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Aaaaeaiea

?aaioa aeeth/aao a naay eiaia ecaanoiuo enoi?e/aneeo eeoe: iieeoeeia,
ienaoaeae, ooaeiaeieeia, aeayoaeae iaoee e eoeueoo?u. ?aaioa yaeyaony
iacaiaieiui ni?aai/ieeii ii aiaeeeneie enoi?ee, eoeueoo?a, eeoa?aoo?a e
eneonnoao.

Oeaee e caaea/e

Iniiaiay oeaeue – iiciaeiieoueny n aeeciueth e oai?/anoaii ciaiaieouo
ethaeae Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oioeaiaeee, Oyeuena, Naaa?iie E?eaiaeee.

Caaea/e: ioaaoeoue ana noa?u aeecie iauanoaa, a eioi?uo io?aceeanue
aeayoaeueiinoue aaeeeeo ethaeae, eniieueciaaoue aieueoie iauai
eioi?iaoeee ia eo oai?/anoaa e aeecie, iaania/eoue iiiiuue ethaiio
/eoaoaeth, eioa?anothuaiony aeeciueth yoeo no?ai, a eco/aiee eo ycuea e
eoeueoo?u.

Aeeueaaeuei Caaiaaaoaeue

Aeeueaaeuei Caaiaaaoaeue – ei?ieue Aiaeee (1066-1087) ?iae. a 1027 a. e
aue iiai/iui nuiii ii?iaiaeneiai aa?oeiaa ?iaa?oa II Aeueyaiea. A 1033
a., eiaaea ?iaa?o Aeueyaie ioi?aaeeny ia aiaiiieuea a Iaeanoeio, A. aue
i?eciai aai ianeaaeieeii. I?e ecaanoee i nia?oe ?iaa?oa (1035),
ii?iaiaeneea aa?iiu e ai aeaaa eo ?iaenoaaiieee oia?oaai aa?oeiaa
ainnoaee i?ioea aai iacaeiiii?iaeaeaiiiai i?aaiieea, e oieueei
aiaoaoaeuenoai o?aioeocneiai ei?iey Aai?eoa I, eioi?ue aue nthca?aiii e
iiaeoiii A., nio?aieei ca iei i?anoie. THiinoue Aeeueaaeueia i?ioea a
aieiao n ninaaeyie (iniaaiii n a?. Aiaeoeneei, Aiaeao?oa Ia?oaeii, e n
o?aioeocneei ei?ieai), ec eioi?uo ii auoae iiaaaeeoaeai, iiae/eiea
Ii?iaiaeee a?aonoai Iyi (1060), e a ai?ueaa n aa?iiaie, eioi?uo aio
oaeaeinue i?eioaeeoue e iieiiio iiaeiiaaieth. I?aaeiao iniauo caaio A.
ninoaaeyea ii?iaiaeneay oea?eiaue: ii nai ?oeiaiaeee aeooiaiuie niai?aie
e noa?aeny iiaeiyoue oinoaaiiue e i?aanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aeooiaainoaa.
Nio?oaeieeii aai a oea?eiaiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo aue i?ei? ciaiaieoie
aaeneie oeieu Eaio?aie. A 1051 a. A. iinaoee naiaai ?iaenoaaiieea,
aiaeeeneiai ei?iey Yaeoa?aea Eniiaaaeieea, e aiineaaenoaee noae
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aacaeaoiue Yaeoa?ae ai a?aiy yoiai naeaeaiey iacia/ee
aai naiei ianeaaeieeii, oioy oaeia iacia/aiea, aac niaeaney
aeoaiaaaiioa, ia eiaei caeiiiie neeu. Oai ia iaiaa, eiaaea a 1066 a.
oia? Yaeoa?ae e aiaeeeneee i?anoie ia?aoae e aai oo?eio Aa?ieueaeo, A.
cayaee naie i?eoycaiey, nnueaynue ia caaauaiea Yaeoa?aea, ia naia
?iaenoai n iei (aai ioaoe aue ieaiyiieeii iaoa?e Yaeoa?aea, Yiiu) e ia
eeyoao naiiai Aa?ieueaea – a neo/aa nia?oe Yaeoa?aea niinianoaiaaoue
eca?aieth A. aiaeeeneei ei?ieai. I?eoycaiey A. iiaeaea?aeeaae iaia
Aeaenaiae? II; ii ioeo/ee Aa?ieueaea io oea?eae e aiceiaeee ia A.
ienneth i?eaanoe Aiaeeth e iiei?iinoe na. i?anoieo. Iiae ciaiaia A.
nia?aeenue n ?aciuo eiioeia caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ?uoea?e e i?inoua aieiu,
aeaaeaeaaoea i?eeeth/aiee e auno?iai iaiaauaiey. *eneaiiinoue aai aienea
i?inoe?aeanue aei 60000. Ii?iaiaeneee oeio ioieue ec aaaaie N. Aaea?e (a
onouea Niiiu) e 29 naioya?y 1066 a. i?enoae e aa?aaai Aiaeee o Iaaaine,
aeec Aanoeiana; ieiei yoiai ai?iaea anei?a e i?iecioea aeoaa, eioi?ay
ioaeaea Aiaeeth a ?oee Aeeueaaeueia. Iaiiiaea ai?iaea ieacaee
nii?ioeaeaiea ii?iaiiai. Eiiaeii i?iaicaeanee ei?ieai iineaaeiaai
i?aaenoaaeoaey aiaeinaeniineie aeeianoee, Yaeaa?a Yoaeeiaa, e aioiaeeny
e iai?iia; ii, eiaaea ia noi?iio A. noaee iaeei ca ae?oaei ia?aoiaeeoue
naaoneea e aeooiaiua iaaiaou, a?aaeaeaia Eiiaeiia ioi?aaeee e A.
aeaiooaoeeth, e ai aeaaa aa noiye nai Yaeaa? Yoaeeia. A. i/aiue
caaioeeny i oii, /oiau aiceiaeeoue ia naay ei?iio ia a ea/anoaa
caaiaaaoaey, a a ea/anoaa caeiiiiai ianeaaeieea Yaeoa?aea, e ei?iiiaaeny
a Aanoieinoa?a n niaethaeaieai anao iau/iuo ia?yaeia. Aa?ieueae e aai
noi?iiieee auee iauyaeaiu eciaiieeaie; eo caiee iiaeaa?aeenue
eiioeneaoeee e auee ?icaeaiu niiaeaeaeieeai A. Ii ieeaeeo aaaeiuo
eciaiaiee a aiaeinaeniineeo caeiiao ia auei i?iecaaaeaii ia ia?auo
ii?ao; i?eaeeaaee Eiiaeiia A. iiaeoaa?aeee iniaie a?aiioie. Naia
iieiaeaiea A. n/eoae ianoieueei oi?i/aiiui, /oi ia neaaeothuoth aanio
oaoae a Ii?iaiaeeth. Anei?a iinea aai iouacaea aniuoioei ainnoaiea,
aucaaiiia ianeeeyie ii?iaiiia. Aiciooeaoeiny aiaeinaenai iiiiaaee
aaeeeeoeu e iaeioi?ua ii?iaineea aa?iiu, iaaeiaieueiua A. Aa?ioaoeeny A.
ainnoaiiaee ii?yaeie e iino?iee oeaeue ?yae caieia, a eioi?uo ?acianoee
ii?iaineea aa?ieciiu. Ii a?iaeaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue, e a 1068 a., eiaaea
a onouea Aoiaa?a iiyaeeny oeio aeaoneiai ei?iey Naaia, aiciouaiea
ioaaoeei aanue caiaae Aiaeee. Aeiaeaoenue, iooai iiaeeoia, ie?a o
aeao/ai, A. aeanoieeie ia?aie i?eioaeee iyoaaeieeia e iiei?iinoe; ii
iiaeaa?aioe no?aoiiio iionoioaieth ainnoaaoea iaeanoe, i?e/ai iniaaiii
iino?aaeaea no?aia ia naaa?a io ?. Aoiaa?a. Iineaaeiaa, a oaeie aea
noaiaie eae e i?aaeiaa iaoaea/iia ainnoaiea aiaei-naenia, eioi?ia
iiaeaea?aeeaae oioeaiaeneee ei?ieue Iaeueeieuei O, ioiineony e 1071 a.
Iyoaaee iineaaeothueo eao oaea ia eiatho oa?aeoa?a iaoeeiiaeueiie
ai?ueau, e i?e/eiie eo yaeyaony naiaaieea eee /anoiethaea ii?iaiineeo
aa?iiia. Oaeiai, iai?eia? ainnoaiea aa?iiia iiae i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii
noa?oaai nuia A., ?iaa?oa, eioi?ue aeiaeeny oiai, /oi ioaoe ioaeae aio a
oi?aaeaiea Ii?iaiaeeth (1080). Iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ?yae ainnoaiee
aiaei-naenia eciaiee iieiaeaiea A.; iinea eo onie?aiey ii aeaaeaao
Aiaeeae oaea ia oieueei ia i?aaao i?aaiieea Aeueo?aaea Aaeeeiai e
Yaeoa?aea Eniiaaaeieea, ii e ii i?aao caaiaaaiey. Yoio aeaienoaaiiue
oa?aeoa? aai aeanoe au?aceeny a aai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie nenoaia, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaaeeiaiea i?aaeiaai aiaei-naeniineiai no?iy n
ii?iaiaeneei oaiaeaeeciii. Ii/aa aeey onoaiiaeaiey oaiaeaeueiiai
ii?yaeea auea oaea iiaeaioiaeaia, oae eae aua aei iiyaeaiey ii?iaiiia
oaiaeaeueiay nenoaia caieaaeaaeaiey ?ani?ino?aieeanue ia aieueooth
/anoue e?oiiuo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, e aeeiaeeaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue
inoaaaeanue, a aeaea eneeth/aiey, a ?oeao naiuo ciaoiuo ?iaeia.
?acaeaaay naiei ii?iaiiai caiee ia oaiaeaeueiuo iniiaaieyo, A., a oiaea
a?aiy, noa?aeny i?eiyoue ia?u i?ioea iineaaenoaee oaiaeaeecia.
Aiaeeeneay oaiaeaeueiay nenoaia, aaaaeaiiay ii?iaiaeneei caaiaaaieai,
i/aiue nouanoaaiiuie /a?oaie ioee/aaony io eiioeiaioaeueiie. Aeaaeaiey
iiiaeo aa?iiia aeinoeaaee i/aiue cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ia, ii iie auee
?aca?inaiu ii anae no?aia, e yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai neoaeeei i?aiyonoaeai
ia?aciaaieth nenoaiu e?oiiuo iiianoee. A a?aonoaao A. aaae oi?aaeaiea
oa?eoia – /eiiaieeia, eioi?ua iieo/aee iacia/aiea e iaoiaeeeenue a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io ei?iey. Aieueoea a?aonoaa, nicaeaiiua
Eaiooii Aae., auee oie/oiaeaiu, e oieueei a o?ao ianoao A. iniiaae
iaeaoeiaou (/anoa?neee, aea?aaineee e eaioneee); aeaa ec ieo auee
ioaeaiu aeooiaiui eeoeai, eioi?ua, ?acoiaaony, ia iiaee ia?aaeaaaoue
naiae aeanoe ii ianeaaenoao. A oi aea a?aiy i?ioeaiaanii oaiaeaeecio
neoaeeee noa?ua aiaeeeneea o/?aaeaeaiey, io/anoe nio?aiaiiua A. Ii
oneeee nenoaio e?oaiaie ii?oee aeanyoai (frankpledge) e nio?aiee noaeu
nioai e a?aonoa. Anyeee aannae, e?iia oie i?enyae, eioi?oth ii i?eiinee
naiuei?o, iaycai aue aua aeaaaoue eeyoao aa?iinoe ei?ieth. Iieioii
i?ioea oaiaeaeecia neoaeeea i?aaiecaoeey oea?eae. Ieceiaeea
eaioa?aa?eeneiai a?oeaieneiia Noeaaeaea, A. aicaae ia aai ianoi
Eaio?aiea e aieueooth /anoue aiaeeeneeo i?aeaoia caianoee ii?iaiaeneeie.
Caaeneiinoue oea?eae io ei?iey auea oaaee/aia: aieneii i?eiinee ei?ieth
eaiioth i?enyao; ei?ieaaneee aannae ia iia auoue ioeo/ai io oea?eae aac
aeicaieaiey ei?iey. Naaoneay e oea?eiaiay th?enaeeeoeee auee no?iai
?acaeaeaiu. Iinoaiiaeaiey niai?ia iieo/aee ooaa?aeaeaiea io ei?iey.
Niioaiey oea?eae n iaiie auee oaeaea iiae/eiaiu aai eiio?ieth.
Ioiineoaeueii na. i?anoiea A. aiiaua aea?aeaeny aiieia iacaaeneii e ia
o?aaiaaiea A?eai?ey VII i?eianoe eaiioth i?enyao ioaa/ae ai?aeui
ioeacii. A 1086 a. A. aaeae ninoaaeoue iiae?iaioth ia?aienue caiaeueiuo
o/anoeia e iiaeiiinoae, naycaiiuo n caieaaeaaeaieai; caienue yoa iineo
iacaaiea Domesdaybook e ia ?yaeo n “Leges et Consuetudines Willelmi etc.
” (“Aiaei-naeniineia i?aai n aeiaaaeaieyie e eciaiaieyie A.”) yaeyaony
aeaaiui enoi/ieeii aeey ciaeiinoaa n aioo?aiiae enoi?eae Aiaeee i?e A.
Caaiaaaoaea. Ia?aae nia?oueth Aeeueaaeueio i?eoeinue aanoe aieio n
aiciooeaoeieny aa?iiaie Ii?iaiaeee e iiiiaaaoeie ei ninaaeieie
o?aioeocneeie aeaaeaoaeyie. Iauacaeay iueaaoea ?acaaeeiu acyoiai ei
ai?iaea Iaioa, Aeeueaaeuei aue na?ioai n naaeea e iieo/ee nia?oaeueiue
ooea. Aai ia?aaacee a ?oai, aaea ii e oia? (7 naioya?y 1087 a.).

?e/a?ae Eueaeiia Na?aeoea

?e/a?ae Eueaeiia Na?aeoea – aiaeeeneee ei?ieue ec ?iaea Ieaioaaaiaoia,
i?aaeaoee a 1189—1199 aa. Nui Aai?eoa II e Yeaiii?u Aeaineie. AEaia: n
1191 a. Aa?aiaea?a, aei/ue Nai/i VI, ei?iey Iaaa??neiai (+ 1230 a.).
?iae. 8 naioya?y 1157 a. ?e/a?ae aue aoi?ui nuiii Aai?eoa Ieaioaaaiaoa.
Ii ia ?anniao?eaaeny eae i?yiie ianeaaeiee naiaai iooea, e yoi iaeiaeeei
ii?aaeaeaiiue ioia/aoie ia aai oa?aeoa? e ia niauoey aai thiinoe. A oi
a?aiy eae aai noa?oee a?ao Aai?eo aue a 1170 a. ei?iiiaai aiaeeeneie
ei?iiie e iauyaeai nii?aaeoaeai Aai?eoa II, ?e/a?aea a 1172 a.
i?iaicaeaneee aa?oeiaii Aeaeoaineei e n/eoaee ianeaaeieeii iaoa?e
Yeaiii?u. Iinea yoiai aieioue aei naiae ei?iiaoeee aoaeouee ei?ieue
iiauaae a Aiaeee eeoue aeaaaeaeu — ia Ianoo a 1176 a. e ia ?iaeaeanoai a
1184 a. Aai i?aaeaiea a Aeaeoaiee i?ioiaeeei a iinoiyiiuo noieeiiaaieyo
n ianoiuie aa?iiaie, i?eaueoeie e iacaaeneiinoe. Anei?a e aioo?aiiei
aieiai aeiaaaeeenue noieeiiaaiey n iooeii. A naiii ia/aea 1183 a. ii
i?eeacae ?e/a?aeo i?eianoe eaiioth i?enyao noa?oaio a?aoo Aai?eoo.
?e/a?ae iaio?ac ioeacaeny naeaeaoue yoi, nnueaynue ia oi, /oi yoi auei
ianeuoaiiui iiaiaaaaeaieai. Aai?eo ieaaeoee aoi?any a Aeaeoaieth ai
aeaaa iaaiiiai aienea, i?eiyeny ?aci?youe no?aio, ii eaoii oiai aea
aiaea aiacaiii caaieae eeoi?aaeeie e oia?. A naioya?a Aai?eo aaeae
?e/a?aeo ioaeaoue Aeaeoaieth ieaaeoaio a?aoo Eiaiio. ?e/a?ae ioeacaeny,
e aieia i?iaeieaeaeanue. Oaeaeaa, /oi neeie ie/aai ia aeiaeoueny,
ei?ieue aaeae ia?aaeaoue nii?iia aa?oeianoai iaoa?e. Ia yoio ?ac ?e/a?ae
iiae/eieeny. A naiaenoaa Ieaioaaaiaoia noae iac?aaaoue iiaue ?ac?ua. Ii
ioe?uoi i?ioea iooea ?e/a?ae aunooiee eeoue inaiueth 1188 a. Aii?aee aai
aiea ii iiie?eeny a Aiiioeaia n o?aioeocneei ei?ieai e i?eian aio
eaiioth i?enyao. Iiae Eaiaiii Aai?eo aaeaa ia iiiae a ieai e naiaio
nuio. A ethea 1189 a. ii oia?. A aaaonoa ?e/a?ae i?eaue a Aiaeeth e 3
naioya?y ei?iiiaaeny a Aanoieinoa?neii aaaaonoaa. Iinea ei?iiaoeee ii
i?iaeee a naiae no?aia anaai /aou?a ianyoea, a caoai aua ?ac caaoae
nthaea ia aeaa ianyoea a 1194 a. I?eiya aeanoue, ?e/a?ae noae oeiiioaoue
ia i?aaiecaoeee O?aoueaai e?anoiaiai iioiaea, iaao o/anoaiaaoue a
eioi?ii ii aeae aua a 1187 a. Iioiae ia/aeny aaniie 1190 a. A ia?auo
/eneao ethey ?e/a?ae ano?aoeeny a Aacaea n Oeeeiiii Aaaonoii. Io Eeiia
o?aioeocu iiaa?ioee a Aaioth, a ?e/a?ae aeaeioeny a Ia?naeue.
Iia?oceaoenue caeanue ia ei?aaee, aiaee/aia ioieuee ia ainoie e 23
naioya?y oaea auee a Ianneia. Caeanue ei?ieue aue caaea?aeai
iai?eyoaeueneeie aeaenoaeyie ianoiiai ianaeaiey. Neoeeeeeoeu i/aiue
iaae?oaeaethaii ioianeenue e aiaeeeneei e?anoiiinoeai, n?aaee eioi?uo
auei iiiai ii?iaiaeoeaa. 3 ieoya?y ec-ca ie/oiaeiiai noieeiiaaiey ia
ai?iaeneii ?uiea ia/aeanue ianoiyuay aieia. ?e/a?ae, neieueei iia,
noa?aeny oaea?aeaoue naieo niieaiaiieeia io ?aci?aiey o?enoeaineiai
ai?iaea. Ii ia neaaeothuee aeaiue ai a?aiy ie?iuo ia?aaiai?ia ai?iaeaia
aae?oa naeaeaee niaeoth aueaceo. Oiaaea ei?ieue noae ai aeaaa naiaai
aienea, caaiae iai?eyoaeae ia?aoii a ai?iae, caoaaoee ai?ioa e i?iecaae
no?iaue noae iaae iiaaaeaeaiiuie. Ec-ca iicaeiaai a?aiaie i?iaeieaeaiea
iioiaea auei ioeiaeaii aei aoaeouaai aiaea. Yoa iiiaiiany/iay caaea?aeea
aanueia aeo?ii io?aceeanue ia ioiioaieyo aeaoo iiia?oia: Oi e aeaei
iaaeaeo ieie i?ienoiaeeee iaeeea noieeiiaaiey, e anee inaiueth 1190 a.
iie i?eauee a Neoeeeeth caaeooaaiuie ae?ocueyie, oi aaniie neaaeothuaai
aiaea iieeioee aa ii/oe ioe?iaaiiuie a?aaaie. Oeeeii ioi?aaeeny i?yieeii
a Ne?eth, a ?e/a?ae naeaeae aua auioaeaeaiioth inoaiiaeo ia Eei?a.
Neo/eeinue oae, /oi ec-ca ao?e /anoue aiaeeeneeo ei?aaeae auea aua?ioaia
ia aa?aa yoiai ino?iaa. I?aaeaoee Eei?ii eiia?aoi? Enaae Eiiiei
caaeaaeae eie ia iniiaaiee aa?aaiaiai i?aaa. Ii 6 iay a aaaaiue Eeianiea
aioae aanue oeio e?anoiiinoeaa. Ei?ieue iio?aaiaae o Enaaea
oaeiaeaoai?aiey, a eiaaea oio ioeacaeny, iaiaaeeaiii iaiae ia iaai.
Ieooo, /oi ii caoaaoee ciaiy Enaaea e aeaaea naee oaea?ii eiiuey n
eioaaee naiiai eiia?aoi?a. 12 iay a caaiaaaiiii ai?iaea auea n aaeeeie
iuoiinoueth ioi?acaeiiaaia naaaeueaa ei?iey n Aa?aiaa?eae. Neiieaiiue
iaoaea/aie, eiia?aoi? 31 iay naeaeny iiaaaeeoaeyi. Oaeei ia?acii, a
?acoeueoaoa oniaoiie 25-aeiaaiie aieiu ?e/a?ae naeaeaeny iaeaaeaoaeai
aiaaoiai e oeaaoouaai ino?iaa. Ii inoaaee aeeoaeyi iieiaeio eo
eiouanoaa, a ae?oaoth iieiaeio oiio?aaee ia ia?aciaaiea eaiia oiio
?uoea?noao, eioi?ia aeieaeii auei acyoue ia naay caueoo no?aiu.
?acianoea ai anao ai?iaeao e caieao naie aa?ieciiu, ii 5 ethiy ioieue a
Ne?eth. *a?ac o?e aeiy ii oaea aue a o?enoeaineii eaaa?a iiae noaiaie
inaaeaeaiiiai Aeeiia.

Iieiaeaiea ai?iaeai naeaeaeinue aaciaaeaaeiui, e 11 ethey iie anooieee a
ia?aaiai?u i naea/a ai?iaea n o?enoeaineeie ei?ieyie. Ionoeueiaia
aeieaeiu auee iaauaoue, /oi noeoai ioionoeo anao o?enoeaineeo ieaiieeia
e aa?iao AEeaioai?iue E?ano. Aa?iecii eiae i?aai aica?aoeoueny e
Naeaaeeio, ii /anoue aai, a oii /enea noi ciaoiuo ethaeae, aeieaeiu auee
inoaaaoueny caeiaeieeaie aei oao ii?, iiea noeoai ia caieaoeo o?enoeaiai
200 ouny/ /a?aiioeaa. Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue e?anoiiinoeu oi?aeanoaaiii
aioee a ai?iae, eioi?ue inaaeaeaee a oa/aiea aeaoo eao. A eiioea ethey
Oeeeii, a oaeaea iiiaea o?aioeocneea ieeea?eiu iieeioee Nayooth Caieth e
ioi?aaeeenue a ia?aoiue iooue. ?e/a?ae inoaaaeny oaia?ue aaeeinoaaiiui
aiaeaeai e?anoiiiniiai aienea. I/aiue iiiaea n/eoaee aai /aeiaaeii
naiai?aaiui e iaiaocaeaiiui, aea e nai ii ia?auie aea naieie
?anii?yaeaieyie iiaeoaa?aeee yoi iaauaiaeiia i naaa iiaiea. Noeoai ia
iia oae nei?i, eae aai iaycaee, eniieieoue oneiaee, eioi?ua ia iaai
iaeaaaea eaieooeyoeey Aeeiia: inaiaiaeeoue anao ieaiiuo o?enoeai e
oieaoeoue 200 ouny/ /a?aiioeaa. ?e/a?ae i?eoae ec-ca yoiai a aacia?iue
aiaa e oio/an, iinea oiai eae i?ioae auaiai?aiiue Naeaaeeiii n?ie — 20
aaaonoa, — aaeae auaanoe e caeieioue ia?aae ai?ioaie Aeeiia aieaa 2
ouny/ ionoeueiaineeo caeiaeieeia. Eiia/ii, iinea yoiai aeaiueae ia auee
auiea/aiu aiana, ie iaeei ieaiiue o?enoeaiei ia iieo/ee naiaiaeu, a
AEeaioai?yuee E?ano inoaeny a ?oeao ionoeueiai. *a?ac o?e aeiy iinea
yoie ?acie ?e/a?ae aunooiee ec Aeeiia ai aeaaa aieueoiai /enea
e?anoiiinoeaa. Oeaeueth iioiaea ia yoio ?ac aue eca?ai Aneaeii. Naeaaeei
iiiuoaeny i?aa?aaeeoue aei?iao. 7 naioya?y o A?cooa i?iecioea
iaeanoi/aiiay aeoaa, caeii/eaoayny aeanoyuae iiaaaeie o?enoeai. ?e/a?ae
iaoiaeeeny a naiie aoua n?aaeaiey e naiei eiiueai iiiai niaeaenoaiaae
oniaoo. *a?ac ianeieueei aeiae ieeea?eiu i?eauee a ?ac?ooaiiue Eiiia e
inoaiiaeeenue caeanue ia ioaeuo. Naeaaeei ainiieueciaaeny eo caaea?aeeie
aeey oiai, /oiau niaa?oaiii ?ac?ooeoue Aneaeii, eioi?ue ii oaia?ue ia
eiae iaaeaaeaeu oaea?aeaoue. Ecaanoea ia yoii ?anno?ieei ana ieaiu
e?anoiiinoeaa. *anoue ec ieo noaea ainnoaiaaeeaaoue Eiiia, ae?oaea
caiyee ?acaaeeiu ?aiea e Eeaeaeu. Nai ?e/a?ae o/anoaiaae ai iiiaeo
nou/eao e /anoi aac anyeie ioaeaeu ?eneiaae aeeciueth. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iaaeaeo iei e Naeaaeeiii caaycaeenue iaeeaeaiiua ia?aaiai?u, eioi?ua,
iaeiaei, ia i?eaaee ie e eaeei ?acoeueoaoai. Ceiie 1192 a. ei?ieue
iauyaee iioiae ia Ea?onaeei. Iaeiaei e?anoiiinoeu aeioee oieueei aei
Aaeoioaa. Iie aeieaeiu auee iiaa?iooue iacaae ec-ca neooia i neeueiuo
oe?aieaieyo aie?oa Nayoiai Ai?iaea. A eiioea eiioeia, aa?ioeenue e
ia?aiia/aeueiie oeaee e a neeueioth iaiiaiaeo — neaicue ao?th e
aeiaeaeue — aeaeioeenue e Aneaeiio. Yoio, aua nianai iaaeaaii oeaaoouee
e aiaaoue ai?iae, i?aaenoae ia?aae aeacaie ieeea?eiia a aeaea ionouiiie
eo/e eaiiae. E?anoiiinoeu ?aaiinoii i?enooieee e aai ainnoaiiaeaieth.
?e/a?ae iiiu?ye ?aai/eo aeaiaaeiuie iiaea?eaie e, /oiau iieacaoue anai
oi?ioee i?eia?, nai oaneae ia naieo iea/ao eaiie. Ec no?aoiiai ioni?a n
iaiau/aeiie auno?ioie auee aicaeaeaioou aaeu, aaoie e aeiia. A iaa
?e/a?ae acye i?enooiii Aea?oio — neeueioth e?aiinoue e thao io Aneaeiia.
Iinea yoiai ?aoaii auei aiiaue aeaeaaoueny ia Ea?onaeei. Ii, eae e a
i?ioeue ?ac, e?anoiiinoeu aeia?aeenue oieueei aei Aaeoioaa. Caeanue
a?iey inoaiiaeeanue ia ianeieueei iaaeaeue. A aaaonoa i?eoei ecaanoea i
iaiaaeaiee Naeaaeeia ia Eiiia. N auno?ioie iieiee ?e/a?ae nia?ae
inoaaoeany aua iiae ?oeie aiaiiua neeu, iiieue a Eiiia. A aaaaie,
iia?aaeay naieo ethaeae, ii ni?uaioe n ei?aaey a aiaeo, /oiau aac
caiaaeeaiey aeinoeaiooue aa?aaa. Yoei auea ia oieueei nianaia
oeeoaaeaeue, ii e aiiaue ioaeo o iai?eyoaey ai?iae. Nionoy ianeieueei
aeiae Naeaaeei iii?iaiaae aua ?ac n i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie caoaaoeoue e
niyoue iaaieueoie io?yae ei?iey. Iiae Eiiia e a naiii ai?iaea i?iecioae
aie, enoiae eioi?iai aeieai eieaaaeny oi a oo, oi a ae?oaoth noi?iio.
?e/a?ae iieacae naay ia oieueei neeueiui, niaeui e noieeei, ii e
?acoiiui iieeiaiaeoeai, oae /oi ia oieueei oaea?aeae naie iiceoeee, ii e
iaian a?aaai aieueoea iioa?e. Ec Aiaeee i?eoiaeeee aeo?iua aanoe i
naiiaeanoiuo iinooieao ieaaeoaai a?aoa ei?iey Eiaiia Aaccaiaeueiiai.
?e/a?ae n aaniieieiie iiniaoiinoueth no?aieeny aeiiie, e yoi iiaoaeaeaei
aai e onooieai. Ii aeiaiai?o, caeeth/aiiiio a naioya?a, Ea?onaeei
inoaeny ai aeanoe ionoeueiai, Nayoie e?ano ia aue auaeai; ieaiiua
o?enoeaia auee i?aaeinoaaeaiu naiae ai?ueeie o/anoe a ?oeao Naeaaeeia,
Aneaeii aeieaeai aue auoue n?uo ?aai/eie n iaaeo noi?ii. Oaeie enoiae
iioiaea iaiieiee na?aeoea o?enoeai ai?ai e y?inoueth, ii aeaeaoue auei
ia/aai. Iinea caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a n Naeaaeeiii ?e/a?ae ianeieueei
iaaeaeue i?iaeee a Aeeiia e a ia/aea ieoya?y ioieue ia ?iaeeio. Yoi
iooaoanoaea i?aaenoaaeyei aeey iaai aieueoia cao?oaeiaiea. E?iia
ii?neiai iooe aie?oa Aa?iiu, eioi?iai ii, i/aaeaeii, oioae ecaaaeaoue,
ii/oe ana ae?oaea aei?iae auee aio cae?uou. Ainoaea?e e ia?iaeu Aa?iaiee
auee aieueoae /anoueth a?aaeaeaaii iano?iaiu i?ioea ?e/a?aea. Iaeiaei,
ianiio?y ia yoi, ?e/a?ae ?aoeeny ieuoue aaa?o ii Aae?eaoe/aneiio ii?th.
Ieiei aa?aaa iaaeaeo Aeaeeaae e Aaiaoeeae aai ei?aaeue nae ia iaeue.
?e/a?ae ooae io ii?y n iaiiiaeie i?iaiaeaouie e, ia?aiaeaoue, iiaoae
/a?ac O?eaoeue e Ea?eioeth. Anei?a i aai aeaeaeaiee noaei ecaanoii
aa?oeiao Eaiiieueaeo. Iiiaea niooieee ?e/a?aea auee caoaa/aiu, n iaeiei
neoaie ii aeia?aeny aei aea?aaie Y?aeaa?aa iiae Aaiie. Ecyuiue aeae aai
neoae e eiino?aiiua aeaiueae, ia eioi?ua ii aeaeae iieoiee, ia?aoeee ia
naay aieiaiea ianoiuo aeeoaeae. 21 aeaeaa?y ?e/a?ae aue noaa/ai e
caeeth/ai a caiie Aeth?aiooaei. Eae oieueei aanoue ia a?anoa ?e/a?aea
aeioea aei eiia?aoi?a, ii iaiaaeeaiii iio?aaiaae aai auaea/e. Eaiiieueae
niaeaneeny iinea oiai, eae aio iaauaee oieaoeoue 50 ouny/ ia?ie na?aa?a.
Iinea yoiai aieueoa /ai ia aiae aiaeeeneee ei?ieue naeaeaeny ieaiieeii
Aai?eoa. Ii eoiee naaa naiaiaeo eeoue iinea oiai, eae i?eian eaiioth
i?enyao eiia?aoi?o e iiiaauae auieaoeoue aueoi a 150 ouny/ ia?ie
na?aa?a. A oaa?aea 1194 a. ?e/a?ae aue ioiouai, a a na?aaeeia ia?oa
aunaaeeeny ia aiaeeeneii aa?aao. Noi?iiieee Eiaiia ia ?aoeeenue
i?ioeainoiyoue aio e anei?a neiaeeee i?oaeea. Eiiaeii ano?aoee naiaai
ei?iey iuoiuie oi?aeanoaaie. Ii oaea /a?ac aeaa ianyoea ii iaanaaaea
inoaaee Aiaeeth e ioieue a Ii?iaiaeeth. A Eeci ia?aae iei i?aaenoae
Eiaii, iaaeaaiaeaeiia iiaaaeaiea eioi?iai ai a?aiy ionoonoaey noa?oaai
a?aoa a?aie/eei n i?yiie eciaiie. ?e/a?ae, iaeiaei, i?inoee aio ana
i?anooieaiey.

A ionoonoaea ei?iey Oeeeii II aeiaeeny iaeioi?iai i?aiaeaaeaiey iaae
aiaee/aiaie ia eiioeiaioa. ?e/a?ae iiniaoee eni?aaeoue iieiaeaiea. Ii
acye Eio, iaeio ec iniiaiuo e?aiinoae Oo?aie, iaeaaeae Aiaoeaiii e
i?eioaeee e iiei?iinoe caei?aiaeiai iyoaaeieea a?aoa Aiaoeaineiai. A
neaaeothuai aiaeo ?e/a?ae aeaeioeny a Aa??e e aeaenoaiaae caeanue oae
oniaoii, /oi canoaaee Oeeeiia iiaeienaoue ie?. O?aioeocu aeieaeiu auee
ioeacaoueny io ainoi/iie Ii?iaiaeee, ii oaea?aeaee ianeieueei aaaeiuo
caieia ia Naia. Iiyoiio niaeaoaiea ia iiaei auoue i?i/iui. A 1198 a.
?e/a?ae aa?ioe iia?aie/iua ii?iaiaeneea aeaaeaiey, a caoai iiaenooiee e
caieo Oaeth-Oaa?ieue a Eeiocaia, aeaaeaeaoe eioi?iai aue eciaee/ai a
oaeiie nayce n o?aioeocneei ei?ieai. 26 ia?oa 1199 a. iinea oaeeia, a
noia?eao, ?e/a?ae ioi?aaeeny e caieo aac eao, caueuaiiue oieueei oeaiii.
Ai a?aiy aiy a?aaeaoiay no?aea aeoaiei aiiceeanue ei?ieth a iea/i,
?yaeii n oaeiui ioaeaeii iicaiii/ieea. Ia iiaeaa aeaea, /oi ii ?aiai,
?e/a?ae iineaeae a naie eaaa?ue. Ie iaeei aaaeiue i?aai ia aue caaeao,
ii a ?acoeueoaoa iaoaea/iie iia?aoeee ia/aeinue ca?aaeaiea e?iae.
I?iaieaa iaeeiiaaeoeaoue aeiae, ei?ieue oia?.

