaa?aiaiii iionoioaoue caiieiaiiua aooa?u.
I?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai iaoiaea i?ioeanni? iieiinoueth inaiaiaeaeai
io ?aaiou n iniiaiie iaiyoueth.

I?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea Write Back, iacuaaaiiai oaeaea iaoiaeii
ia?aoiie caiene, oeeee caiene iee?ii?ioeanni?a i?ienoiaeeo nia/aea a
eyo-iaiyoue, anee oai anoue aae?an i?eaiieea. Anee aae?ana i?eaiieea a
eyo-iaiyoe ia ieacuaaaony, oi eioi?iaoeey caienuaaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii
a iaiyoue. Niaea?aeeiia iniiaiie iaiyoe iaiiaeyaony oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea ec eyo-iaiyoe a iaa caienuaaaony iieiue aeie aeaiiuo, iacuaaaiue
aeeeiie no?iee-eyoa (cache-line).

I?e ?aaioa n eyo-iaiyoueth i?eiaiyaony annioeeaoeaiue i?eioeei, eiaaea
noa?oea ?ac?yaeu aae?ana eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa i?eciaea, a ieaaeoea
— aeey auai?a neiaa. A?oeoaeoo?a eyo-iaiyoe ii?aaeaeyaony oai, eaeei
ia?acii iaiyoue ioia?aaeaaony ia eyo. Nouanoaotho o?e ?aciiaeaeiinoe
ioia?aaeaiey: eyo-iaiyoue n i?yiui ioia?aaeaieai, /anoe/ii
annioeeaoeaiay e iieiinoueth annioeeaoeaiay. I?e i?yiii ioia?aaeaiee
eaaeaeay y/aeea iniiaiie iaiyoe iiaeao ioia?aaeaoueny oieueei ia iaeio
y/aeeo eyoa, a /anoe/ii annioeeaoeaiie —ia aeaa e aieueoa (o.a., anee
iaeia y/aeea eyoa caiyoa, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ae?oaoth). A neo/aa
iaee/ey /aou?ao aoiaeia eyo-iaiyoue iacuaatho 4-eaiaeueiie /anoe/ii
annioeeaoeaiie, eae, iai?eia?, o i486. I?e iieiinoueth annioeeaoeaiii
iiaeoiaea a ea/anoaa ?ac?yaeia i?eciaeia eniieuecothony ana aae?aniua
?ac?yaeu.

BIOS e CMOS RAM

Aaciaay nenoaia aaiaea-auaiaea BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
iacuaaaony oae iioiio, /oi aeeth/aao a naay iaoe?iue iaai? i?ia?aii
aaiaea-auaiaea, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia e i?eeeaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ?acee/iuie ono?ienoaaie eae Naiiai
eiiiuethoa?a, oae e n ono?ienoaaie, iiaeeeth/aiiuie e iaio. Aiiaua
aiai?y, a a?oeoaeoo?a IBM-niaianoeiiai eiiiuethoa?a nenoaia BIOS
caieiaao iniaia ianoi. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aa iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue, eae
ninoaaioth /anoue aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iia yaeyaony
eae au iaeiei ec i?ia?aiiiuo iiaeoeae iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Caiaoei, /oi nenoaia BIOS, iiieii i?ia?aii acaeiiaeaenoaey n aiia?aoiuie
n?aaenoaaie ia oece/aneii o?iaia, niaea?aeeo i?ia?aiio oanoe?iaaiey i?e
aeeth/aiee ieoaiea eiiiuethoa?a POST (Power-On-Self-Test) e i?ia?aiio
ia/aeueiiai caa?oc/eea. Iineaaeiyy i?ia?aiia iaiaoiaeeia aeey caa?ocee
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu n niioaaonoaothuaai iaeiieoaey.

Nenoaia BIOS a IBM-niaianoeiuo eiiiuethoa?ao ?aaeeciaaia a aeaea iaeiie
eee aeaoo iee?inoai, onoaiiaeaiiuo ia nenoaiiie ieaoa eiiiuethoa?a.
Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui aeey o?aiaiey nenoaiu BIOS yaeyaony nae/an
oeyo-iaiyoue. BIOS ia aa iniiaa eiatho, iai?eia?, nenoaiiua ieaou oe?i
Intel, Mylex, Compaq e o.ae. Yoi iicaieyao eaaei iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue
noa?ua eee aeiaaaeyoue aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee aeey iiaeaea?aeee iiauo
ono?ienoa, iiaeeeth/aaiuo e eiiiuethoa?o.

Iineieueeo niaea?aeeiia ROM BIOS oe?iu IBM auei caueuaii aaoi?neei
i?aaii (o.a. aai iaeuecy iiaeaa?aaoue eiie?iaaieth), oi aieueoeinoai
ae?oaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiiiuethoa?ia auioaeaeaiu auee eniieueciaaoue
iee?inoaiu BIOS iacaaeneiuo oe?i, nenoaiu BIOS eioi?uo, ?acoiaaony, auee
i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth niaianoeiu n i?eaeiaeii. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu ec
yoeo oe?i o?e: American Megatrends Inc. (AMI), Award Software e Phoenix
Technologies.

CMOS RAM

Nenoaia BIOS a eiiiuethoa?ao, iniiaaiiuo ia iee?ii?ioeanni?ao i80286 e
auoa, ia?ac?uaii naycaia n iaeciaiyaiie iaiyoueth (CMOS RAM), a eioi?ie
o?aieony eioi?iaoeey i oaeoueo iieacaieyo /ania, cia/aiea a?aiaie aeey
aoaeeeueieea, eiioeao?aoeee eiiiuethoa?a: eiee/anoaa iaiyoe, oeiao
iaeiieoaeae e o.ae. Eiaiii a yoie eioi?iaoeee ioaeaeathony i?ia?aiiiua
iiaeoee nenoaiu BIOS. Iacaaiea CMOS RAM iaycaii oiio, /oi yoa iaiyoue
auiieiaia ia iniiaa no?oeoo? EIII (CMOS – Complementary
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) eioi?ua, eae ecaanoii, ioee/athony iaeui
yia?aiiio?aaeaieai.

A nenoaia BIOS eiaaony i?ia?aiia, iacuaaaiay Setup, eioi?ay iiaeao
eciaiyoue niaea?aeeiia CMOS-iaiyoe. Aucuaaaony yoa i?ia?aiia
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiiaeiaoeeae eeaaeo, eioi?ay iau/ii auaiaeeony a ea/anoaa
iiaeneacee ia ye?ai iiieoi?a iinea aeeth/aiey ieoaiey eiiiuethoa?a. Ai
a?aiy caa?ocee eiiiuethoa?a iiaeii caionoeoue i?ia?aiio Setup aeey
nenoaiu BIOS.

Iaiiiiei, /oi iiae iau/iuie onoaiiaeaie (Standard CMOS Setup) iu
iiieiaai eioi?iaoeey aeaoa (ianyoe, aeaiue, aiae), oaeoueo iieacaieyo
/ania (/anu, ieioou, naeoiaeu), eiee/anoaa noaiaea?oiie e ?anoe?aiiie
iyoe (a eeeiaaeoao), oaoie/aneeo ia?aiao?ao e oeia iaeiieoaeae,
aeenieay, a oaeaea i iiaeeeth/aiee eeaaeaoo?u. Caia iai?eia?, /oi anee a
yoie i?ia?aiia a no?iea Keyboard neacaoue «Not Installed», oi aeaaea i?e
ionoonoaee eeaaeaoo?u eiiiuethoa? ia auaeano niiauaiey ia ioeaea.