Aai?eo VIII

Aai?eo VIII (Henry VIII Tudor) (28 ethiy 1491, A?eiae/ — 28 yiaa?y 1547,
Eiiaeii), aiaeeeneee ei?ieue n 1509 aiaea, ec aeeianoee Othaei?ia, iaeei
ec iaeaieaa y?eeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aiaeeeneiai aaniethoecia. A oi?aaeaiee
ainoaea?noaii Aai?eo VIII iie?aeny ia naieo oaai?eoia: Oiiana Oiene,
Oiiana E?iiaaey, Oiiana E?aiia?a. A aai i?aaeaiea a Aiaeee auea
i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?iaoeey, eioi?oth ei?ieue ?anniao?eaae eae n?aaenoai a
oe?aieaiee naiaai naiiaea?aeaaey e iiiieiaiey eaciu. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
iiaiaeii e ?aoi?ia aiaeeeneie oea?eae iineoaeee ioeac ?eineiai iaiu
Eeeiaioa VII ooaa?aeeoue ?acaiae Aai?eoa VIII e Aeaoa?eiu A?aaiineie e
aai aeaieoueao ia Aiia Aieaei. Iinea ?ac?uaa n iaiie ia?eaiaio a 1534
aiaeo i?iaicaeanee ei?iey aeaaie aiaeeeneie oea?eae. Iaiiaeaiiay
oea?eiaue nio?aieea eaoiee/aneea ia?yaeu e iieo/eea iacaaiea
aiaeeeaineie oea?eae. Aunooieaoee i?ioea ?ac?uaa n ?eineei iaiie
eaioeea? Oiian Ii? aue iaaeiai a ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia e eaciai a 1535
aiaeo. Aai?eo VIII a 1536 e 1539 aiaeao i?iaae naeoey?ecaoeeth
iiianou?neeo caiaeue, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioi?uo ia?aoea a ?oee iiaiai
aeai?yinoaa. Nii?ioeaeaiea, iniaaiii neeueiia ia naaa?a Aiaeee
(«Aeaaiaeaoiia iaeiiie/anoai»), aeanoiei iiaeaaeyeinue ei?ieaaneeie
aieneaie. A nayce n naeoey?ecaoeeae oneeeeny i?ioeann yeni?ii?eaoeee
e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia, ?aci?aiey e?anoueyi. Aeey ai?ueau n a?iaeyaaie e
ieueie Aai?eo VIII ecaeae «E?iaaaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?ioea
yeni?ii?ee?iaaiiuo». Iaeiaei, a oneiaeyo ia/aaoaainy aa?a?iiai
ia?aai?ioa, ei?ieue iuoaeny nio?aieoue noa?oth oaiaeaeueioth no?oeoo?o
caieaaeaaeaiey, a /anoiinoe, i?iaiaeee ia?ii?eyoey i?ioea iai?aaeeaaiee.
A aiaeu i?aaeaiey Aai?eoa VTII Aiaeey aaea ?aci?eoaeueiua aieiu n
O?aioeeae e Oioeaiaeeae, eioi?ua aeoia n a?iiaaeiuie ?anoiaeaie
ei?ieaaneiai aeai?a i?eaaee e iieiiio ?anno?ienoao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia.

Aeeoi?ey

Aeeoi?ey (1819-1861)- ei?ieaaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee ec Aaiiiaa?neie aeeianoee,
i?aaeaoay a 1837-1901 aiaeu. Aei/ue Yaeaa?aea, aa?oeiaa Eaioneiai, e
Aeeoi?ee Naenai-Eiao?aneie. Caioaeai n 1840 aiaea ca i?eioeai Aeueaa?oii
Naenai-Eiao?aneei (?iaeeeny a 1819 a. + 1861 a.).

Ioaoe Aeeoi?ee, aa?oeia Eaioneee, ieeiaaea ia ioee/aaoeeny i?eia?iui
ia?acii aeecie, oia?, eiaaea aei/a?e auei ainaiue ianyoeaa. Aa iaoue,
i?eioeanna Naenai-Eiao?aneay, ainieouaaea aei/ue a aieueoie no?iainoe e
ia aaeiaaea aa ?acaea/aieyie. Aoaeouay ei?ieaaa iieo/eea i/aiue
nieeaeiia ia?aciaaiea. Ianoaaieeii aa aue ei?ae Iaeueao?i, aeaaaeaeu
auaoee i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii. Ii /eoae i?eioeanna eaeoeee ii ainoaea?noao e
i?aao, enoi?ee, ciaeiiee aa n i?aeoeeie eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaeaiey.
Aeeoi?ey naiaiaeii aeaaeaea iaiaoeeei, o?aioeocneei e eoaeueyineei
ycueaie. Iao/aiea iioei ae ai?ie. Oaea n ia?auo /ania i?aaeaiey,
ianiio?y ia naie thiue aic?ano. Aeeoi?ey ia eniuouaaea ieeaeeo
eieaaaiee, aoaeoi aeaaii auea ia o?iia. Naiaio aeyaea, aaeueaeeneiio
ei?ieth Eaiiieueaeo, iia ienaea: «ss i/aiue iieiaea, ii anee ia ai anao,
oi ai iiiaeo aeaeao y ioithaeue ia iiao n/eoaoue naay ianaaaeouae».
Iaeiaei iiia/aeo thioth ei?ieaao ai?acaei aieaa caieiaee oaeiaieuenoaey.
Io?aoeaoenue io caieiooiai ia?aca aeecie, iia ioioii aanaeeeanue, /anoi
ono?aeaaea aaeu e i?eaiu. Oieueei iinea caioaeanoaa oa?aeoa? ei?ieaau
eciaieeny. I?eioe Aeueaa?o, ca eioi?iai Aeeoi?ey auoea caioae a 1840 a.,
aue /aeiaaeii iaoiaee/iui e ioieooaeueiui. Iiae aai aeeyieai
naiaaieueiay aeaaooea i?aa?aoeeanue a iiiaoeith, niciathuoth naie aeiea
ia?aae ia?iaeii. Aeeoi?ey ai anai neooaeanue aai niaaoia e anth aeeciue
no?anoii ethaeea aai. Aiaee/aia, ai?i/ai, ia ?acaeaeyee aa oaea/aiey e
anaaaea iaiiiai iaaeiethaeeaaee Aeueaa?oa. Oieueei nei?iiinoeaeiay
nia?oue i?eioea-noi?oaa (ii oia? a aic?anoa anaai 42 eao) i?eie?eea eo n
aai iaiyoueth. Aeey Aeeoi?ee nia?oue ioaea auea oaeei oaea?ii, io
eioi?iai iia ia niiaea ii?aaeoueny ieeiaaea. Ia?aia a?aiy, caoai?ynue a
/aou?ao noaiao, iia ioeacuaaeanue i?eieiaoue o/anoea a ioaee/iuo
oea?aiiieyo. «Iiy aeeciue eae aeeciue n/anoeeaiai /aeiaaea ieii/eeanue,
— ienaea iia aeyaea Eaiiieueaeo, — ie? iiia?e aeey iaiy». Iinea nia?oe
Aeueaa?oa aeaaiie oeaeueth aeecie Aeeoi?ey iinoaaeea oaaeiaa/aiea aai
iaiyoe. Iia iaienaea e ecaeaea ianeieueei ainiiieiaiee i iai. N?aco aea
aicieeea eaeay no?ieoaeuenoaa iaii?eaea a aai /anoue. Ii ia?aui aue
iino?iai ciaiaieoue e?oaeue Aeueaa?o-oiee — ia?iiiue cae, eniieuecoaiue
aeey aunoaaie, ieoeiaia e eiioea?oia. Aeeoi?ey ii/oe ni?ie eao iineea
o?ao? ii ioaeo e aeaeiaaeanue, /oi ae ia oaaoaao aai niaaoia.
(Nouanoaoao aiaeaeio, /oi ei?ieaaa naycuaaeanue n noi?oaii e iinea
nia?oe iin?aaenoaii nie?eoe/aneeo naainia, eioi?ua ono?aeaae aeey iaa
neoaa Aeaeii A?aoi.) Iiaiai niaao/eea ei?ieaaa iaoea oieueei a 1874 a. a
eeoea eeaea?a ** oi?e Aeec?ayee. Ii ona?aeii acyeny ca oe?aieaiea
einoeoooa iiia?oee, oaaaeea Aeeoi?eth e /eaiia aa naiaenoaa /aua
iieacuaaoueny ia?iaeo. A 1876 a. ii aeinoaaee ei?ieaaa i/aiue euenoeaoee
ae oeooe «eiia?ao?eoeu Eiaeee». I?eoaaeoee a 1880 a. ia niaio Aeec?ayee
Aeaaenoii ei?ieaaa ieeiaaea ia i?aaeeny, e iia iinoiyiii nni?eeanue n
aai ieieno?aie. Ieooo, /oi Aeeoi?ey auea iaauniea ?inoii e naia a oooeo
aiai?eea i?i naay: «Iu, iaeiaei, aeiaieueii iaauniee aeey ei?ieaau». Aa
o?oaeii auei iacaaoue e?aneaie, ii iia, ianiiiaiii, auea i?eaeaeaoaeueia
aeey ioae/ei. Iaeaiueeay, oienoaiueeay, iia, ianiio?y ia yoi, eacaeanue
i/aiue aaee/aaie. E a noa?inoe iia nio?aieea e?aneaue aiein e caiieee
niao, a aa aieoaua, /ooue-/ooue ia aueaoa, aeaca aeyaeaee iieiaei e
i?iieoeaoaeueii. Aei naiiai eiioea naiae aeieaie aeecie ei?ieaaa eiaea
oi?ioaa caei?iauea e caaeaeioth ?aaioiniiniaiinoue. Ioieooaeueiay aei
iaiee, iia ethaeea, /oiau aeie aa auee caiieiaiu, iaoiaee/iu e
iiiioiiiu. Ii oo?ai ei?ieaaa iau/ii auacaeaea eaoaoueny ii ia?eo, caoai
aica?auaeanue ai aeai?aoe e i?eieiaeanue ca i?iniio? aeieoiaioia.
Eiee/anoai aoiaa, eioi?ua ae i?eoiaeeeinue iiaeienuaaoue, auei ia?iiii.
Iia aeioioii aieeaea ai ana aeaea, e ieeiaaea ie iaeii aaaeiia ?aoaiea
ia i?eieiaeinue aac aa o/anoey. Oea?noaiaaiea Aeeoi?ee aeeeeinue 64
aiaea, e iia ii i?aao ai?aeeeanue ei. A yoe aiaeu Aiaeey aeiaeeanue
aaee/aeoeo oniaoia a eiaeono?eaeueiii ?acaeoee, oi?aiaea, oeiainao,
ii?neii o?ainii?oa e ?anoe?aiee eiia?ee, naeaeaeanue neiaieii
onoie/eainoe, ii?yaei/iinoe e i?ioeaaoaiey. E nia?aiaiieee, e iioiiee
naycuaaee yoe oniaoe n eiaiai ei?ieaau. Nia?oue e oi?aeanoaaiiua
iioi?iiu 82-eaoiae Aeeoi?ee eiaee aeey anao aiaee/ai ia?iiiue
neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Any iaoeey iniciaaaea, /oi i?iuaaony n /ai-oi,
/oi oaea ieeiaaea ia iiaoi?eony. Oioy, eiia/ii, ia ana iocuau i Aeeoi?ee
auee iaeiicia/iu. Ia?yaeo n ainoaaeaieyie cao/aee e o?acaua iocuau i
iae. Oae, O. A?aio ienae a naieo caieneao: «Ec oiai, /oi y neuoae i
ei?ieaaa a iineaaeiea aiaeu aa aeecie, yanoaoao, /oi iia auea aeiaieueii
aaiaeueiie ii/oaiiie noa?ie aeaiie e iaiiieiaea iiiaeo iaoeo aaeia n
ia?aie/aiiuie acaeyaeaie, aac anyeiai iiieiaiey eneonnoaa e eeoa?aoo?u,
ethaeea aeaiueae, iaeaaeaea iaeioi?ui oiaieai ?acae?aoueny a aeaeao e
iaeioi?uie iieeoe/aneeie niiniaiinoyie, ii eaaei iiaeaeaaaeanue eanoe e
ethaeea aa… Ai?i/ai, ioaeeea noaea aeaeaoue a eiioea eiioeia a yoie
noa?ie aeaia ia/oi a?iaea oaoeoa eee eaeiea».

Ei?ieue A?oo? e ?uoea?e E?oaeiai Noiea

A iaiyoe /aeiaa/anoaa nouanoaotho o?e A?oo?a — A?oo? enoi?e/aneee, A?oo?
eaaaiae e A?oo? ?uoea?neeo ?iiaiia, i?e/?i iaeei ia?ac ieaaii ia?aoaeaao
a ae?oaie. Ia?ac A?oo?a enoi?e/aneiai naycai n niauoeyie,
i?ienoiaeeaoeie a ?eineie eee, oi/iaa, iino?eineie A?eoaiee.

Ieiei 550 a. iiiao Nayoie Aeeueaean iaienae ni/eiaiea “I ?aci?aiee e
caaiaaaiee A?eoaiee”. Ia iacuaay ie ei?i, ie aeao, ii aiai?ee, /oi
“niaaoieee aianoa n ai?aeui ei?ie?i aaaee a no?aio y?inoiuo naenia,
iaiaaenoiuo Aiao e ethaeyi, aeey ioii?a naaa?iui ieaiaiai”. Iicaeiaa
a?eoou eca?aee naiei i?aaeoaeai n oeooeii eiia?aoi? iioiiea ?eieyi
Aia?iney Aa?aeeaia, eioi?ue iai?n naenai ?aoeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea o ai?u
Aaaeii (oi/iia ianoiiieiaeaiea ia onoaiiaeaii).

Oaeno Aeeueaeana ia i/aiue ynai. Ia aiieia iiiyoii, eoi ?oeiaiaeee yoie
aeoaie, aiciiaeii, e ia Aia?inee; a /anoiinoe, oai aea oiiieiaaony iaeee
Iaaeaaaeue (eao. Ursus). Ia iaeiii ec eaeueoneeo ycueia (aaeeeeneii)
“iaaeaaaeue” — “atru”. He eneeth/aii, /oi yoi — ia?aia oiiieiaiea ia
A?oo?a.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI a. aaeeeeneee aa?ae Aiae?ei ni/eiee iiyio
“Aiaeiaeaeei”, a eioi?ie ?anneacuaaaony i aeaaee iaeiiai ec a?eooneeo
ieai?i. Iaeei ec aa?iaa iiyiu — aiaeaeue A?oo?, niaeue aiei, ioae?ue
i?aaeoaeue, ii iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaeaiaeeoaeue io?yaea io/ayiiuo
aieiai?acia. Anee yoi ia iicaeiaeoay anoaaea (aei ian iiyia aeioea a
?oeiiene XIII a.), oi ia?aae iaie, aannii?ii, naiia ae?aaiaa oiiieiaiea
ia A?oo?a.

Iineaaeiaa oiiieiaiea ia A?oo?a a aieaa eee iaiaa enoi?e/aneii eiioaenoa
ano?a/aaony a iaienaiiuo a X a. aiiieiiuo “Aiiaeao Eaia?ee” (Eaia?ey —
ae?aaiaa iacaaiea Oyeuena.). “Aiiaeu” niiauatho: “516 a. Aeoaa i?e
Aaaeiia, ai a?aiy eioi?ie A?oo? iinee ia naieo iea/ao e?ano Ainiiaea
iaoaai Eenona O?enoa o?e aeiy e o?e ii/e, e a?eoou auee iiaaaeeoaeyie”;
“537 a. Aeoaa i?e Eaieaiia (aeaeeii, ?aea Eaiaeai, iuia Eaiae ia
iieoino?iaa Ei?ioiee.), ai a?aiy eioi?ie A?oo? e Iaae?aoo oaeee ae?oa
ae?oaa, e ii? ianooiee a A?eoaiee e E?eaiaeee”.

Nia?aiaiiua o/?iua n/eoatho aanueia aa?iyoiui ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaeoaey, aiciiaeii iineaoaai oeooe eiia?aoi?a a?eooia e ?eieyi,
Aia?iney Aa?aeeaia, eioi?ue ia ?oaaaea V e VI aa. aicaeaaeye ai?ueao n
aa?iaioeaie. I?e i?i iia auoue aiaia/aeueiee eee i?inoi aiaeaeue
ae?oaeeiu, ianoiue aeeoaeue (aiciiaeii, ec Oyeuena) A?oo?, iai?noee
naenai ?yae nouanoaaiiuo ii?aaeaiee, iniaaiii i?e ai?a Aaaeii. Iinea
yoiai aa?iaineia caaiaaaiea A?eoaiee i?einoaiiaeeinue i?eia?ii ia 50
eao. Oniaeoeu a noaia iiaaaeeoaeae i?eaaee e aeaaee A?oo?a.

Ii?aaeae?iiui yoaiii neiaeaiey eaaaiaeu ia A?oo?a yaeyaony iaienaiiia
ii-aaeeeenee ia iicaeiaa ia/aea XII a. ni/eiaiea “Eoeueaio e Ieueaai” —
aiaaou?neay neacea i aa?ie/aneii naaoianoaa. A iae aa?ie iiiaaeatho ei
aeai?o ei?iey A?oo?a — ioaaaeiiai e iiuoiiai aiaia/aeueieea, ioae?iai,
oaae?iiiai naaeeiaie i?aaeoaey.

Ia?aoiaeii io eaaaiaeu e ?iiaio yaeyaony iaienaiiay iaaeaeo 1135 e 1139
aa. “Enoi?ey ei?ieae A?eoaiee” aaeeeeneiai nayuaiieea, iicaeiaa —
aieneiia Aaeueo?eaea Iiiiooneiai. A yoii ni/eiaiee iiaanoaoaony ia
enoi?ee A?eoaiee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i aei i?eia?ii ia/aea VIII a.
Caeanue ia?aneacaii iiiaeanoai eaaaiae, a oii /enea enoi?ey A?oo?a. Aio
iia a eceiaeaiee Aaeueo?eaea.

I?eaeeae?iiue ei?iey A?eoaiee Eiinoaioa Ai?oaae?i caoaaoee i?anoie e
oaee ei?iey. Aai iaeieaoiea a?aouey Aa?aeee Aia?icee (oae o Aaeueo?eaea)
e Ooa? Iaiae?aaii aaaeaee a A?aoaiue. Aiynue ianoe caeiiiuo
ianeaaeieeia, Ai?oaae?i i?ecuaaao e naaa naenia. Ei aeai?o Ai?oeaa?ia,
i?eauaaao thiue iaa e i?i?eoeaoaeue Ia?eei; ii Aaeueo?eaeo, Ia?eeia
oaeaea ciaoo Aia?iceai. Ia?eei i?i?i/anoaoao i iaaeaiee oco?iaoi?a,
aica?auaiee caeiiiuo iiia?oia e iiyaeaiee a aoaeouai ei?iey, eioi?ue
ecaiieo a?aaia. Aa?aeee Aia?icee aica?auaaony, no?aia i?eaaonoaoao aai
eae caeiiiiai iiia?oa, a oco?iaoi? aeaiao. Iiaue ei?ieue iaiineo ?yae
ii?aaeaiee naenai, a iinea aai nia?oe ia i?anoie ainoiaeeo aai a?ao Ooa?
Iaiae?aaii.

Ei aeai?o Ooa?a, aaea a ea/anoaa niaaoieea aeea?o Ia?eei, i?eacaeaao
i?aaeoaeue Ei?ioaee (Ei?ioieea) Ai?eie n aeaiie, i?ae?aniie Eia?aiie.
Ooa? aethaeyaony a ia? e i?iieeaao e iae a Oeioaaae, caiie a? ioaea, a
iaee/uee Ai?eiy, eioi?ia aieoaanoaii i?eaeae ei?ieth Ia?eei. Io yoie
nayce, ne?aie?iiie caeiiiui a?aeii, anei?a iinea nia?oe Ai?eiy ?iaeeony
A?oo?.

Oai a?aiaiai naenu aiciaiiaeytho naie iaiaaeaiey. Aieueiie e noa?ue Ooa?
aea?o ei n?aaeaiea i?e Aaaeiia, auea?aiiia a?eooaie aeaaiaea?y ioaeanoao
thiiai A?oo?a. Iiaaaeae?iiua a?aae, iaeiaei, oia?uaeytho Ooa?a n
iiiiuueth yaea, e ii iauaio ?aoaieth ia i?anoie ainoiaeeo 15-eaoiee
A?oo?.

A?aiy i?aaeaiey A?oo?a — yiioa iaeaunoaai iiaouanoaa a?eooia. Ii
i?eniaaeeiyao e naiei aeaaeaieyi Aaeeeth, Eaa?ieth, Eneaiaeeth e
Aeaieth. A?oo? iaia?aaaaony oaeaea ecaiaoue ec ?eia oco?iaoi?a Eooeey e
aiceiaeeoue ia naay eiia?aoi?neoth ei?iio. Aio oaea?ony ?acaeoue Eooeey,
ii ooo ec A?eoaiee iinooiatho ecaanoey i oii, /oi aai ieaiyiiee caoaaoee
aeanoue e aeaieeny i?e aeeaii ioaea ia noi?oaa ei?iey ei?ieaaa
Aaeiueaa?a. A?oo? aica?auaaony, a n?aaeaiee i?e Eaiaeaia ?acaeaaao
aienei Iiae?aaea e oaeaaao aai, ii e nai a yoie aeoaa iieo/aao
nia?oaeueioth ?aio (Aaeueo?eae iacuaaao aeaoo: 542 a.). Ei?iey
ia?ai?aaeytho ia ino?ia Aaaeeii (ii eaeueoneei ieoai, ino?ia aa/iie
aeecie ia Caiaaea, iaeee ino?ia aeaaeaiiuo e iaeiia?aiaiii no?aia
i??oauo, ?ae eaeueoia-ycu/ieeia).

A “Enoi?ee a?eooia” Aaeueo?eaea niaea?aeeony aieueoeinoai nthaeaoia
iicaeiaeoeo ?iiaiia, ii ia ana. A na?aaeeia XII a. a noeoioai?iii
ia?aeiaeaiee ni/eiaiey Aaeueo?eaea, “?iiaia i A?ooa”, iaienaiiii aeeaoei
i?e aiaeeeneii aeai?a o?oaa?ii ii eiaie Aan, iiyaeyaony iioea E?oaeiai
Noiea. Noie, aie?oa eioi?iai ainnaaeatho eo/oea ?uoea?e, onoaiiaeai ai
aeai?oea A?oo?a a aai noieeoea Ea?eaiia (aiciiaeii, niioaaonoaoao
nia?aiaiiiio Ea?eeiio a Oyeuena). *enei ?uoea?ae a ?iiaiao ?acee/ii — io
12 aei 150. Yoe ?uoea?e ecae?athony ca naie iiaeaeae, e eiy eaaeaeiai ec
ieo naii i?inooiaao ia neaeaiuea ca aiae aei oiai, eae yoio ?uoea?ue
yaeony ei aeai?o. Aieueoeinoai ?uoea?ae E?oaeiai Noiea ecaanoiu ec
ni/eiaiey Aaeueo?eaea e aeaaea aieaa ?aiieo oaenoia. A?eooneiai aiaeaey
VI a. Iaaeia, caeanue iacuaatho ieaiyiieeii A?oo?a Eayiii, ae?oaiai
aiaeaey — Aa?aeioa, ecaanoiiai a 706 e 710 aa., — Y?aeii. Aaeueo?eae
iacuaaao ae?oaiai ieaiyiieea A?oo?a, ?iaeiiai a?aoa Iiae?aaea —
Aaeueaaiey, eioi?ue a ?iiaiao noaiiaeony Aiaaiii (Aaaaeiii). Au? iaeei
a?eooneee aiaeaeue VI a. Ia?aae o? aeaeaaony a ?iiaiao Ia?naaaeai
(Ia?oeeoaeai). Iicaeiaa ae?oaeo, eeoue a eiioea XII a., aaiaeeony ia?ac
eaeaaeueiiai ?uoea?y Eainaeioa, aethae?iiiai a ei?ieaao Aaeiueaa?o.

Iiyaeythony ?iiaiu, iinayuaiiua aeaonoao A?oo?a. Aai i?y/oo io a?aaia a
A?aoaie ii niaaoo Ia?eeia, e ieeoi ia ciaao, aaea ianeaaeiee i?anoiea.
A?oo? iiyaeyaony oieueei ai a?aiy aeoau i?e Aaaeiia e, /oiau aeieacaoue
caeiiiinoue naiaai ?iaeaeaiey, ecaeaeaao ec eaiiy ia/ Yeneaeeao?,
eioi?ui iiaeao aeaaeaoue eeoue caeiiiue iiia?o. Aicieeatho e iaeioi?ua
ianneaineea iioeau: iinea aeoau n Iiae?aaeii e aeaaee naiaai ei?ieaanoaa
A?oo? ia?aiineony ia Aaaeeii, ii ia iaanaaaea. Ii aoaeao aeaeaoue naiaai
/ana e aa?i?ony a o?oaeiue aeey A?eoaiee iiiaio, aeaau io?aceoue
iaiaaeaiea a?aaia. Caaa?oaieai a?oo?ianeie oaiu noae i?icae/aneee ?iiai
aiaee/aieia Oiiana Iyei?e “Nia?oue A?oo?a”, yaeythueeny iaeiia?aiaiii e
ia?aaiaeii ninoaaeaiiiai ia ?oaaaea XIII e XIV aa. naiaea o?aioeocneeo
i?icae/aneeo ?iiaiia ia A?oo?a, e i?eaeiaeueiie ?ac?aaioeie nthaeaoa. A
yoie eieaa ianeieueei iaiythony e niauathony niauoey aeia?aoee A?oo?a.
Iioiae ia ?ei i?ienoiaeeo a ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey A?oo?a e i?ioiaeeo
oniaoii. Iiiuoea caoaaoeoue o?ii e ei?ieaao (iia ia aeaeaao auoiaeeoue
ca Iiae?aaea) i?aaei?eieiaaony iioiio, /oi aienei A?oo?a aithao n
Eainaeioii, iaaei?iiui a ethaiaiie nayce n Aaeiueaa?ie, e iiiaea ?uoea?e
oaea iiaeaee a ai?ueaa n iei. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e/eia aeaaee ei?ieaanoaa
A?oo?a — a ?aneiea n?aaee ?uoea?ae E?oaeiai Noiea, a i?aaeaoaeuenoai
Iiae?aaea — eeoue iineaaeiee oie/ie.

Au? a XII a. A?oo? noaiiaeony iiioey?iaeoei aa?iai Aa?iiu. Ieiei 1190 a.
a aaaaonoaa Aeanoiiaa?e yeiau iaoiaeyo iiaeeo A?oo?a. A 1312 a. iiyo
AEae aea Eiiueii a iiyia “Iaaou iaaeeia” auaiaeeo aeaayoue eo/oeo aieiia
anao a?ai?i e ia?iaeia. Yoi o?e ycu/aneeo ?uoea?y — Aaeoi?, Aeaenaiae?
Iaeaaeiineee e THeee Oeaca?ue; o?e eoaeaeneeo — Eenon Iaaei, oea?ue
Aeaaeae e Eoaea Iaeeaaae; o?e o?enoeaineeo — ei?ieue A?oo?, Ea?e Aaeeeee
e caaiaaaoaeue Ea?onaeeia Aioo?eae Aoeueiineee. A XV a. iaeei ec
o?aioeocneeo i?eaeai?iuo ana?ue?c ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaoaea/e Aiaeee a
Noieaoiae aieia iauyniythony oai, /oi eo/oea ?uoea?e yoie no?aiu iaee
iaeiaaea aianoa n ei?ie?i A?oo?ii.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?ac?aaioeie aeia?aoee A?oo?a i?ienoiaeeo e eiia ?acaeoea
yoie oaiu a ?iiaiao: iiyaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey i oao
eee eiuo ?uoea?yo E?oaeiai Noiea, ia eo iiaeaeaao. A XIII a. a eieaa
?iaa?oa aea Ai?iia “Eineo A?eiaoaeneee, eee ?iiai ia enoi?ee A?aaey”
aia?aua iiyaeyaony oaia A?aaey — /aoe, ec eioi?ie O?enoin iee ai a?aiy
Oaeiie aa/a?e e a eioi?oth Eineo A?eiaoaeneee nia?ae Aai e?iaue.
Iaeiia?aiaiii A?aaeue — aieoaaiue anaianuuathuee eio?e eaeueoneeo ieoia,
a a ?iiaia Aieueo?aia oii Yoaiaaoa “Ia?oeeoaeue” (ieiei 1210 a.) — iaeee
aieoaaiue eaiaiue. N A?aaeai ninaaenoaoao eiiue? nioieea Eiiaeia,
caaa?oeaoaa e?anoioth ioeo O?enoa, ii iaeiia?aiaiii iii — iaae/aneia
i?oaeea eaeueoneeo ieoia, enoeaeythuaa iaiineiua ei aea ?aiu. Yoe
nayuaiiua ?aeeeaee o?aiyony a caeieaeiaaiiii caiea Iiinaeueaao, e
ia?anoe eo iiaeao oieueei eaeaaeueiue ?uoea?ue, oae /oi iienee A?aaey
anoue iienee aeooiaiiai niaa?oainoaa.

Ai anao yoeo iiiai/eneaiiuo ?iiaiao A?oo? e aai aeai? i?enoonoaotho
eeoue eae oii. Oaaoea eo iau/ii oaeiaa: ia O?ieoeo a Ea?eaii e A?oo?o
nuacaeathony ?uoea?e E?oaeiai Noiea e ?anneacuaatho i naieo iiaeaeaao, e
anee eaeie-eeai ?uoea?ue, ii aai neiaai, iioa?iae iaoaea/o, ae?oaie
ioi?aaeyaony caaa?oaoue aai aeaei. Eeai ei aeai?o A?oo?a i?eauaaao iaeee
i?ineoaeue, /aua anaai aeaaeoea, o?aaothuay naa?oeoue iaeia aeaenoaea —
iai?eia?, inaiaiaeeoue ai?iae io caeeyoey, oaeoue ae?aeiia e o. ae.
?uoea?e ?acuacaeathony eee a iieneao i?eeeth/aiee, eee a no?aieaiee
ia?anoe A?aaeue. Aeaeaa iiaanoaoaony ia eo aeayieyo. A?oo? a yoeo
?iiaiao — oaae?iiue naaeeiaie ioae?ue e aacaeayoaeueiue ei?ieue, ia
i?eieiathuee o/anoey a i?eeeth/aieyo, ii yaeythueeny eae au aa?aioii
aicaeaaeyaiiai ei ie?a.

A?oo? oa?yao naith aeia?aoeth, a aai ei?ieaanoai — aaia?aoe/aneea
(ionoue e eaaceaaia?aoe/aneea) e enoi?e/aneea (ionoue e
eaaceenoi?e/aneea) i/a?oaiey. Yoi oaea ia iaeay eaaaiaea?iay A?eoaiey, a
aanue o?enoeaineee (e aeaaea iao?enoeaineee — a ?iiaiao i?enoonoaotho
naiaeiue a?ao Ia?oeeoaey iaa? Oae?aoeoe e aethae?iiue a Ecieueaeo
na?aoeeineee ?uoea?ue Iaeaiaae) ie?, ethaia ianoi, aaea aeaenoaotho
?uoea?e E?oaeiai Noiea. Yoi — ia neaaiia i?ioeia A?eoaiee, a ia
nouanoaiaaaoee ieeiaaea e iaeiia?aiaiii nouanoaothuee caeanue e nae/an
eaeaaeueiue ?uoea?neee einiin, a eioi?ii Mipqaoja aeieaeii ?aaeueii
aeeoue, aa?iyi eioi?iai iiaeii e aeieaeii iiae?aaeaoue naiui na?ue?ciui
ia?acii, eae -iiae?aaeaee ei ?aaeueiua no?ainoaothuea ?uoea?e XIV—XV aa.
eee nicaeaiiue aaieai Na?aaioana Aeii Eeoio Eaiai/neee.

Ia?ey Notha?o

Ia?ey Notha?o (Mary Stuart, Stewart) (8 aeaeaa?y 1542, Eeieeoaao,
Oioeaiaeey – 8 oaa?aey 1587, Oioa?eiaae, Ii?oaaiioii, Aiaeey), ei?ieaaa
Oioeaiaeee n 1542 aiaea (oaeoe/anee n 1561) ii 1567 aiae e O?aioeee
(1559-1560); i?aoaiaeiaaea oaeaea ia aiaeeeneee i?anoie. Aei/ue
oioeaiaeneiai ei?iey sseiaa V Notha?oa e Ia?ee aea Aec. Ainnoaiea
oioeaiaeneie eaeueaeienoneie ciaoe auioaeeei Ia?eth io?a/ueny io
i?anoiea e aaaeaoue a Aiaeeth; ii i?eeaco aiaeeeneie ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou
I Othaei? iia auea caeeth/aia a oth?ueio e iicaeiaa eaciaia. A
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a (a /anoiinoe, a o?aaaaeee O. Oeeea?a) ia?ac
Ia?ee Notha?o, eae i?aaeei, eaeaaeece?iaai.Ioaoe Ia?ee oia? /a?ac
ianeieueei aeiae iinea aa ?iaeaeaiey, e iaoue-o?aioeoaeaiea, noaa
?aaaiooae Oioeaiaeee, a 1548 aiaeo ioi?aaeea aa ai O?aioeeth. Aeaai/ea
ainieouaaeanue i?e o?aioeocneii aeai?a ea 1558 aiaeo auea auaeaia caioae
ca aeioeia O?aioeenea (n 1559 – ei?ieue O?aioeene II Aaeoa). Iinea
nia?oe Ia?ee I Othaei? a 1558 aiaeo Ia?ey Notha?o ia i?aaao i?aaio/ee
Aai?eoa VII i?eiyea aa?a e oeooe ei?ieaau aiaeeeneie. Oai naiui Ia?ey
Notha?o iieacaea, /oi n/eoaao Aeecaaaoo I iacaeiiiie aei/a?ueth Aai?eoa
VIII. Iinea nia?oe ioaea (aeaeaa?ue 1560) iia aa?ioeanue a Oioeaiaeeth
(aaaono 1561), aaea e oiio a?aiaie auei aanueia neeueii aeeyiea
eaeueaeienoia, eaeaeiui aiaeaeai eioi?uo aue Aeaeii Iien, a aeeaeaeoei
nithcieeii – i?ioanoaionoeay Aiaeey. Ia?ey, inoaaaynue eaoiee/eie,
iiae/eieeanue i?iaiaeeeneei i?ioanoaioneei neeai e naeaeaea iaeiiai ec
eo aiaeaeae, naiaai naiaeiiai a?aoa Aeaeaeina, a?aoa Ia??ay, ia?aui
ieieno?ii. Aa a?aaii aunooieea Aeecaaaoa I Othaei?, eioi?ay ioeacaeanue
i?eciaoue Ia?eth naiae i?aaiieoeae ia aiaeeeneii i?anoiea e iinoa?aeanue
iiiaoaoue aoi?e/iiio caioaeanoao oioeaiaeneie ei?ieaau.Anei?a Ia?ey
ia?aoea ia noi?iio eaoiee/aneie ia?oee, aicaeaaeyaoaeny aa
?iaenoaaiieeaie Aecaie a nithca n Eniaieae e iaiie ?eineei. A ethea 1565
aiaea iia auoea caioae ca naiaai eocaia eaoieeea Aai?e Aea?iee e
ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaea n i?ioanoaioaie, a oii /enea n Ia??aai. A?ae
ieacaeny iaoaea/iui; ii i?eeacaieth Aea?iee aeiaa?aiiue nae?aoa?ue
ei?ieaau, eoaeueyiaoe Aeaaeae ?e//ei 9 ia?oa 1566 aiaea aue ca?acai o aa
aeaa?ae. Naia Ia?ey aaaeaea a Aeaiaa? e iio?aaiaaea o ioaea oaeaeeoue
iaeaieaa aeeceeo e iaio ethaeae. 19 ethiy 1566 aiaea iia ?iaeeea a
Noa?eeiaa nuia, a iineaaeothuai oioeaiaeneiai ei?iey sseiaa VI Notha?oa
(ii aea sseia I, aoaeouee ei?ieue Aiaeee).Ioiioaiey n Aea?iee
oooaeoaeenue, e oaai?eoii Ia?ee noae Aeaeaein Oaiaa?i, a?ao Ainoyee.
Aianoa n ianeieueeeie eaeueaeienoneeie aeai?yiaie ii ninoaaee caaiai?
i?ioea Aea?iee. A ii/ue n 9 ia 10 oaa?aey 1567 aiaea iie caaeooeee aai e
aci?aaee aai aeii. Noae e ia?eaiaio Oioeaiaeee ia i?eciaee Ainoyeea
aeiiaiui. Ia?ey iacia/eea aai aaeeeei aaeie?aeii e, iinea oiai eae
ia?aue a?ae Ainoyeea aue ?anoi?aioo ec-ca aeeceiai ?iaenoaa noi?oaia, 15
iay 1567 aiaea iaaai/aeanue n iei ii i?ioanoaioneiio e ii -eaoiee/aneiio
ia?yaeai. Ana yoe niauoey aucaaee iaaeiaieuenoai i?eaeeaeaiiuo ei?ieaau
e oioeaiaeneie ciaoe. Ainoyee aue iaiiioey?ai a ia?iaea. Eaeueaeienou a
ia/aea eaoa 1567 aiaea iiaeiyee aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea; Ia?ey, aienea
eioi?ie ioeacaeenue aa caueuaoue a noieeiiaaiee o Ia?aa?e-Oeeea, 15
ethey 1567 iieeioea ioaea e i?aaeaea naay a ?oee aai i?ioeaieeia. Aa
i?eaacee a caiie Ei/eaaai e iiae oa?icie iaaeiaiey a oaeenoaa Aea?iee
canoaaeee io?a/ueny io i?anoiea a iieueco nuia e i?eciaoue a?aoa Ia??ay
?aaaioii. Nai Ainoyee oai a?aiaiai aaaeae a Aeaieth, 25 ethey 1567 aiaea
nui Ia?ee sseia aue ei?iiiaai a Noa?eeiaa. 2 iay 1568 aiaea Ia?ee
oaeaeinue aaaeaoue i?e iiiiue Aeaei?aeaea Aeoaeana; iia nia?aea aienei a
6 ouny/ /aeiaae, ii Ia??ae 13 iay 1568 aiaea ?acaee aai o Eyianaeaea.
Ia?ee i?eoeinue aaaeaoue ia oa??eoi?eth Aiaeee, a Ea?eaee (a?aonoai
Eaiaa?eaiae) e ia?aoeoueny ca iiiiuueth e aiaeeeneie ei?ieaaa Aeecaaaoa.
Oa ioeacaea Ia?ee a naeaeaiee, aeey ?anneaaeiaaiey aeiiaiinoe
oioeaiaeneie ei?ieaau a oaeenoaa ioaea auea ninoaaeaia eiienney ec
aiaeeeneeo iy?ia. Iaaeieoaeai Ia?ee aunooiae Ia??ae; Ia?ey caueuaeanue n
iiiiuueth aieneiia Eanee. Aeecaaaoa iaieioee?iaaea eiienneae, ioeeiiyy
eae iaaeiaiey, oae e ii?aaaeaiey. Ia?ey Notha?o ieacaeanue a ieaio
aiaeeeneie ei?ieaau, aa ia?aaiaeeee ec iaeiiai caiea a ae?oaie. Aianoa n
oai, Ia?ey inoaaaeanue i?aoaiaeaioeie ia aiaeeeneee i?anoie a neo/aa
nia?oe aacaeaoiie Aeecaaaou. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai aiiaeooaaeyei
noi?iiieeia eaoieeoeecia a Aiaeee. Ia?ey Notha?o noaea oeaio?ii
i?eoyaeaiey anao iiiiceoeeiiiuo ei?ieaaa Aeecaaaoa nee. e thio-th/u
aiaeao iue iiaeaaeai iyoaae eaoiee/aneiai aeai?yinoaa ia naaa?a Aiaeee,
iiaeiyoue n oeaeueth inaiaiaeaeaiey Ia?ee Notha?o e ieni?iaa?aeaiey
aiaeeeainoaa. N Ia?eae ia?aienuaaeny aa?oeia Ii?oieeneee, eioi?ue
niae?aeny aeaieoueny ia iae e iieo/ae aeaiueae ec ?eia e Iaae?eaea aeey
i?aaiecaoeee aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey. Caaiai? aue ?ane?uo, e aa?oeia a
1572 aiaeo aue eaciai. A 1575 aiaeo aue ?ane?uo iiaue caaiai? eaoieeeia
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Yioiie Ayaeiaoiia, ninoaaeaiiue n oeaeueth oaeoue
Aeecaaaoo e iinaaeeoue Ia?eth ia o?ii. Ia?ey auea iaaeiaia a nio/anoee a
caaiai?a e i?aaenoaea ia?aae noaeii a caiea Oioa?eiaae. Iia i?eciaeanue
a naycyo n eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie e a inaaaeiieaiiinoe i caaiai?a
Ayaeiaoiia, ii io?eoeaea iieooaiea ia oaeenoai Aeecaaaou. Iinea iiiaeo
eao caeeth/aiey Ia?ee ana aea auee i?aaeuyaeaiu iaaeiaiey a nio/anoee a
oaeenoaa Aea?iee ia iniiaaiee oae iacuaaaiuo «ienai ec ea?oea» e
Ainoyeeo, iiaeeeiiinoue eioi?uo oae e ia auea aeieacaia. 25 ieoya?y 1586
aiaea noae auian nia?oiue i?eaiai?. Aeecaaaoa iinea aeieaeo eieaaaiee e
iiiuoee oaeii oaeoue Ia?eth n iiiiuueth yaea, 1 oaa?aey 1587 aiaea
iiaeienaea i?eaiai?. 8 oaa?aey 1587 aiaea Ia?ey Notha?o auea eaciaia:
iaea/ io?oaee ae aieiao a caea caiea Oioa?eiaae. Ii caaauaieth Aeecaaaou
aiaeeeneee o?ii oianeaaeiaae nui aa eaciaiiie niia?ieoeu sseia Notha?o.
Oaeei ia?acii, auea inouanoaeaia oiey iaaeaeo Oioeaiaeeae e Aiaeeae.
Aiineaaenoaee sseia i?eeacae iioi?iieoue oaei Ia?ee a Aanoieinoa?neii
aaaaonoaa; caiie Oioa?eiaae ii aai i?eeaco aue ?ac?ooai.

Ai?aoeei Iaeuenii

Ai?aoeei Iaeuenii ?iaeeeny 27 naioya?y 1758 a naiuea i?eoiaeneiai
nayuaiieea. Iinea ianeieueeeo eao o/aau a oeiea iinooiee thiaie ia
ei?aaeue naiaai aeyaee, eaieoaia Ii?ena Naeeeiaa, aa?iy Naieeaoiae aieiu
(1771), caoai oiaeee ia oi?aiauo e aiaiiuo noaeao a Aano- e Ino-Eiaeeth,
o/anoaiaae a iiey?iie yeniaaeeoeee (1773). Aeanoyua naeaa yecaiai ia /ei
eaeoaiaioa (1777) e oi?ioi i?iyaea naay a aieia n naaa?iaia?eeaineeie
eieiienoaie, Iaeuenii anei?a noae eaieoaiii a?eaa (1778), a caoai –
o?aaaoa (1779). A 1780, o/anoaoy a iia?aoeee ia ?. Nai-Ooai a Aiiaeo?ana
(iuia ii iae i?ioiaeeo a?aieoea iaaeaeo Ieea?aaoa e Einoa-?eeie), ii
aaeaa ia oia? io oyaeaeaeoae aeecaioa?ee.

A 1784-1787 Iaeuenii ian neoaeao a Aano-Eiaeee, aaea aeaieeny ia aaeiaa
Oaiie Ienaao, ieaiyiieoea aioeeueneiai ieaioaoi?a (1787). Aaaey oii?ioth
ai?ueao n eiio?aaaiaeie, ii ia ?ac anooiae a eiioeeeo n auoanoiyueie
ia/aeueieeaie, o?aaoy io ieo no?iaiai niaethaeaiey caeiiia. Iaaeea naaa
oaeei ia?acii iaiaei a?aaia n?aaee /eiiaieeia Aaeie?aeoaenoaa, ii ii
aica?auaiee a Aiaeeth aue oaeoe/anee ioeo/ai io oeioa e, aeeay a
aea?aaia, oeaeuo iyoue eao aeaeae iiaiai iacia/aiey.

Oieueei n ia/aeii aieiu i?ioea O?aioeee (1793) Iaeuenii iieo/ee
aeieaeiinoue eaieoaia eeiaeiiai ei?aaey a ninoaaa N?aaeecaiiiii?neie
yneaae?u. A 1793 ii i?eiye aeoeaiia o/anoea a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo iiae
Ooeiiii, a 1794 eiiaiaeiaae aeanaioii ia Ei?neea, iioa?ya i?e inaaea
e?aiinoe Eaeueae i?aaue aeac, a 13 ethey 1795 ioee/eeny a ii?neii
n?aaeaiee, i?eioaeea e naea/a o?aioeocneee ei?aaeue, iaiiiai
i?aainoiaeeaoee ii iiue aai nianoaaiiue.

Neaaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aa?iy i?eoea e Iaeueniio iinea n?aaeaiey 14
oaa?aey 1797 o iuna Naio-Aeinaio (e?aeiae thai-caiaaeiie ieiia/iinoe
Ii?ooaaeee). Ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa ii auaae naie ei?aaeue ec
eeiaeiiai no?iy yneaae?u e inouanoaee iaiaa?, eiaaoee ?aoathuaa cia/aiea
aeey ?aca?iia eniaineiai oeioa. Aeaa ec /aou?ao caoaa/aiiuo aiaee/aiaie
eniaineeo ei?aaeae auee acyou ia aai?aeaae iiae ee/iui eiiaiaeiaaieai
Iaeueniia, iieo/eaoaai ca yoio aie ?uoea?neee e?ano i?aeaia Aaie e /ei
eiio?-aaeie?aea.

A ethea 1797 i?e iaoaea/iie iiiuoea caoaaoeoue ii?o Naioa-E?on (ino?ia
Oaia?eoa) Iaeuenii iioa?ye i?aaoth ?oeo.

A iaa 1798 ao?y, ?aciaoaaoay aai yneaae?o, ia iicaieeea
aini?aiyonoaiaaoue ioieuoeth ec Ooeiia aaeiaoneie yeniaaeeoeee Iaiieaiia
Aiiaia?oa. Ionoeaoenue a iiaiith, Iaeuenii iaia?oaeee oeio i?ioeaieea a
Aaoee?neii caeeaa (onouea Ieea ). Caeanue ii oniaoii i?eiaiee
ia?aaeiaoth aeey oiai a?aiaie oaeoeeo aaaeaiey ii?neiai aiy,
caeeth/aaoothny a no?aieaiee aoaeiaaoue i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie /anoue
ei?aaeae iai?eyoaey, a caoai ia?ooeoueny ia inoaeueiua e oie/oiaeeoue
eo. 1 aaaonoa ia caeaoa ii a?inee 10 eeiaeiuo ei?aaeae i?ioea 13
o?aioeocneeo, noiyaoeo ia yei?a iiae i?ee?uoeai aa?aaiaie a?oeeea?ee, e
a i?iaeieaeaaoainy anth ii/ue aith ieaiee e oie/oiaeee 11 ec ieo, ia
iioa?ya ie iaeiiai naiaai. Aeiee?iaaiiay a Aaeioa a?iey Aiiaia?oa auea
ia?a/aia. A iaa?aaeo Aai?a III naeaeae Iaeueniia iy?ii-aa?iiii Ieea e
Aa?iai-Oi?ia

A Iaaiiea, eoaea Iaeuenii i?eaae iinea Aaoee?a ei?aaee ia ?aiiio,
ia/aeny aai ciaiaieoue ?iiai n aeaiie aiaeeeneiai iinea eaaee Yiiie
Aaieeueoii, i?iaeieaeaaoeeny aei naiie nia?oe aaeie?aea e a aeaeueiaeoai
iaiaeiie?aoii iienaiiue a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a. A 1799 Iaeuenii
ieacae iiiiuue ei?ieth iaaeo Neoeeeee Oa?aeeiaiaeo IV a iiaeaaeaiee
iaaiieeoaineie ?aaiethoeee, iieo/ea a aeaaiaea?iinoue oeooe aa?oeiaa
A?iioa.

Ii aica?auaiee a Aiaeeth Iaeuenii aue i?iecaaaeai a aeoea-aaeie?aeu
(1801) e iacia/ai ia iino 2-ai oeaaiaia Aaeoeeneie yneaae?u,
iai?aaeyaoaeny i?ioea aea?aeaa Nii?oaeaiiiai iaeo?aeeoaoa 2 ai?aey 1801
ii naeaa aeaoneee oeio a aaaaie Eiiaiaaaaia; ca yoo iiaaaeo Iaeuenii
iieo/ee oeooe aeeiioa.

A 1803, iinea aiciaiiaeaiey aieiu n O?aioeeae, Iaeuenii aicaeaaee
a?eoaineoth N?aaeecaiiiii?neoth yneaae?o. Aeaa aiaea ii aiiyeny ca
a?aaii, oeeiiyaoeiny io aaia?aeueiiai n?aaeaiey. Eeoue 21 ieoya?y 1805 o
iuna O?aoaeueaa? (naaa?iaa Aea?aeoa?a) ii ano?aoeeny n iauaaeeiaiiuie
neeaie eniaii-o?aioeocneiai oeioa e, aiiaue ioeacaaoenue io onoa?aaoae
eeiaeiie oaeoeee, iaaieiao ?aca?iiee eo. A yoii aith Iaeuenii aue
nia?oaeueii ?aiai. Aai oaei aeinoaaeee a Eiiaeii e 9 yiaa?y 1806
oi?aeanoaaiii iioi?iieee a niai?a Na. Iaaea. Ni?ie eao nionoy aia?aua
auoee ec ia/aoe aeiianaiey e ienueia Iaeueniia (1845), a n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii – aai iineaaeiee aeiaaiee (1971).

Aeaeaein Eoe

?iaeeeny 27 ieoya?y 1728 a Ia?oii-ei-Eeeaeaiaea a?aonoaa Ei?eoe? a
naiuea aao?aea-iiaeaiueea. N 7 eao noae ?aaioaoue aianoa n iooeii, a 13
ia/ae iinauaoue oeieo, aaea iao/eeny /eoaoue e ienaoue, a 17 iaiyeny a
o/aieee i?eeac/eea e oi?aiaoeo a ?uaaoeeii iinaeea e aia?aua oaeaeae
ii?a. A 1746 iinooiee thiaie ia noaeii, ia?aaicyuaa oaieue, caoai noae
iiiiuieeii eaieoaia; oiaeee a Aieeaiaeeth, Ii?aaaeth e ii?ou Aaeoeee,
aue?aeaay a?aiy ia naiiia?aciaaiea. O noaeiaeaaeaeueoea a Oeoae o/eeny
iaoaiaoeea e iaaeaaoeee. I?iyaee naay eae niiniaiue ii?ye e a 1755 iia
noaoue eaieoaiii oi?aiaiai noaeia ia Naaa?iii ii?a, ii ioeacaeny io
i?aaeeiaeaiey e caaa?aiaaeny a aiaiii-ii?neie oeio, aaea anei?a iieo/ee
caaiea ie/iaia e iaaeaeo 1759 e 1767 aue iineai a Eaiaaeo. Ianeaaeiaae
aa?aaa ?.Na. Eaa?aioey, ino?iaia Iuethoaoiaeeaiaea e Iiaie Oioeaiaeee.
Enneaaeiaae aioo?aiiea ?aeiiu, ninoaaee eioeee naaa?iie /anoe caeeaa
Nayoiai Eaa?aioey e Aiiaeo?anneiai caeeaa. A 1768 i?iecaaaeai a
eaeoaiaiou. Oi/iinoue ninoaaeaiiuo ei ea?o e naeaeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee
i?eaeaeee aieiaiea Ei?ieaaneiai aaia?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa e
Aaeie?aeoaenoaa, aua?aaoeo aai aeey auiieiaiey iniaiai caaeaiey.

O?ainen Ae?aee

O?ainen Ae?aee (Francis Drake) ?iaeeeny a 1540 aiaeo a ianoa/ea
Oaaenoie, a?aonoaa Aeaaiioe?, a naiuea aaaeiiai aea?aaaineiai nayuaiieea
Yaeioiaea Ae?aeea. A iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeao ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi a thiinoe
aai ioaoe aue ii?yeii. Aeaae O?ainena aue oa?ia?ii, aeaaeaaoee 180
ae?aie caiee. Iaoue O?ainena auea ec ?iaea Ieeaye. Anaai a naiuea
Ae?aeeia auei aeaaiaaeoeaoue aeaoae, O?ainen aue noa?oei.

O?ainen ?aii iieeioe ?iaeeoaeueneee aeii, iinooiea thiaie ia iaaieueoie
oi?aiaue ei?aaeue, aaea ii auno?i iaeaaeae eneonnoaii noaeiaiaeaeaiey.
O?oaeiethaeaue, ianoie/eaue e ?an/aoeeaue, ii i?eaeyioeny noa?iio
eaieoaio, eioi?ue iiethaee O?ainena eae ?iaeiiai nuia e caaauae aio naie
ei?aaeue. A ea/anoaa oi?aiaiai eaieoaia Ae?aee i?aaei?eiye ianeieueei
aeeeoaeueiuo iooaoanoaee a Aeneaeneee caeea e Aaeiath, aaea ii auaiaeii
caieiaeny ?aaioi?aiaeae, iinoaaeyy iaa?ia ia Aaeoe.

A 1567 aiaeo Ae?aee eiiaiaeiaae ei?aaeai a yneaae?a ecaanoiiai a oa
a?aiaia Aeaeiia Oieeeina, a?aaeaoaai n aeaaineiaaiey ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou
I iiaa?aaeuea Iaeneee. Aiaee/aiai ia iiaacei. Eiaaea iinea no?aoiie ao?e
iie ionoaeaaeenue a Nai-Ooaia, ia ieo iaiaea eniaineay yneaae?a. Oieueei
iaeei ei?aaeue ec oanoe au?aaeny ec caiaaeie e iinea o?oaeiiai ieaaaiey
aeia?aeny aei ?iaeeiu. Yoi aue ei?aaeue Ae?aeea…

A 1569 aiaeo ii aeaieeny ia aeaaooea ii eiaie Iy?e Iuethiai, i eioi?ie
iia ia oaeaeinue ie/aai ociaoue. Ecaanoii eeoue, /oi a?ae ieacaeny
aacaeaoiui. Iy?e oia?ea aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao nionoy.

Anei?a iinea yoiai Ae?aee niaa?oee aeaa ?acaaaei/iuo ieaaaiey /a?ac
ieaai, a a 1572 aiaeo i?aaieciaae naiinoiyoaeueioth yeniaaeeoeeth e
niaa?oee i/aiue oaea/iue iaaaa ia Iaiaineee ia?aoaae.

Anei?a n?aaee aeaeaei ia aeia?iaeooiuo ie?aoia e ?aaioi?aiaoeaa iieiaeie
Ae?aee noae auaeaeyoueny eae naiue aeanoieee e naiue oaea/eeaue. Ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao nia?aiaiieeia “yoi aue aeanoiue e ?acae?aaeeoaeueiue
/aeiaae n aaoaiui oa?aeoa?ii”, aeaaeiue, inoeoaeueiue e e?aeia
noaaa?iue. A oi aea a?aiy iiiaea enoi?eee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi ia oieueei
?aaee cieioa e ii/anoae i?aaei?eieiae ii ?eneiaaiiua ieaaaiey, /oi aai
i?eaeaeaea naia aiciiaeiinoue iiauaaoue oai, aaea aua ia aue ieeoi ec
aiaee/ai. Ai anyeii neo/aa, aaia?aou e ii?yee yiioe Aaeeeeo
aaia?aoe/aneeo ioe?uoee iaycaiu eiaiii yoiio /aeiaaeo iiiaeie aaaeiuie
ooi/iaieyie ea?ou ie?a.

Iinea oiai eae Ae?aee ioee/eeny a iiaeaaeaiee e?eaiaeneiai ainnoaiey, ii
aue i?aaenoaaeai ei?ieaaa Aeecaaaoa e eceiaeee naie ieai iaaaaa e
iionoioaiey caiaaeiuo aa?aaia THaeiie Aia?eee. Aianoa ni caaieai
eiio?-aaeie?aea Ae?aee iieo/ee iyoue ei?aaeae n yeeiaaeai ec noa
oanoeaeanyoe ioai?iuo iao?inia. Ei?ieaaa iinoaaeea iaeii oneiaea: /oiau
inoaaaeenue a oaeia eiaia anao oao ciaoiuo aeaeaioeueiaiia, eioi?ua, eae
e iia, aeaee aeaiueae ia nia?yaeaiea yeniaaeeoeee.

Ae?aeeo oaeaeinue ne?uoue enoeiiua oeaee yeniaaeeoeee io eniaineeo
oieiiia, ?ani?ino?aiea neoo, /oi ii iai?aaeyaony a Aeaenaiae?eth. A
?acoeueoaoa yoie aeaceioi?iaoeee eniaineee iinie a Eiiaeiia aeii
Aa?iaiaeeii Iaiaeina ia i?eiye ia? aeey i?aa?aaeaeaiey iooe ie?aoo a
Caiaaeiia iieooa?ea.

13 aeaeaa?y 1577 aiaea oeioeeey – oeaaiaineee ei?aaeue “Iaeeeai”
(Pelican) aiaeieciauaieai 100 oiii, “Aeecaaaoa” (80 oiii), “Ii?neia
cieioi” (30 oiii), “Eaaaaeue” (50 oiii) e aaea?a “O?enoioi?” – iieeioea
Ieeioo.

Ai a?aiaia ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou I ioeoeeaeueiuo i?aaee iaia?a noaeia ia
nouanoaiaaei, e iiyoiio ?acia?u ei?aaey Ae?aeea a ?aciuo enoi/ieeao ia
niaiaaeatho. Iooai niiinoaaeaiey naaaeaiee ?. Oieeaeue i?eaiaeeo
neaaeothuea aeaiiua: aeeeia iaaeaeo ooaaiyie – 20,2 iao?ia, iaeaieueoay
oe?eia – 5,6 iao?ia, aeoaeia o?thia – 3,03 iao?ia, aunioa ai?oa: ia
ieaeaea – 4,8 iao?ia, a ei?iiaie /anoe – 9,22 iao?ia, a iiniaie /anoe –
6,47 iao?ia; inaaeea – 2,2 iao?ia, aunioa a?io-ia/ou 19,95 iao?ia.
Aii?oaeaiea -18 iooae, ec ieo ii naiue iooae ia eaaeaeii ai?oo e ii aeaa
ia aaea e ei?ia. Ii oi?ia ei?iona “Iaeeeai” i?aaenoaaeye ia?aoiaeiie oei
io ea?aeee e aaeaiio e aue oi?ioi i?eniiniaeai aeey aeeeoaeueiiai
ii?neiai ieaaaiey.

Eathoa Ae?aeea auea ioaeaeaia e ianoaaeaia n aieueoie ?ineioueth.
Iinoaea, eioi?ie ii iieueciaaeny, auea ec /enoiai na?aa?a. Ai a?aiy aaeu
aai neoo oneaaeaeaee naiae ea?ie iocueaiou, a ca e?aneii Ae?aeea noiye
iaae. Ei?ieaaa iineaea aio a iiaea?ie aeaaiaiiey, neaaeinoe, auoeooth
ii?neoth oaieo e caeaiue oaeeiaue oa?o n auoeouie cieioii neiaaie:
“Ionoue anaaaea o?aieo e iai?aaeyao oaay Aia”.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia yiaa?y ei?aaee aeinoeaee Iiaaaea?a, ii?oiaiai ai?iaea
a Ia?ieei. Acya caeiaeieeia, ie?aou iaiaiyee eo ia ea?aaai anaaiciiaeiuo
oiaa?ia. Caoai iineaaeiaae a?inie /a?ac Aoeaioe/aneee ieaai. ?aca?aaea
ii iooe eniaineea aaaaie a onouea Ea-Ieaou, oeioeeey 3 ethiy 1578 aiaea
noaea ia yei?ue a aoooa Nai-Ooeeai, a eioi?ie Iaaaeeai ?ani?aaeeny n
aoioiaueeaie. ?aeie-oi ?ie aeiaeae iaae yoie aaaaiueth, eai e Ae?aeeo
oaeaea i?eoeinue iiaeaaeoue aniuoioaoee iyoaae a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aue
eaciai eaieoai Aeaooe. Enoaoe oiaaea aea “Iaeeeai” aue ia?aeiaiiaai a
“Cieiooth Eaiue” (Golden Hind).

2 aaaonoa, a?inea aeaa i?eoaaeoeo a iieioth iaaiaeiinoue noaeia,
oeioeeey (“Cieioay Eaiue”, “Aeecaaaoa” e “Ii?neia Cieioi”) anooieea a
Iaaaeeaiia i?ieea e i?ioea aai ca 20 aeiae. Iinea auoiaea ec i?ieeaa
ei?aaee iiiaee a aeanoieee ooi?i, ?aciaoaaoee eo a ?aciua noi?iiu.
“Ii?neia Cieioi” iiaea, “Aeecaaaoa” aue ioa?ioai ia?aoii e Iaaaeeaiiao
i?ieeao e, i?ieaey aai, ii aa?ioeny a Aiaeeth, a “Cieiooth Eaiue”, ia
eioi?ii aue Ae?aee, caianei aeaeaei ia tha. I?e yoii Ae?aee naeaeae
iaaieueiia ioe?uoea, /oi Iaiaiiay Caiey ia aunooi THaeiiai iaoa?eea, eae
n/eoaeinue a oi a?aiy, a a?oeiaeaa, ca eioi?ui i?inoe?aaony ioe?uoia
ii?a. A /anoue ia?aiioe?uaaoaey i?ieea iaaeaeo Iaiaiiie Caieae e
Aioa?eoeaeie aue iacaai eiaiai Ae?aeea.

Eae oieueei ooeo ooi?i, Ae?aee acye eo?n ia naaa? e 5 aeaeaa?y ai?aaeny
a aaaaiue Aaeueia?aeni. Caoaaoea noiyaoee a aaaaie ei?aaeue, a?oaeaiiue
aeiaie e neeoeaie cieioa ia noiio 37 ouny/ aeoeaoia, ie?aou aunaaeeeenue
ia aa?aa e ?aca?aaeee ai?iae, caa?aa a?oc cieioiai ianea noieiinoueth a
25 ouny/ iani.

E?iia oiai, ia ei?aaea iie iaoee nae?aoiua eniaineea ea?ou, e oaia?ue
Ae?aee i?iaeaeaaeny aia?aae ia aneaioth. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi aei
ie?aoneiai iaaaaa Ae?aeea eniaioeu ^ /oanoaiaaee naay ia caiaaeiii
iiaa?aaeuea Aia?eee a iieiaeoae aaciianiinoe – aaaeue ie iaeei
aiaeeeneee ei?aaeue ia i?ioiaeee Iaaaeeaiiaui i?ieeaii, e iiyoiio
eniaineea ei?aaee a yoii ?aeiia ia eiaee io?aiu, aea e ai?iaea ia auee
iiaeaioiaeaiu e ioii?o ie?aoai. Eaey aaeieue aa?aaia Aia?eee, Ae?aee
caoaaoee e ?aca?aaee iiiaea eniaineea ai?iaea e iinaeaiey, a oii /enea
Eaeueyi, Naioi, O?ooeeuei, Iaioo. A iaiaineeo aiaeao ii ianoea ei?aaeue
“Ea?aooyai”, ia eioi?ii aue acyo a?oc aaniineiaiie oeaiiinoe – cieioi e
na?aa?i a neeoeao e iiiaou ia noiio 363 ouny/e iani (ieiei 1600 ea
cieioa). A iaeneeaineie aaaaie Aeaioeueei Ae?aee caoaaoee aaeaii n
a?ocii i?yiinoae e eeoaeneiai oaeea.

Caoai Ae?aee, iaiaioa ana iaaeaaeaeu naieo a?aaia, ia iiaa?ioe ia?aoii
ia tha, a ia?anae Oeoee ieaai e auoae e Ia?eaineei ino?iaai.
Io?aiiioe?iaaa ei?aaeue a ?aeiia Oeaeaaana, ii acye eo?n ia iun Aeia?ie
Iaaeaaeaeu e 26 naioya?y 1580 aiaea a?inee yei?ue a Ieeiooa, niaa?oea
aoi?ia iinea Iaaaeeaia e?oainaaoiia ieaaaiea.

Yoi auei naiia aeioiaeiia ec anao iooaoanoaee, eioi?ua eiaaea-eeai
niaa?oaeenue, – iii aeaei aeioiae 4700% i?eauee, ieiei 500 ouny/ ooioia
noa?eeiaia! *oiau i?aaenoaaeoue naaa a?aiaeeiciinoue yoie noiiu,
aeinoaoi/ii i?eaanoe aeey n?aaiaiey aeaa oeeo?u: aiaaua aeaenoaey ii
?aca?iio eniaineie “Iaiiaaaeeiie a?iaaeu” a 1588 aiaeo iaioeenue Aiaeee
“anaai” a 160 ouny/ ooioia, a aiaeiaie aeioiae aiaeeeneie eaciu a oi
a?aiy ninoaaeye 300 ouny/ ooioia. Ei?ieaaa Aeecaaaoa iinaoeea ei?aaeue
Ae?aeea e i?yii ia iaeoaa i?iecaaea aai a ?uoea?e, /oi auei aieueoie
iaa?aaeie – a Aiaeee ian/eouaaeinue anaai 300 /aeiaae, eiaaoeo yoi
caaiea!

Eniaineee ei?ieue Oeeeii II iio?aaiaae iaeacaiey ie?aoa Ae?aeea,
aiciauaiey oua?aa e ecaeiaiee. Ei?ieaaneee niaao Aeecaaaou ia?aie/eeny
ooiaiiui ioaaoii, /oi eniaineee ei?ieue ia eiaao ii?aeueiiai i?aaa
“aini?aiyonoaiaaoue iinauaieth Eiaeee aiaee/aiaie, a iinaio iineaaeiea
iiaoo niaa?oaoue ooaea iooaoanoaey, iiaeaa?aaynue ?eneo, /oi eo oai
noaaoyo, ii oae anee iie aica?auathony aac oua?aa aeey naay, Aai
Aaee/anoai ia iiaeao i?ineoue Aa Aaee/anoai eo iaeacuaaoue…”

A 1585 aiaeo Ae?aee aeaieeny aoi?e/ii. Ia yoio ?ac yoi auea aeaaooea
aeiaieueii aiaaoiai e ciaoiiai ?iaea – Yeecaaao Neaeaioyi. *aoa
ia?aaoaea a iaaeaaii eoieaiiia Ae?aeeii iiianouea Aaeeaiae Aaae
(Buckland Abbey). Naaiaeiy oai iaoiaeeony aieueoie iiioiaio a /anoue
Ae?aeea. Ii, eae e a ia?aii a?aea, aeaoae o Ae?aeea ia auei.

A 1585-1586 aiaeao ny? O?ainen Ae?aee niiaa eiiaiaeiaae aii?oaeaiiui
aiaeeeneei oeioii, iai?aaeaiiui i?ioea eniaineeo eieiiee Aano-Eiaeee, e
oae aea, eae e a i?ioeue ?ac, aica?aoeeny n aiaaoie aeiau/ae. Aia?aua
Ae?aee eiiaiaeiaae oaeei aieueoei niaaeeiaieai: o iaai a iiae/eiaiee aue
21 ei?aaeue n 2300 nieaeaoaie e iao?inaie.

Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y yia?ae/iui aeaenoaeyi Ae?aeea aue ia aiae ion?i/ai
auoiae a ii?a “Iaiiaaaeeiie a?iaaeu”, /oi iicaieeei Aiaeee eo/oa
iiaeaioiaeoueny e aiaiiui aeaenoaeyi. Iaieioi aeey iaeiiai /aeiaaea! A
aeaei auei oae: 19 ai?aey 1587 aiaea Ae?aee, eiiaiaeoy yneaae?ie ec 13
iaaieueoeo ei?aaeae, aioae a aaaaiue Eaaeena, aaea aioiaeeenue e
ioieuoeth ei?aaee “A?iaaeu”. Ec 60 ei?aaeae, noiyaoeo ia ?aeaea, ii
oie/oiaeee 30, a /anoue inoaaoeony caoaaoee e oaae n niaie, a oii /enea
e a?iiaaeiue aaeaii aiaeieciauaieai 1200 oiii.