?anoe?aiiua onoaiiaee (Advanced CMOS Setup e Advanced ChipSet Setup)
aeeth/atho a naay aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eiioeao?e?iaaiey
nenoaiiie ieaou. Iaeaieaa iaueie yaeythony, iai?eia?, oaeea
aiciiaeiinoe, eae aeiionoeiay nei?inoue aaiaea neiaieia n eeaaeaoo?a (ii
oiie/aieth 15 neiaieia a naeoiaeo), oanoe?iaaiea, oanoe?iaaiea iaiyoe
auoa a?aieoeu 1 Iaaeo, ?ac?aoaiea eniieueciaaiey a?eoiaoe/aneiai
nii?ioeanni?a Weitek, i?ei?eoao eee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue caa?ocee (o.a.
iiiuoea caa?ocee eiiiuethoa?a nia/aea n iaeiieoaey ni niaiiui, a caoai
ianiaiiui iineoaeai eee iaiai?io), onoaiiaea ii?aaeaeaiiie oaeoiaie
/anoiou iee?ii?ioeanni?a i?e aeeth/aiee, ?ac?aoaiea ia?ieueiie caueou e
o.ae. Eae i?aaeei, ?anoe?aiiua onoaiiaee aeiioneatho ii?aaeaeaiea
iaeanoae «oaiaaie» (shadow) iaiyoe aeey nenoaiiie ROM BIOS, a oaeaea ROM
BIOS aeaeaiaaeaioa?ia, eiio?ieea?ia iaeiieoaeae e aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aaeaioa?ia. E?iia yoiai, aiciiaeia onoaiiaea oaeoiaie /anoiou nenoaiiie
oeiu, a oaeaea /enea oaeoia iaeeaeaiey (eee a?aiaiiie caaea?aeee) aeey
iee?ii?ioeanni?a i?e ia?auaiee e ono?ienoaai aaiaea-auaiaea,
iia?aoeaiie e/eee eyo-iaiyoe.

Caiaoei, /oi a neo/aa iia?aaeaeaiey iee?inoaiu CMOS RAM (a oaeaea i?e
?ac?yaea aaoa?ae eee aeeoioeyoi?a) i?ia?aiia Setup eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
ainiieueciaaoueny iaeie eioi?iaoeeae ii oiie/aieth (BIOS Setup Default
Values), eioi?ay o?aieony a oaaeeoea niioaaonoaothuae iee?inoaiu ROM
BIOS.

IIAUA AEAeU IAIssOE

?aceia iiauoaiea auno?iaeaenoaey i?ioeanni?ia e ia?aoiae ia
32-?ac?yaeiua iiiaicaaea/iua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu nouanoaaiii
iiaeieiatho o?aaiaaiey e e ae?oaei eiiiiiaioai eiiiuethoa?a. Aaaeiaeoei
ec ieo yaeyaony iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue. Aic?anoaiea aiaoieo oaeoiauo /anoio
i?ioeanni?ia n 33-40 IAoe, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey naiaenoaa 486 (486DX2-66/80
e 486DX4-100/120), aei 50-66 IAoe aeey Pentium (Pentium
75/90/100/120/133), o?aaoao i?aaeaea anaai aaeaeaaoiiai oaaee/aiey
auno?iaeaenoaey iiaenenoaiu iaiyoe. Iineieueeo a ea/anoaa iia?aoeaiie
eniieuecoaony ioiineoaeueii iaaeeaiiay aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue DRAM
(Dynamic Random Access Memory), aeaaiue niinia oaaee/aiey i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe iniiaai ia i?eiaiaiee eyo-iaiyoe. E?iia ano?iaiiie a
i?ioeanni? eyo-iaiyoe ia?aiai o?iaiy i?eiaiyaony e eyo-iaiyoue aoi?iai
o?iaiy (aiaoiyy), iino?iaiiay ia aieaa auno?iaeaenoaothueo, /ai DRAM,
iee?inoaiao noaoe/aneie iaiyoe SRAM (Static RAM). Aeey aunieeo oaeoiauo
/anoio ioaeii oaaee/eaaoue auno?iaeaenoaea SRAM. E?iia oiai, a
iiiaicaaea/iii ?aaeeia yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou eyo-iaiyoe oaeaea iiaeao
nieaeaoueny. Iiyoiio aeooaeueiie noaiiaeony caaea/a ia oieueei
oaaee/aiey auno?iaeaenoaey eyo-iaiyoe, ii e onei?aiey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
aeinooia e aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe. Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo i?iaeai ia/eiatho
eniieueciaaoueny iiaua oeiu noaoe/aneie e aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe.

O?aaiaaiey e iauaiai iaiyoe aeeeoothony i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai. I?e
eniieueciaaiee Windows ioeaieoue iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai iaiyoe iiaeii
ia iniiaa oanoia Winstone, eniieuecothueo iaeaieaa iiioey?iua
i?eeiaeaiey Windows. Niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?enoiea
1.

Noaoe/aneay iaiyoue

A ea/anoaa eyo-iaiyoe aoi?iai o?iaiy i?aeoe/anee anaaaea i?eiaiyeanue (e
aei neo ii? i?iaeieaeaao oe?iei i?eiaiyoueny) noaiaea?oiay aneio?iiiay
iaiyoue SRAM. I?e aiaoieo oaeoiauo /anoioao ii?yaeea 33 IAoe oi?ioea
?acoeueoaou aeaaaea noaoe/aneay iaiyoue ni a?aiaiai auai?ee 15-20 ns.
Aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou ia /anoioao auoa 50 IAoe oaeiai auno?iaeaenoaey
oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii. I?yiia oiaiueoaiea a?aiaie auai?ee aei ioaeiuo
aaee/ei (12-8 ns) iaoiaeeony aei?iai, oae eae o?aaoao ca/anooth
i?eiaiaiey aei?iaie oaoiieiaee Bi-CMOS aianoi CMOS, /oi iai?eaieaii aeey
ianniaiai ?uiea. Iiyoiio i?aaeeaaaaiia ?aoaiea caeeth/aaony a i?eiaiaiee
iiauo oeiia iaiyoe n oniaa?oainoaiaaiiie a?oeoaeoo?ie, eioi?ua
ia?aiia/aeueii auee ?ac?aaioaiu aeey iiuiuo ?aai/eo noaioeee. Iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaia neio?iiiay SRAM. A ioee/ea io iau/iie aneio?iiiie, iia
iiaeao eniieueciaaoue oa aea oaeoiaua neaiaeu, /oi e inoaeueiay nenoaia,
iiyoiio e iacuaaaony neio?iiiie. Iia niaaaeaia aeiiieieoaeueiuie
?aaeno?aie aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, /oi inaiaiaeaeaao inoaeueiua
yeaiaiou aeey iiaeaioiaee e neaaeothuaio oeeeeo aua aei oiai, eae
caaa?oeeny i?aaeuaeouee. Auno?iaeaenoaea iaiyoe i?e yoii oaaee/eaaaony
i?eia?ii ia 20%. Yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo ia naiuo aunieeo /anoioao iiaeao
iaania/eoue iniaay ?aciiaeaeiinoue neio?iiiie SRAM — n eiiaaea?iie
i?aaiecaoeeae (pipelined burst). I?e aa i?eiaiaiee oiaiueoaaony /enei
oeeeeia, o?aaothueony aeey ia?auaiey e iaiyoe a a?oiiiaii ?aaeeia.
I?eia? aeey oaeoiaie /anoiou 66 IAoe (Pentium 100 e Pentium 133)
i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea1. A neo/aa a?oiiiaiai ?aaeeia /oaiey-caiene aeey
ia?aiai ia?auaiey ioaeii 3 oeeeea, aeey eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai — oieueei
1.

Aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue

Oae aea, eae e aeey noaoe/aneie iaiyoe, i?yiia nie?auaiea a?aiaie
auai?ee aeey aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii oaoie/anee
inouanoaeii e i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio ?inoo noieiinoe. Iiyoiio i?eaioaoeey a
iiauo nenoaiao eaeao ia iee?inoaiu ni a?aiaiai auai?ee 60-70 ns.
Noaiaea?oiua iee?inoaiu DRAM eiatho no?aie/ioth i?aaiecaoeeth iaiyoe —
Fast Page Mode (FPM), eioi?ay iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii onei?eoue aeinooi e
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiui (a i?aaeaeao no?aieoeu) aeaiiui ii
n?aaiaieth ni neo/aai i?iecaieueiie auai?ee. Iineieueeo ia?auaiey e
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiui aeaiiui a ?aaeueiuo caaea/ao
ano?a/athony i/aiue /anoi, i?eiaiaiea FPM DRAM caiaoii iiauoaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. FPM DRAM ni a?aiaiai auai?ee 60-70 ns
iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey oaeoiauo /anoio 33-40
IAoe. I?e iiauoaiee oaeoiaie /anoiou iaania/eoue iaaeaaeiia e auno?ia
n/eouaaiea aeaiiuo a no?aie/iii ?aaeeia oaea ia oaeaaony. Yoo i?iaeaio a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ?aoaao i?eiaiaiea iaiyoe iiaiai oeia – EDO DRAM
(Extended Data Output DRAM). Io iau/iie iaiyoe ni no?aie/iie
i?aaiecaoeeae iia ioee/aaony iaee/eai aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aaeno?ia aeey
o?aiaiey auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. Oaaee/eaaaony a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
aeaiiua o?aiyony ia auoiaea iee?inoaiu, /oi aeaeaao auoiaeioth
eioi?iaoeeth aeinooiiie aeey iaaeaaeiiai n/eouaaiey i?ioeanni?ii aeaaea
i?e aunieeo oaeoiauo /anoioao (oaeoe/anee a?aiy iaaeaeo ia?auaieyie a
no?aie/iii ?aaeeia iiaeii oiaiueoeoue aei 30 ns ii n?aaiaieth n 45 ns
aeey FPM).