A 1588 aiaeo ny? O?ainen i?eeiaeee naith oyaeaeoth ?oeo e iieiiio
?aca?iio “Iaiiaaaeeiie a?iaaeu”. E niaeaeaieth, yoi auei caieoii aai
neaau. Yeniaaeeoeey e Eennaaiio a 1589 aiaeo caeii/eeanue iaoaea/ae e
noieea aio ?aniieiaeaiey e ieeinoe ei?ieaau. Acyoue ai?iae ii ia niia, a
ec 16 ouny/ /aeiaae a aeeauo inoaeinue oieueei 6 ouny/. E?iia oiai,
ei?ieaaneay eacia iiianea oauoee, a e oaeei aii?inai ei?ieaaa
ioiineeanue i/aiue ieioi. Iioiaea, /oi n/anouea iieeioei Ae?aeea, e
neaaeothuay yeniaaeeoeey e aa?aaai Aia?eee ca iiauie nie?iaeuaie oaea
noieea aio aeecie.

Ana a yoii iineaaeiai ieaaaiee neeaaeuaaeinue iaoaea/ii: a ianoao
aunaaeee ieacuaaeinue, /oi eniaioeu auee i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiu e aioiau e
ioii?o, nie?iaeu ia auei, a aiaee/aia ianee iinoiyiiua iioa?e a ethaeyo
ia oieueei a aiyo, ii e io aieaciae. Aaeie?ae oaeaea caaieae o?iie/aneie
eeoi?aaeeie. Ii/oanoaiaaa i?eaeeaeaiea nia?oe, Ae?aee iiaeiyeny n
iinoaee, n aieueoei o?oaeii iaeaeny, iii?inee naiaai neoao iiii/ue aio
iaea/eoueny a aeiniaoe, /oiau oia?aoue eae aieio. Ia ?annaaoa 28 yiaa?y
1596 aiaea aai ia noaei. *a?ac ianeieueei /ania yneaae?a iiaeioea e
Iiia?a-aea-Aeeino. Iiaue eiiaiaeothuee Oiian Aanea?aeeue i?eeacae
iiianoeoue oaei ny?a O?ainena Ae?aeea a naeioeiaue a?ia e n aieineeie
ii/anoyie iionoeoue a ii?a.

Aeaaeae Eeaeianoii

Eeaeianoii (Livingstone) Aeaaeae (1813-1873), enneaaeiaaoaeue Ao?eee.
Niaa?oee ?yae aeeeoaeueiuo iooaoanoaee ii THae. e Oeaio? Ao?eea (n
1840). Enneaaeiaae aiaaeeio Eaeaoa?e, ?. Eoaaiai, aana. ?. Caiaace, ic.
Iueyna, ioe?ue aiaeiiaae Aeeoi?ey, ic. Oe?aa, Aaiaaaoeo e ?. Eoaeaao,
aianoa n A. Noyiee enneaaeiaae ic. Oaiaaiueeea.Eeaeianoii Aeaaeae
niaa?oee ?yae iooaoanoaee ii THaeiie e Oeaio?aeueiie Ao?eea. Enneaaeiaae
aiaaeeio Eaeaoa?e, ?aeo Eoaaiai, aannaei ?aee Caiaace, ica?i Iueyna,
ioe?ue aiaeiiaae Aeeoi?ey, ica?i Oe?aa, Aaiaaaoeo e ?aeo Eoaeaao; aianoa
n A. Noyiee enneaaeiaae ica?i Oaiaaiueeea.Aeaaeae Eeaeianoii ?iaeeeny 19
ia?oa 1813 aiaea a naiuea oee/iiai oi?aiaoea /aai. Ieii/ea aea?aaaineoth
oeieo, n aeanyoe eao ?aaioae ia oeaoeeie oaa?eea. I?e
/aou?iaaeoeaoe/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia ii oooaee?iaae o/aaiee eaoeineiai
ycuea e o/eeny a aa/a?iae oeiea. A aeaayoiaaeoeaoue eao o iaai
iiyaeeanue ia/oa noaoue ienneiia?ii, a noeiaiaeey Eiiaeiineiai
ienneiia?neiai iauanoaa aeaea aio aiciiaeiinoue caeii/eoue ia?aciaaiea.
Anei?a ii iiciaeiieeny n ienneiia?ii ?iaa?oii Iiooaoii, ?aaioaaoei a
THaeiie Ao?eea. Oaea/aiiue aai ?anneacaie, Eeaeianoii a 1840 aiaeo ioaue
a Eaineoth eieiieth. Ai a?aiy ieaaaiey eaieoai noaeia iao/ee aai
ii?aaeaeaieth eii?aeeiao ?acee/iuo oi/ae Caiee. Iicaeiaa ii
oiiia?aoe/aneei nuaieai Eeaeianoii auee ninoaaeaiu eo/oea ea?ou THaeiie
Ao?eee.A ethea 1841 aiaea ii aeia?aeny aei iennee Iiooaoa a Eo?oiaia,
?aniieiaeaiiie ia aa?aao iaeiieiaiiie ?aee thaeiaa ionouie Eaeaoa?e.
Naiue eao Eeaeianoii i?iaae a no?aia aa/oaiia, niaa?oay iooaoanoaey aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ienneiia?neeo noaioeee. O iaai aicieeea iuneue eco/eoue ana
?aee THaeiie Ao?eee, /oiau iaeoe anoanoaaiiua i?ioiaeu a aeoaue no?aiu,
i?eianoe ooaea eaeae Aaaiaaeey e caaycaoue ?aaiii?aaioth oi?aiaeth.
Eeaeianoii aioae a enoi?eth ioe?uoey Ao?eee eae “Euouee ?aee”.A 1849
aiaeo Eeaeianoii, oneuoaa io ao?eeaioeaa i “i?ae?aniii e iaoe?iii” ica?a
Iaaie, ia?anae ionouith Eaeaoa?e n thaa ia naaa?. Ii aia?aua onoaiiaee
oa?aeoa? eaiaeoaooa yoie iaeanoe, eioi?oth aa?iiaeoeu n/eoaee ionouiae.
Ecia?aiey aunio oaaaeeee Eeaeianoiia a oii, /oi Eaeaoa?e eiaao
/aoaia?acioth oi?io. Ica?i Iaaie, ioe?uoia Eeaeianoiiii 1 aaaonoa 1849
aiaea, ieacaeinue a?aiaiiui ica?ii, ieoathueiny a ia?eiae aeiaeaeae
aiaeaie aieueoie ?aee Ieaaaiai.Iooaoanoaea 1851 aiaea i?eaaei Eeaeianoii
e Caiaace – “aeaei ia?iiiie aaaeiinoe, iioiio /oi i nouanoaiaaiee yoie
?aee a Oeaio?aeueiie Ao?eea i?aaeaea ia ciaee. Ana ii?ooaaeueneea ea?ou
i?aaenoaaeytho aa iiaeieiathuaeny ia ainoie aeaeaei io oiai ianoa, aaea
iu oaia?ue iaoiaeeeenue”. Ianiio?y ia nooie nacii, ?aea aeinoeaaea
300-600 iao?ia oe?eiu e auea aeiaieueii aeoaieie. Aa o?iaaiue a nacii
aeiaeaeae iiaeieiaeny ia oanoue iao?ia, e aiaea caoiieyea i?ino?ainoai
ia aeaaaeoeaoue aiaeeeneeo ieeue. Iiaeao auoue, yoio iiao/ee iioie –
i?eoie Ieea eee ii ianao naie aiaeu iaano?a/o Eiiai? A eiioea iay 1853
aiaea aiaee/aiei i?eaue a Eeiueyioe – noieeoeo iaeieiei, aaea aai i?eiye
iiaue aiaeaeue – Naeaeaoo. Eeaeianoii ?ac?aaioae ieai yeniaaeeoeee,
?aoaiea ia i?aaiecaoeee eioi?ie auei i?eiyoi ia iauai nai?a iaeieiei. Aa
oeaeueth auei – onoaiiaeoue i?yiia oi?aiaia niiauaiea iaaeaeo no?aiie
iaeieiei e aoeaioe/aneei iiaa?aaeueai. 11 iiya?y i 1853 aiaea Eeaeianoii
ia/ae ieaaaiea aaa?o ii Caiaace. Ia?o?oo yeniaaeeoeee i?ieaaae ec
thaeiuo ?aeiiia naaiaeiyoiae Caiaee aei Eoaiaeu a Aiaiea. A ia/aea 1854
aiaea iie aeinoeaee eiia?ee Eoiaea. E oaa?aeth 1854 aiaea Eeaeianoii
iiaeiyeny ii ?aea aei aa aa?oiaai i?aaiai i?eoiea Oaooiaaa e ii aai
aeieeia ia?aoae e aiaei?acaeaeo, ca eioi?ui ana iioiee oaeee ia a
thaeiii iai?aaeaiee, eae ?aiueoa, a a naaa?iii. (Iicaeiaa auynieeinue,
/oi yoi auee ?aee nenoaiu Eiiai.) A eiioea iay 1854 aiaea io?yae aeinoea
Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia o Eoaiaeu. Ii Eeaeianoiia ia inoaaeyao iuneue
i?iieeiooue ia ainoi/iia iiaa?aaeuea. Iiaeao auoue, a yoii iai?aaeaiee
Caiaace noaeioiaeia ia anai i?ioyaeaiee? Aai iaia?aiea iiaeaea?aeaee e
ii?ooaaeueneea aeanoe e aeooiaainoai – ana auee caeioa?aniaaiu a
enneaaeiaaiee iaeanoae iaaeaeo Aiaieie e Iicaiaeeii. Yeniaaeeoeey,
oeaeueth eioi?ie auei i?ineaaeeoue oa/aiea Caiaace aei Eiaeeeneiai
ieaaia, noaea aiciiaeiie aeaaiaea?y iiiiue Naeaeaoo. Aiaeaeue
ao?eeaineiai ieaiaie oeiaine?iaae ia?ana/aiea eiioeiaioa aa?iiaeoeai e
ee/ii i?iaiaeee yeniaaeeoeeth aei 120-iao?iaiai aiaeiiaaea ia Caiaace,
eioi?ue iaeieiei iacuaaee “Iice-ia-ooiuey” – “?iei/ouee aeui” (“Caeanue
ia? ecaeaao ooi”). Eeaeianoii oaeaeae aai ia?aui ec aa?iiaeoeaa.
Aiaeiiaae Aeeoi?ey, iacaaiiue a /anoue aiaeeeneie ei?ieaau, oe?eiie 1,8
eeeiiao?a, yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo iiuiuo a ie?a. A ia?oa 1856 aiaea
iie aeinoeaee Oaoa, ia?aiai oi?iinoa aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Yeniaaeeoeey ioeacaeanue io aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey iniiaiiai ?onea
Caiaace, eioi?ia oaea auei iaianaii ia ea?oo, e 20 iay 1856 aiaea
naaa?iui ?oeaaii auoea e Eiaeeeneiio ieaaio, caeii/ea iooaoanoaea a
i?eii?neii ai?iaeea Eaeeiaia (ii?o e naaa?o io Caiaace). Oaeei ia?acii,
aia?aua aa?iiaaoe ia?anae Ao?eeaineee eiioeiaio.Aa?ioaoenue ia ?iaeeio,
Eeaeianoii a 1857 aiaeo ecaeae eieao, i?ineaaeaooth aai, – “Iooaoanoaey
e enneaaeiaaiey ienneiia?a a THaeiie Ao?eea”. A iae ii naeaeae auaiae:
o?iie/aneay Oeaio?aeueiay Ao?eea e thao io ia?aeeaee “ieacaeanue
aicauoaiiui ieaoi, ianeieueei iiieaeathueiny a oeaio?a, e n ?anuaeeiaie
ii e?ayi, ii eioi?ui ?aee naaaatho e ii?th… Ianoi eaaaiaea?iie aea?eie
ciiu e aeao/eo ianeia caiyea oi?ioi i?ioaiiay iaeanoue, iaiiieiathuay
naieie i?aniiaiaeiuie ica?aie Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo, a naieie aea?eeie
aeaaeiuie aeieeiaie, aeaeoiaeyie, aaoaie (aicauoaiiuie e?ayie) e
i?ioeaaeiuie aunieeie ieineiai?ueyie Eiaeeth “.Ei?ieaaneia
Aaia?aoe/aneia iauanoai iaa?aaeeei aai cieioie iaaeaeueth, a
i?aaeoaeuenoai ii?o/eei aio eco/eoue aeoaeiiua ?aeiiu eiioeiaioa,
onoaiiaeoue eiioaeou n ianoiuie i?aaeoaeyie e oaiai?eoue eo caiyoueny
au?aueaaieai oeiiea. A iaa 1858 aiaea Eeaeianoii aica?aoeeny ia Caiaace
a?eoaineei eiinoeii a Iicaiaeea. Ii iinoaaee naiae oeaeueth aeieacaoue,
/oi Eeaiauea e Caiaace – iaeia e oa aea ?aea. I?e iiaeaea?aeea
A?eoaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eeaeianoii a 1858-1864 aa. niaa?oee
iooaoanoaea.Aaia?aoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou yeniaaeeoeee auee aaeeee.
Eeaeianoii caoeene?iaae iai?ineaaeaiiua ei ?aiaa o/anoee oa/aiey Caiaace
e aeieacae, /oi yoi ?aea, a aa?oiaueyo ecaanoia iiae iacaaieai Eeaiauea.
Ia ea?oo auee iaianaiu ooi/iaiiua aeaiiua ia ica?a Iueyna e ?aea Oe?a,
ica?i Oe?aa, ieaeiai oa/aiee ?oaoiu.

Iaeee Oa?aaeae

OA?AAeAE, IAEEE (Faraday, Michael) (1791-1867), aiaeeeneee oecee.
?iaeeeny 22 naioya?y 1791 a i?aaeianouea Eiiaeiia a naiuea eociaoea. N
12 eao ?aaioae ?aciin/eeii aacao, caoai o/aieeii a ia?aieaoiie
ianoa?neie. Caieiaeny naiiia?aciaaieai, /eoae eieae ii oeiee e
yeaeo?e/anoao. A 1813 iaeei ec caeac/eeia iiaea?ee Oa?aaeath
i?eaeaneoaeueiua aeeaou ia eaeoeee Aeyae a Ei?ieaaneii einoeoooa,
nua?aaoea ?aoathuoth ?ieue a noaeueaa Oa?aaeay. Aeaaiaea?y Aeyae ii
iieo/ee ianoi annenoaioa a Ei?ieaaneie annioeeaoeee.

A 1813-1815, iooaoanoaoy aianoa n Aeyae ii Aa?iia, Oa?aaeae iinaoee
eaai?aoi?ee ?yaea no?ai. Iiiiaae Aeyae a oeie/aneeo yenia?eiaioao, ia/ae
naiinoiyoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii oeiee. Inouanoaee iaeeaeaiea aacia,
iieo/ee aaicie. A 1821 aia?aua iaaethaeae a?auaiea iaaieoa aie?oa
i?iaiaeieea n oieii e i?iaiaeieea n oieii aie?oa iaaieoa, nicaeae
ia?aoth iiaeaeue yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey. A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo 10 eao
caieiaeny enneaaeiaaieai nayce iaaeaeo yeaeo?e/aneeie e iaaieoiuie
yaeaieyie, a 1831 ioe?ue yeaeo?iiaaieoioth eiaeoeoeeth, eaaeauoth a
iniiaa ?aaiou anao yeaeo?iaaia?aoi?ia iinoiyiiiai e ia?aiaiiiai oiea.

A 1824 Oa?aaeae aue eca?ai /eaiii Ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa, a 1825 noae
aee?aeoi?ii eaai?aoi?ee a Ei?ieaaneie annioeeaoeee. N 1833 ninoiye
Ooeea?ianeei i?ioanni?ii oeiee Ei?ieaaneiai einoeoooa, inoaaee yoio iino
a 1862. Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee ioaee/iua eaeoeee Oa?aaeay.
Eniieuecoy ia?iiiue yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae, Oa?aaeae aeieacae
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ecaanoiuo oiaaea «aeaeia» yeaeo?e/anoaa:
«aeeaioiiai», «iaaieoiiai», oa?iiyeaeo?e/anoaa, aaeueaaie/aneiai
yeaeo?e/anoaa e o.ae. No?aieaiea auyaeoue i?e?iaeo yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea
i?eaaei aai e yenia?eiaioai ii i?ioiaeaeaieth oiea /a?ac ?anoai?u
eeneio, nieae e uaei/ae. ?acoeueoaoii enneaaeiaaiee noaei ioe?uoea a
1833 caeiiia yeaeo?ieeca (caeiiu Oa?aaeay). A 1845 Oa?aaeae iaia?oaeee
yaeaiea a?auaiey ieineinoe iiey?ecaoeee naaoa a iaaieoiii iiea (yooaeo
Oa?aaeay). A oii aea aiaeo ioe?ue aeeaiaaiaoeci, a 1847 – ia?aiaaiaoeci.
Aaae ?yae iiiyoee — iiaeaeaeiinoe (1827), eaoiaea, aiiaea, eiiia,
yeaeo?ieeca, yeaeo?iaeia (1834); ecia?ae aieueoiao? (1833). A 1830-o
aiaeao i?aaeeiaeee iiiyoea iiey, a 1845 aia?aua oiio?aaee oa?iei
«iaaieoiia iiea», a a 1852 noi?ioee?iaae eiioeaioeeth iiey.

Iniiaiua ?aaiou ii yeaeo?e/anoao e iaaiaoecio Oa?aaeae i?aaenoaaeye
Ei?ieaaneiio iauanoao a aeaea na?ee aeieeaaeia iiae iacaaieai
Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii yeaeo?e/anoao (Experimental
Researches in Electricity). E?iia Enneaaeiaaiee, Oa?aaeae iioaeeeiaae
?aaioo Oeie/aneea iaieioeyoeee (Chemical Manipulation, 1827). Oe?iei
ecaanoia aai eieaa Enoi?ey naa/e (A Course of Six Lectures on the
Chemical History of a Candle, 1861).

Oia? Oa?aaeae a Oyiioii-Ei?oa 25 aaaonoa 1867.

Enaae Iuethoii

IUeTHOII (Newton) Enaae (4 yiaa?y 1643, Aoenoi?i, aeec A?aioaia,
a?aonoai Eeieieueioe?, Aiaeey — 31 ia?oa 1727, Eiiaeii; iioi?iiai a
Aanoieinoa?neii aaaaonoaa), iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia nia?aiaiiie
oeceee, noi?ioee?iaae iniiaiua caeiiu iaoaieee e aue oaeoe/aneei
nicaeaoaeai aaeeiie oece/aneie i?ia?aiiu iienaiey anao oece/aneeo
yaeaiee ia aaca iaoaieee; ioe?ue caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey, iauyniee
aeaeaeaiea ieaiao aie?oa Nieioea e Eoiu aie?oa Caiee, a oaeaea i?eeeau a
ieaaiao, caeiaeee iniiau iaoaieee nieioiuo n?aae, aeonoeee e oece/aneie
iioeee.

Enaae Iuethoii iiyaeeny ia naao a iaaieueoie aea?aaooea a naiuea iaeeiai
oa?ia?a, oia?oaai ca o?e ianyoea aei ?iaeaeaiey nuia. Ieaaeaiaoe aue
iaaeiiioaiiui; auooao eaaaiaea, /oi ii aue oae iae, /oi aai iiianoeee a
ia/eiioth ?oeaaeoeo, eaaeaaooth ia eaaea, ec eioi?ie ii iaeiaaeaeu auiae
e neeueii oaea?eeny aieiaeie ia iie. Eiaaea ?aaaieo eniieieeinue o?e
aiaea, aai iaoue aoi?e/ii aueoea caioae e oaoaea, inoaaea aai ia
iiia/aiee aaaooee. Iuethoii ?in aieaciaiiui e iaiaueoaeueiui, neeiiiui e
ia/oaoaeueiinoe. Aai i?eaeaeaea iiycey e aeeaiienue, ii, aaeaee io
naa?noieeia, ianoa?ee aoiaaeiuo ciaaa, ecia?aoae aao?yioth iaeueieoeo,
aiaeyiua /anu, iaaeaeueioth iiaiceo. O?oaeiui auei aeey Iuethoiia ia/aei
oeieueiie aeecie. O/eeny ii ieioi, aue neaaui iaeue/eeii, e iaeiaaeaeu
iaeiieeannieee ecaeee aai aei iioa?e niciaiey. Ia?aiineoue oaeia
oieceoaeueiia iieiaeaiea auei aeey naiiethaeaiai Iuethoiia iaauiineii, e
inoaaaeinue iaeii: auaeaeeoueny oniaoaie a o/aaa. Oii?iie ?aaioie ii
aeiaeeny oiai, /oi caiye ia?aia ianoi a eeanna. Eioa?an e oaoieea
canoaaee Iuethoiia caaeoiaoueny iaae yaeaieyie i?e?iaeu; ii oaeoaeaiii
caieiaeny e iaoaiaoeeie. Ia yoii iicaea iaienae AEai Aaoeno Aei: «Iaeei
ec aai aeyaeae, iaeaey aai iaeiaaeaeu iiae ecai?iaeueth n eieaie a
?oeao, iia?oaeaiiiai a aeoaieia ?aciuoeaiea, acye o iaai eieao e iaoae,
/oi ii aue caiyo ?aoaieai iaoaiaoe/aneie caaea/e. Ii?aaeaiiue oaeei
na?ueaciui e aeayoaeueiui iai?aaeaiea noieue iieiaeiai /aeiaaea, ii
oaiai?ee aai iaoue ia i?ioeaeoueny aeaeaa aeaeaieth nuia e iineaoue aai
aeey i?iaeieaeaiey caiyoee». Iinea na?ueaciie iiaeaioiaee Iuethoii a
1660 iinooiee a Eaia?eaeae a ea/anoaa SubsizzfrYa (oae iacuaaeenue
iaeiouea nooaeaiou, eioi?ua iaycaiu auee i?eneoaeeaaoue /eaiai
eieeaaeaea, /oi ia iiaei ia oyaioeoue Iuethoiia). Ca oanoue eao
Iuethoiiii auee i?ieaeaiu ana noaiaie eieeaaeaea e iiaeaioiaeaiu ana aai
aeaeueiaeoea aaeeeea ioe?uoey. A 1665 a. Iuethoii noae iaaeno?ii
eneonnoa. A yoii aea aiaeo, eiaaea a Aiaeee nae?ainoaiaaea yieaeaiey
/oiu, ii ?aoee a?aiaiii iinaeeoueny a Aoenoi?ia. Eiaiii oai ii ia/ae
aeoeaii caieiaoueny iioeeie; iienee niiniaia ono?aiaiey o?iiaoe/aneie
aaa??aoeee a eeiciauo oaeaneiiao i?eaaee Iuethoiia e enneaaeiaaieyi
oiai, /oi oaia?ue iacuaaaony aeenia?neae, o. a. caaeneiinoe iieacaoaey
i?aeiieaiey io /anoiou. Iiiaea ec i?iaaaeaiiuo ei yenia?eiaioia (a eo
ian/eouaaaony aieaa ouny/e) noaee eeanne/aneeie e iiaoi?ythony e
naaiaeiy a oeieao e einoeoooao. Eaeoiioeaii anao enneaaeiaaiee auei
no?aieaiea iiiyoue oece/aneoth i?e?iaeo naaoa. Ia oi?ie?iaaiea
ei?ioneoey?iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i naaoa yaiui ia?acii iiaeeyei, /oi a yoi
a?aiy oaea, a iniiaiii, caaa?oeeanue ?aaioa, eioi?ie noaeaeaii auei
noaoue iniiaiui aaeeeei eoiaii o?oaeia Iuethoiia — nicaeaiea aaeeiie,
iniiaaiiie ia noi?ioee?iaaiiuo ei caeiiao iaoaieee oece/aneie ea?oeiu
Ie?a. A iniiaa yoie ea?oeiu eaaeaei i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaoa?eaeueiuo
oi/eao — oece/anee aaneiia/ii iaeuo /anoeoeao iaoa?ee e i caeiiao,
oi?aaeythueo eo aeaeaeaieai. Eiaiii /aoeay oi?ioee?iaea yoeo caeiiia e
i?eaeaea iaoaieea Iuethoiia iieiioo e caeii/aiiinoue. Ia?aue ec yoeo
caeiiia aue, oaeoe/anee, ii?aaeaeaieai eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoai ion/aoa:
eiaiii a oaeeo nenoaiao ia eniuouaathuea ieeaeeo aicaeaenoaee
iaoa?eaeueiua oi/ee aeaeaeoony ?aaiiia?ii e i?yiieeiaeii. Aoi?ie caeii
iaoaieee ea?aao oeaio?aeueioth ?ieue. Ii aeaneo, /oi eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa, aeaeaeaiey (i?iecaaaeaiey iannu ia nei?inoue) ca aaeeieoeo
a?aiaie ?aaii neea, aeaenoaothuae ia iaoa?eaeueioth oi/eo. Ianna
eaaeaeie ec yoeo oi/ae yaeyaony iaeciaiiie aaee/eiie; aiiaua ana yoe
oi/ee «ia enoe?athony», ii au?aaeaieth Iuethoiia, eaaeaeay ec ieo aa/ia,
o. a. ia iiaeao ie aicieeaoue, ie oie/oiaeaoueny. Iaoa?eaeueiua oi/ee
acaeiiaeaenoaotho, e eiee/anoaaiiie ia?ie aicaeaenoaey ia eaaeaeoth ec
ieo e yaeyaony neea. Caaea/a auyniaiey oiai, eaeiau yoe neeu, yaeyaony
ei?iaaie i?iaeaiie iaoaieee. Iaeiiaoe, o?aoee caeii — caeii «?aaainoaa
aeaenoaey e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey» iauyniye, ii/aio iieiue eiioeuen ethaiai
oaea, ia eniuouaathuaai aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee, inoaaony iaeciaiiui, eae
au ie acaeiiaeaenoaiaaee iaaeaeo niaie aai ninoaaiua /anoe. Iinoaaea
i?iaeaio eco/aiey ?acee/iuo nee, Iuethoii nai aea aeae ia?aue
aeenoaoaeueiue i?eia? aa ?aoaiey, noi?ioee?iaaa caeii anaie?iiai
oyaioaiey: neea a?aaeoaoeeiiiiai i?eoyaeaiey iaaeaeo oaeaie, ?acia?u
eioi?uo cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo ieie, i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eo iannai, ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eaaae?aoo
?annoiyiey iaaeaeo ieie e iai?aaeaia aaeieue niaaeeiythuae eo i?yiie.
Caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey iicaieee Iuethoiio aeaoue eiee/anoaaiiia
iauyniaiea aeaeaeaieth ieaiao aie?oa Nieioea e Eoiu aie?oa Caiee,
iiiyoue i?e?iaeo ii?neeo i?eeeaia. Yoi ia iiaei ia i?iecaanoe ia?iiiiai
aia/aoeaiey ia oiu enneaaeiaaoaeae. I?ia?aiia aaeeiiai iaoaie/aneiai
iienaiey anao yaeaiee i?e?iaeu — e «caiiuo», e «iaaaniuo» ia aeieaea
aiaeu ooaa?aeeeanue a oeceea. Aieaa oiai, iiiaei oeceeai a oa/aiea aeaoo
noieaoee nai aii?in i a?aieoeao i?eiaieiinoe caeiiia Iuethoiia
i?aaenoaaeyeny iaii?aaaeaiiui. A 1668 Iuethoii aa?ioeny a Eaia?eaeae e
anei?a ii iieo/ee Eoeanianeoth eaoaae?o iaoaiaoeee. Yoo eaoaae?o aei
iaai caieiae aai o/eoaeue E. Aa??io, eioi?ue onooiee eaoaae?o naiaio
ethaeiiio o/aieeo, /oiau iaoa?eaeueii iaania/eoue aai. E oiio a?aiaie
Iuethoii oaea aue aaoi?ii aeiiia e nicaeaoaeai (iaeiia?aiaiii n
Eaeaieoeai, ii iacaaeneii io iaai) iaoiaea oethenee — oiai, /oi iuia
iacuaaaony aeeooa?aioeeaeueiui e eioaa?aeueiui en/eneaieai. Aiiaua, oi
aue ieiaeioai?iaeoee ia?eiae a oai?/anoaa Iuethoiia: ca naiue eao, n
1660 ii 1667 noi?ie?iaaeenue aai iniiaiua eaeae, aeeth/ay eaeath caeiia
anaie?iiai oyaioaiey. Ia ia?aie/eaaynue iaeieie eeoue oai?aoe/aneeie
enneaaeiaaieyie, ii a yoe aea aiaeu neiino?oe?iaae, e ia/ae nicaeaaaoue
oaeaneii- ?aoeaeoi? (io?aaeaoaeueiue). Yoa ?aaioa i?eaaea e ioe?uoeth
oiai, /oi iicaea iieo/eei iacaaiea eioa?oa?aioeeiiiuo «eeiee ?aaiie
oieueiu». (Iuethoii, iiiya, /oi caeanue i?iyaeyaony «aaoaiea naaoa
naaoii», ia aienuaaaoaany a ei?ioneoey?ioth iiaeaeue, iuoaeny
i?aiaeieaoue aicieeaaoea caeanue o?oaeiinoe, aaaaey i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
ei?ioneoeu a naaoa aeaeaeoony aieiaie — «i?eeeaaie»). Aoi?ie ec
ecaioiaeaiiuo oaeaneiiia (oeo/oaiiue) iineoaeee iiaiaeii aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey Iuethoiia a /eaiu Eiiaeiineiai ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa.
Eiaaea Iuethoii ioeacaeny io /eainoaa, nineaaoenue ia ionoonoaea
n?aaenoa ia oieaoo /eaineeo aciinia, auei ni/oaii aiciiaeiui, o/eouaay
aai iao/iua caneoae, naeaeaoue aeey iaai eneeth/aiea, inaiaiaeea aai io
eo oieaou. Aoaeo/e ii iaoo?a aanueia inoi?iaeiui (/oiau ia neacaoue
?iaeei) /aeiaaeii, Iuethoii, iiieii aai aiee ieacuaaeny ii?ie aoyiooui a
io/eoaeueiua aeey iaai aeeneonnee e eiioeeeou. Oae, aai oai?ey naaoa e
oeaaoia, eceiaeaiiay a 1675, aucaaea oaeea iaiaaeee, /oi Iuethoii ?aoee
ia ioaeeeiaaoue ie/aai ii iioeea, iiea aeea Aoe, iaeaieaa iaeanoi/aiiue
aai iiiiiaio. I?eoeinue Iuethoiio i?eiyoue o/anoea e a iieeoe/aneeo
niauoeyo. N 1688 aei 1694 ii aue /eaiii ia?eaiaioa. E oiio a?aiaie, a
1687 a. auoae a naao aai iniiaiie o?oae «Iaoaiaoe/aneea ia/aea
iaoo?aeueiie oeeinioee» — iniiaa iaoaieee anao oece/aneeo yaeaiee, io
aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo oae aei ?ani?ino?aiaiey caoea. Ia ianeieueei aaeia
aia?aae yoa i?ia?aiia ii?aaeaeeea ?acaeoea oeceee, e aa cia/aiea ia
en/a?iaii e iiiuia.

Iinoiyiiia ia?iiiia ia?aiia e oinoaaiiia iai?yaeaiea i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
a 1692 Iuethoii caaieae oinoaaiiui ?anno?ienoaii. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
oie/eii e yoiio yaeeny iiaea?, a eioi?ii iiaeaee ana iiaeaioaaeeaaaoeany
ei ?oeiiene. Eeoue e 1694 ii, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Atheaaina, «…ia/eiaao
oaea iiieiaoue naith eieao «Ia/aea»». Iinoiyiiia aiaoouaa iuouaiea
iaoa?eaeueiie iaiaania/aiiinoe auei, ianiiiaiii, iaeiie ec i?e/ei
aieacie Iuethoiia. Iiyoiio aeey iaai eiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea aeieaeiinoue
niio?eoaey Iiiaoiiai aeai?a n nio?aiaieai i?ioanno?u a Eaia?eaeaea.
?aaiinoii i?enooiea e ?aaioa e auno?i aeiaeaoenue caiaoiuo oniaoia, ii
aue a 1699 iacia/ai aee?aeoi?ii. Niaiauaoue yoi n i?aiiaeaaaieai auei
iaaiciiaeii, e Iuethoii ia?aa?aeny a Eiiaeii. A eiioea 1703 a. aai
eca?aee i?aceaeaioii Ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa. E oiio a?aiaie Iuethoii
aeinoea aa?oeiu neaau. A 1705 a. aai aicaiaeyo a ?ueua?neia
aeinoieinoai, ii, ?aniieaaay aieueoie eaa?oe?ie, eiay oanoue neoa e
aiaaoue auacae, ii inoaaony ii-i?aaeiaio iaeeiieei. Ii?a aeoeaiiai
oai?/anoaa iicaaee, e Iuethoii ia?aie/eaaaony iiaeaioiaeie ecaeaiey
«Iioeee», ia?aecaeaiey «Ia/ae» e oieeiaaieai Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey (aio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieeiaaiea Aiieaeeinena, ni/eiaiea i i?i?iea Aeaieeea).
Iuethoii aue iioi?iiai a Aanoieinoa?neii aaaaonoaa. Iaaeienue ia aai
iiaeea caeai/eaaaony neiaai: «Ionoue nia?oiua ?aaeothony, /oi a eo
n?aaea aeeei oaeia oe?aoaiea /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea».

Y?iano ?aca?oi?ae

Y?iano ?aca?oi?ae ?iaeeeny 30 aaaonoa 1871 aiaea aaeece ai?iaea Iaenii
(Iiaay Caeaiaeey) a naiuea ia?anaeaioea ec Oioeaiaeee. Ieii/ea oeieo a
Oaaaeiea, ii iinooiee a eieeaaeae i?iaeioeee Iaeuenii a 1887 aiaeo.
*a?ac aeaa aiaea Y?iano naeae yecaiai a Eaioa?aa?eeneee eieeaaeae –
oeeeae Iiaicaeaiaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a E?ae/anoa?a. A 1892 aiaeo
?aca?oi?aeo auea i?enoaeaeaia noaiaiue aaeaeaa?a aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe. Ia
neaaeothuee aiae ii noae iaaeno?ii aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe, eo/oa anao naeaa
yecaiaiu ii iaoaiaoeea e oeceea. Aai iaaenoa?neay ?aaioa eanaeanue
iaia?oaeaiey auniei/anoioiuo ?aaeeiaiei. A 1894 aiaeo iiyaeeanue aai
ia?aay ia/aoiay ?aaioa “Iaiaaie/aiea aeaeaca auniei/anoioiuie
?ac?yaeaie”. A 1895 aiaeo ?aca?oi?ae i?eaoae a Aiaeeth, aaea iieo/ee
i?eaeaoaiea Aeae.Aeae. Oiiniia ?aaioaoue a Eaia?eaeaea a eaai?aoi?ee
Eaaaiaeeoa.A 1896 aiaeo iiyaeyaony niaianoiay ?aaioa Oiiniia e
?aca?oi?aea “I i?ioiaeaeaiee yeaeo?e/anoaa /a?ac aacu,. iiaeaa?aiooua
aeaenoaeth eo/ae ?aioaaia”. A neaaeothuai aiaeo auoiaeeo a naao noaouey
?aca?oi?aea “Iaaieoiue aeaoaeoi? yeaeo?e/aneeo aiei e iaeioi?ua aai
i?eiaiaiey”. A 1897 aiaeo iiyaeyaony e aai iiaay ?aaioa “Ia
yeaeo?ecaoeee aacia, iiaeaa?aeaiiuo aeaenoaeth ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, e i
iiaeiuaiee ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey aacaie e ia?aie”. Oiinii e
?aca?oi?ae auaeaeioee i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi, eiaaea ?aioaaiianeea eo/e
i?ioiaeyo /a?ac aac, iie ?ac?ooatho aoiiu yoiai aaca, aunaiaiaeaeay
iaeeiaeiaia /enei iieiaeeoaeueii e io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe.
Yoe /anoeoeu iie iacaaee eiiaie. A 1898 aiaeo ?aca?oi?ae noae
i?ioanni?ii Iaeaeeeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a Iii?aaea, aaea ia/ae na?eth
aaaeiuo yenia?eiaioia, eanathueony ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey yeaiaioa
o?aia. A Eaiaaea niaianoii n Niaeaee ii ioe?ue ?aaeeiaeoeaiue ?aniaae e
aai caeii. Caeanue ei auea iaienaia eieaa “?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue”. A naiae
?aaioa ?aca?oi?ae e Niaeaee einioeenue aii?ina ia yia?aee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
i?aa?auaiee. Iiaen/eouaay yia?aeth enioneaaiuo ?aaeeai e-/anoeoe, iie
i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeo, /oi “yia?aey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?aa?auaiee, ii e?aeiae
ia?a, a 20 000 ?ac, a iiaeao, e a ieeeeii ?ac i?aauoaao yia?aeth ethaiai
iieaeoey?iiai i?aa?auaiey”. Yoa ia?iiiay yia?aey, ii eo iiaieth,
aeieaeia o/eouaaoueny “i?e iauyniaiee yaeaiee einie/aneie oeceee”. A
/anoiinoe, iinoiyinoai nieia/iie yia?aee iiaeii iauynieoue oai, “/oi ia
Nieioea eaeoo i?ioeannu noaaoiiiiai i?aa?auaiey”.24 iay 1907 aiaea
?aca?oi?ae aa?ioeny a Aa?iio, a Iai/anoa?. A 1908 aiaeo ?aca?oi?aeo auea
i?enoaeaeaia Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey ii oeiee. Iinea iieo/aiey Iiaaeaaneie
i?aiee ?aca?oi?ae caiyeny eco/aieai yaeaiey, eioi?ia iaaethaeaeinue i?e
aiiaa?aee?iaea ieanoeiee oiieie cieioie oieueae aeueoa-/anoeoeaie,
eceo/aaiuie oaeei ?aaeeiaeoeaiui yeaiaioii, eae o?ai. A 1911 aiaeo
?aca?oi?ae i?aaeeiaeee iiaoth iiaeaeue aoiia. Niaeanii aai oai?ee,
iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu nin?aaeioi/aiu a oyaeaeii oeaio?a
aoiia, a io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua (yeaeo?iiu) iaoiaeyony ia i?aeoa
yae?a, ia aeiaieueii aieueoii ?annoiyiee io iaai. Yoa iiaeaeue, iiaeiaia
e?ioa/iie iiaeaee Nieia/iie nenoaiu, iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi aoiiu ninoiyo
aeaaiui ia?acii ec ionoiai i?ino?ainoaa.

Ai a?aiy aieiu aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iacia/eei ?aca?oi?aea /eaiii
“aaeie?aeueneiai ooaaa ecia?aoaiee e enneaaeiaaiee” – i?aaiecaoeee,
nicaeaiiie aeey ecuneaiey n?aaenoa ai?ueau n iiaeaiaeiuie eiaeeaie
i?ioeaieea. Iinea aieiu ii aa?ioeny a iai/anoa?neoth eaai?aoi?eth.

A 1919 ii aiaeo ?aca?oi?aeo oaeaeinue i?iaanoe eneonnoaaiiui iooai
ia?aoth ?aaeoeeth i?aa?auaiey aoiiia. Aiiaa?aee?oy aoiiu acioa
e-/anoeoeaie, ?aca?oi?ae ioe?ue, /oi i?e yoii ia?acothony aoiiu
eenei?iaea. A 1919 aiaeo ?aca?oi?ae noae i?ioanni?ii yenia?eiaioaeueiie
oeceee e aee?aeoi?ii Eaaaiaeeoneie eaai?aoi?ee. A 1921-i ii caiye
aeieaeiinoue i?ioanni?a anoanoaaiiuo iaoe a Ei?ieaaneii einoeoooa a
Eiiaeiia. A 1925 aiaeo o/aiue aue iaa?aaeaeai a?eoaineei i?aeaiii “Ca
caneoae”. A 1930 aiaeo ?aca?oi?ae aue iacia/ai i?aaenaaeaoaeai
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai eiinoeueoaoeaiiai niaaoa Oi?aaeaiey iao/iuo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee. A 1931 aiaeo ii iieo/ee caaiea ei?aea e noae
/eaiii iaeaou ei?aeia aiaeeeneiai ia?eaiaioa.Ii/oe aei eiioea aeecie ii
ioee/aeny e?aieei caei?iaueai e oia? a Eaia?eaeaea 20 ieoya?y 1937 aiaea
iinea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aieacie.

Iaaeeeue *aiaa?eai

*aiaa?eai, Iaaeeeue (Chamberlain), (1869-1940), ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue Aaeeeia?eoaiee, iaeei ec eeaea?ia Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee.
?iaeeeny 18 ia?oa 1869 a Yaeaeaanoiia, Ae?ieiaai. Ia?aciaaiea iieo/ee a
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiie oeiea a ?aaae e Ae?ieiaaineii eieeaaeaea. Caieiaeny
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. A 1915-16 ei?ae-iy? Ae?ieiaaia.
N aeaeaa?y 1918 /eai ia?eaiaioa io Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee.

A 1922-23 ieieno? ii/o, a 1923, 1924-29, 1931 ieieno? cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
a 1923-24, 1931-37 ieieno? oeiainia. A 1937-40 *aiaa?eai aue
i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii e eeaea?ii Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee. Aianoa n Aeoea?ii,
Ionnieeie e Aeaeaaeuea *aiaa?eai iiaeienae Ithioaineia niaeaoaiea 1938,
noaaoaa i?ieiaii ei 2-e ie?iaie aieia. I?iaae iieeoeee oie?ioai?aiey,
eioi?oth i?iaiaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai *aiaa?eaia, i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
Aaeeeia?eoaiey anooieea ai 2-th ie?iaoth aieio a e?aeia neiaeiuo
oneiaeyo. A iaa 1940 *aiaa?eai aue auioaeaeai oeoe a ionoaaeo n iinoa
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, inoaaoenue (aei naioya?y 1940) a ninoaaa
eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oeinoiia *a?/eeey. Oia? *aiaa?eai 9 iiya?y
1940 a Oaeoeeaea, aeec ?eaeeiaa.

Oeinoii *a?/eeue

*A?*EEEUe Oeinoii Eaia?ae Niaina?, aa?oeia Iaeueai?i (1874-1965).
Aiaeeeneee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, enoi?ee. I?aiuea?-ieieno?
Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1940-1945 e 1951-1955 aa. A ia?eaiaioa n 1900 a. Aei
1904 a. — eiina?aaoi?, aei 1923 a. — eeaa?ae, caoai aiiaue eiina?aaoi?,
eeaea? Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee. N 1908 a. caieiae ?yae ieienoa?neeo iinoia
a i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a 1911-1915 aa. aue ei?aeii Aaeie?aeoaenoaa (ii?neei
ieieno?ii), a 1919-1921 aa.— aiaiiui ieieno?ii e ieieno?ii aaeaoeee, a
1924-1929 aa. — ieieno?ii oeiainia, a 1939-1940 aa. — aiaiii-ii?neei
ieieno?ii, a 1940-1945 aa. — aeaaie eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Aicaeaaeye i?aaeoaeuenoai eiina?aaoi?ia a 1951-1955 aa. Oaeinoiai
Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ii eeoa?aoo?a a 1953 a. A aiaeu Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
— nithciee NNN?, iaeei ec o/anoieeia aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee. AEaia
*a?/eeey Eeaiaioeia ai a?aiy aieiu aicaeaaeyea «Oiiae iiiiue ?innee»;
iaa?aaeaeaia i?aeaiii O?oaeiaiai E?aniiai Ciaiaie. A ai?aea 1945 a.
i?eacaeaea a Iineao. *a?/eeeue — aaoi? iaioa?ia, a oaeaea ?yaea
enoi?e/aneeo e eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee. N?aaee aai o?oaeia —
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea «Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia» (Churchill W.S.
The Second World War. London, 1951). Ai a?aiy aieiu *a?/eeeue ianeieueei
?ac ee/ii ano?a/aeny ni Noaeeiui (aeaaaeaeu a Iineaa, a Oaaa?aia, sseoa,
Iionaeaia). Aia/aoeaieyi io yoeo ano?a/, noaeaeaieyi i iieeoe/aneeo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoaieyo ?oeiaiaeeoaey NNN? oaeaeaii aeinoieiia ianoi a
?aaioao *a?/eeey. A NNN? ecaeaia (ia iieiinoueth) ia?aienea Noaeeia e
*a?/eeey a ia?eiae 1941-1945 aa. (I., 1976).I.N. O?ouaa ieoao: «Ec
iioaeeeiaaiiuo oaia?ue aeieoiaioia aeaeii, /oi aua 3 ai?aey 1941 a.
*a?/eeeue /a?ac aiaeeeneiai iinea a NNN? E?eioa naeaeae ee/iia
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea Noaeeio i oii, oi aa?iaineea aienea ia/aee niaa?oaoue
ia?aaeeneieaoeeth, iiaeaioaaeeaay iaiaaeaiea ia Niaaoneee Nithc…
*a?/eeeue oeacuaae a naiai iineaiee, /oi ii i?ineo “i?aaeinoa?a/ue
Noaeeia n oai, /oiau ia?aoeoue aai aieiaiea ia oa?iaeathuoth aio
iianiinoue”. *a?/eeeue ianoie/eai iiae/a?eeaae yoi e a oaeaa?aiiao io 18
ai?aey e a iineaaeothuea aeie. Iaeiaei yoe i?aaeinoa?aaeaiey Noaeeiui ia
i?eieiaeenue ai aieiaiea» (O?ouaa I.N. I eoeueoa ee/iinoe e aai
iineaaenoaeyo //Ecaanoey OeE EINN. 1989. ? 3. N. 146). Eae
eeethno?aoeeth e yoiio nthaeaoo, i?eaaaeai io?uaie ec ainiiieiaiee
*a?/eeey, eioi?ue a iaeiie ec aanaae ni Noaeeiui neacae: «Ei?ae
Aeaa?a?oe 1) niiauee iia, /oi ai a?aiy aai iiacaeee a Iineao a ieoya?a
1941 a. au ni?ineee aai: “*oi eiae a aeaeo *a?/eeeue, eiaaea cayaee a
ia?eaiaioa, /oi ii i?aaeoi?aaeee iaiy i aioiayuainy aa?iaineii
iaiaaeaiee?” “Aea, y aeaenoaeoaeueii cayaee yoi, — neacae y, — eiay a
aeaeo oaeaa?aiio, eioi?oth y ioi?aaee aai a ai?aea 1941 aiaea”. E y
aeinoae oaeaa?aiio, eioi?oth ny? Noaooi?ae E?eiin aeinoaaee n
iiicaeaieai. Eiaaea oaeaa?aiia auea i?i/oaia e ia?aaaaeaia Noaeeio, oio
iiaeae iea/aie: „ss iiiith aa. Iia ia ioaeii auei ieeaeeo
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee. ss ciae, /oi aieia ia/iaony, ii y aeoiae, /oi iia
oaeanony auea?aoue aua ianyoeaa oanoue eee ieiei yoiai”» (*a?/eeeue O.
Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia. Eieaa 2. O. 111-IV. I. 1991. N. 521). «Ia iia aea
ii i?eciaoue, /oi ia i?ioieieueiie caiene aanaaeu Auoeineiai n E?eiinii
nianoaaiii?o/ii ia/a?oae: “I/a?aaeiay a?eoaineay i?iaieaoeey”», —
eiiiaioe?oao yoio nthaeao ia?aaiae/ee A. Aa?aaeeia (Aa?aaeeia A.I. Eae y
noae ia?aaiae/eeii Noaeeia. I.. 1993. N. 317).22 ethiy 1941 a.
oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey iaiaea ia NNN?. ?aaeoeey *a?/eeey auea iaiiaaiiie. A
oio aea aeaiue ii aunooiee ii ?aaeei. A naiai cayaeaiee *a?/eeeue
neacae: «Iaoeenoneiio ?aaeeio i?enoue ooaeoea /a?ou eiiioiecia. O iaai
iao ieeaeeo onoiaa e i?eioeeiia, e?iia ae/iinoe e no?aieaiey e ?aniaiio
ainiiaenoao… Ca iineaaeiea 25 eao ieeoi ia aue aieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui i?ioeaieeii eiiioiecia, /ai y. E y ia aicueio iacaae
ie iaeiiai naiaai neiaa, eioi?ia y neacae i iai. Ii ana yoi aeaaeiaao
ia?aae ?acaa?ouaathueiny nae/an c?aeeuai. I?ioeia n aai i?anooieaieyie,
aacoinoaaie e o?aaaaeeyie en/acaao. ss aeieaeai cayaeoue i ?aoaiee
I?aaeoaeuenoaa Aai Aaee/anoaa e oaa?ai, /oi n yoei ?aoaieai niaeanyony
ana a naia a?aiy aaeeeea aeiieieiiu, eai iu aeieaeiu auneacaoueny n?aco
aea, aac aaeeiiai aeiy caaea?aeee…O ian eeoue iaeia aaeeinoaaiiay
iaeciaiiay oeaeue. Iu iieiu ?aoeiinoe oie/oiaeeoue Aeoea?a e ana neaaeu
aai iaoeenoneiai ?aaeeia. Ie/oi ia niiaeao ioa?aoeoue ian io yoiai,
ie/oi. Iu ieeiaaea ia noaiai aeiaiaa?eaaoueny, iu ieeiaaea ia anooiei a
ia?aaiai?u n Aeoea?ii eee n eai-eeai ec aai oaeee. Iu aoaeai n?aaeaoueny
n iei ia nooa, iu aoaeai n?aaeaoueny n iei ia ii?a, iu aoaeai
n?aaeaoueny n iei a aicaeooa, iiea, n Aiaeueae iiiiuueth, ia ecaaaei
caieth io naiie oaie aai e ia inaiaiaeei ia?iaeu io aai eaa. Ethaie
/aeiaae eee ainoaea?noai, eioi?ua ai?thony i?ioea iaoeecia, iieo/ao iaoo
iiiiuue… Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi iu ieaaeai ?innee e ?onneiio ia?iaeo
anth iiiiuue, eaeoth oieueei niiaeai…» (Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia a
ainiiieiaieyo. I., 1990.). 3 ethey 1941 a. a naiai ia?auaiee ii ?aaeei e
niaaoneiio ia?iaeo Noaeei, a /anoiinoe, ioiaoee: «…Enoi?e/aneia
aunooieaiea i?aiuea?a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a. *a?/eeey i iiiiue Niaaoneiio
Nithco e aeaeea?aoeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA i aioiaiinoe ieacaoue iiiiuue
iaoae no?aia, eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue eeoue /oanoai aeaaiaea?iinoe a
na?aeoeao ia?iaeia Niaaoneiai Nithca, — yaeythony aiieia iiiyoiuie e
iieacaoaeueiuie» (Aa?o A. ?inney a aieia 1941-1945. I.. 1967. N.
106-107).

Ii?en Aa?ieueae Iaeieeeai

Ii?en Aa?ieueae Iaeieeeai – ia?aue a?ao Noieoiia. ?iaeeeny a naiuea
e?oiiiai ecaeaoaey. Ia?aciaaiea iieo/ee a Eoiia e Ienoi?aeneii
oieaa?neoaoa. Iieeoe/aneoth ea?uea?o ia/ae a 1924, eiaaea aue eca?ai a
iaeaoo iauei io Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee.

A 1940-45 caieiae ?yae iinoia a eaaeiaoa O. *a?/eeey. Ii aica?auaiee
eiina?aaoi?ia e aeanoe a ?acoeueoaoa anaiaueo auai?ia 1951 aue ieieno?ii
aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey (1951-54), iai?iiu
(1954-55), eiino?aiiuo aeae (1955), oeiainia (1955-57).

A 1963 i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo i?iaanoe ia?aaiai?u i anooieaiee
Aaeeeia?eoaiee a Aa?iiaeneia Yeiiiie/aneia Niiauanoai, /aio
aini?aiyonoaiaae I?aceaeaio O?aioeee Aea Aieeue.

Iaoiaeynue ia iinoo i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, ?aoiaae ca nio?aiaiea yaea?iiai
i?oaeey a Aaeeeia?eoaiee; a 1962 i?eiye ?aoaiea i iieoiea aia?eeaineeo
?aeao “Iiey?en”. A 1984 iieo/ee oeooe a?aoa. A 1924-29 e 1931-45 /eai
Ia?eaiaioa io ie?oaa Noieoii, a 1945-64 – io ie?oaa A?iiee.

Iaoiaeynue ia iinoo ieieno?a aeeeeuiiai oicyenoaa a 1951-54, Iaeieeaio
oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny aaeaaiaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa 300 oun. aeiiia. Iinea
Noyoeeiai e?ecena e ionoaaee Aioiie Eaeaia noaiiaeony
i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii, e ia auai?ao 1959 i?eaiaeeo Eiina?aaoeaioth ia?oeth
e iiaaaea, ainiieueciaaaoenue eicoiaii, iicaeinoaiaaiiui ec
ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee NOA, “Aai oae oi?ioi aua ieeiaaea ia auei”.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ieaia, iiieiaiea Iaeieeaiii “aao?a ia?aiai” a Ao?eea
i?eaeeceei caaiaaaiea iacaaeneiinoe auaoeie eieiieyie.

I?icaeua “Noia?iae” Iaeieeai iieo/ee n eaaeie ?oee ea?eeaoo?enoa Aeeee.

Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a?

Aa iaoue, Aaao?en ?iaa?oa, n/eoaeanue ia?acoeiai-iieacaoaeueiie
aeiiaoiae oicyeeie e a aeeciue aei/a?e i?aeoe/anee ia aiaoeaaeanue. Aio
ioaoe — ae?oaia aeaei. Ai?i/ai, Aeueo?aae ?iaa?oa ia noieueei iio/ae
aei/ue, neieueei iinoiyiii oaaeee, iiiu?ye ethaua aa oaea/aiey e aue aa
eo/oei ae?oaii, /oi naiaiaeiethaeaie Ia?aa?ao aanueia i?aaeeinue.

Iyaae ?iaa?oa iaiaeaea iooea, aeey iaai iia noaea anai ia naaoa. Ioaoe
ii?ith caauaae, /oi Iyaae anaai-iaanaai iaeaiueeay aeaai/ea, e iauaeny n
iae ia ?aaiuo. Ii n oo?a aei ii/e aiooae aei/a?e i?eioeeiu /anoe, aeieaa
e aa?u. Aua aei oiai eae Ia?aa?ao iioea a oeieo, ioaoe o/ee aa ie ca /oi
ia naaoa ia neeaaoueny n aaceeeie oieiie, ia i?eieiaoue noaaeiuo
?aoaiee, ia aiyoueny ieacaoueny iaiiiyoie e iaiioiaeae ia ae?oaeo,
aanno?aoii ionoaeaaoue nianoaaiioth oi/eo c?aiey, ia ia?aeeaaeuaaoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia eiai-oi. Ii aiai?ee: «Aeaoea, caiiiie, a aeecie ia
nouanoaoao neia: “ss ia iiao” eee “Yoi neeoeii o?oaeii”. Oaeea neiaa —
oaeae neaauo aeooii». Aeueo?aae oaaaeaeae nianai aua e?ioo, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue ethaeae, ii iaeuecy aeaeaoue naay. A e?iia oiai,
iaaei anaaaea iiiieoue, /oi Ainiiaeue ia inoaaeyao aeaoae naieo. Ii o/ee
aei/ue oae, eae iau/ii ioaoe o/eo nuia, e i?e yoii ca?ia iaaeaee a
i/aiue aeaaiaeaoioth ii/ao.

Aeaai/ea aieouaaea oeeinioeth iooea, eae aoaea, e iiiaea naie ac?ineua
iinooiee niaa?oaea iiae aai aeeyieai. Ioaoe no?aieeny aeaoue Ia?aa?ao
aeanoyuaa ia?aciaaiea. Iyaae aua aei oeieu ia/aea caieiaoueny iocueie e
iiyceae. Aeueo?aae ?iaa?oa n ?aiiaai aeaonoaa i?eo/ae aa e nii?oo,
iineieueeo i?iiiaaaeiaae eaeath aa?iiie/iiai e ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey
ee/iinoe. E iiieii i?i/aai, ioaoe ?acaeaae o aei/a?e i?aoi?neea
niiniaiinoe. Eacaeinue au, aeeciue aeaai/ee, caiieiaiiay eieaaie,
iocueie, nii?oii e aaneiia/iuie aanaaeaie n iooeii, auea y?eie e
ianuuaiiie. Ii o ethaie iaaeaee anoue aeaa noi?iiu.

Ia?aa?ao a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iia?aaeaea naieo naa?noieeia
eioaeeaeooaeueii. Iia ?inea ia ii aic?anoo na?ueaciui e caieiooui
?aaaieii e ia eiaea ae?ocae. Iyaae iinooieea a oeieo aeey aeaai/ae. Iia
i?ae?anii o/eeanue e aeoeaii o/anoaiaaea a nii?oeaiuo ni?aaiiaaieyo,
aeaaea noaea eaieoaiii nai?iie naiae oeieu. A aeaayoue eao Ia?aa?ao
Oeeueaea auea?aea iiyoe/aneee eiieo?n, iiaeaeoe, eiaiii oiaaea aia?aua
i?iyaeeny ciaiaieoue oa?aeoa? aoaeouae AEaeaciie Eaaee. Eiaaea Iaaae
iieo/eea ia?aia ianoi, aee?aeo?ena oeieu iicae?aaeea aeaai/eo, neacaa:
«Aai i/aiue iiaacei, Ia?aa?ao», ia /oi oeieueieoea oaaaeaeaiii
aic?aceea: «Yoi ia aacaiea, iaaeai. Yoi caneoaa!».

A 12 eao iia ia/aea iinauaoue iieeoe/aneea nia?aiey, a a 13, iaace?ay ia
iieeoe/aneea i?eno?anoey iooea, i?eaa?aeaioea eiina?aaoi?ia, naeaeaea
nianoaaiiue auai? a iieueco eaeai?enoia. Oai a?aiaiai i?ia?anne?iaaea ia
oieueei aei/ue, ii e ioaoe. Oii?iaeoei o?oaeii e iaiau/aeiie
oeaeaono?aieaiiinoueth ii aeiaeeny oiai, /oi noae iy?ii A?yiooaia.
Ia?aa?ao i?enoaeueii neaaeeea ca aai iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?ie.

Iyaae noaaeea ia?aae niaie neiaeiaeoea caaea/e — e aeanoyua ni?aaeyeanue
n ieie. Ca /aou?a aiaea aei ieii/aiey oeieu iia ?aoeea, /oi aoaeao
o/eoueny a eo/oai aeaineii eieeaaeaea Ienoi?aea — Niia?aeea. Aeaiaa a
naiuea ii-i?aaeiaio ia oaaoaei, e aeey oiai /oiau iieo/eoue i?aai ia
noeiaiaeeth, o?aaiaaeinue a niaa?oainoaa auo/eoue eaouiue — e
/aou?aoeaoiae coa?aaeeie aeaaooea aeiaeeanue yoiai. Eiaiii oiaaea iia
i?eia?aea naia i/a?aaeiia oeieueiia i?icaeua — Coa?eeea.

Iyaae n aua aieueoei oii?noaii noaea o/eoueny. Aa aeaeaee n o/aaieeii a
?oeao n oanoe oo?a aei aeaaiaaeoeaoe ii/e. Aaeeinoaaiiia, ia /oi iia
ioaeaeaeanue io o/aau, — yoi iiioey?iua a oa a?aiaia iieeoe/aneea
aeaaaou, eioi?ua Ia?aa?ao ia i?iioneaea. Oai iia iooa/eaaea i?aoi?neea
niiniaiinoe, o/eeanue ionoaeaaoue naith iiceoeeth a n?aaea ioae/ei, a
i?eioeeia, ia eioa?aniaaaoeony aeaineei iiaieai, a oae oai aieaa ii
oaeei «iaaeaineei» aii?inai, eae iieeoeea e yeiiiieea.

Iyaae ?iaa?oa ana aieueoa e aieueoa aethaeyeanue a iieeoeeo. Iicaeiaa a
Ienoi?aeneii oieaa?neoaoa iia anooieea a Annioeeaoeeth eiina?aaoi?ia. A
naieo iaioa?ao Ia?aa?ao i?eciaaaeanue, /oi niaia iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaeii/oaiee auea iaoneiaeaia ia oieueei eaeaeiuie niia?aaeaieyie, ii e
/enoi ea?uea?iuie ieaiaie noaoue i?aceaeaioii yoie annioeeaoeee.

Iaaae iiciaeiieeanue n iaeiei ec ni?aoieeia ii ia?oee — i?iiuoeaiieeii
Aeyienii Oyo/a?ii. Aeaa aiaea aeeeeny eo «iieeoe/aneee ?iiai», e a 1951
aiaeo iie iiaeaieeenue. Ii/oe n?aco iinea iaaeiaiai ianyoea iia
iinooieea a th?eaee/aneoth oeieo. Ceua ycuee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi Iaaae
auoea caioae ec /enoi ia?eaioeeueiuo niia?aaeaiee, oae eae iaania/aiiue
noi?oa iia iieaoeoue th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea, i eioi?ii iia ia/oaea.
Ia?aa?ao neeoeii oaaaeaea naay e naiaai ioaea, /oiau ioaee/ii
?aaae?iaaoue ia auiaaeu, ii a ee/iuo aanaaeao n ae?ocueyie
i?eciaaaeanue, /oi oaeea aeiaaaeee aa aieueii caaeaaatho.

A 1953 aiaeo Iyaae iieo/eea noaiaiue th?enoa, i?e/ai aaeaieaoneea
yecaiaiu iia naeaaaea n aeaoiy /aou?aoiany/iuie aeeciaoeaie ia ?oeao.
Neaaeothuea iyoue eao Ia?aa?ao Oao/a? ?aaioaea aaeaieaoii.

Iicaeiaa Ia?aa?ao aiai?eea: «Yoi oi?ioi, /oi y anth aeeciue o/eeanue a
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo aeey aeaai/ae. Ii/oe ia aoaeo/e ciaeiiie n
iaeue/eeaie a aeaonoaa, y oae e ia iao/eeanue oiio, /oiau eiiieaeniaaoue
ia?aae ieie e onooiaoue ei oieueei iioiio, /oi iie iaeue/eee. A eiaaea y
noaea ac?ineie — ecaeieoa, aeaeaioeueiaiu, ii aueoi oaea iicaeii».

A 1959 aiaeo Ia?aa?ao aoi?ie ?ac anooieea a ai?ueao ca ianoi a
ia?eaiaioa e ia yoio ?ac iiaaaeeea, noaa /eaiii iaeaou iauei a 33 aiaea.
Ia?aa?ao Oao/a? ia/aea aeoeaii i?iaeaeaaoueny ii iieeoe/aneie ea?uea?iie
eanoieoea n 60-o aiaeia, ii oieueei /a?ac 20 eao, a iaa 1979 aiaea, iia
noaea i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii Aaeeeia?eoaiee, caaiaaaa ii/oe 44% aieinia
ecae?aoaeae. Ae aueoi 53 aiaea, e, ionoaeaay naie iiceoeee a ie?a
ioae/ei ia i?ioyaeaiee noieueeeo eao, iia noaea aua aieaa aeanoeie.
Aeaaea iaiaeathuee e i?aeeiiythueeny ia?aae iae ioaoe aiai?ee: «Ia?aa?ao
ia 99,5% — niaa?oainoai. Inoaeueiua iiei?ioeaioa — yoi oi, /oi iia iiaea
au eiaoue, aoaeue oioue /ooi/eo oaieaa».

N i?eoiaeii a aieueooth iieeoeeo eciaieeanue ia oieueei aa aeeciue, ii e
i?icaeua. Ainiiaee, eae oieueei ia iacuaaee yoo aeaiueio! E AEaeaciie
Eaaee, e E?iaaaie Ia?ai, e A?iie?iaaiiui Oaieii, e Aei/a?ueth Eaai/ieea,
e Oa?aiii — anaai ia ia?a/eneeoue! Enoaoe, i?icaeua AEaeaciay Eaaee
i?eaeoiaee ?onneea. Eiaiii n iaoae eaaeie ?oee oae iacuaae aa aanue ie?.

Ia aieia eae ia aieia — e Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a?, ia ieiaeaeueie/ay,
?ani?aaeyeanue ni aeiiaoe iaiaaeaaoeie i?ionithcaie, n aanoothueie
oaooa?aie, i?ioanoothueie i?ioea cae?uoey oauoi/iuo oaoo, n
eaeaeeaai/aneeie iano?iaieyie a iauanoaa, iieaaaaoai, /oi ainoaea?noai
aio /oi-oi ai?ei?e «aeieaeii», n i?aaiia?ooaieyie i?e i?iaaaeaiee
aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee, n ei??oioeeae e oeeiiaieai io oieaou iaeiaia.

Iniiaiie oaea? iai?aaeyeny ia ai?ueao n eioeyoeeae, e, ?acoiaaony,
?aceea ia?u, i?eiyoua i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii, auee i/aiue iaiiioey?iu.
I?aaeoaeuenoai acyei iiae aeanoi/aeoee eiio?ieue auione aeaiaa e
e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo. Athaeaeao no?aiu oaeaea ieacaeny iinoaaeai iiae
niaa?oaiii i?ic?a/iue eiio?ieue, /oi aucaaei ia?iiiua nie?auaiey iauaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey. A ioee/ea io iiiaeo ae?oaeo iieeoeeia,
YiOe ia iieueciaaeanue iaoiaeii eiooa e i?yieea. Aue oieueei eioo,
iaeiaei AEaeaciay Eaaee ieeiaaea ia oaeueoeaeea e ia eeoeaia?eea ia?aae
iaoeeae, ia aeaaaea ionouo iaauaiee.

N 1984 aiaea Aaeeeia?eoaiey ia/aea i?ia?anne?iaaoue e iinoaiaiii
noaiiaeoueny oie naiie no?aiie, eioi?oth iu ciaai naaiaeiy.

Eiaiii iiyoiio iiaeaeiaaiea Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a? ei?ieaaie Aeecaaaoie II a
1992 aiaeo aa?iineiai oeooea, auei aini?eiyoi a a?eoaineii iauanoaa eae
caneoaeaiiay iaa?aaea.

Na?anuaay ianeo AEaeaciie Eaaee, Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a? auea ethayuae
aei/a?ueth, ethayuae iaoa?ueth e ethayuae aeaiie. E naia Oyo/a?, e aa
noi?oa iaei aiai?eee ioaee/ii i ee/iie aeecie, ii eae-oi ?ac Aeyien
Oyo/a? ia oaea?aeaeny: «Ie? e naiuey aeaeyo Ia?aa?ao ?aciuie aeacaie.

Eiy Oyo/a? a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea noaei neiiieiii aeanoeinoe e
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe, ii i?e yoii iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue, /oi iia
oaeeaeoaeueii iaayoaeueia. Eoi, eae ia o?aioeoc, iiaeao ioeaieoue
ianoiyuoth aeaiueio? Eiaiii o?aioeoco O?ainoa Ieooa?aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
iaeaoaaoaa aanue ie? auneacuaaiea i Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a?: «O iaa aeaca
Eaeeaoeu, a aoau Iy?eeei Iii?i».

Ia i/a?aaeiii aoeoeeiia Sothby’s auee aunoaaeaiu eoeeu-ia?iaeee ia
aaeeeeo ie?a naai. ?iiaeueae e Iyine ?aeaai ooee ca 6 oun. ooioia
noa?eeiaia, Iee Aeaeaaaa? ec «?ieeeia Noioic» — ca 7,5 oun. Ia?aia ianoi
caaiaaaea eoeea aa?iiannu Oyo/a?. E oioue noieea iia 11 oun. 220 ooioia
noa?eeiaia, aeaei aeaaea ia a yoie aaniineiaiie (ca eoeeo!) noiia. Aeaei
a ae?oaii.

Eaaee nei?i eniieieony 75 eao. Ianeieueei eao iacaae iie n ioaeai
ioiaoeee cieiooth naaaeueao. YiOe aeaaii ioioea io aieueoie iieeoeee, a
iaaeaaii a?a/e cai?aoeee ae — aaee/aeoaio i?aoi?o nia?aiaiiinoe —
ioaee/iua aunooieaiey. Ana /aua e /aua iiaoi?ythony iee?ieinoeueou: oau,
ia oaeei oae aeaeaciui ieacaeinue caei?iauea AEaeaciie Eaaee.

Aianoa n aa?iiannie, eae e n ethaui aienoeio aaeeeei /aeiaaeii, ooiaeeo
oeaeay yiioa.