?aaeeeaeueiue, ii ia iauai?eciaiiue iiaeoiae e iiauoaieth
auno?iaeaenoaey aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe caeeth/aaony ai ano?aeaaiee a
iee?inoaiu DRAM nianoaaiiie eyo-iaiyoe. Yoi Cached DRAM (CDRAM) e
Enhanced DRAM (EDRAM). Iaiyoue CDRAM auioneaaony oe?iie Mitsubishi e
eiaao 16 KB eyo-iaiyoe eae ia 4, oae e ia 16 Mbit e?enoaeea, iaiai
iaaeaeo aeeiaie/aneie e ano?iaiiie eyo-iaiyoueth inouanoaeyaony neiaaie
oe?eiie 128 ?ac?yaeia.

Aiiaua aiai?y, i?eiaiaiea iiauo oeiia aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe iicaieyao
iieo/aoue aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aeaaea e aac i?eiaiaiey
eyo-iaiyoe aoi?iai o?iaiy (anee eyo-iaiyoue ia?aiai o?iaiy — oeia write
back), iniaaiii a neo/aa CDRAM e Enhanced DRAM, eioi?ua eiaiii oae e
eniieuecothony. Iaeiaei iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai nenoai aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe no?ieony ana-oaee n
eniieueciaaieai eyo-iaiyoe aoi?iai o?iaiy. Aeey ieo iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeeo
iaiyoue oeia EDO DRAM. E oiio aea iia noaea oaea i?iiuoeaiiui
noaiaea?oii, e aa aeiey aoaeao i?aiaeaaeaoue a iee?inoaiao iaiyoe
aieinoueth 16 Mbit e aieaa. Oaeoe/anee yoa iaiyoue i?eoiaeeo ia niaio
noaiaea?oiie FPM DRAM e aa iiaeii i?eiaiyoue a ethauo nenoaiao aianoi
noaiaea?oiie.

EIINO?OEOEA

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iaeaieaa iiioey?iui eiino?oeoeaii aeey aeeiaie/aneie
iaiyoe ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module),
ia/eiatho i?eiaiyoueny e ae?oaea noaiaea?ou. Aicieeiiaaiea iiauo
noaiaea?oia aucaaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aoaiey aeaoo iniiaiuo i?iaeai.
Ia?aay naycaia n oaaee/aieai ieioiinoe oiaeiaee yeaiaioia iaiyoe,
iniaaiii aeooaeueiie aeey ?aai/eo noaioeee, eniieuecothueo iaiyoue
i/aiue aieueoiai iauaia, e iiaeeueiuo nenoai. Aoi?ay — n iaania/aieai
onoie/eaie ?aaiou i?e aunieeo /anoioao, eioi?ay caaeneo io ?acia?ia,
aieinoe e eiaeoeoeaiinoe niaaeeieoaey. Aieueooth ii n?aaiaieth n SIMM
ieioiinoue oiaeiaee e, niioaaonoaaiii, iauai iaiyoe iiaoo iaania/eoue
iiaeoee oeia DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module), o eioi?uo, a ioee/ea io
SIMM, eiioaeou ia iaaeo noi?iiao iiaeoey ia iauaaeeiaiu, a iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny iacaaeneii.

Iee?inoaiu noaiaea?oiie noaoe/aneie iaiyoe a iniiaiii auioneathony a
ei?ionao oeia DIP e SOJ. Iaiyoue oeia pipelined burst eeai caiaeaaaony
ia nenoaiioth ieaoo n?aco a i?ioeanna aa ecaioiaeaiey, eeai iinoaaeyaony
a aeaea iiaeoeae.

AEANOEEA AeENEE

Aieueoay /anoue aeanoeeo aeeneia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ie?iaii ?uiea,
auioneaaony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie oe?iaie — Quantum, Seagate, Conner,
Western Digital, Maxtor e iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie.

AEanoeea aeenee n eioa?oaenii IDE

AEanoeay eiieo?aioeey e iniaay aaaeiinoue a yoeo oneiaeyo oeaiiaiai
oaeoi?a o?aaotho io i?iecaiaeeoaeae ianniaie i?iaeoeoeee eniieueciaaiey
naiuo nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee. Ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey
caiene n aunieie ieioiinoueth (400 Mbit ia eaaae?aoiue aethei)
noaiaea?oiia cia/aiea aieinoe, i?eoiaeyuaeny ia iaeei aeene (iineoaeue),
aeinoeaei 540 MB. Yoi iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue ia oieueei eiee/anoai
aeeneia, ii e iaaieoiuo aieiaie e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia, a cia/eo nieceoue
oeaio e iiauneoue iaaeaaeiinoue. I?e i?eiaiaiee oaeeo aeeneia eeiaeea
auioneaaiuo iiaeaeae ii aieinoe auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii: 540 MB,
1.0, 1.6, 2.2 GB e o. ae. I?aeoe/anee ana aaaeouea i?iecaiaeeoaee
ia?aoiaeyo ia auione iiaeaeae n oaeie ieioiinoueth caiene, eioi?ay oaea
iaoiaeeony ia i?aaeaea aiciiaeiinoae noaiaea?oiie oaoiieiaee, iniiaaiiie
ia i?eiaiaiee oii-eiieaii/iuo iaaieoiuo aieiaie. ?aaeeeaeueiia n?aaenoai
— ia?aoiae ia iaaieoi?acenoeaiua aieiaee — yaeyaony aeey aieueoeinoaa
oe?i aeiaieueii aei?iainoiyuei, oae eae oaoiieiaeae eo ianniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iaeaaeatho oieueei IBM e Fujitsu. Iiyoiio ia/eiatho
i?eiaiyoueny iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ?aoaiey. Oae, oe?ia Maxtor a iiauo
iiaeaeyo cepeyo Durarigo (540 MB, 1 GB e 1.6 GB) ia/aea i?eiaiyoue
iniaoth oaoiieiaeth Proximity recording n inaaaei-eiioaeoe?othuae
iaaieoiie aieiaeie Tripad (oiieiieaii/iie) e aeiaciiiaeiaiui oaea?iaeiui
iie?uoeai iineoaey. Aieiaea iaoiaeeony ia i/aiue aeeceii ?annoiyiee io
aeenea , a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iiaeao aeaaea eanaoueny aai
iiaa?oiinoe, /oi ia i?eaiaeyo, iaeiaei, e. iia?aaeaeaieth iaaieoiiai
neiy, caueuaiiiai i?i/iui iie?uoeai. Maxtor, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
oe?iu ?anniao?eaatho yoo oaoiieiaeth eae aieaa aeaoaaoth aeueoa?iaoeao
iaaieoi?acenoeaiui aieiaeai e PRML aeey ieioiinoae caiene aei 1000 Mbit
ia eaaae?aoiue aethei.