Oa?eiooa A?iioa

Oa?eiooa A?iioa ?iaeeeanue 21 ethiy 1816 aiaea, a Oi?ioiia, a Ei?eoe?a,
(Aiaeey) a naiuea nayuaiieea Iao?eea A?iioa e aai noi?oae Iy?e. E?iia
Oa?eioou a naiuea auei aua iyoa?i aeaoae. A 1820 aiaeo naiaenoai A?iioa
ia?aaoaei a Oioi?o, aeooia ianoa/ei a N?aaeiae Aiaeee, aaea Iao?ee
A?iioa iieo/ee iaaieueoie i?eoiae. Oai, a 1821 aiaeo, e neii/aeanue Iy?e
A?iioa, inoaaea ne?io ia ?oeao iacaioaeiae naiy/aiieoeu e noi?oaa. Ii
caaioeeny, eae iia, i ainieoaiee aeaoae e eo ia?aciaaiee. Aei/a?ae –
Ia?eth, Yeecaaao, Oa?eiooo e Yieeeth ii ioaeae a ne?ioneee i?etho Eioi
-A?eaeae, ii oneiaey oai auee noieue no?iauie, /oi anei?a aeaa noa?oeo
aeaai/ee – o?oieea e aieaciaiiua io ?iaeaeaiey, neii/aeenue io
nei?ioa/iie /aoioee! Ia?aioaaiiue ioaoe caa?ae Yieeeth e Oa?eiooo ec
iaineiia e ioiuia eo ainieoaieai e ia?aciaaieai caieiaeanue no?iaay
oaoooea, a oi/iaa neacaoue – eieae ec aeaeeioaee iooea.

Iaeaiueeia naiaenoai A?iioa iouneeaaei aeey naay ae?oaea, ia iaiaa
oaeaeaoaeueiua caiyoey: i?eaeoiuaaiey iueanu aeey aeiiaoiaai eoeieueiiai
oaao?a, auione nianoaaiiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai aeo?iaea….

Aeaei?aoeee e iueanai iau/ii ?eniaae naiue ieaaeoee e iaiaeaaiue anaie
a?ao A?aioyee.

Acaiai auno?i iaaeiaaoeo iuean e ae?ai iaoaiiiiiay Oa?eiooa, noaaoay
iinea nia?oe aeaoo nanoa? naiie noa?oae, anei?a i?eaeoiaea iiaoth
caaaao: eaaeaeiio ?acaeaea ii aiia?aaeaaiiio ino?iao, iii?ineea
ianaeeoue aai ia?niiaaeaie, a i?eeeth/aiey e iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue ia
yoeo aieoaaiuo ino?iaao caienuaaoue a iaeaiueeoth eieaea/eo-aeo?iae eee
eaaeaeue aa/a? ?anneacuaaoue aneoo ii i/a?aaee. Oae aicieeea aieoaaiay
no?aia Aia?ey, i?iia?ac, enoie iiyoe/aneiai ie?a anao o?ao nanoa?
A?iioa. A Aia?ee auee ?uoea?e e aieoaaieee, aa?oeiae e ie?aou,
i?ae?aniua aeaiu e aeanoieea ei?ieaau.

Iaeiaei Iao?eeo A?iioa ia i/aiue i?aaeeinue, /oi aeaoe, oae e ia iieo/ea
na?ueaciiai ia?aciaaiey, ?anooo /a?an/o? oeoeie e caieioouie. Ii ?aoeeny
ioi?aaeoue iaeio ec aei/a?ae a iaineii Ia?aa?ao Aoea?, neaaeaoeeny
ia?aaeiauie e aoiaiiuie (oai ia i?eiaiyee oaeaniuo iaeacaiee!) iaoiaeaie
ainieoaiey. Oaoaea Oa?eiooa. Aiineaaenoaee, iia n ia?iiiie iaaeiinoueth
e oaieioie aniiieiaea a?aiy, i?iaaaeaiiia a ?iooaaea, a iaineiia Aoea?,
aaea iia iieo/eea ia oieueei na?ueaciia ia?aciaaiea, ieii/aoaeueii
?acaeaoaa aa i?e?iaeiue aea? ni/eieoaeuenoaa, ii e aa?iuo iiae?oa,
iiaeaea?aeeaathueo aa anth aeeciue. A 1832 aiaeo iia caeii/eea aai, a n
1835 ii 1838 aa. ?aaioaea a iai aea o/eoaeueieoeae o?aioeocneiai ycuea e
?eniaaiey. Aanue o/eoaeueneee iiuo, iaaeaaiae/aneea ?aciuoeaiey
aaeoi/eaie e ethayuae o/aieoe ienn A?iioa, aue io?aaeai iicaea ia
no?aieoeao aa ?iiaiia.

Eae – oi iia neo/aeii ioe?uea aeueaii Yieeee e n ainoi?aii i?i/ea aa
noeoe, iaiioiaeea ia iau/ioth aeaineoth iiyceth – neeoeii
no?aieoaeueiua, y?eea, eaeiie/iua. Oa?eiooo ana yoi ianoieueei ii?aceei,
/oi iia ?aoeea ecaeaoue nai?iee iiycee nanoa? ca naie n/ao, ne?ua
enoeiiua aeaineea eiaia iiae inaaaeiieiii:” A?aouey Aaee”.

Ie?ueaiiay oniaoii, Oa?eiooa ?aoeea iaia/aoaoue eieao i?icu “a?aoueaa
Aaee”. E ioaeeeaoeee iia i?aaeeiaeeea o?e aaue: naie ?iiai “O/eoaeue”,
“A?iciaie ia?aaae” -Yieeee e “Aaian A?ye” – Yii. Aa nianoaaiiue ?iiai
aue ioaa?aioo.

Oa?eiooa, aieueoa ?aaeoynue oniaoo nano?u, /ai nie?ooaynue i naiai
i?iaaea, i?iyaeea ia?iiioth neeo aeooa, oaea 16 ieoya?y 1847 caeii/ea
iiaue ?iiai “Aeaeaei Ye?” – enoi?eth iaeaiueeie aoaa?iaioee, aaaeiie e
iae?aneaie, noiaaoae caaiaaaoue na?aeoea aiaaoiai, ii/oe ?aci/a?iaaiiiai
a aeecie, oicyeia caiea n aaoiyie – Y. ?i/anoa?a.

?iiai Oa?eioou eiae iaeooeoaeueiue oniao, ianeieueei ecaeaoaeuenoa
niia?ie/aee ae?oa n ae?oaii a i?eia?aoaiee i?aa ia?aecaeaiey. O.
Oaeea?ae i?eaeanee Oa?eiooo a Eiiaeii, ene?aiii ainoeuaynue aa oaeaioii
e aeaeay iiciaeiieoueny n iath.

Oa?eiooa, aeaaiaea?y aai i?eaeaoaieyi, ianeieueei ?ac iiauaaea a
noieeoea, iiciaeiieeanue n eeoa?aoi?aie e ecaeaoaeyie, iinaoeea eaeoeee
Oaeea?ay ia aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?a (a 1851 aiaeo).

Iinea i?i/oaiey aa aoi?iai ?iiaia – “Ai?iaeie” – i noaeueaa iacao?yaeiie
aeaaooee Ethne Niio, ia?aaeeaoae ian/anoioth ethaiaue, ii nio?aieaoae ia
neiieaiiue e ai?aeue aeoo,- ii iaienae ii?aceoaeueiua neiaa i Oa?eiooa
A?iioa, eioi?ua i/aiue ?aaeei oeeoe?othony:

“Aaaeiay aeaiueia, iaeaaeathuay oaeaioii! No?anoiia, iaeaiueeia,
aeaaeiia aei aeecie nicaeaiea, o?aa?ia, o?aiaoiia, iae?aneaia: *eoay aa
?iiai, y aeiaaaeuaathnue, eae iia aeeaao, e iiieiath, /oi aieueoa neaau
e anao ae?oaeo iaaaniuo nie?iaeu iia oioaea au, /oiau eaeie – ieaoaeue
Oiieein ethaee aa e iia ethaeea aai!:”

Ieii/aoaeueii ecio/aaoenue io iaeeii/anoaa, Oa?eiooa aeaea niaeanea ia
a?ae i?aaiieeo naiaai iooea ii i?eoiaeo A?oo?o Ieeieeno- Aaeeeth.
Ethaeea ee iia aai? Neacaoue oi/ii iaaiciiaeii: Iia anaaaea
ainieouaaeanue a no?iaie o?aaeeoeee aea?oaaiiinoe naiaeiiio aeieao e
/anoe. Ana iyoue ianyoeaa naiaai iaaeieaiai caioaeanoaa noa?aoaeueii
auiieiyea iaycaiiinoe noi?oae ianoi?a e oicyeee aeiia. Naiaiaeii
caieiaoueny oai?/anoaii oaea ia iiaea.

Oaeeii iuoaeanue /oi-oi ienaoue e i?yoaea a noie. Iacaaeieai aei aa
nia?oe auoae ec ia/aoe ?iiai “Oa?ee”, n eioa?anii ano?a/aiiue e ioaeeeie
e e?eoeeie.

N iaaeaaeaeie aeaeaee iiauo aceaoia oaeaioa A?iioa. Ii iaaeaaeaeu ia
naueenue. 31 ia?oa 1855 aiaea ia noaei oie, eioi?oth A?oo? Ieeieen –
Aaeeeue iacaae ” eeoue aei/a?ueth e aeaiith ianoi?a” Ni a?aiaie aa
nia?oe i?ioei noi n eeoiei eao, ii ethaee ii – i?aaeiaio i?eacaeatho a
Oioi?o, a iaeaiueeee aeiiee – iocae “oae – ienaoaeueieoeu”Oa?eioou
A?iioa, /uee ioaoe e ioae auee”: eeoue ne?iiiuie naeueneeie
nayuaiieeaie:” (A?ieaaoc e Ao?ii. Aeia?aoee .o. 2)

Aeieaeue Aeaoi

Aeaoi Aeaieaeue (ieiei 1660, E?eieaaeo, – 26.4.1731, Io?oeeaen),
aiaeeeneee ienaoaeue e ioaeeoeeno. Ieii/ee aeennaioa?neee eieeaaeae.
O/anoaiaae a ainnoaiee aa?oeiaa Iiiiaooa i?ioea sseiaa II, ni/oanoaiaae
ainoaea?noaaiiiio ia?aai?ioo 1688-89 (oae iacuaaaiay “Neaaiay
?aaiethoeey”). Eeoa?aoo?ioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia/ae eae aaoi? “Iiuoa i
i?iaeoao” (1697), i?aaeiieaaaaoeo yeiiiie/aneea e iauanoaaiiua ?aoi?iu;
a?ioth? a caueoo a?aaeaeaineeo naiaiae – ia/aoe e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee;
noeoioai?iie naoe?u “*enoie?iaiue aiaee/aiei” (1701) – i?ioea
a?enoie?aoia, aeene?aaeeoe?iaaaoeo ei?iey Aeeueaaeueia III I?aineiai eae
“ia aiaee/aieia”; iaioeaoa a caueoo aa?ioa?ieiinoe “E?ao/aeoee iooue
?ani?aau n aeennaioa?aie” (1702), ca /oi aue i?eaiai??i e iici?iiio
noieao e oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth. Nueo naiaai aaea, Ae. ia aueo /oaeae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e a iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie aue
auioaeaeai ne?uaaoueny io e?aaeeoi?ia. Eieaa Ae. “AEeciue e aeayiey
Aeaeiiaoaia Oaeeueaea” (1725) iineoaeeea iniiaie aeey iaeiiai ec
naoe?e/aneeo ?iiaiia A. Oeeaeeiaa. Ec ?iiaiia Ae. – “Caienee eaaaea?a”
(1720), “Eaieoai Neiaeueoii” (1720), “Enoi?ey iieeiaieea AEaea” (1722) e
ae?., i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e i?eeeth/ai/aneiio aeai?o, auaeaeythony “Iieeue
Oeaiaea?n” (1722, ?onneee ia?aaiae 1896) -i aaaeiie aeaaooea, eioi?oth
nioeeaeueiua oneiaey oieeioee ia iooue i?inoeoooeee e ai?ianoaa, e
iniaaiii “?iaeicii E?oci” (1719, ?onneee ia?aaiae 1762-1764) – ia
aiaeeeneii eoioea, ieacaaoainy a ?acoeueoaoa ei?aaeae?ooaiey ia
iaiaeoaaiii ino?iaa e naiei o?oaeii nicaeaaoai an? iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
aeecie. Ia i?eia?a ?iaeiciia iaeioi?ua ao?aeoaciua yeiiiienou 18-19 aa.
iuoaeenue aeieacaoue, /oi iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai eiaei
ia?aiia/aeueii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. E?eoeeoy eaeath
“?iaeiciiaae”, E. Ia?en iieacae, /oi i?iecaiaenoai ia anao nooiaiyo
?acaeoey iineo iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? (ni. E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen, Ni/.,
2 ecae., o. 12, n. 709). I?iieeiooue iaoinii o?oaeiethaey e iioeiecia,
auniei ioeai?iiue AE. AE. ?onni e E. I. Oienoui, ?iiai i ?iaeiciia
nio?aiyao ainieoaoaeueiia cia/aiea.

A?oo? Eiiai Aeiee

A?oo? Eaiaoeon Eiiai Aeiee ?iaeeeny 22 iay 1859 aiaea a noieeoea
Oioeaiaeee a. Yaeeiao?aa ia Ieea?aee-ieaen a naiuea ooaeiaeieea e
a?oeoaeoi?a. Aai ioaoe *a?euec Aeoaiiio Aeiee aeaieeny a aic?anoa
aeaaaeoeaoe aeaoo eao ia Iy?e Oiee, iieiaeie aeaiueia naiiaaeoeaoe eao a
1855 aiaeo. Iy?e Aeiee eiaea no?anoue e eieaai e yaeyeanue aeaaiui
?anneac/eeii a naiuea, e a iineaaenoaee A?oo? i/aiue o?iaaoaeueii
aniiieiae i iae. E niaeaeaieth, ioaoe A?oo?a aue o?iie/aneee aeeiaieee,
e iiyoiio naiuey eiiaaea aaaenoaiaaea, oioy ii e aue, ii neiaai naiaai
nuia, i/aiue oaeaioeeaui ooaeiaeieeii. A aeaonoaa A?oo? iiiai /eoae,
eiay niaa?oaiii ?aciinoi?iiiea eioa?anu. Aai ethaeiui aaoi?ii aue Iaei
?eae, a ethaeiie eieaie – “Ioioieee ca neaeueiaie”. Iinea oiai, eae
A?oo? aeinoea aeaayoe eao, aiaaoua /eaiu naiaenoaa Aeiee i?aaeeiaeeee
iiea/eaaoue aai iao/aiea. A oa/aiea naie eao ii aeieaeai aue oiaeeoue a
oeieo-eioa?iao eacoeoia a Aiaeee a Oiaeaea?. Nionoy aeaa aiaea ec
Oiaeaea?a A?oo? ii ia?aa?aeny a Noioieoa?no. Oai i?aiiaeaaaee naiue
i?aaeiaoia: acaoeo, n/ao, iniiaiua i?aaeea, a?aiiaoeeo, neioaenen,
iiyceth, ?eoi?eeo. Eiaiii a oa/aiea yoeo o?oaeiuo eao a oeiea-eioa?iaoa,
A?oo? iiiye, /oi ii eiaao oaeaio e ni/eieoaeuenoao enoi?ee, iiyoiio ii
aue /anoi ie?oaeai nia?aieai ec ainoeuaiiuo iieiaeuo nooaeaioia,
neooathueo oaeeaeoaeueiua enoi?ee, eioi?ua ii ninoaaeye, /oiau ?acaea/ue
eo.

Ia iineaaeiai aiaea iao/aiey ii ecaeaao aeo?iae eieeaaeaea e ieoao
noeoe. E?iia oiai, ii caieiaeny nii?oii, aeaaiui ia?acii e?eeao, a
eioi?ii ii aeinoea oi?ioeo ?acoeueoaoia. Ii ioi?aaeyaony a Aa?iaieth a
Oaeueaeee?o o/eoue iaiaoeeee ycue. Eaoii 1876 aiaea Aeiee aaeao aeiiie.
Oaeei ia?acii, a 1876 aiaeo ii iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea e aue aioia e ano?a/a
n ie?ii. O?aaeeoeee naiaenoaa Aeiee aeeeoiaaee neaaeiaaoue a?oenoe/aneie
ea?uea?a, ii ana aea A?oo? ?aoee caiyoueny iaaeeoeeiie. Yoi ?aoaiea auei
i?eiyoi iiae aeeyieai aeieoi?a A?aeaia *a?eueca, noaiaiiiai, iieiaeiai
eaa?oe?aioa, eioi?iai iaoue A?oo?a acyea, /oiau naiaeeoue eiioeu n
eiioeaie. Aeieoi? Aaeea? iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea a Oieaa?neoaoa Yaeeiao?aa,
e iiyoiio A?oo? ?aoee o/eoueny oai aea. A ieoya?a 1876 aiaea A?oo?
noaiiaeony nooaeaioii iaaeeoeeineiai oieaa?neoaoa. O/anue, A?oo?
ano?a/aeny ni iiiaeie aoaeoueie aaoi?aie, oaeeie eae, Aeaeaein Aa??e e
?iaa?o Eoe Noeaainii, eioi?ua iinauaee oieaa?neoao. Ii iaeaieueoaa
aeeyiea ia iaai ieacae iaeei ec aai i?aiiaeaaaoaeae aeieoi? Aeaeicao
Aaee, eioi?ue aue ianoa?ii iaaethaeaoaeueiinoe, eiaeee, auaiaeia e
iaia?oaeaiey ioeaie. A aoaeouai ii iineoaeee i?ioioeiii Oa?eiea Oieina.
Aeiee iiiai /eoaao, e nionoy aeaa aiaea iinea ia/aea ia?aciaaiey A?oo?
?aoee iii?iaiaaoue naay a eeoa?aoo?a. Aaniie 1879 aiaea ii ieoao
iaeaiueeee ?anneac The Mystery of Sasassa Valley (“Oaeia Nananneie
aeieeiu”), eioi?ue ioaeeeoaony a Chamber’s Journal a ieoya?a 1879 aiaea.
?anneac auoiaeeo neeueii ii?acaiiui, /oi iai?/aao A?oo?a, ii iieo/aiiua
ca iaai 3 aeiae aaeioiiaeytho aai ienaoue aeaeueoa. Ii ionueaao aua
ianeieueei ?anneacia, ii oaeaaony eeoue iioaeeeiaaoue a yoii aea aiaeo
The American Tale a aeo?iaea London Society e ii iiieiaao, /oi oae ii
oiaea iiaeao ca?aaaouaaoue aeaiueae. A 1881 aiaeo ii, ieii/ea
Yaeeiao?aneee oieaa?neoao, aaea iieo/ee noaiaiue aaeaeaa?a iaaeeoeeiu e
noaiaiue iaaeno?a oe?o?aee e noae eneaoue ianoi aeey ?aaiou.
?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeeanue aeieaeiinoue ei?aaaeueiui a?a/ii ia noaeia
“Mayuba”, eioi?ia oiaeeei iaaeaeo Eeaa?ioeai e caiaaeiui iiaa?aaeueai
Ao?eee e 22 ieoya?y 1881 aiaea ia/aeinue i/a?aaeiia ieaaaiea. Ieaaay, ii
iaoae Ao?eeo noieue aea ioa?aoeoaeueiie, eae A?eoeeo niaeacieoaeueiie.
Iiyoiio ii ooiaeeo n ei?aaey, a na?aaeeia yiaa?y 1882 aiaea, e
ia?aae?aaony a Aiaeeth, aaea ioe?uaaao naith ia?aoth i?aeoeeo.
Ia?aiia/aeueii eeeaioia ia auei e iiyoiio o Aeieea iiyaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue iinayoeoue naia naiaiaeiia a?aiy eeoa?aoo?a. Ii ieoao
?anneacu: “Einoe”, “Aeoiainaeaeeneee ia?aa”, “Iie ae?oa – oaeeoea”,
eioi?ua ioaeeeoao a aeo?iaea “Eiiaeii ninaeaoe” a oii aea 1882 aiaeo.
Iieiaeie /aeiaae ?ac?uaaaony iaaeaeo eeoa?aoo?ie e iaaeeoeeiie.

A iaeei ec ia?oianeeo aeiae 1885 aiaea aeieoi? Iaee, aai ae?oa e ninaae,
i?eaeanee Aeieea aeaoue eiinoeueoaoeeth ii neo/ath aieacie Aeaeaea
Oioeeina. A?oo? i?aaeeiaeee iiianoeoue aai a naie aeii aeey iinoiyiiiai
ooiaea ca iei. Yoi iicaieeei aio iiciaeiieoueny n Eoecie (eee Ooe)
Oioeein 27 eao, n eioi?ie iie ia?o/eeenue a ai?aea, a 6 aaaonoa 1885
aiaea iiaeaieeenue.

Iinea aeaieoueau Aeiee aeoeaii caieiaaony eeoa?aoo?ie e oi/ao naeaeaoue
aa naiae i?ioanneae. Iaeei ca ae?oaei auoiaeyo aai ?anneacu: J. Habakuk
Jephson’s Statement (“Niiauaiea Oaaaeoea Aeaeaoniia”), John Huxford’s
Hiatus (“Aeieaia iaauoea Aeaeiia Oaenoi?aea”), The Ring of Thoth
(“Eieueoei Oioa”). Ii ?anneacu ?anneacaie, a Aeiee oi/ao aieueoaai, ii
oi/ao, /oiau aai caiaoeee, a aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaienaoue /oi-oi
aieaa na?ueaciia. A ia?oa 1886 aiaea, Eiiai Aeiee ia/ae ienaoue ?iiai,
eioi?ue i?eaae aai e iiioey?iinoe. Nia/aea ii iacuaaeny A Tangled Skein.
Aeaoiy aiaeaie iicaea yoio ?iiai aue ecaeai a Beeton’s Christmas Annual
(?iaeaeanoaaineee aaeaiaaeaeueiee Aeoiia) ca 1887 aiae iiae iacaaieai A
Study in Scarlet (Yothae a aaa?iauo oiiao), eioi?ue iiciaeiiee /eoaoaeae
n Oa?eieii Oieinii (i?ioioeiu: i?ioanni? Aeaeicao Aaee, ienaoaeue Ieeaa?
Oiein) e aeieoi?ii Aaoniiii (i?ioioei iaei? Aoae), noaaoeie anei?a
ciaiaieouie. Ioaeaeueiui ecaeaieai ?iiai auoae a ia/aea 1888 aiaea e aue
niaaaeai ?enoieaie iooea Aeieea – *a?eueca Aeieea. A 1890 aiaeo a
aia?eeaineeo e aiaeeeneeo auioneao yoiai aeo?iaea iiyaeyaony “Ciae
/aou?ao” (The Sign of Four).

E na?aaeeia yoiai aiaea ii caeai/eaaao “Aaeue io?yae”, eioi?ue aa?ao
aeey ioaeeeaoeee Aeaeaein Iaei a “Ei?ioeeea” e iauyaeyao aai eo/oei
enoi?e/aneei ?iiaiii ni a?aiaie “Aeaaiai”. E eiioeo yoiai aea aiaea iiae
aeeyieai iaiaoeeiai iee?iaeieiaa ?iaa?oa Eioa e aua aieaa Iaeueeieueia
?iaa?oa ii ?aoaao inoaaeoue i?aeoeeo a Ii?oniooa, e aaeao aianoa n
aeaiie a Aaio, inoaaea aei/ue Iy?e o aaaooee, aaea oi/ao
niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny a iooaeueiieiaee, /oiau a aeaeueiaeoai iaeoe ?aaioo
a Eiiaeiia, ii, noieeioaoenue ni niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui iaiaoeeei ycueii e
i?io/eaoenue 4 ianyoea a Aaia iiieiaao, /oi a?aiy iio?a/aii aionooth e
niaoii aica?auaaony a Eiiaeii, aaea ii ieoao ?anneacu i Oa?eiea Oieina.
N iiiiuueth Sidney Paget nicaeaaony ia?ac Oieina e i?ienoiaeeo
ioaeeeaoeey ?anneacia a aeo?iaea The Strand. E eiioeo 1891 aiaea Aeiee
noaiiaeony i/aiue iiioey?iui /aeiaaeii a nayce n iiyaeaieai oanoiai
?anneaca i Oa?eiea Oieina “*aeiaae n ?anna/aiiie aoaie” (The Man with
the Twisted Lip). Ii iinea iaienaiey yoeo oanoe ?anneacia ?aaeaeoi?
“No?yiae” a ieoya?a 1891 aiaea cai?inee aua oanoue, niaeaoaynue ia
ethaua oneiaey ni noi?iiu aaoi?a. E Aeiee cai?inee, eae aio iieacaeinue,
oaeoth noiio, 50 ooioia, oneuoaa i eioi?ie naeaeea ia aeieaeia auea
ninoiyoueny, oae eae ii oaea ia oioae aieaa caieiaoueny yoei
ia?niiaaeai. Ii e aai aieueoiio oaeeaeaieth ieacaeinue, /oi ?aaeaeoeey
niaeania. E ?anneacu auee iaienaiu. A iiya?a 1892, aeeay a Ii?aoaea,
Aeiee ieoao ?anneac “Ooeaeaaoee n 15-ai aiaea”, eioi?ue iiae aeeyieai
?iaa?oa Aa??a ia?aaeaeuaaao a iaeiiaeoioth iueano “Aaoa?eii”, eioi?ay
oniaoii noaaeony ai iiiaeo oaao?ao. A 1892 aiaeo aeo?iae “No?yiae”
aiiaue i?aaeeaaaao iaienaoue aua na?eth ?anneacia i Oa?eiea Oieina.
Aeiee a iaaeaaeaea, /oi aeo?iae ioeaaeaony, aunoaaeyao oneiaea -1000
ooioia e …aeo?iae niaeaoaaony. Aeiee oaea onoae io naiaai aa?iy.
Iiyoiio, eiaaea a ia/aea 1893 aiaea Aeiee n aeaiie ioi?aaeyaony ia
ioaeuo a Oaaeoea?eth e iinauaao ?aeoaiaaoneee aiaeiiaae, ii i?eieiaao
?aoaiea iieii/eoue n yoei iaaeiaaeeeaui aa?iai, ianiio?y ia anaiauea
i?inueau. A ?acoeueoaoa, aeaaaeoeaoue ouny/ iiaeien/eeia ioeacaeenue io
iiaeienee aeo?iaea The Strand, a Aeiee ieoao eo/oea, ii aai iiaieth,
?iiaiu: “Ecaiaiieee”, “Aaeeeay oaiue”. Oaia?ue inaiaiaeaeaiiue io
iaaeeoeeineie ea?uea?u e io auiuoeaiiiai aa?iy, eioi?ue oaiaoae aai e
caoaiiee oi, /oi ii n/eoae aieaa aaaeiui. Eiiai Aeiee iiaeiuaao naay a
aieaa eioaineaioth aeayoaeueiinoue. A iaa 1893 aiaea a oaao?a “Naaie”
auea iinoaaeaia iia?aooa “Aeaeaei Aiie, eee I?ec ca oi?ioaa iiaaaeaiea”.
Ii iia iioa?iaea i?iaae. Aeiee i/aiue ia?aaeeaaao e ia/eiaao
caaeoiuaaoueny i oii, niiniaai ee ii ienaoue aeey oaao?a? A ai?aea 1894
aiaea Aeieeo i?aaeeiaeeee niaa?oeoue oo? ii Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai n
/oaieai io?uaeia ec naieo i?iecaaaeaiee. E aio a eiioea naioya?y 1894
aiaea aianoa n a?aoii Eiianii, ioi?aaeyaony ia eaeia?a “Yeueaa” eiiiaiee
Ii?aeaeiee/a?-Eeieae ec Naooaaiioiia a Aia?eeo. Oai ii iinaoee aieaa /ai
30 ai?iaeia Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia. Yoe eaeoeee eiaee oniao, ii nai Aeiee
neeueii io ieo onoae, oioue ii e iieo/ee aieueoia oaeiaeaoai?aiea io
yoiai iooaoanoaey. Enoaoe eiaiii aia?eeaineie ioaeeea ii aia?aua
i?i/eoae ia?aue naie ?anneac i a?eaaaee?a AEa?a?a – “Iaaeaeue a?eaaaee?a
AEa?a?a”. A yoi aea a?aiy a aeo?iaea The Strand ia/eiaaony ioaeeeaoeey
ia?auo enoi?ee ec The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard (Iiaeaeae a?eaaaee?a
AEa?a?a) e n?aco aea o aeo?iaea oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai iiaeien/eeia.

Ec-ca aieacie aeaiu Aeiee i/aiue oyaioeony iinoiyiiuie ?acuacaeaie, a
oaeaea oai, /oi ia iiaeao ii yoie i?e/eia aeeoue a Aiaeee. A e eaoo 1897
aiaea, iinaeyaony a naiai nianoaaiiii aeiia a a?aonoaa No??ae, a
Aiaea?oi (Undershaw), aaea o Aeieea ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iiyaeyaony
nianoaaiiue eaaeiao, a eioi?ii ii iiaeao niieieii ?aaioaoue, e eiaiii a
iai ii i?eoiaeeo e iunee aine?aneoue naiaai caeeyoiai a?aaa Oa?eiea
Oieina, ii i?e/eia iii?aaee naiaai iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey. N ieoya?y
ii aeaeaa?ue 1898 aiaea Aeiee ieoao eieao “Aeoyo ni anooieaieai oi?a”,
eioi?ay iiaanoaoao i aeecie iau/iie noi?oaeaneie ia?u. Auoiae a naao
yoie eieae aue aini?eiyo iaiaeiicia/ii ioaeeeie, eioi?ay aeaeaea nianai
ae?oaiai io ecaanoiiai ienaoaey, eio?eae, i?eeeth/aiee, a ia iienaiey
aeecie O?yiea E?inna e Iiae Naeae. Ii aaoi? ieoae iniaoth i?eaycaiiinoue
eiaiii e yoie eieaa, iienuaathuae i?inoi ethaiaue.

?aaeuey?ae Eeieeia

EEIEEIA (Kipling), ?aaeuey?ae (30 aeaeaa?y 1865 a. – 18 yiaa?y 1936 a.)
Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey ii eeoa?aoo?a, 1907

Aeaeicao ?aaeuey?ae Eeieeia, aiaeeeneee iiyo, i?icaee e iiaaeeeno,
?iaeeeny a Aiiaaa a naiuea Aeaeiia Eieaoaea Eeieeiaa, ?aeoi?a e
i?ioanni?a Aiiaaeneie oeieu eneonnoa, e Aeenu (Iaeaeiiaeueae) Eeieeia.
Ioaoe iiyoa aue neoeueioi?ii e aeaei?aoi?ii, iaoue ia/aoaeanue a ianoiuo
aeo?iaeao.

A aic?anoa 6 eao, eae yoi auei i?eiyoi a aiaeieiaeeeneeo naiueyo,
?aaeuey?ae e aai ieaaeoay nano?a auee ioi?aaeaiu o/eoueny a Aiaeeth. Iie
aeeee a /anoiii iaineiia, a ia i?acaeieee oacaeaee e ?iaenoaaiieeai
iaoa?e, a naiueth ooaeiaeieea i?a?aoayeeoneie oeieu Yaeoa?aea
Aa?i-Aeaeiina. Ia?aaeeaaiey ?aaaiea, eioi?iai i?aneaaeiaaea aeanoieay
oicyeea iaineiia, iaoee io?aaeaiea a iiaaeea E. «*a?iay iaa/ea» (“Baa
Baa, Black Sheep”, 1888), a oaeaea a ?iiaia «Naao iiaan» (“The Light
That Failed”, 1890) e a aaoiaeia?aoee (1937).

A 1878 a. E. aue iineai a Aeaaiineia o/eeeua, aaea nuiiauey ioeoea?ia
aioiaeeenue e iinooieaieth a i?anoeaeiua aiaiiua aeaaeaiee. Aee?aeoi?ii
o/eeeua aue iaeei ec /eaiia oiai ynoaoe/aneiai e?oaeea, a eioi?ue
aoiaeeee Aa?i-Aeaeiin e Oeeueyi Ii??en. Oioy ia?aia a?aiy iaeue/eeo
ec?yaeii aeinoaaaeinue io caaee?-iaeiieaoieeia, a eiioea eiioeia ii
iiethaee o/eeeua, iienaiiia ei a nai?ieea ?anneacia «Noaeee e E°»
(“Stalky and Co”, 1899). Iineieueeo o/eeeua ia aeaaaei aeeieiiia aeey
iinooieaiey a Ienoi?ae eee Eaia?eaeae, a aeeci?oeinoue ia iicaieeea
thiioa eca?aoue aiaiioth ea?uea?o, ia yoii ia?aciaaiea E. caeii/eeinue.
Aai ioaoe iiae aia/aoeaieai ?anneacia, iaienaiiuo nuiii a o/eeeua,
iiaeuneae aio ?aaioo a ?aaeaeoeee aiaeiycu/iie «A?aaeaeaineie e aiaiiie
aacaou» (“Civil and Military Gazette”), auoiaeeaoae a Eaoi?a (Eiaeey), e
a ieoya?a 1882 a., i?iaeea a Aiaeee 11 eao, E. aica?auaaony a Eiaeeth.

A ?aaioa E. eniieuecoao ciaiea ycuea oeiaeonoaie, eioi?ue ii ia caaue ca
a?aiy naiaai i?aauaaiey a Aiaeee, a oaeaea ciaeiinoai n aiaei-eiaeeeneei
iauanoaii aeey ecia?aaeaiey oie Eiaeee, eioi?ay ecaanoia iai ii aai
eieaai. Aeey aacaou, a eioi?ie ii ?aaioaao, E. ?aaoey?ii ieoao ?anneacu
e noeoioai?aiey. Ia?aue nai?iee noeoioai?aiee ienaoaey «Aeaia?oaiaioneea
ianie» (“Departmental Ditties”, 1886) aue ecaeai ia?aie/aiiui oe?aaeii e
?acioaeny ianoieueei auno?i, /oi aue ia?aecaeai a oii aea aiaeo. Nai?iee
iiaaee «I?inoua ?anneacu n ai?» (“Plain Tales From the Hills”) iiyaeeny
aeaoiy aiaeaie iicaea. N 1887 ii 1889 a. E. iaienae oanoue nai?ieeia
ei?ioeeo ?anneacia aeey na?ee «Aeaeeioaea Eiaeeeneie aeaeaciie aei?iae»,
i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey iooaoanoaaiieeia, /oi i?eianei aio oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue eae a Eiaeee, oae e ai anae A?eoaineie eiia?ee.

No?aiynue canoaaeoue aiai?eoue i naaa a Aiaeee, E. aica?auaaony ooaea
/a?ac ssiiieth e Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo. Ia?aae iouacaeii ii caeeth/aao a
Aeeaoaaaaea eiio?aeo n ianoiie aacaoie «Ieiia?» (“Pioner”) ia iaienaiea
iooaauo i/a?eia. A ieoya?a 1889 a. ienaoaeue i?eacaeaao a Eiiaeii, aaea
ii oaea oniae noaoue ciaiaieoui e aeaaea i?eia?anoe ?aiooaoeeth
eeoa?aoo?iiai ianeaaeieea *a?eca Aeeeeaina. Aai nai?ieee aeey na?ee
«Aeaeeioaea Eiaeeeneie aeaeaciie aei?iae» auee ia?aecaeaiu a Aiaeee a
1890 a. e n ainoi?aii i?eiyou e?eoeeie.

A Eiiaeiia E. ciaeiieony n iieiaeui aia?eeaineei ecaeaoaeai Oieeiooii
Aaeenoe?ii, aianoa n eioi?ui ?aaioaao iaae iiaanoueth «Iaoeaoea» (“The
Naulahka”, 1892). Anei?a iinea oiai, eae Aaeenoe? oia? io oeoa a 1892
a., E. aeaieeny ia aai nano?a Ea?ieeia. A iioaeeeiaaiiue a oii aea aiaeo
iiyoe/aneee nai?iee «Ianie eaca?iu» (“Barrack-Room Ballads”) aioee aeaa
iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo noeoioai?aiey ienaoaey – «Aoiaa Aeei» (“Gunga Din”) e
«Iaiaeaeae» (“Mandalay”).

Iieiaeay /aoa ia?aaoaea a A?aooeueai?i (ooao Aa?iiio), aaea o ieo
?iaeeeenue aeaa aei/a?e. A Aa?iiioa E. ieoao «Iiiaeanoai caoae (“Many
Inventions”, 1893), aeaoooiiiee ?anneacia e noeoioai?aiee – «Eieaa
aeaeoiaeae» (“The Jungle Book, 1894) e «Aoi?ay eieaa aeaeoiaeae»

Iaaeiaieuenoai aeeciueth a Aa?iiioa e na?ueaciue eiioeeeo n oo?eiii
auioaeeee E. iieeiooue Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou e aica?aoeoueny aianoa n
naiueae a Aiaeeth, aaea aio anei?a oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue i?aaeiea
iiceoeee a eeoa?aoo?iii ie?a. A aacaoao ii ioaeeeoao noeoioai?aiey, a
oii /enea «Iineaaeiaa ianiiiaiea» (“Recessional”, 1897), aaea
niaea?aeeony i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea i?ioea aacioaaonoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai iiaouanoaa. Eo/oei ?iiaiii E. n/eoaaony «Eei» (“Kirn”,
1901), a eioi?ii iienuaathony i?eeeth/aiey «oocaiii-?iaeaeaiiiai
iaeue/eea» e no?ainoaothuaai ii Eiaeee aoaeaeenoneiai iiiaoa.

A 1898 a. ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey E. n naiueae (iacaaeieai aei yoiai o
ienaoaey ?iaeeeny nui) a Iueth-Ei?ea ii e aai noa?oay aei/ue caaieaee
ainiaeaieai eaaeeo; aei/ue oia?ea – yoi noaei oo?aoie, iaoaaeoae naia
io?aaeaiea ai iiiaeo ?anneacao E. oao eao. Iinea ia/aea aiaeiao?neie
aieiu a 1899 a. E. i?iaae ianeieueei ianyoeaa a THaeiie Ao?eea,
?aaeaeoe?oy a?iaeneoth aacaoo e eniieiyy iaycaiiinoe iieeoe/aneiai e
aiaiiiai eiinoeueoaioa.

A 1902 a. E. iieoiaao caai?iaeiue aeii a a?aonoaa Nonnaen, aaea inoaaony
aei eiioea aeecie. A oii aea aiaeo ii ieoao «Neacee i?inoi oae» (“Just
So Stories”), «Yeueo n Oieia I?inoaeiai (“Puck of Pook’s Hill”). Nai?iee
aeaoneeo ?anneacia ec enoi?ee ae?aaiae Aiaeee auoiaeeo a 1906 a. A yoe
aiaeu E. aaaeao oaeaea aeoeaioth iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue,
aunooiaao a iiaeaea?aeeo eiina?aaoi?ia e i?ioea oaieiecia e e?eaiaeneiai
aii?oey, ieoao i a?icyuae aieia n Aa?iaieae.

A 1907 a. E. iieo/aao Iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth ii eeoa?aoo?a «ca
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, y?eoth oaioaceth, c?aeinoue eaeae e auaeathueeny
oaeaio iiaanoaiaaoaey». Oioy a Noieaieuei E. i?eaoae, o?aaeeoeeiiiie
?a/e ii i?ieciineoue ia noae.

E yoiio a?aiaie E. iaienae o?eiaaeoeaoue oiiia ?anneacia, /aou?a ?iiaia,
o?e eieae ?anneacia aeey aeaoae, ianeieueei nai?ieeia iooaauo caiaoie,
i/a?eia, aacaoiuo noaoae e nioie noeoioai?aiee. A 1907 a. ii aue
oaeinoiai oaeaea ii/aoiuo noaiaiae Ienoi?aeneiai, Eaia?eaeaeneiai,
Yaeeiao?aneiai e Aea?aineiai oieaa?neoaoia; e?iia oiai, ii iieo/ee
iaa?aaeu io oieaa?neoaoia Ia?eaea, No?anao?aa, Aoei e Oi?iioi.

Anei?a iinea iieo/aiey Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee oai?/aneay aeoeaiinoue E.
ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny. Ai a?aiy ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, ia eioi?ie iiaea
aai aaeeinoaaiiue nui, E. n aeaiie ?aaioaao a E?aniii E?anoa. A 1917 a.
E. auioneaao «Naiua ?aciua nouanoaa» (“A Diversity of Creatures”) –
nai?iee noeoioai?aiee e ?anneacia. Iinea aieiu ienaoaeue iiiai
iooaoanoaoao, a oii /enea e eae /eai Eiiennee ii aiaiiui caoi?iiaieyi.
Ai a?aiy iaeiiai ec oaeeo iooaoanoaee ii O?aioeee a 1922 a. E.
ciaeiieony n aiaeeeneei ei?ieai Aai?aii V, n eioi?ui aai iiiai eao
naycuaaea aieueoay ae?oaeaa. A yoio ia?eiae ienaoaeue i?eiueaao e
i?aaiio e?ueo Eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee, a a 1923 a. auioneaao eieao
«E?eaiaeneea aaa?aeaeoeu ai a?aiy Aaeeeie aieiu» (“The Irish Guards in
the Great War”), iinayuaiioth iieeo, aaea neoaeee aai nui.

A 1926 e 1932 aa. auoiaeeo aua aeaa nai?ieea ?anneacia E. N 1915 a.
ienaoaeue no?aaeae io aano?eoa, eioi?ue aiineaaenoaee ieacaeny ycaie.
Neii/aeny E. a Eiiaeiia io eeoa/iiai e?iaioa/aiey a 1936 a., ca aeaa
aeiy aei naiaai ae?oaa, ei?iey Aai?aa V. Ienaoaeue aue iioi?iiai a
Oaieea iiyoia a Aanoieinoa?neii aaaaonoaa. Aai aaoiaeia?aoey «Eia-/oi i
naaa» (“Something of Myself’) iiyaeeanue nionoy aiae iinea aai nia?oe.

A 1890 a. Inea? Oaeeueae iacaae E. «aaieai, aiai?yuei ia eieie», a Aai?e
Aeaeaein oaeaeae a iai «aiaeeeneiai Aaeuecaea». Ai?i/ai, e 1907 a.
eioa?an e?eoeee e E. ia/eiaao niaaeaoue. Caoiaiea aai ienaoaeueneie
neaau, ii-aeaeeiiio, iauyniyaony aaeeeiaea?aeaaiuie e eiina?aaoeaiuie
acaeyaeaie E., a oaeaea iauaaeinooiiinoueth aai i?iecaaaeaiee
iiaea?ienou n/eoaee, /oi E. noi?iieony oao oai e ynoaoe/aneeo
i?eioeeiia, eioi?ua eniiaaaeotho iie.

N ia/aea 40-o aa. oai?/anoai E. ia?ainiuneyaony e?eoeeie. A 1943 a.,
iinea oiai eae O.N. Yeeio auioneaao a ecaeaoaeuenoaa «Oaeaa? yiae
Oaeaa?» nai?iee noeoioai?aiee E., eioa?an e ienaoaeth aic?iaeaeaaony. A
i?ino?aiiii ynna, i?aaeaa?ythuai noeoe E., Yeeio ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi «ii
ianoa?iaeoinoe E. i?aainoiaeeo eeanneeia… N?aaee aai noeoioai?aiee ia
iaeaeaony ie iaeiiai, a eioi?ii au aio ia oaeaeinue auiieieoue
iinoaaeaiioth caaea/o». «E. i?eiyoi n/eoaoue aaoi?ii iiioey?iui e
?acaeaeaoaeueiui, iiyniyao Yeeio, – ii oie i?inoie i?e/eia, /oi aai
i?iecaaaeaiey anaaaea iiioey?iu e ?acaeaeaoaeueiu». Ii iiaieth Yeeioa,
aeaaiui aeinoieinoaii E. auei aai oiaiea «canoaaeoue ethaeae iiiyoue».
Eiaeeeneee e?eoee Ie?aaeo E. *aoaeoo?e n/eoaao, /oi aaoi?o «Eeia»
oaeaeinue nicaeaoue «ia oieueei naiue eo/oee ?iiai ia Eiaeee ia
aiaeeeneii ycuea, ii e iaeei ec eo/oeo aiaeeeneeo ?iiaiia aiiaua». A
aeia?aoee E. «Caaaaei/iua iooaoanoaey ?aaeuey?aea Eeieeiaa: aai eieae e
aeeciue» (1977) aiaeeeneee ienaoaeue e e?eoee Yiaon Oeenii ienae:
«No?anoiue eioa?an E. e ethaeyi, eo ycueo, aeaeai e caaioai ninoaaeyao
nooue iaae/aneiai i/a?iaaiey anao aai i?iecaaaeaiee».

?iaa?o A??in

Ii aue noa?oei nuiii aaaeiiai oa?ia?a, iaonoaiiiai o?oaeaieea. “Iiyo”,
aiai?eo Ea?eaeeue, aai eo/oee e?eoee, “aue n/anoeea, eiay oaeiai iooea,
o?oaeiethaeaiai, i?yiiaeooiiai, i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiiai, i?aaeaiiiai e
oiiiai /aeiaaea, iiaeiaiiai eioi?iio o?oaeii iaeoe a iauanoaa…. Aoaeue
ii iaiiiai iiaiaa/a, ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeecie iiyoa neiaeeeenue au eia/a,
ii a iieiaeaiee nuia aaaeiiai oa?ia?a, ii inoaeny ia anth aeeciue
iaoa?ai”. A o?eiaaeoeaoue eao iaeue/ee auo/eeny nayoue, a a
iyoiaaeoeaoue ii naeaeaeny aeaaiui ?aaioieeii ia oa?ia, aaea ?aaioieeia
ia aea?aeaee. E oanoiaaeoeaoe aiaeai iaiineeueiay ?aaioa niaa?oaiii
?anno?ieea ia?au Aa?ina. Ii niaioeny e noae no?aaeaoue aieiaiuie aieyie,
na?aeoeaaeaieai e i?eiaaeeaie iaeaioieee. A ee?einaaeueaeneie oeiea ii
oioy e iaiiiaiio iao/eeny, ii iiethaee /oaiea aei oiai, /oi aeaaea a
iiea oiaeee n eieaith a ea?iaia. Ii/ueth a oieiaeiie eaii?ea A. aeoiae i
aaeeaaeao, a aeiai a iiea i?eaeaaae ei iiaua oi?iu e iiaeae?ae ?eoiu. A
1781 a. A. ioi?aaeeny a E?aei o/eoueny /anaoue eai. Ai a?aiy
i?acaeiiaaiey iiaiai aiaea eaaea eo caai?aeanue e A., eae enoue iiyo,
inoaeny n oanoueth iainaie a ea?iaia. A yoi aea a?aiy caai?aeinue e aai
na?aeoea ian/anoiie no?anoueth e ninaaeea. Aeaaooea niayeanue iaae A., a
ii i?eoiaeee a io/ayiea e noae eneaoue ooaoaiey a iauanoaa iieiaeaaee,
aaea nei?i i?eia?ae ?aiooaoeeth aanaeiai niaanaaeieea. Ioaoe aai oia?,
eiaaea iiyoo ieioei 25 eao, e oie?ay n oaeanii aeoiae, /oi naiuey aai
noaiao aaaenoaiaaoue aua aieaa i?aaeiaai. Aeaea naiuee iieieiiai oa?ia?a
aeaenoaeoaeueii ia oeo/oaeenue, e ae i?eoeinue ia?aaoaoue a ae?oaoth
ianoiinoue. A yoi a?aiy A. iiciaeiieeny n naiae aoaeouae aeaiie Aeaeai
A?oo?, ioaoe eioi?ie, ieioiee, ia niaeaoaeny ia a?ae, a aei/ue ia
iiaeaeaea eaeoe i?ioea iooea. Aa?ino inoaaaeinue oieueei oaoaoue
eoaea-ieaoaeue, ii i?eiye i?aaeeiaeaiiia aio ianoi aooaaeoa?a a ssiaeeo
e nianai auei oaea nia?aeny. Ii aio iiyaeyaony ia?aue oii aai
noeoioai?aiee, ecaeaiiue a Eeeueia?iiea a ethia 1786 a. Eieaa eiaea
aeanoyuee oniao, oioy aeaea aaoi?o anaai oieueei 20 ooioia noa?e. Ii
caoi ia auei iaoa?y, ia auei ?aaioieoeu, eioi?ua ia ioaeaee au naie
ca?aaioaiiua a?ioe ca oiiee A. Ana /eoaee ia?iaeiiai iiyoa, a e?oaeie
eeoa?aoi?ia i?eaeanee aai a Yaeeiao?a. Nia?aiaiieee, aeaeaaoea A. a yoii
e?oaeea ?anneacuaatho, /oi ii aea?aeae naay a aunoae noaiaie i?inoi e
iai?eioaeaeaiii. Aaeueoa? Neioo aiai?eo i A. oaeei ia?acii: “ss aue
iaeue/ee eao iyoiaaeoeaoe, eiaaea A. i?eaoae a Yaeeiao?a, y
eioa?aniaaeny ei e ca ciaeiinoai n iei aioia aue ioaeaoue ana ia naaoa.
ss aeaeae aai n?aaee ciaiaieouo eeoa?aoi?ia. Eiia/ii iu iaeue/eee
neaeaee a noi?iiea e iie/a niio?aee e neooaee. ss iiiith, eae i?e
acaeyaea ia a?aath?o, ecia?aaeaaooth oie?athuaai nieaeaoa, ia aeacao o
iaai iieacaeenue neacu. Ii aue ei?aianoue, i?inoie iinaeyiei ai?acaei
aieaa ianneaiue, /ai aai i?aaenoaaeytho ia ii?o?aoao. Aeaca o iaai auee
aieueoea e /a?iua, e eiaaea ii aiai?ee i /ai-ieaoaeue n aea?ii, iie
naa?eaee aoeaaeueii oi/ii oaieuey. Iiaeiaiuo aeac y iieiaeeoaeueii
ieeiaaea ia aeaeuaae. A Yaeeiao?aa ca iei i/aiue ooaaeeaaee”. Iinea yoeo
nia?aiee, ia eioi?uo ii noaaee a ooiee i?ioanni?ia e e?oaeee aieiau
aa?oeiaeiyi, ii ioi?aaeyeny ii/aaaoue e naaa ia /a?aeae. Aeeueyi Ieoo
i?eciae A. aaeeeei iiyoii, /aai ia i?eciaaaee ae?oaea e?eoeee, caaeaoua
naoe?ith A. Naeueneee iiyo /oanoaiaae naay iaeiaei a ai?iaea n?aaee
/iii?iiai iauanoaa, e eiaaea auoae 3 oii aai noeoioai?aiee, aeaaoee aio
aei 400 ooi. no., A. niye a Yeeecaeaaaea iiaoth oa?io, aeaieeny ia oie
naiie Aeaeai, eioi?oth ethaee i?aaeaea e i?iaeieaeae ienaoue. A 1789 a.
ii iieo/ee ianoi nai?ueea iiaeaoae n iaaieueoei aeaeiaaiueai a 50 o. a
aiae. A 1791 aiaeo aio aeaee oaeia aea ianoi a Aeaio?e, ii n 70 o.
aeaeiaaiuey. Ia neaaeothuee aiae aio i?aaeeiaeeee ecaeaoue: “Melodies of
Scotland with symphonies and accompaniments for the Pianoforte and
Violin: the poetry by Robert Burns”. E yoiio ecaeaieth ii i?eaaaee aei
noa ianai, iaeioi?ua ec eieo e aei neo ii? iithony oioeaiaeoeaie io
Yaeeiao?aa aei Nai-O?aioeenei.

Aae?ii

Aae?ii (1788 -1824) – aaeeeee aiaeeeneee iiyo, ?iaeiia/aeueiee
iacaaiiiai ii aai eiaie aae?iie/aneiai oa/aiey a aa?iiaeneie eeoa?aoo?a
XIX a. Ia?aui e?oiiui i?iecaaaeaieai Aae?iia auee aeaa ia?aua ianie
iiyiu “*aeeueae-Aa?ieueae”, iiyaeaoeany a ia/aoe a 1812 a. Yoi auee
iooaaua aia/aoeaiey ec iooaoanoaey Aae?iia ii aa?iiaeneiio ainoieo,
/enoi aiaoiei ia?acii iauaaeeiaiiua aie?oa ee/iinoe *aeeueae-Aa?ieueaea.
Iniiaiua /a?ou yoiai ia?aca iiaoi?yeenue a aeaeueiaeoai a oeaio?aeueiuo
oeao?ao anao i?iecaaaeaiee Aae?iia, ?acaeaaeenue e ineiaeiyeenue,
io?aaeay ia naaa yaiethoeeth aeooaaiie aeecie naiiai iiyoa, e a oeaeii
nicaeaee ia?ac iineoaey ie?iaie nei?ae, “aae?iie/aneiai” aa?iy,
ainiiaenoaiaaaoee a aa?iiaeneie eeoa?aoo?a ia?aua o?e aeanyoeeaoey XIX
aaea. Nouiinoue yoiai oa?aeoa?a, eae e anaai aa?iiaeneiai ?iiaioecia,
ninoaaeyao ainoiaeyuee e ?onni i?ioano /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe i?ioea
noaniythuaai aa iauanoaaiiiai no?iy. Aae?iia ioaeaeytho io ?onni o?e
aeanyoeeaoey, caiieiaiiua aaee/aeoeie niauoeyie iiaie enoi?ee. Ca yoi
a?aiy aa?iiaeneia iauanoai ia?aaeeei aianoa n o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeeae
yiioo a?aiaeeiciuo caiuneia e iueeeo iaaeaaeae e iieino naiuo ai?ueeeo
?aci/a?iaaiee. I?aayuay Aiaeey e noi eao oiio iacaae, eae nae/an, noiyea
ai aeaaa iieeoe/aneie e iauanoaaiiie ?aaeoeee, a aiaeeeneia “iauanoai”
o?aaiaaei io eaaeaeiai naiaai /eaia aaconeiaiiai aiaoiaai iiae/eiaiey
ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiiio eiaeaeno ii?aeueiuo e naaoneeo i?aaee. Ana yoi
a nayce n iaiaocaeaiiie e no?anoiie i?e?iaeie naiiai iiyoa
niinianoaiaaei oiio, /oi o Aae?iia i?ioano ?onni i?aa?aoeeny a ioe?uoue
aucia, iai?eie?eioth aieio n iauanoaii e niiauee aai aa?iyi /a?ou
aeoaieie ai?a/e e ?aci/a?iaaiey. A i?iecaaaeaieyo, iiyaeaoeony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca ia?auie ianiyie *aeeueae Aa?ieueaea e oaeaea
io?aceaoeie ia naaa aia/aoeaiey ainoiea, ia?acu aa?iaa noaiiayony ana
i?a/iaa. Iie ioyaiuaiu caaaaei/iui i?anooiiui i?ioeui, oyaeaei eaaeauei
ia eo niaanoe, e eniiaaaeotho iuaiea ethaeyi e noaeueaa. A aeooa yoie
“?acaieie/ueae ?iiaioeee” iaienaiu aa?ie “Ayo?a”, “Ei?na?a” e “Ea?u”.
Iieeoe/aneia aieueiiiuneea Aae?iia e naiaiaea aai ?aeeaeiciuo e
i?aanoaaiiuo aicc?aiee aucaaee i?ioea iaai ianoiyuaa aiiaiea anaai
aiaeeeneiai iauanoaa, ainiieueciaaaoaainy enoi?eae aai iaoaea/iiai
a?aea, /oiau caeeaeieoue aai eae ianeuoaiiiai a?aoieea. Aae?ii n
i?ieeyoeai ii?uaaao ana nayce ni noa?ie aeeciueth e ioa/anoaii e
ioi?aaeyaony a iiaia iooaoanoaea ii Oaaeoea?ee. Caeanue ei auee nicaeaiu
o?aouey ianiy *aeeueae-Aa?ieueaea e “Iaio?aae”. *aoaa?oay e iineaaeiyy
ianiy yoie iiyiu iaienaia Aae?iiii oaea a Eoaeee. Iia ainnicaeaaaea aai
no?ainoaey n?aaee ?oei aioe/iie Eoaeee e auea i?iieeiooa oaeei ai?y/ei
i?ecuaii e inaiaiaeaeaieth eoaeueyineiai ia?iaea, /oi yaeeanue a aeacao
?aaeoeeiiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa Eoaeee iianiui ?aaiethoeeiiiui aeoii. A
Eoaeee Aae?ii i?eieioe e ea?aiia?neiio aeaeaeaieth, no?aieaoaiony a 20-o
aiaeao XIX a. e inaiaiaeaeaieth Eoaeee io aano?eeneiai aeaaeu/anoaa e
oe?aiee nianoaaiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa e e iaoeeiiaeueiiio iauaaeeiaieth. Ii
nei?i noaiiaeony aeaaie iaeiie ec aeayoaeueiaeoeo ea?aiia?neeo naeoeee e
iniiauaaao a Eiiaeiia i?aai aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey eaeae ea?aiia?ecia e
iiaeaea?aeee iaua-aa?iiaeneiai eeaa?aeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. A yoe aiaeu
Aae?iiii auea nicaeaia inoaaoayny iaieii/aiiie iiyia “Aeii AEoai”,
aeanoyuay naoe?a ia ana oeeaeeeciaaiiia iauanoai. A 1823 a. noi?iiieee
inaiaiaeaeaiey A?aoeee i?aaeeiaeeee Aae?iio noaoue ai aeaaa ainnoaaoae
A?aoeee. Aae?ii iineaaeiaae yoiio i?ecuao, nia?ae aeia?iaieue/aneee
io?yae e ioi?aaeeny a A?aoeeth. N?aaee ?aaio ii i?aaiecaoeee a?a/aneie
a?iee ii caaieae e oia? a Iennieoiae a 1824 a. Iiycey Aae?iia ieacaea
aieueoia aeeyiea ia iiyoe/aneia oai?/anoai Iooeeia e iniaaiii
Ea?iiioiaa.

Oeeueyi Oaenie?

Oaenie?, Oeeueyi (Shakespeare, William) (1564-1616), aiaeeeneee iiyo,
ae?aiaoo?a, aeoa?. ?iaeeeny a No?aooi?aea-ia-Yeaiia (a?aonoai Oi?eeoe?)
23 ai?aey. Aai ioaoe, Aeaeii Oaenie?, aue a No?aooi?aea aeaeiui
/aeiaaeii e caieiae ?aciua aeieaeiinoe a nenoaia ai?iaeneiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaoue, Iy?e, auea aei/a?ueth ?iaa?oa A?aeaia,
iaeeiiiianoiiai aeai?yieia ec Oi?eeoe?a, i?ienoiaeeaoaai ec ae?aaiaai
?iaea eaoieeeia A?aeaiia. O/eeny Oaenie?, nei?aa anaai, a No?aooi?aeneie
a?aiiaoe/aneie oeiea – iaeiie ec eo/oeo i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oeie Aiaeee,
aaea nuiiauey ai?iaeai iieo/aee aanieaoiia ia?aciaaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii
eco/ay eaoeineee ycue e eeoa?aoo?o. Aeieoiaioaeueiuo naaaeaiee i aai
aeecie iinea e?auaeueiie caiene iao, aieioue aei ?ac?aoaiey ia a?ae n
Yii Oaooye ec No?aooi?aea, auaeaiiiai 27 iiya?y 1582. Ia?aue eo ?aaaiie,
aei/ue Nuethcai, auea e?auaia 26 iay 1583; aeeciaoeu Aaiiao e Aeaeoaeeo
– 2 oaa?aey 1585. A 1592 Oaenie? -aeoa? e ae?aiaoo?a a Eiiaeiia. Aei
1593 Oaenie? ie/aai ia ecaeaaae; a 1593 ii auionoee a naao iiyio «Aaia?a
e Aaeiien» Venus and Adonis) a iiaeiii y?ioe/aneii aeai?a,
i?aaeaa?aiioth nie?aiiui iinayuaieai aa?oeiao Naooaaiioiio – aeanoyuaio
iieiaeiio aaeueiiaea e iie?iaeoaeth eeoa?aoo?u. Iiyia eiaea iaiau/aeiue
oniao e aua i?e aeecie aaoi?a auea ecaeaia ainaiue ?ac; neaaeii Oaenie?
auionoee aieaa aeeeiioth e na?ueacioth iiyio – «Eoe?aoeey» (Lucrece,
1594). Ia/eiay n yoiai aiaea iiyaeythony oi/iua naeaeaoaeuenoaa
oaao?aeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe Oaenie?a. A «A?aec Eii» 28 aeaeaa?y auea
i?aaenoaaeaia «Eiiaaeey ioeaie» (Comedy of Errors); a ia?oa 1595
Oaenie?, O.Eaii e ?.Aa?aaaeae iieo/eee aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca aeaa iueanu,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua i?e aeai?a o?oiiie ei?aea-eaia?aa?a a ?iaeaeanoaaineea
i?acaeieee. Oaenie? noae iaeueeii ciaiaieoie o?oiiu, n eioi?ie inoaeny
naycai aei ooiaea ia iieie. Oaao?aeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii Naooaaiioiia auno?i i?eianea aio aiaaonoai – yoi
aeaeii ec oiai, /oi a 1596 Aeaeii Oaenie?, iinea ianeieueeeo eao
oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee, iieo/ee a Aa?aeueaee/aneie iaeaoa i?aai ia
aa?a, ciaiaieoue oaenie?ianeee ueo, caieaoee ca eioi?ue, ianiiiaiii,
Oeeueyi; iiaeaeiaaiiue oeooe aeaaae Oaenie?o i?aai iiaeienuaaoueny
«Oeeueyi Oaenie?, aeaeaioeueiai». Ae?oaia aeieacaoaeuenoai aai oniaoia:
a 1597 ii i?eia?ae Iueth-Ieaen – aieueoie aeii n naaeii a No?aooi?aea.
Oaenie? ia?ano?iee aeii, ia?aaac ooaea aeaio e aei/a?ae (nui oia? a
1596) e nai iinaeeeny a iai, eiaaea iieeioe eiiaeiineoth noeaio. A 1598
O?.Ia?an, eiiaeiineee eee?ee, ecaeae eieao «Nie?iaeuieoea oia» (Palladis
Tamia), /anoue eioi?ie ioaaaeaia «?annoaeaeaieth ia aiaeeeneeo iiyoao».
Aio /oi ii ieoao i Oaenie?a: «Iiaeiaii oiio eae Ieaao e Naiaea
n/eoaeenue o ?eieyi eo/oeie ii /anoe eiiaaeee e o?aaaaeee, oae Oaenie? o
aiaee/ai yaeyaony iaei?aainoiaeiaeoei a iaieo aeaeao iuean» (ia?aaiae
A.Aaee/aineiai e A.Aieenoa). A 1597-1598 iiioey?iinoue Oaenie?a ?acei
au?inea: aei oao ii? auea iaia/aoaia (a 1594) eeoue iaeia aai iueana,
Oeo Aiae?iiee (Titus Andronicus), e oi aac eiaie aaoi?a ia oeooeueiii
eenoa; a a 1597-1598 auee ecaeaiu ia iaiaa iyoe iuean, /oiau
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ni?in ia ia/aoiua ecaeaiey aai ni/eiaiee.
I?aaei?eei/eaue ecaeaoaeue O.Aeaeaaaa?ae iiiuoaeny ia yoii ?acaiaaoaoue:
a 1599 ii ecaeae eieaea/eo, eoaea aioee aeaa ?aiaa ia ioaeeeiaaaoeony
niiaoa Oaenie?a, aeaa oaea ecaeaaaaoeony, ianiy ec «Ouaoiuo oneeee
ethaae» (Love’s Labour’s Lost) e noeoioai?aiey ianeieueeeo
aoi?inoaiaiiuo iiyoia. Nai?ieeo ii aeae iacaaiea «No?anoiue iaeiiiee»
(The Passionate Pilgrim) e iauyaee aai oeaeeeii i?eiaaeeaaeauei ia?o
Oaenie?a – ia?aay, ii ia iineaaeiyy iiiuoea nauoue /oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey
iiae yoei eiaiai. A 1598 a?aouey Aa?aaaeaee ?acia?aee noa?ue «Oaao?» –
iino?ieeo ia naaa?iie ie?aeia Eiiaeiia, aaea ea?aea o?oiia Oaenie?a, e
ec aai a?aaai nii?oaeeee oaao? «Aeiaon» ia thaeiii aa?aao Oaicu, a
Naoooi?ea. Oaenie? noae iaeiei ec aeoeeiia?ia iiaiai oaao?a; oaeia aea
i?aai ii iieo/ee e a 1608, eiaaea o?oiia aeinoaeny aua aieaa i?eaueueiue
oaao? «Aeyeo?aea?c», a ai?iaeneie /a?oa. A 1603 ei?ieue sseia acye
o?oiio Oaenie?a iiae i?yiia iie?iaeoaeuenoai – iia noaea iacuaaoueny
«Neoae aai aaee/anoaa ei?iey», e aeoa?u n/eoaeanue oaeeie aea
i?eaeai?iuie, eae eaia?aeeia?u. «Neoa aai aaee/anoaa» iniaaiii ethaeee
i?e aeai?a, o?oiia aunooiaea oai /anoi e ca oi?ioaa aiciaa?aaeaeaiea,
aeieth eioi?iai, aaconeiaii, iieo/ae e Oaenie?. Ii iiiaiiiao ioaeaeyeny
io oaao?a e eiiaoe aeecie i?iaae a No?aooi?aea. A ia?oa 1616 Oaenie?
ninoaaee caaauaiea. Oia? Oaenie? 23 ai?aey 1616 e aue iioi?iiai a
i?eoiaeneie oea?eae, aaea aai iiaeeo eaaeaeue aiae iinauatho ouny/e
ethaeae. Aieueoa iieiaeiu aai iuean ia ecaeaaaeenue i?e aeecie, aia?aua
iie oaeaeaee naao a ciaiaieoii «Ia?aii oieei» (1623). I?eaoaa a Eiiaeii,
Oaenie?, ianiiiaiii, i?eieioe e eaeie-oi o?oiia. I aai aeoa?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe iu ia ciaai ii/oe ie/aai. Ecaanoii, ?ieue I?ec?aea a
«Aaieaoa» e Aaeaia a «Eae aai yoi iii?aaeony». Ii ea?ae a iueana Aaia
Aeaeiiniia «Anye a naiai i?aaa». Eiaiii noeaie/aneee iiuo aeae Oaenie?o
ciaiea aiciiaeiinoae noeaiu, iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeiai aeoa?a o?oiiu e
aeonia aeecaaaoeineie aoaeeoi?ee, eioi?ia iu /oanoaoai a aai
i?iecaaaeaieyo.

Iueanu «Iiiai ooia ec ie/aai» (Much Ado About Nothing, 1598-1599), «Eae
aai yoi iii?aaeony» (As You Like It, 1600), «Aeiaeci?neea ianiaoieoeu»
(The Merry Wives of Windsor, 1599-1600) e «Aeaaiaaeoeaoay ii/ue» (The
Twelfth Night, 1601-1602) nicaeaiu a i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo caaa?oaieai
o?eeiaee i ei?iea Aai?eoa e ia/aeii ni/eiaiey aaeeeeo o?aaaaeee. Yoe oae
iacuaaaiua «aanaeua eiiaaeee» – o?eoio Oaenie?a a iaeanoe «aunieie
eiiaaeee». Iie iaeaaeatho anaie iaycaoaeueiuie /a?oaie aeai?a:
oaeaeaoaeueiue nthaeao, ?aaeenoe/aneea ia?niiaaee a ociaaaaiie
ianoaiiaea e, naiia aaaeiia, ae?aiaoe/aneee aeeaeia, a eiie/aneii naaoa
aunoaaeythuee ii?iee /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu.