Eioa?oaen Enhanced IDE, noaaoee iniiaiui aeey ianniaie i?iaeoeoeee,
ianiio?y ia i/aiue oi?ioea nei?inoe ia?aaea/e, ana aea onooiaao
eioa?oaeno SCSI ii aiciiaeiinoyi, iniaaiii a iiiaicaaea/iuo n?aaeao.
Neooaoeey, aiciiaeii, oeo/oeony n i?eiyoeai niaoeeoeeaoeee AOA-3, a
eioi?ie, ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeaiiui, aoaeoo aeiiieiaiey (command
overlapping and queuing, predictive failure analysis bit e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea), iicaieythuea a iaeioi?ie noaiaie i?eaeeceoueny e SCSI eae ii
yooaeoeaiinoe io?aaioee cai?inia, oae e ii eiio?ieth ca oeaeinoiinoueth
aeaiiuo.

AEanoeea aeenee n eioa?oaenii SCSI

Anee 90% aeanoeeo aeeneia, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo a ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u,
eiatho eioa?oaen Enhanced IDE, e oieueei 10% — SCSI, oi aeey
eiiiuethoa?ia, eniieuecoaiuo a ea/anoaa na?aa?ia, aeiey SCSI
oaaee/eaaaony aei 90%. Eioa?oaen SCSI iaania/eaaao aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa
i?e ?aaioa a iiiaicaaea/iii ?aaeeia, iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia aieaa aunieoth
oeaio ii n?aaiaieth n IDE, aeiey SCSI aeanoeeo aeeneia aoaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny e aeey ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Ia ieaeiai e?ath
aeeaiaciia auioneaaiuo aeeneia iaoiaeyony iiaeaee, eniieuecothuea oo aea
iaoaieeo, /oi e niioaaonoaothuea aeenee Enhanced IDE. Niioaaonoaaiii,
iie iaeaaeatho oaeeie aea ia?aiao?aie. Aeaaiaea?y iaaunieie oeaia e
oi?ioae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, iaeanoue eo i?eiaiaiey i/aiue oe?iea,
ia/eiay io ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Aieueoay aea /anoue i?iaeoeoeee
eiaao iiauoaiioth aieinoue e i?eaioe?iaaia ia aeinoeaeaiea naiiai
aunieiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea ia?aaeiauo
oaoiieiaee — iaaieoi?acenoeaiuo aieiaie e PRML (i?eiaiythony ai anao
iiaeaeyo IBM e Fujitsu e iaeioi?uo iiaeaeyo ae?oaeo oe?i) e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo eioa?oaenia — i?eia?aoaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea.
Oaeea aeenee iaeaaeatho naiuie aunieeie ia?aiao?aie — i?e aieinoe 4-8 GB
(IBM aeiaaea aieinoue 3.5″ iiaeaeae aei 20 GB) iie eiatho eyo-iaiyoue
512-1024 KB, nei?inoue a?auaiey 7200 ia/iei e n?aaeiaa a?aiy iienea
iaiueoa 10 ms. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii noaiiaeony
auno?iaeaenoaea eioa?oaena, iiyoiio e?iia noaiaea?oiiai Fast SCSI-2 ni
nei?inoueth ia?aaea/e 10 MB/s i?eiaiythony oaeaea Fast Wide SCSI-2
(SCSI-3) ia 20 MB/s, Ultra SCSI (40 MB/s).

AEanoeea aeenee aeey aoaeei e aeaeai

?acaeoea multimedia aucaaei cia/eoaeueiue eioa?an e oae iacuaaaiui
aoaeei/aeaeai aeanoeei aeeneai eae ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae, oae e
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iau/iua aeenee iioeiece?iaaiu aeey auno?iai aeinooia e
auno?ie ia?aaea/e ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo aeieia eioi?iaoeee, o. a,
aeey iaeneiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa iia?aoeee aaiaea/auaiaea a aaeeieoeo
a?aiaie. Aeey ?aaiou ni caoeii e aeaeai aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny,
iaiai?io, iai?a?uaiay ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee a oa/aiea aeinoaoi/ii
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie n i?aeoe/anee iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth, eae a neo/aa
n iaaieoiie eaioie. Iau/iua aeenee ec-ca ia?eiaee/aneie i?ioeaaeo?u
oa?ie/aneie eaeea?iaee e iiaoi?iiai /oaiey a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey ioeaie
aeiioneatho ia?a?uau a ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee ia a?aiy, aeinoeaathuaa
nioai ieeeenaeoiae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iai?eyoiui iineaaenoaeyi i?e
aini?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aaeaiey e caoea. ?aaeueii ano?a/athueany ia?a?uau
iiaeii iaeo?aeeciaaoue n iiiiuueth eyo-iaiyoe i/aiue aieueoiai iauaia,
ii yoi aei?iainoiyuaa ?aoaiea. Ia?aua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeenee aeey
aoaeei e aeaeai auionoeea oe?ia Micropilis. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
niioaaonoaothueie aiciiaeiinoyie ia/eiatho iniauaoue naie ecaeaeey
aieueoeinoai aaaeoueo i?iecaiaeeoaeae — IBM, Fujitsu, Seagate, Quantum.

A aeeneao iiaie eiino?oeoeee i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n oa?ie/aneie
eaeea?iaeie ?aoathony ioiineoaeueii eaaei, oae eae na?aieioi?iaoeey
o?aieony ia ia ioaeaeueiie auaeaeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe. a ?ani?aaeaeaia ii
?aai/ei iiaa?oiinoyi. O?aaoaony oieueei iiaeeoeeaoeey ano?iaiiiai
eiio?ieea?a aeey iioeiecaoeee i?ioeaaeo?u oa?ie/aneie eaeea?iaee. Ia
o?iaia eiio?ieea?a iioeiece?oaony e i?ioeaaeo?a ei??aeoeee ioeaie.
Iiyoiio ia iniiaa iaeiie e oie aea iaoaieee iiaeii nicaeaaaoue e iau/iua
e aoaeei/aeaeai aeanoeea aeenee. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao auioneaoue
eiiaeie?iaaiiua (o. a. ia?aeeth/aaiua) aeenee aac iniauo
aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao.

?aciua oe?iu i?eiaiytho ioee/athueany iiaeoiaeu e i?iecaiaenoao
aoaeei/aeaeai aeeneia. Oae, ieiia? a yoie iaeanoe oe?ia Micropolis
auaeaeeea eo a ioaeaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. Seagate i?eaioe?oaony ia
eiiaeie?iaaiiua aeenee, eioi?ua iiaeii i?eiaiyoue eae aeey
aoaeei/aeaeai, oae e a iau/iii ?aaeeia. Yoi iaeioi?ua iiaeaee na?ee
Decathlon n ei-aa?oaenii eae SCSI, -oae e Fast ATA (Enhanced ide).

Aeey aoaeei/aeaeai aeanoeeo aeeneia aaaeiui ia?aiao?ii yaeyaony
aa?aioe?iaaiiay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Aeey ia?auo aeeneia
oe?iu Micropilis iia ninoaaeyea 2.9 MB/s, o nia?aiaiiuo iiaeaeae Gold
Line oaaee/aia aei 4 MB/s. IBM aeey naieo aeeneia Ultrastar AV
aa?aioe?oao 5 MB/s.

AEanoeea aeenee 2.5″ e 1.8″

I?eaioe?iaaiiua ecia/aeueii ia iiaeeueiua i?eiaiaiey, ieieaoth?iua
aeanoeea aeenee cia/eoaeueii oniae?oainoaiaaeenue e ia onooiatho
iiaeaeyi aeey ianoieueiuo eiino?oeoeee. AEanoeea aeenee a noaiaea?oa
PCMCIA n oi?i-oaeoi?ii 1.8″ ia niiaee caiyoue ianoi ooaoiuo ono?ienoa
ianniaie iaiyoe aeey eiiiuethoa?ia oeia notebook e laptop, ia eioi?ia
iie aiieia iainiiaaiii i?aoaiaeiaaee. Iiyoiio iauaiu eo auionea
ia?aie/aiu, e iie a iniiaiii i?eiaiyony aeey iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae e aeey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ?aaiou n eaeeie-eeai aeaiiuie. I?e iinoiyiii ?anooueo
o?aaiaaieyo e aieinoe aeeneia ieacaeinue iaaiciiaeiui iaania/eoue
i?eaieaiue o?iaaiue oeai i?e i?eiaiaiee noieue neiaeiie -oaoiieiaee,
iiyoiio ooieoeee ieieaoth?iuo ono?ienoa ianniaie iaiyoe a iniiaiii
aiceaaathony ia iiaeaee n oi?i-oaeoi?ii 2.5″, iaeneiaeueiay aieinoue
eioi?uo i?aauoaao oaea 1 GB. Oe?ia Maxtor, eeaea?o a i?iecaiaenoaa
naa?oieieaoth?iuo ecaeaeee, oaeaeinue ia?aianoe know how, ?ac?aaioaiiia
aeey 1.8″ aeanoeeo aeeneia MobileMax, ia 2.5″ iiaeaee, /oi iicaieeei
aueoe n?aco ia o?iaaiue iaeneiaeueii aeinoeaiooie aieinoe i?e iaiueoeo,
/ai o ae?oaeo oe?i ?acia?ao. AEanoeea aeenee na?ee Laramie n eioa?oaenii
Enhanced IDE i?e oieueia anaai 12.5 ii eiatho aieinoue 837 MB, 1GB e
1.34 GB. A ieo i?eiaiaia oaoiieiaey proximity recording e eiio?ieea? ia
aaca neaiaeueiiai i?ioeanni?a.

Fujitsu i?iecaiaeeo 2.5″ aeenee na?ee Hornet 5 e 6, a eioi?uo
i?eiaiythony iaaieoi?acenoeaiua aieiaee e PRML. Aieinoue aeeneia
ninoaaeyao 508 MB, 768 MB e 1 GB, eioa?oaenu — Enhanced IDE e Fast
SCSI-2. Aeenee iaeaaeatho aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth e iaeui
iio?aaeaieai yia?aee. Iiaeaee n eioa?oaenii SCSI i?aaeiacia/aiu ia
oieueei aeey i?eiaiaiey a notebook oe?iu Apple, ii iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny e a ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao, a oaeaea aeey nicaeaiey
eiiiaeoiuo e iaaeaaeiuo RAID-ianneaia.

Iaaeaaeiinoue

Eae aeey naiuo aieeo e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo aeanoeeo aeeneia n eioa?oaenii
SCSI, oae e aeey ianniauo iiaeaeae Enhanced IDE, aaaeiaeoei ia?aiao?ii
inoaaony iaaeaaeiinoue. Nia?aiaiiua aeenee iaeaaeatho i/aiue aunieie
iaaeaaeiinoueth, a?aiy ia?aaioee ia ioeac o iaeioi?uo iiaeaeae
aeinoeaaao 1 000 000 /ania. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi
iaaeaaeiinoue, ioeaiaiiay ii MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), — yoi
iiiyoea iauaa e noaoenoe/aneia, a ia?aae iieueciaaoaeai noieo caaea/a,
eae ia?aaanoe aai a eiie?aoiia e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia. O?aaeeoeeiiiua
iiaeoiaeu e iiauoaieth iaaeaaeiinoe o?aiaiey aeaiiuo oe?iei ecaanoiu —
yoi ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea e i?eiaiaiea ianneaia ec ianeieueeeo aeeneia
(RAID — Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). Ianeieueei neia i RAID.
Yoi ?aoaiea, iiauoathuaa ia oieuei iaaeaaeiinoue, ii e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, ieeiaaea ia ioiineeinue e ?ac?yaeo aeaoaauo e
aeinooiiuo. Iaeiaei nae/an, n oiaiueoaieai noieiinoe SCSI aeanoeeo
aeeneia, ianneau ia/eiatho i?aaeeaaaoueny aeiaieueii oe?iei, /aio
niinianoaoao oaeaea iiyaeaiea ioiineoaeueii aeaoaauo RAID eiio?ieea?ia
(?ac?aaaouaathony aeaaea e a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy iiyayony eiio?ieea?u,
ano?iaiiua a nenoaiioth ieaoo). Iaeiiaoe, iiyaeeny i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue
iiaeoiae, i?eiaieiue e e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio aeeneo, — SMART
(Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology). Ii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny i?aeoe/anee aeey ethaie eiiiuethoa?iie ia?eoa?ee e
i?aaeeaaaao iaee/ea- an?iaiiuo a ono?ienoai n?aaenaa caiiaeeaaiinoeee.
SMART i?aaeoniao?eaaao eniieueciaaiea iaeioi?uo ?aaeeciaaiiuo ia o?iaia
ano?iaiiiai a aeanoeee aeene eiio?ieea?a i?ioeaaeo?, eioi?ua i?iaa?ytho
ninoiyiea aaaeiaeoeo /anoae — aeaeaaoaey, iaaieoiuo aieiaie, ?aai/eo
iiaa?oiinoae, naiiai eiio?ieea?a. Yoa eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony a
eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue aa aiaeece?oao. Aiciiaeii oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue
“i?iaaa” aeanoeiai aeenea, /enei aeeth/aiee/aueeth/aiee. Nianai iaaeaaii
Seagate e Quantum oaeaea ia/aee i?eiaiyoue SMART a naieo aeanoeeo
aeeneao. Eniieueciaaiea SMART, oioy e iicaieyao aeiaieueii iiae?iaii
eiio?iee?iaaoue ninoiyiea aeenea, ia yaeyaony iaiaoeaae, oae eae
iiyaeaiea iaeioi?uo aeaoaeoia i?aeoe/anee ia-aiciiaeii i?aaeneacaoue.

Aeaeaieiio?ieea?u, aenaea?aoi?u, aeaeaionei?eoaee

O?aaeeoeeiiii iniiaiua oneeey ?ac?aaio/eeia a?aoe/aneeo aaeaioa?ia auee
iai?aaeaiu ia iiauoaiea ?ac?aoaiee, aeinoeaaaiuo i?e aieueoie aeoaeia
oeaaoa (True Color, o. a. 24 bit eee 16.7 iei. oeaaoia), e ia onei?aiea
auiieiaiey aiciiaeii aieueoaai eiee/anoaa a?aoe/aneeo iia?aoeee. Ana
yoi o?aaoaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiie ?aaiou a
iaeanoe a?aoeee, aieiaoeee, NAI?. Iaeioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueiua iiiaiou, e
i?aaeaea anaai noieiinoiua, ia iicaieytho i?iaeoeoeee, ?ann/eoaiiie ia
ianniaiai iio?aaeoaey, ?acaeaaoueny ii yoiio aea iooe. Aea yoi ia
aeaiiii yoaia e ia ioaeii, oae eae ?aaeeiu n naiuie aunieeie
?ac?aoaieyie ia aeinooiiu aeey aieueoeinoaa iaoiaeyueony a yenieoaoaoeee
iiieoi?ia. Ai?acaei aaaeiaa iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue ea/anoaaiiiai
aini?iecaaaeaiey “aeeaiai” aeaeai, eioi?ia inoaaony i?aeoe/anee
aaeeinoaaiiie iaeanoueth, iiea aua ia inaiaiiie iniiaiie iannie
nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie naeaeaoue yoi iiaeii
auei oieueei n iiiiuueth aeiiieieoaeueiiai multimedia iai?oaeiaaiey —
aeaeai ieaou eee MPEG-i?iea?uaaoaey. Nae/an iiyaeeny e ae?oaie
iiaeoiae, noaaoee aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y aic?inoae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
i?ioeanni?ia. Ii iniiaai ia i?eiaiaiee aeey aeaeiaee?iaaiey ecia?aaeaiee
ia aiia?aoiuo, a i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa a ni/aoaiee n iaeioi?uie
yeaiaioaie aiia?aoiie iiaeaea?aeee, ano?aeaaaiuie a a?aoe/aneea
aaeaioa?u. Oi anoue naie aaeaioa?u i?eia?aoatho ooieoeee aeaeai
onei?eoaey (a aeiiieiaiea e Windows onei?eoaeth).

Aieueoeinoai iiauo iiaeaeae a?aoe/aneeo aaeaioa?ia eniieuecoao
niaoeeoeeaoeeth DCI-1.0 e ioiineony e ?ac?yaeo Windows e
aeaeai-onei?eoaeae. Iie ia aiia?aoiii o?iaia ?aaeecotho oaeea
iia?aoeee, eae i?aia?aciaaiea oeaaoiauo i?ino?ainoa, ianooaae?iaaiea,
aeaeiaee?iaaiea naeaouo ecia?aaeaiee. Aiciiaeii aini?iecaaaeaiea
ecia?aaeaiey n aeeneia Video CD n iiiiuueth /enoi i?ia?aiiiuo MPEG-1
aeaeiaea?ia (oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou iieo/athony aeey i?ioeanni?ia Pentium
90 e auoa).

Iiaui iiiaioii yaeyaony oaeaea eioaa?aoeey a?aoe/aneiai aaeaioa?a n
ae?oaeie ono?ienoaaie, iai?eia?, n ieaoie aeey caoaaoa ecia?aaeaiee,
aiia?aoiui MPEG-i?iea?uaaoaeai eee caoeiaie ieaoie.

Chipset

Aaaeouea ecaioiaeoaee chipset aeey a?aoe/aneeo aaeaioa?ia — oe?iu S3,
ATI, Cirrus Logic, Trident e ae?oaea — i?aaeoniio?aee a iiaii iieieaiee
naieo ecaeaeee e?iia noaiaea?oiie Windows aenaea?aoeee oaeaea e
onei?aiea aeaeai iia?aoeee, i?e/ai aeey iineaaeieo oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou
iieo/athony aeaaea i?e eniieueciaaiee noaiaea?oiie aeeiaie/aneie iaiyoe
e EDO DRAM. Iaeiaei ii-i?aaeiaio aeinoe/ue iaeiia?aiaiii aunieeo
cia/aiee aeey nei?inoe ?aaaia?aoeee, ?ac?aoaiey e aeoaeiu oeaaoa
oaeaaony oieueei i?e i?eiaiaiee aeaoo ii?oiaie iaiyoe oeia VRAM e WRAM.

Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaatho chipset oe?iu S3 – Vision 868 (aeey DRAM
e EDO DRAM) e Vision 968 (aeey VRAM). Iie eiatho 64-?ac?yaeioth
a?oeoaeoo?o e onei?ytho iiiaea a?aoe/aneea e aeaeai iia?aoeee (DCI-1.0):
bitbit, ?eniaaiea eeiee, caiieiaiea i?yiioaieueieeia, ?ano?iaua
iia?aoeee, eiiaa?oaoeeth oeaaoiaiai i?ino?ainoaa (YUV 4:1:1 e 4:2:2,
16-bit, 16.7 iei. oeaaoia — a RGB), aeeeiaeiia ianooaae?iaaiea,
?ano?e?iaaiea dithering), naeaoea ecia?aaeaiey e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.
Iiaeaea?aeeaathony iiioey?iua aeaeai eiaeaee — CinePak, MPEG, Indeo,
Motion JPEG. Eiaaony i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeey Windows U, Windows
95, Windows NT, OS/2 Warp, Video for Windows, Quicktime for Windows,
aeey aeaeiaee?iaaiey MPEG.

64-?ac?yaeiua chipset ATI Mach264CT oe?iu ATI TGU19680 oe?iu Trident
oaeaea onei?ytho auiieiaiea aeaeai iia?aoeee e ?ann/eoaiu ia ?aciua oeiu
iaiyoe — iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho DRAM e EDO RAI, VRAM (ATI) e WRAM
(Trident).

Iiaua a?aoe/aneea aaeaioa?u

A aieueoeinoaa iiauo iiaeaeae i?eiaiyaony chipset n ooieoeeyie onei?aiey
aeaeai a niioaaonoaee n DCI-1.0 e nei?inoiie oeeo?iaiaeiaiaue
i?aia?aciaaoaeue RAMDAC (eiiaaea ano?iaiiue a Chipset), iaania/eaathuee
iieino i?iioneaiey, aeinoaoi/ioth aeey aunieeo nei?inoae ?aaaia?aoeee.
I?aaeoniao?eaaaony iiaeaea?aeea ?aaeeia Plug&Play aeey iiieoi?a n
iiiiuueth VESA Display Data Channel (DDC 1/2), a oaeaea oi?aaeaiey
yia?ainaa?aaeaieai VESA Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS).
Onoaiaaeeaathony ?acuaiu VESA Advanced Feature Connector (VAFC).
Naienoaaiiua nenoaiai n DRAM ia?aie/aiey ii nei?inoe ?aaaia?aoeee i?e
aieueoeo ?ac?aoaieyo e aeoaeia oeaaoa iiaeii i?aiaeieaoue n iiiiuueth
i?eaeiaeueiie 192-?ac?yaeiie a?oeoaeoo?u naiiai a?aoe/aneiai aaeaioa?a.

IAAIEOIIIOEEA

Iaaieoiiioe/aneea iaeiieoaee, eniieuecothuea niaiiua iineoaee aeey
caiene e o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, ianiio?y ia aeiaieueii ei?ioeee n?ie
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, i?eia?aee oe?ieoth iiioey?iinoue. Yoiio a iaiaeie
noaiaie niinianoaotho oa oieeaeueiua naienoaa, eioi?uie iaeaaeaao
iaaieoiiioeea, e oa oieaa?naeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua iia
i?aaeeaaaao.

Iineieueeo iaaieoiiioeea i?eaioe?iaaia ia ?aaioo n aeaiiuie aieueoiai
iauaia, oi iniaoth aaaeiinoue i?eia?aoatho a?aiy eo ia?aaioee e
noieiinoue o?aiaiey.

Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iaaieoiiioe/aneeo iaeiieoaeae a 1995 aiaeo
ioeaieaaaony a 1.1 iei. oo. aeey 3.5″ e 0.5 iei. aeey 5.25″ ono?ienoa, a
neaaeothuai aiaeo i?iaiice?oaony cia/eoaeueiue ?ino ?uiea. Iaaieoiiioeea
yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii iiaie e ao?ii ?acaeaathuaeny oaoiieiaeae, iiyoiio
ia ?uiea, ia?yaeo n e?oiiaeoeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ono?ienoa ianniaie
iaiyoe, aeinoieii i?aaenoaaeaiu e iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu,
niiniaiua aiieiuaoue iiaaoi?neea ?aoaiey a i?iaeoeoeeth auni/aeoaai
ea/anoaa.

Iaeiieoaee 5,2’’

Aeey yoeo ono?ienoa eniieuecoaony iaeeiaeiau. A oi aea a?aiy ?aaeueiia
auno?iaeaenoaea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ii?aaeaeyaony aua e iauaiii e
yooaeoeaiinoueth ano?iaiiie eyo-iaiyoe, a oaeaea a?aiaiai iienea.
Aieueoeinoai iaeiieoaeae ia 1.3 GB eiaao eyo-iaiyoue 1 MB, e i/aiue
iaiiiai iiaeaeae — 4 MB. Noaeeoue iiaeii ii aaee/eia iaeneiaeueiiai
a?aiaie iienea. Iiyaeaiea neaaeothuaai iieieaiey iaeiieoaeae,
eniieuecothueo aeenee aieinoueth 2.6 GB, iaeeaeaaony a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy,
eae oieueei aoaeoo i?eiyou niioaaonoaothuea noaiaea?ou, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeiu, /oiau i?iaeoeoeey ?aciuo oe?i auea niaianoeia.

Iioiaea, /oi aeiaieueii nei?i iiyayony iaeiieoaee n aua aieueoae
aieinoueth e auno?iaeaenoaeai. Iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie nouanoaothuae
iaaieoiiioe/aneie oaoiieiaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeey caiene
iaiaoiaeeiu aeaa i?ioiaea, o. a. iia a 2 ?aca iaaeeaiiaa /oaiey.
Iaeiii?ioiaeiay caienue auea nia/aea ?aaeeciaaia a ioiineoaeueii
iaaeeaiiuo iaaieoiiioe/aneeo iaeiieoaeyo nenoaiu Mini Disk oe?iu Sony
(2.5″, 140 MB). Nae/an oaea nicaeaiu ia?aua nei?inoiua ono?ienoaa,
eniieuecothuea iiaeiaioth oaoiieiaeth.

Iaeiieoaee 3.5″

Iaaieoiiioe/aneea iaeiieoaee ia 3.5″ aeeneao aieinoueth 230 MB, eeaea?ii
a i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo yaeyaony Fujitsu, iieo/atho ana aieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea. E?iia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aa?eaioia eniieueciaaiey eo aeey
o?aiaiey aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee e iaiaia aeaiiuie a ecaeaoaeueneii
aeaea, a?aoe/aneeo i?eeiaeaieyo e o. ae., iie iaoiaeyo oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea e a iaaeeoeeia — aeey o?aiaiey enoi?ee aieacie (aeey
eaaeaeiai iaoeeaioa — naie aeene, aieinoe eioi?iai oaaoeo ia iiiaea
aiaeu, aeaaea anee caienuaaoue ia iaai a?aoe/aneea aeaiiua, iieo/aaiua
i?e oiiia?aoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeao enneaaeiaaiey). Noa?a
i?eiaiaiey iaaieoiiioeee ?anoe?eeanue e aei eiiiuethoa?ia oeia notebook.

Iaaieoiiioe/aneea aeaeeioaee

Oioy aieinoue iaaieoiiioe/aneeo aeaeeioae, eniieuecothueo 5.25″ aeenee,
auno?i ?anoao e i?aauoaao oaea 1000 GB, aeaaiia — yoi ia oaaee/aiea
aieinoe (iii aeinoeaaaony aeiaieueii eaaei), a iiaua ?aoaiey,
niinianoaothuea aieaa oe?ieiio i?eiaiaieth yoeo ia?niaeoeaiuo ono?ienoa.
A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi eanaaony eo eniieueciaaiey aeey ?aca?aiiai
eiie?iaaiey e iaania/aiey aeinooia a ?aaeeia on-line a naoaauo n?aaeao.
Niioaaonoaothuea ?aoaiey ia aaca iaaieoiiioe/aneeo aeaeeioae MaxLyb,
eniieuecothueo auno?iaeaenoaothuea iaeiieoaeae T3-1300 e
?iaioece?iaaiiua i?eaiaeu aeey aaoiiaoe/aneie niaiu aeeneia, i?aaeeaaaao
oe?ia Maxoptix. Nei?inoue ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey ninoaaeyao io 3 GB a
/an e aieaa, nei?inoue ainnoaiiaeaiey a aeaa ?aca auoa. E?iia oiai,
iaaieoiiioe/aneea ono?ienoaa iaeaaeatho ai?acaei aieaa aunieie
iaaeaaeiinoueth, /ai eaioi/iua (a 5 ?ac), naie aeenee eiatho aieueoie
aa?aioe?iaaiiue n?ie o?aiaiey (50 eao) e iaaunieoth oeaio — 10 oeaioia a
?an/aoa ia 1 MB.

I?EAIAeU CD-ROM

Aii?in i ia?aoiaea ia i?eaiaeu CD-ROM n aunieie nei?inoueth
(oanoenei?inoiua e auoa), noaey ii anaio, a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aoaeao
ieii/aoaeueii ?aoai i?inoi i?ae?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa /aou??onei?inoiuo.
Oaeei aea ia?acii oaea ?aoai e aii?in i i?eiaiaiee proprietary IDE
eioa?oaenia (Panasonic, Sony, Mitsumi) — eniieuecothony oieueei
IDE/ATAPI e SCSI. Aeey ea/anoaaiiiai (n ?ac?aoaieai 320o240, eioi?ia
oaea aeinooiii nia?aiaiiui a?aoe/aneei aaeaioa?ai — aeaeai onei?eoaeyi)
i?iea?uaaiey AVI oaeeia n aeeneia CD-ROM, ioaeai i?eaiae n /aoaa?iie eee
aeaaea aieaa aunieie nei?inoueth. Aea e iau/iay ?aaioa n oaeeaie,
iniaaiii n o/aoii i/aiue aieueoeo iauaiia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,
iinoaaeyaiiai ia CD-ROM, cia/eoaeueii oauno?yaony i?e eniieueciaaiee
/aou?ao e oanoenei?inoiuo iiaeaeae.

I?eaiaeu n /aoaa?iie nei?inoueth, noaaoea oaea noaiaea?oii eiiieaeoaoeee
nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia (eie iniauatho naie eiiiuethoa?u aieueoeinoai
oe?i Brand-Name), i?iaeieaeatho niaa?oainoaiaaoueny. ?aaeecoaony
iiaeaea?aeea ?aaeeia Plug&Play, oeo/oathony nei?inoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.
Yoi ASPI-niaianoeiue CD-ROM ae?aeaa?, eioi?ue oeo/oaao ia?aaea/o
iai?a?uaiuo iioieia aeaiiuo e oiaiueoaao caa?oceo i?ioeanni?a ia 12-35%
(a neo/aa SCSI eiio?ieea?a, eniieuecothuaai iaiai /a?ac DMA). Yoi i/aiue
aaaeii aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaeai n eniieueciaaieai /enoi i?ia?aiiiuo
aeaeiaea?ia (QuickTime, Video for Windows, MPEG), oae eae iicaieyao
oiaiueoeoue /enei auiaaeaiee eaae?ia.

Nei?inoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee

Auione oe?iie Plextor a ia/aea 1996 aiaea ia?aiai a ie?iaie i?aeoeea
i?eaiaea n oanoa?iie nei?inoueth (na?ey 6PLEX) i?eaeae iniaia aieiaiea e
nei?inoiui iiaeaeyi. A ioee/ea io i?iaeoeoeee Plextor, eiathuae
eioa?oaen SCSI, /anoi eniieuecoaony aieaa aeaoaaue IDE/ATAPI. Iai?eia?,
yoi i?iaeoeoeey oe?i OAAN, Wearnes. Ia?yaeo n iiauoaieai nei?inoe
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo iooai oaaee/aiey nei?inoe a?auaiey, oeo/oathony e
ae?oaea nei?inoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee — a?aiy iienea e a?aiy aeinooia. A
aeanoeeo aeeneao, eniieuecothueo a?auaiea n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth,
n?aaeiaa a?aiy aeinooia oaaee/aii ii n?aaiaieth ni a?aiaiai iienea ia
aaee/eio ne?uoiai a?aiaie, eioi?ia iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyaony nei?inoueth
a?auaiey e ?aaii iieiaeia a?aiaie iaeiiai iai?ioa aeenea. A i?eaiaeao
CD-ROM, eniieuecothueo iinoiyiioth eeiaeioth nei?inoue n/eouaaiey,
nei?inoue a?auaiey aeenea eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io ?annoiyiey io
oeaio?a, iiyoiio ia a?aiy aeinooia ieacuaaao aeeyiea caaea?aeea,
naycaiiay n oai, /oi iinea ia?aiauaiey aieiaee o?aaoaony aua
aeiiieieoaeueiia a?aiy, /oiau nei?inoue a?auaiey aeinoeaea iaiaoiaeeiiai
o?iaiy. Aaee/eia yoie caaea?aeee ii?aaeaeyaony ea/anoaii aeaeaaoaey e a
iauai neo/aa iiaeao neeueii iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaeeoaey e
io iiaeaee. I/aiue, /anoi a oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao i?eaiaeeony
oieueei a?aiy iienea, eioi?ia ia aeaao iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
nei?inoiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao. I?e n?aaiaiee oieueei ii yoiio ia?aiao?o
iiaeaee aunieiai eeanna e aieaa i?inoua e aeaoaaua /anoi auaeyaeyo ii/oe
iaeeiaeiai. Iaeiaei yoi ia oae. Iai?eia? /aoupexnei?inoiua i?eaiaeu
CD-ROM oe?iu Plextor, eniieuecothuea oieeaeueiua caiaoaioiaaiiua
aeaeaaoaee, eiatho caiaoiia i?aeiouanoai. Aeey oanoenei?inoiie iiaeaee
PX-63CS n?aaeiaa a?aiy iienea ninoaaeyao 115 ms, a n?aaeiaa a?aiy
aeinooia (random access) iaiaiiiai aieueoa —145 ms.

Oi?iaou

Oi?ioee i?eaiae CD-ROM aeieaeai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eae iiaeii aieueoa ec
nouanoaothueo oi?iaoia aeeneia (a eaeaaea — ana). Iiiaiia?acea oi?iaoia
aucaaii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oai, /oi CD-ROM iiaeao o?aieoue ?acii?iaeiua
oeiu aeaiiuo — eiaeu i?ia?aii, caoe, aeaeai, a?aoeeo, e, n ae?oaie, oai,
/oi ?aciua aeenee i?eaioe?iaaiu ia ?aciua naaiaiou ?uiea —
eiiiuethoa?iue e iio?aaeoaeueneie yeaeo?iieee. Noaiaea?ou,
ii?aaeaeythuea oi?iaou aeaiiuo, /aua anaai iacuaatho ii oeaaoo iaeiaeee
ecaeaiey, a eioi?ii iie iioaeeeiaaiu. Oae, Red Book — yoi noaiaea?o ia
caoeiaua aeenee CD-DA. Yellow Book niaianoii n ISO 9660 (“High Sierra”)
a iniiaiii ii?aaeaeeea noaiaea?o aeey o?aiaiey oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee e
aeaiiuo, oi anoue nianoaaiii CD-ROM. Green Book ii?aaeaeeea
eioa?aeoeaioth Plug&Play CD nenoaio (CD-i), i?aaeoniao?eaathuoth
iiaeaea?aeeo aeaeai, aeeth/ay MPEG-1, e caoea, e ?ann/eoaiioth ia naeoi?
auoiaie yeaeo?iieee e aeaeaiea?u. Iiyaeaoeeny iicaeiaa noaiaea?o OA
(Extended Architecture), yaeythueeny ?anoe?aieai Yellow Book, oaeaea
i?aaeoniio?ae aiciiaeiinoe aeey caoea e aeaeai, oae /oi iiyaeeanue
ii?aaeaeaiiay niaianoeiinoue iaaeaeo CD-ROM e CD-i. OA aeeth/aao a naay
oaeaea e Kodak Photo CD. Iaeiiaoe, White Book ii?aaeaeeea Video CD,
niaea?aeauea naeaoua ii noaiaea?oo MPEG-1 aeaeaioeeueiu.

Aieueoeinoai i?eaiaeia CD-ROM n aeaieiie e aieaa aunieie nei?inoueth
niaianoeiu n OA, oae /oi ia ieo iiaeii, a i?eioeeia, aini?iecaiaeeoue
Video CD. Iaeiaei aeey ii?iaeueiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeia
iiaeaea?aeea niaoeeaeueiiai ?aaeeia OA Mode 2 Form 2, eioi?ue ?aaeeciaai
aeaeaei ia ia anao ono?ienoaao. Aua eo/oa eiaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiioth
iiaeaea?aeeo CD-i e Video CD (White Book), eioi?ay oieueei ia/eiaao
aiaae?youeny a iineaaeiea iiaeaee.

ONO?IENOAA N IIIAIE?AOIIE CAIENUeTH

Ono?ienoaa CD-R aeey iaeiie?aoiie caiene aeeneia CD-ROM (a ?aciuo
oi?iaoao) aoaeoo a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai aeiiieiaiu ia?acaienuaaaiuie, oi
anoue n aiciiaeiinoueth iiiaie?aoiie caiene ia iaeei e oio aea
iineoaeue. Iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuae aeey oaeiai ?iaea ono?ienoa yaeyaony
oaoiieiaey phase change. Ia?acaienuaaaiua aeenee, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea
CD-E (Erasable), i?aaeeiaeeea oe?ia Philips. N?aco aea auea iieo/aia
iiaeaea?aeea io IBM, Ricoh, Hewlett-Packard, Mitsubishi Chemical,
Mitsumi Electric, Matsushita Kotobuki Electric Industries, Sony, 3M,
Olympus. Iiaue aeene yaeyaony eiae/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai CD-R (Orange
Book) e CD-ROM. I?aaeiieaaaaony niaianoeiinoue ii /oaieth-caiene n CD-R
e ii /oaieth n CD-ROM. I?aaaea, aeey oiai, /oiau /eoaoue aeenee CD-R ia
iau/iuo i?eaiaeao CD-ROM, o?aaoaony iaeioi?ay eo iiaeeoeeaoeey,
naycaiiay n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aaoee?iaee n/eouaathuaai eaca?a ec-ca
?aciie io?aaeathuae niiniaiinoe iiauo e o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeeneia, oae /oi
aiai?eoue i iieiie niaianoeiinoe iiea ia i?eoiaeeony. Iiyaeaiea
i?ioioeiia iiauo ono?ienoa iaeeaeaaony ia ?aiaa eiioea aiaea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1 Hard & Soft aeo?iae Iiaeoeaea ca 1996 a

2 PC WEEK (RE) aeo?iae Iiaeoeaea ca 1995-1997aa

3 I.Ii?oii, ?. Oeeoii IBM PC AT. ?oeiaiaenoai ii i?ia?aiie?iaaieth

4 iiae ?aae. I.E.Ia?oaneia ?oeiaiaenoai ii a?oeoaeoo?a IBM PC AT

5 Oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey, iieo/aiiay ii naoe Internet e /a?ac BBS

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3″ Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297431 PAGEREF
_Toc387297431 1

I?ioeanni?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297432 PAGEREF _Toc387297432 1

Iaoa?eineea ieaou GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297433 PAGEREF _Toc387297433 5

CHIPSET GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297434 PAGEREF _Toc387297434 5

EIINO?OEOEAIUA INIAAIIINOE E ANO?IAIIUA ONO?IENOAA GOTOBUTTON
_Toc387297435 PAGEREF _Toc387297435 6

NENOAIIUA IEAOU PENTIUM GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297436 PAGEREF
_Toc387297436 6

NENOAIIUA IEAOU 486 GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297437 PAGEREF _Toc387297437
7

I?IECAIAeEOAEUeIINOUe GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297438 PAGEREF
_Toc387297438 7

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297439 PAGEREF _Toc387297439
8

Iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297440 PAGEREF _Toc387297440
9

Ei?iona e ia?ee?iaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297441 PAGEREF _Toc387297441
9

Eiae/aneay i?aaiecaoeey iaiyoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297442 PAGEREF
_Toc387297442 10

Eyo-iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297443 PAGEREF _Toc387297443 11

BIOS e CMOS RAM GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297444 PAGEREF _Toc387297444 14

CMOS RAM GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297445 PAGEREF _Toc387297445 14

IIAUA AEAeU IAIssOE GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297446 PAGEREF _Toc387297446
16

Noaoe/aneay iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297447 PAGEREF _Toc387297447
17

Aeeiaie/aneay iaiyoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297448 PAGEREF
_Toc387297448 17

EIINO?OEOEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297449 PAGEREF _Toc387297449 18

AEANOEEA AeENEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297450 PAGEREF _Toc387297450 19

AEanoeea aeenee n eioa?oaenii IDE GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297451 PAGEREF
_Toc387297451 19

AEanoeea aeenee n eioa?oaenii SCSI GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297452 PAGEREF
_Toc387297452 20

AEanoeea aeenee aeey aoaeei e aeaeai GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297453
PAGEREF _Toc387297453 21

AEanoeea aeenee 2.5″ e 1.8″ GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297454 PAGEREF
_Toc387297454 22

Iaaeaaeiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297455 PAGEREF _Toc387297455 22

Aeaeaieiio?ieea?u, aenaea?aoi?u, aeaeaionei?eoaee GOTOBUTTON
_Toc387297456 PAGEREF _Toc387297456 23

Chipset GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297457 PAGEREF _Toc387297457 24

Iiaua a?aoe/aneea aaeaioa?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297458 PAGEREF
_Toc387297458 25

IAAIEOIIIOEEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297459 PAGEREF _Toc387297459 25

Iaeiieoaee 5,2’’ GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297460 PAGEREF _Toc387297460 25

Iaeiieoaee 3.5” GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297461 PAGEREF _Toc387297461 26

Iaaieoiiioe/aneea aeaeeioaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297462 PAGEREF
_Toc387297462 26

I?EAIAeU CD-ROM GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297463 PAGEREF _Toc387297463 27

Nei?inoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297464 PAGEREF
_Toc387297464 27

Oi?iaou GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297465 PAGEREF _Toc387297465 28

ONO?IENOAA N IIIAIE?AOIIE CAIENUeTH GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297466
PAGEREF _Toc387297466 29

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u: GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297467 PAGEREF _Toc387297467
29

Iaeaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc387297468 PAGEREF _Toc387297468 30

PAGE

PAGE 15

?en.1. Caaeneiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe io iauaia iaiyoe.

Oaaeeoea 1. N?aaiaiea aneio?iiiie e eiiaaea?iie iaiyoe SRAM.

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