«Aeaaiaaeoeaoay ii/ue» ieacaeanue i?iuaieai Oaenie?a n aaccaaioiui
aanaeueai; ii ia?aoiaeee e aieaa na?ueaciui oaiai. Caaa?oea oeeee
o?iiee, ii niia aiiaue ia?aoeoueny e o?aaaaeee. «THeee Oeaca?ue» Julius
Caesar, 1599) -naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo enoi?e/aneeie o?iieeaie e
nianoaaiii o?aaaaeeyie. N «Aaieaoii» Hamlet, 1600-1601) Oaenie?
ieii/aoaeueii ia?aoiaeeo e o?aae/aneiio aeai?o; io o?iiee a iueana iao e
neaaea. Aianoi oiai /oiau i?eaeaaaoue ae?aiaoe/aneoth oi?io
enoi?e/aneiio ia?eiaeo, ii acye noa?oth iueano (ie. 1588-1589; aaoi?ii
aa aue, aa?iyoii, O.Eeae) e i?aa?aoee aa a iaeio ec aaee/aeoeo o?aaaaeee
ie?iaie ae?aiaoo?aee. «Ioaeei» Othello), nua?aiiue i?e aeai?a 1 iiya?y
1604, ?aceoaeueii ioee/aaony io «Aaieaoa». Iineaaeiee, iiaeiaii aioe/iui
o?aaaaeeyi, iinayuai e?ooaieth oea?neiai aeiia; «Ioaeei» aea aieueoa,
/ai ethaay ae?oaay iueana Oaenie?a, aeecea e aeecaaaoeineiio aeai?o
«naiaeiie o?aaaaeee». Eiaaoay oniao i?e ia?auo iinoaiiaeao, iinea
?anoaa?aoeee iia auea aiciaiiaeaia; oiaaea aea aia?aua ?ieue Aeacaeaiiiu
nua?aea aeaiueia – Ia?aa?ao Ouethc. I?aaenoaaeaiiue i?e aeai?a iinea
?iaeaeanoaa 1605 «Ei?ieue Ee?» King Lear), a naith i/a?aaeue, ia iioiae
ia «Ioaeei». Iinoaiiaee «Ei?iey Ee?a» ieeiaaea ia eiaee aieueoiai
oniaoa; aieaa oiai, a yiioo ?anoaa?aoeee iueano Oaenie?a auoanieea n
iiaeiinoeia naioeiaioaeueiay ia?aaeaeea I.Oaeoa (1652-1715). Aa noaayo
?aaea ae?oaeo aaeeeeo o?aaaaeee Oaenie?a e a iaoe aeie, ii aaeoi/eaua
/eoaoaee oeaiyo aa i/aiue auniei. «Iaeaao» Macbeth, 1606), iaeia ec
naiuo ei?ioeeo iuean Oaenie?a, noaey ii anaio, ni/eiyeanue a aieueoie
niaoea, /oiau eniieieoue iiaeaeaiea ei?iey sseiaa i?aaenoaaeoue iiaoth
iueano ai a?aiy i?acaeianoa a /anoue i?eaoaaoaai a Aiaeeth O?enoeaia
Aeaoneiai, naienoaaiieea ei?iey.

Aeaei?aeae Aa?ia?ae Oio

Aeaei?aeae Aa?ia?ae (Shaw, George Bernard) (1856-1950), e?eaiaeneee
ae?aiaoo?a, oeeinio e i?icaee, auaeathueeny e?eoee naiaai a?aiaie e
naiue i?ineaaeaiiue – iinea Oaenie?a – ae?aiaoo?a, ienaaoee ia
aiaeeeneii ycuea. ?iaeeeny 26 ethey 1856 a Aeoaeeia. Aai ioaoe, iioa?iaa
e?ao a aeciana, i?eno?anoeeny e aeeiaieth; iaoue, ?aci/a?iaaaoenue a
noi?oaeanoaa, oaeaeeanue iaieai. Oio ie/aio ia iao/eeny a oeieao,
eioi?ua iinauae, ii iiiaia ii/a?iioe ec eiea *.Aeeeeaina, O.Oaenie?a,
Ae.Aaiueyia, Aeaeee, a?aaneeo neacie Ouny/a e iaeia ii/ue, a oaeaea
neooay iia?u e i?aoi?ee, a eioi?uo iaea iaoue, e nica?oeay ea?oeiu a
E?eaiaeneie iaoeeiiaeueiie aaea?aa.

A iyoiaaeoeaoeeaoiai aic?anoa Oio ono?ieeny eea?eii a oe?io ii i?iaeaaea
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. Nionoy aiae ii noae eanne?ii e caieiae yoo
aeieaeiinoue a oa/aiee /aou?ao eao.

Oio oaea a iieiaeinoe ?aoee ca?aaaouaaoue ia aeeciue eeoa?aoo?iui
o?oaeii, e oioy ?annueaaiua noaouee aica?auaeenue e iaio n oae?o/athuae
?aaoey?iinoueth, ii i?iaeieaeae inaaeaeaoue ?aaeaeoeee. Oieueei iaeio
aai noaoueth i?eiyee e ia/aoe, caieaoea aaoi?o iyoiaaeoeaoue oeeeeiaia,
– e yoi auei ana, /oi Oio ca?aaioae ia?ii ca aeaayoue eao. Ca yoe aiaeu
ii iaienae iyoue ?iiaiia, eioi?ua ioaa?aee ana aiaeeeneea
ecaeaoaeuenoaa.

A 1884 Oio anooiee a Oaaeaineia iauanoai e anei?a noae iaeiei ec naiuo
aeanoyueo aai i?aoi?ia. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii niaa?oainoaiaae naia
ia?aciaaiea a /eoaeueiii caea A?eoaineiai iocay, aaea iiciaeiieeny n
ienaoaeai O.A?/a?ii (1856-1924), eioi?ue i?eiauee aai e aeo?iaeenoeea.
Ii?aaioaa eaeia-oi a?aiy aiaooaoiui ei??aniiiaeaioii, Oio iieo/ee ianoi
iocueaeueiiai e?eoeea a iaeiie ec aa/a?ieo aacao. Iinea oanoe eao,
ioaeaiiuo iocueaeueiiio ?aoeaice?iaaieth, Oio a oa/aiea o?ao n iieiaeiie
eao ?aaioae oaao?aeueiui e?eoeeii a «Naoa?aeae ?eaueth». Ca yoi a?aiy ii
auionoee eieae ia O.Eanaia e ?.Aaaia?a. Ii ienae oaeaea iueanu (nai?iee
Iueanu i?eyoiua e iai?eyoiua – Plays: Pleasant and Unpleasant, 1898).
Iaeia ec ieo, I?ioanney iennen Oi??ai (Mrs. Warren’s Profession, aia?aua
iinoaaeaia a 1902), auea cai?auaia oeaico?ie; ae?oaay, Iiaeeaai -oaeaeei
(You Never Can Tell, 1895) iinea ianeieueeeo ?aiaoeoeee auea ioeeiiaia;
o?aoueth, I?oaeea e /aeiaae (Arms and the Man, 1894), aiiaua ieeoi ia
iiiye. Iiieii iacaaiiuo a nai?iee aioee iueanu Eaiaeeaea (Candida,
1895), Eca?aiiee noaeueau (The Man of Destiny, 1897), Aeii aaeiaoea
(Widower’s Houses, 1892) e Na?aeoeaaae (The Philanderer, 1893).
Iinoaaeaiiue a Aia?eea ?.Iainoeeaeii O/aiee aeueyaiea (The Devil’s
Disciple, 1897) -ia?aay iueana Oio, eiaaoay eanniaue oniao.

Oio ienae iueanu, ?aoeaicee, aunooiae eae oee/iue i?aoi?, i?iiaaaiaee?oy
nioeeaeenoe/aneea eaeae, e, e?iia oiai, aue /eaiii ioieoeeiaeueiiai
niaaoa ie?oaa Naio-Iaie?an, aaea ii aeee. Oaeea ia?aa?ocee i?eaaee e
?aceiio oooaeoaieth caei?iauey, e anee au ia caaioa e ooiae Oa?eioou
Iaei-Oaoicaiae, ia eioi?ie ii aeaieeny a 1898, aeaei iiaei au eii/eoueny
ieioi. Ai a?aiy caoyioaoaeny aieacie Oio iaienae iueanu Oeaca?y e
Eeaiiao?o (Caesar and Cleopatra, 1899) e Ia?auaiea eaieoaia A?anaaoiaea
(Captain Brassbound’s Conversion, 1900), eioi?ia nai ienaoaeue iacuaae
«?aeeaeiciui o?aeoaoii». A 1901 O/aiee aeueyaiea, Oeaca?ue e Eeaiiao?a e
Ia?auaiea eaieoaia A?anaaoiaea auee iioaeeeiaaiu a nai?ieea O?e iueanu
aeey io?eoai (Three Plays for Puritans). A Oeaca?a e Eeaiiao?a – ia?aie
iueana Oio, aaea aeaenoaotho ?aaeueiua enoi?e/aneea ee/iinoe,
-o?aaeeoeeiiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aa?ia e aa?ieia eciaiaii aei
iaociaaaaiinoe.

Ia i?aoniaa ia noaca eiiia?/aneiai oaao?a, Oio ?aoee naeaeaoue ae?aio
i?iaiaeieeii naiae oeeinioee, iioaeeeiaaa a 1903 iueano *aeiaae e
naa?o/aeiaae (Man and Superman). Iaeiaei oaea a neaaeothuai aiaeo i?eoae
aai /an. Iieiaeie aeoa? O.A?yiaee-Aa?ea? (1877-1946) aianoa n
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai Aeae.Y.Aaae?aiiii i?eiye ?oeiaiaenoai eiiaeiineei
oaao?ii «Ei?o» e ioe?ue nacii, oniao eioi?iai iiania/eee noa?ua e ieaun
euennu Eaiaeeaea, Iiaeeaai – oaeaeei, Ae?oaie ino?ia Aeaeiia Aoeey (John
Bull’s Other Island, 1904), *aeiaae e naa?o/aeiaae, Iaei? Aa?aa?a (Major
Barbara, 1905) e A?a/ ia?aae aeeeaiiie (The Doctor’s Dilemma, 1906).

Oaia?ue Oio ?aoee ienaoue iueanu, oeaeeeii eeoaiiua aeaenoaey. Ia?aay ec
yoeo iuean-aeeneonnee, AEaieoueaa (Getting Married, 1908), eiaea
iaeioi?ue oniao n?aaee eioaeeaeooaeia, aoi?ay, Iacaeueyin (Misalliance,
1910), ieacaeanue o?oaeiiaaoie e aeey ieo. Naeaaoenue, Oio iaienae
ioe?iaaiii eanniaoth aacaeaeeoeo – Ia?aoth iueano Oaiie (Fanny’s First
Play, 1911), eioi?ay a oa/aiea ii/oe aeaoo eao oea ia noeaia iaaieueoiai
oaao?a. Caoai, neiaii ioua?uaaynue ca yoo onooieo aeono oieiu, Oio
nicaeae iiaeeeiiue oaaeaa? — Aiae?ieea e eueaa (Androcles and the Lion,
1913), ca eioi?ui iineaaeiaaea iueana Ieaiaeeii (Pygmalion, 1914),
iinoaaeaiiay A.Ae?aiiii-O?e a «Oaao?a Aai Aaee/anoaa» n Iao?ee Eyiiaaee
a ?iee Yeecu Aeoeeooe.

Ai a?aiy Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu Oio aue eneeth/eoaeueii iaiiioey?iie
oeao?ie. I?anna, ioaeeea, eieeaae inuiaee aai inei?aeaieyie, a ii
iaaeaeo oai iaaiciooeii caeii/ee iueano Aeii, aaea ?acaeaathony na?aeoea
(Heartbreak House, 1921) e aioiaee naie caaao /aeiaa/aneiio ?iaeo –
Iacaae, e Iaoonaeeo (Back to Methuselah, 1923), aaea iaeae a
ae?aiaoo?ae/aneoth oi?io naie yaiethoeeiienoneea eaeae. A 1924 neaaa
aica?aoeeanue e ienaoaeth, ii ia?ae ie?iaia i?eciaiea ae?aiie Nayoay
Eiaiia (Saint Joan). A aeacao Oio AEaiia ae’A?e – i?iaicaanoieoea
i?ioanoaioecia e iaoeeiiaeecia, e iioiio aiieia caeiiiia?ai i?eaiai?,
auianaiiue ae n?aaeiaaaeiaie oea?eiaueth e oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiie. A 1925
Oio auea i?enoaeaeaia Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey ii eeoa?aoo?a, io iieo/aiey
eioi?ie ii ioeacaeny.

Iineaaeiae iueanie, i?eianoae Oio oniao, noaea Oaeaaeea n yaeieaie (The
Apple Cart, 1929), ioe?uaoay Iaeaa?ineee oanoeaaeue a /anoue
ae?aiaoo?aa.

A aiaeu, eiaaea aieueoeinoao ethaeae auei ia aei iooaoanoaee, Oio
iinaoee NOA, NNN?, THaeioth Ao?eeo, Eiaeeth, Iiaoth Caeaiaeeth. A
Iineaa, eoaea Oio i?eaue n eaaee Anoi?, ii aanaaeiaae ni Noaeeiui.
Eiaaea e aeanoe i?eoea eaeai?enoneay ia?oey, aeey eioi?ie ae?aiaoo?a
naeaeae oae iiiai, aio i?aaeeiaeeee aeai?yinoai e oeooe iy?a, ii ii io
anaai ioeacuaaeny. A aic?anoa aeaayiinoa eao ienaoaeue ana aea
niaeaneeny noaoue ii/aoiui a?aaeaeaieiii Aeoaeeia e eiiaeiineiai ie?oaa
Naio-Iaie?an, aaea ii aeee a iieiaeua aiaeu.

AEaia Oio neii/aeanue a 1943. Inoaaoeany aiaeu ienaoaeue i?iaae a
oaaeeiaiee a Yeio- Naio-Ei?aina (a?aonoai Oa?ooi?aeoe?), aaea a aic?anoa
aeaayiinoa aeaoo eao caeii/ee naith iineaaeithth iueano Ieeeea?aeu
Aaeaioa (Buoyant Billions, 1949). Aei eiioea aeiae ienaoaeue nio?aiye
yniinoue oia. Oia? Oio 2 iiya?y 1950.

O?yinen Ayeii

O?yinen Ayeii ?iaeeeny 28 ieoya?y 1909 aiaea a aiaeeeneie naiuea a
oaoaiaaaeueiii oeaio?a e?eaiaeneie noieeoeu Aeoaeeia. Ca 55 eao aei iaai
ia ninaaeiae oei/ea ?iaeeeny Inea? Oaeeueae. Ethaiaue, eioi?ay, ii
neiaai Oaeeueaea, “aieony iacaaoue naay ii eiaie” e eioi?ay i?eaaea a
oth?ueio aaeeeiai iiyoa, n ?aiiaai aeaonoaa anaeeea a Ayeiia /oanoai
iinoiyiiie aeiu e no?aoa ia?aae Aiaii, iooeii e iieeoeeae.

Ai?i/ai, n Aiaii Ayeii ?acaeaeaeny aeiaieueii ?aii. “Iia auei oiaaea 17
eao. ss neo/aeii ia/ae /eoaoue Ieoeoa e aua /oi-oi a yoii ?iaea, e,
iiiith, eae-oi oaeaeae ia o?iooa?a eo/eo niaa/ueaai aea?ueia. Aaa,
iiaeoiae y, yoi e anoue oi naiia, yoi oi/ii eae iaoa aeeciue, iiea au ia
naeaeaaoa ec iaa /oi-oi aieaa i?eee/iia”. Neiaeiaa auei n iooeii. Aai
ioaoe – iioiinoaaiiue aiaiiue, eiiiicaaiae/ee, ea?ie e aeaniio, i?iciaa
i ii?i/iuo iaeeiiiinoyo nuia, canoaaeye eiithoia ii?ioue aai ieaoueie ia
eiithoia. Ayeii ?aii ooae ec aeiia, e ethaiaue-iaiaaenoue e iooeo
oyaioaea iaae iei aieioue aei nia?oe iineaaeiaai – a 1940 aiaeo. Ii
naiui i?i/iui aai /oanoaii aue, i/aaeaeii, no?ao ia?aae iieeoeeae. A
Aiaeee i?e ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie iieeoe/aneie naiaiaeu, /ai a
ae?oaeo no?aiao, ii?aeueiua i?aau iiaeaeaiiuo iiaeaa?aaeenue aieaa
no?iaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee. Aieioue aei 1964 aiaea aiiinaenoaeeci
?anniao?eaaeny caeanue eae oyaeaeia oaieiaiia i?anooieaiea. Aeey oao,
eoi oioae ni/aoaoue a?oenoe/aneoth aeeciue n iaaeicaieaiiui aeaeii
naena, ia iianaynue i?e yoii auoue ?aciaea/aiiuie e iaan/auaiiuie,
ianoii i?eoyaeaiey – aua ni a?aiai Inea?a Oaeeueaea – noae aiaaiiue
?aeii eiiaeiineiai Nioi. Caeanue, ioa?inea eeanniaua aa?uea?u,
ano?a/aeenue a iaaao e ii/iuo eeoaao ieuea ooaeiaeieee e i?aoniaaathuea
aeaeueoeu, ei?aeu e iaeue/eee-i?inoeoooee, aeaeiua eioaeeaeooaeu e
nieaeaou – aa?oooea iauanoaa e eiiaeiineia aeii.

Anei?a iinea ieii/aiey aieiu a iiaii iaaa iiae iacaaieai “Eieiie”
iiyaeeny O?yinen Ayeii. Oicyeea “Eieiie” ii/aio-oi ?aoeea, /oi Ayeii
ciaeii n eo/ae aiaaouo ethaeae, e i?aaeeiaeeea aio 10 ooioia a iaaeaeth
e aanieaoioth auieaeo ca oi, /oiau ii i?eaiaeee a iaa eeeaioia. Ayeii
i?eaiaeee nthaea ia noieueei aiaaouo auieaio, neieueei naieo iieiaeuo
ae?ocae ooaeiaeieeia – oaeeo aea aoonaeaea?ia e iouaiaioeaa, eae e ii
nai. Caeanue, ia iaeiie ec oei/ae Nioi, ano?a/aeenue Ethnueai O?aeae
(aioe ciaiaieoiai Ceaioiaea), O?aie Aoy?aao, Eaii Einnia. Oae
neeaaeuaaeinue oi, /oi aiineaaenoaee iieo/eo iacaaiea “eiiaeiineie
oeieu” e noaiao ?anoeaieaaoueny eae naiia cia/eoaeueiia, /oi auei
nicaeaii a iineaaiaiiie aiaeeeneie aeeaiiene. A enoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai
eneonnoaa aoi?ie iieiaeiu XX aaea iaa “Eieiie” nua?ae i?eia?ii oaeoth
aea ?ieue, eae ia?eaeneea “Oeae” eee eaoa “?ioiiaea” aeey ia?aie aai
iieiaeiu.

A aeia?aoee Ayeiia ie/oi ecaanoiinoe ia i?aaeaauaei: “A?aiy io a?aiaie y
/oi-oi iacae, ii ia naiii aeaea y ia caieiaeny aeeaiienueth aei 1944
aiaea e y ieeiaaea ia iinauae ooaeiaeanoaaiioth oeieo”. Aai ia?aue
o/eoaeue (e ethaiaiee) ?ieaea Iaeno? aiai?ee, /oi, eiaaea a ia/aea 30
aiaeia ii ano?aoeeny n Ayeiiii, oio iiiyoey ia eiae i aeeaiiene e
caaeaaae aii?inu, ia eioi?ua iia au ioaaoeoue ethaie oeieueiee.

A 1945 aiaeo ia aunoaaea a eiiaeiineie aaea?aa Eaoaa? iiyaeeny aai
aieueoie o?eioeo “?aniyoea”: ia ee?ie/ii-e?aniii oiia o?e aio?iiiii?oiuo
nouanoaa ecaeaaeenue a eiiaoeueneyo neiaii ia iuoi/iii noaiea eee a
e?anea oe?o?aa, e eo aeuaiia?aciua oaea caaa?oaeenue ceythueie
ioaa?noeyie e?e/aueo ?oia. Yoa ea?oeia ieeiio iaecaanoiiai oiaaea
ooaeiaeieea, ii iiaieth e?eoeeia, auaea?aeeaaea ninaaenoai n
i?aaenoaaeaiiuie caeanue aea ?aaioaie Aai?e Io?a e A?aiia Naca?eaiaea.
Ayeii n?aco aea noae ciaiaieoui, a o?eaeoeaoue eao nionoy, iinea aai
a?aiaeeiciie aunoaaee a ia?eaeneii A?ai Iaea, eiy aai oaea noiyei ia
ia?aii ianoa a nienea ecaanoiuo ianoa?ia.

?inoo aai iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ?aiooaoeee niioonoaiaae e eiiia?/aneee oniao:
oeaiu ia aai ea?oeiu ?inee n aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiie auno?ioie. Oae, a 1964
aiaeo iaeia ec aai ea?oei auea eoieaia ca 7 ouny/ aeieea?ia, a eao /a?ac
20 iia aea auea i?iaeaia ia aoeoeeiia Nioaen ca 5,5 ieeeeiia. Yoi aue
?aei?ae: ie iaeei aeeaie ooaeiaeiee aei iaai oaeeo aeaiaa ca naie ?aaiou
ia iieo/ae.

A ie?a eneonnoaa ia?aaeei neo/aaony oae, /oi auaoee aoioa?ue e
iouaiaiaoe, ia?aoay ecaanoiinoue, noaiiaeony /anoueth ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
enoaaeeoiaioa. N Ayeiiii oaeiai i?iecieoe ia iiaei: neeoeii aeieai – ia
i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe ni?iea eao naiae niciaoaeueiie aeecie – ii iaoiaeeeny
a iieiaeaiee iioaioeeaeueiiai i?anooiieea e ionoonoaea no?aoa ia?aae
caeiiii aini?eieiae ii/oe eae iaii?iaeueiinoue.

Aua a 1959 aiaeo Ayeii eoiee ne?iiioth aeaooeiiiaoioth eaa?oe?eo a
?aeiia eiiaeiineiai *aene e i?iaeee a iae aei iineaaeieo aeiae.

Ayeii ieeiaaea ia ne?uaae naiae neeiiiinoe, ii ieeiaaea e ia aoeoe?iaae
aa. Oae, a iaeiii eioa?aueth ii i?inoi neacae: “Ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo yoi
aieaciue. Ii oaeia y anoue… Iie ioaoe aue iioiieii ciaiaieoiai
oeeinioa O?yinena Ayeiia, e a iaoae naiuea iaeiiai ec nuiiaae anaaaea
iacuaaee O?yinenii. E caaaaii, /oi yoio ia?aiia/aeueiue O?yinen Ayeii
oiaea aue aiiinaenoaeenoii. Oae ii e?aeiae ia?a aiai?eo i iai Ia?e a
“E?aoeeo aeeciaiienaieyo”. Ai?i/ai, Ia?e aue nieaoiee”. A aeecie Ayeiia
e?iaue, a?ycue, aeanoieinoue, ianeeea oee ?oea ia ?oeo n aai ie?iaie
neaaie. “Aeoiath, aeeciue ia eiaao niunea, – aiai?ee ii, – …iu
?iaeaeaainy e iu oie?aai, e iaaeaeo yoeie oi/eaie iu i?eaeaai niune
auoeth oieueei oai, /oi iu aeaeaai”. Aeey yoiai noeoeeiiai
yecenoaioeeaeenoa oai?/anoai auei aeoii noie/aneiai i?ioeainoiyiey
oaeano auoey, aano?aeo ?aaeueiinoe e aa?annee nioeeaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ii, aiai?ee Ayeii, “nthaeao ia aeieaeai e?e/aoue
a?ii/a, /ai e?anee”, e ieeaeeo annioeeaoeee n nioeeaeueiie
?aaeueiinoueth iaoaai a?aiaie iu o iaai ia iaeaeai. Oi/ii oae aea iu ia
iaeaeai o iaai iaecaaeae eee eioa?uea?ia oao iaaia, a eioi?uo Ayeii
i?iaiaeee naia a?aiy: i?ino?ainoai a aai aieueoeo oienoao e o?eioeoao
aieueoa anaai iioiaea ia aieueie/iua iaeaou n eo oieiaeiui eneonnoaaiiui
naaoii, ia?aai?iaeaiiua caiaaaneaie niio?iauo eaaei. Ie?iaia cei aiieao
n aai ea?oei coaanouie ?oaie e iaiae?aiiuie oooaie aeeaioiuo, iii
aiieiuaaony a eneaaeaiiie, ia?ae?o/aiiie ieanoeea /aeiaa/aneiai oaea,
iii aiai?eo i naaa a o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaia ?aniyoey (eae a aai o?eioeoa
1945 aiaea). A 1949 aiaeo ii ia?auaaony aeey yoie aea oeaee e ii?o?aoo
“Iaiu Eiiieaioey X” Aaeaneana e aeaeaao na?eth naieo aa?eaoeee, eioi?ua
iacuaatho nae/an “naiui cia/eoaeueiui ia?acii a aiaeeeneii eneonnoaa XX
noieaoey”.

AEeaiieniue ie? Ayeiia ca?yaeai yiioeeiiaeueiui oieii aunieiai
iai?yaeaiey, ii aea?aeeony ia aioiauo caieiooueny eiio?anoao, ii ii ia
ie?aoai a /a?iia e aaeia. A iai iao i?aauo e aeiiaaouo: aea?oaa e
aa?anni? aunooiatho a iaeiii eeoea, a ia?ac ia?aoaao oa?aeoa? neiaiea
oycaeiie aaccaueoiinoe /aeiaaea ia?aae eeoeii eae aiaoiae, oae e
aioo?aiiae aa?annee.

Oai?/anoai auei aeey iaai aeaaiui, a ana inoaeueiia – aeaiueae,
ethaiaue, ea?a, aeeiaieue – eiaei cia/aiea eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo
noeioee?iaaei yoio i?ioeann. Ii ?aaoey?ii ?aaioae ii oo?ai, /anoi
i?inuiaynue iinea oyaeaeiai iioiaeuey (ii ieeiaaea ia iee ca ?aaioie), a
aa/a?a e ii/e, eae i?aaeei, i?iaiaeee a iaaao e eai?iuo eeoaao, aaea
i?iea?uaae ia?iiiua noiiu a ?oeaoeo. I?e/ai n/eoae, /oi ea?a, e iniaaiii
i?iea?uo, -i?ae?aniue noeioe aeey oai?/anoaa: iie canoaaeytho niio?aoue
a aeaca noaeueaa e iieaaaoueny ia neo/ae. Neo/ath ii ioaiaeee aieueooth
?ieue a oai?/aneii i?ioeanna: /anoi ec neo/aeiiai iiai?ioa eenoe
aicieeae ia?ac, ?aceoaeueii ioee/athueeny io ia?aiia/aeueiiai, – ioeoea
i?aa?auaeanue a iaacueyio, a oeao?a /aeiaaea, eae a “Iaoaii?oicao”
Eaoee, aae?oa auaeaaaea naia noiaenoai n oaeueoeai ianaeiiiai eee n
inaaaeaaaiiie oooae. “Iie eaeaae -acyoue ai?noue e?anee e a?ineoue aa ia
oieno, /oiau a ?acoeueoaoa iieo/eeny ii?o?ao”.

Eiia/ii, oaeie iaoiae n?aaaouaae aeaeaei ia anaaaea, e Ayeii
aacaeaeinoii ecie/oiaeae ?aaiou, eioi?ua n/eoae iaoaea/iuie, eae oieueei
/oi auoiaeeaoea ec aai eenoe, oae e ?aiiea, ?aceaoaaoeany ii anaio ie?o.
“Iaeiaaeaeu a aeo?eia iaeiie aaea?ae ia eiiaeiineee Aiiae-no?eo Ayeii
oaeaeae naith ?aiithth ea?oeio. “Neieueei yoi noieo?” – ni?inee ii o
i?iaeaaoea. “50 ouny/ ooioia”, – ioaaoee oio. Ie neiaa ia aiai?y, Ayeii
auienae /ae, auian oieno ia oeeoeo e ooo aea ia o?iooa?a eci?aae aai ia
eei/ee”.

Yoi aue ia aaeeie/iue yieciae, e nai Ayeii aiai?ee, /oi oie/oiaeee
i?eia?ii 9/10 naieo ?aaio, eiaaea iie noieee oaea ieeeeiiu. Iaeioi?ua
ae?ocuey Ayeiia, eiaaea ii aea?ee ei eo ii?o?aou, ioeacuaaeenue ociaoue
a ieo naay e /anoi noa?aeenue nauoue eo n ?oe eae iiaeii nei?aa. Ii a
eo/oeo ec ieo ii oaaaeuaae o?aae/aneoth eneaaeaiiinoue aioo?aiiaai ie?a,
a eiiaaea aeaaea i?aaeaeaeae noaeueao naieo ia?niiaaeae.

24 ieoya?y 1972 aiaea ia ioe?uoee o?eoioaeueiie aunoaaee a ia?eaeneii
A?ai Iaea Ayeii iiae caoee i?eano?a e oi?io ?acaaaathueony ciaiai
ano?a/ae ia ia?aaeiie eanoieoea ieieno?a eneonnoa O?aioeee. Eiaaea iie
i?ioee a caeu, ia?aay ea?oeia, eioi?ay i?eaeaeea aieiaiea ieieno?a,
ecia?aaeaea iiiaieaoiaai ae?oaa e ethaiaieea Ayeiia Aeaei?aeaea
Ae?aea?a, nei?/eaoaainy ia oieoaca. Aiai?eee, /oi ieieno? iooaoioeny. A
oio aea aeaiue Ae?aea? iieii/ee n niaie: aai o?oi n ia?a?acaiiui ai?eii
iaoee a oai?iie ia?eaeneiai ioaey. Ea?oeia (aa?iaa, eaaay /anoue
aieueoiai o?eioeoa) n ecia?aaeaieai Ae?aea?a auee iaienaia a 1964 aiaeo,
o.a. ca 8 eao aei ia?eaeneie aunoaaee. Niaiaaeaiea eee i?iaeae/anoai?
Iiiaia a oai?/anoaa Ayeiia aiai?eo i iineaaeiai.

Naiei i?eau/eai e ia?aco aeecie Ayeii ia eciaiee aei eiioea aeiae. A 80
eao aai iiaeii auei aeaeaoue ana a oie aea eiiiaiee, a oao aea iaaao
eiiaeiineiai Nioi, aaea ii iee e uaae?i oaiuae ae?ocae. Ii ia?aian
oyaeaeoth iia?aoeeth ia ii/eao, a eiaaea ae?ocuey ia/aee au?aaeaoue
niaieaciiaaiey, ii iaoioe ?oeie e neacae: “Aea, ii anee au iueaoa n
iyoiaaeoeaoe eao, au aeieaeiu oieueei ?aaeiaaoueny, /oi o aan
nio?aieeanue oioy au iaeia ii/ea”.

O?yinen Ayeii oia? a 1992 aiaeo a Eniaiee, eoaea iieaoae ia naeaeaiea ni
naiei i/a?aaeiui ae?oaii. Iacaaeieai aei nia?oe ii a iieooooeo, a
iieona?ueac ?anii?yaeeeny naiei iia?aaaieai: “Eiaaea y oi?o, iieiaeeoa
iaiy a ieanoeeiaue iaoie e a?inueoa a eaiaao”. E, iiaeao auoue, iaeaieaa
oi/ii au?acee nooue aai iaoo?u e oai?/anoaa e?oiiaeoee aiaeeeneee e?eoee
Aeyaeae Neeueaano?, eioi?iai naycuaaee n Ayeiiii aeieaea aiaeu ae?oaeau:
“Ayeii iaeaaeaao aeoaieei ?aaeenoe/aneei /oanoaii aeecie. Ii – /aeiaae
aac eeethcee. E, y aeoiath, ia aai eneonnoai iaaei niio?aoue eae ia
i?iaeoeo /aeiaaea, ioa?ineaoaai any/aneea eeethcee”.

?oia?o Ia?aeie

Iaeei ec aiaaoaeoeo ethaeae ie?a, nicaeaoaeue iaaeeaeiia?ee News
Corporation Ltd ?oia?o Ia?aeie eioi?ie?oao e ?acaeaeaao i?aeoe/anee
iieie?a.

A anee n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee n/eoaoue /aoaa?oie aeanoueth, oi
yoio /aeiaae aua e aeaaeaao iieiaeiie ie?a. Ia?aoeiny e oeeo?ai: ?oia?o
Ia?aeie — aeaaeaeaoe 780 i?aaei?eyoee e 52 e?oiiuo eiiiaiee, n?aaee
eioi?uo eeiinooaeey Twentieth Century Fox, a?eoaineea oaeaeiiiaiee Star
TV, BskyB, aia?eeaineea Fox Broadcasting Network, Fox Television Station
(24 oaeaeaiaea), ai?y/i ethaeiue National Geographic Channel,
aaenaieueiay eiiaiaea Los Angeles Dodgers, aacaou The Sun, The Times,New
York Post, ecaeaoaeuenoai Harper Collins… Aeaaeaiey Ia?aeiea
?ani?ino?aiythony e ia ?inneth. Caeanue aai eiia?ee iieiinoueth eee ia
aeieyo i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeea ?aaeeinoaioeee, eae «Iaoa ?aaeei» e «Oeueo?a
100,5 FM», a oaeaea e?oiiaeoay eiiiaiey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu News Outdoor
Russia.

Ie/oi ia i?aaeaauaei anaie?iiai oniaoa nuio aano?aeeeneiai aacao/eea
n?aaeiae ?oee Eaeoa Ia?aeiea. Oioy a caaauaiee Eaeo e iaienae
i?i?i/aneea neiaa, /oi aai nui aeaaiaea?y ianeaaenoao «aeieaeai
iieo/eoue oi?iooth aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeeoue iieacioth, aanei?unoioth e
ianuuaiioth aeeciue, caieiaynue aacaoiui e ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiui aecianii,
e a eiioea eiioeia caiyoue ioaaonoaaiiue iino ia yoii iii?eua». Ii eoi
ec ?iaeeoaeae ia aiceaaaao aieueoeo iaaeaaeae ia naieo aeaoae? Nui Eaeoa
Ia?aeiea ia oieueei ii?aaaeae iaaeaaeaeu, ii e i?aoiiiaeee ianeaaenoai
iooea a ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia ?ac. A aaaeue ana ia/eiaeinue oae aea,
eae o aieueoeinoaa iau/iuo aano?aeeeneeo iaeue/eoae…

?oia?o Ia?aeie ?iaeeeny 11 ia?oa 1931 aiaea a Aano?aeee. O/eeny a oeiea
a Aeaeeeiiaa, ia eaieeoeao iiae?aaaouaae a ?aaeaeoeee iooea, oiaeee a
oeieo aa?oiaie acaeu Oeaieiaoiia, iinauae i?anaeoa?eaineoth oea?eiaue a
Oo?aea. Oaea a oi a?aiy noaei ynii, /oi iaeue/ee eiaao niiniaiinoe e
eiiia?oeee. ?oia?o eiaee e?ieeeia, eioi?ua a eciaeeee aiaeyony a
Aano?aeee, e i?iaeaaae eo oeo?ee. Ii aeaaea oioae?yeny aothoeaaoue
iaineiia?ai eiineee iaaic! Iiieii eiiia?oeee Ia?aeie n thiuo eao
iiethaee ?ene: i?yii ec oeieu ia aaeineiaaea acaeee a Iaeueao?i, /oiau
naeaeaoue i/a?aaeioth noaaeo ia nea/eao.

A 1950 aiaeo ?iaeeoaee ioi?aaeee Ia?aeiea a Aaeeeia?eoaieth. ?oia?o
iinooiee a Oi?/anoa?neee eieeaaeae Ienoi?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa, /a?ac
aeaa aiaea caeii/ee aai e iiiae a naiia na?aeoea aacaoiie eiaeono?ee —
ia Oeeo-no?eo. Aeaaea /a?ac ni?ie eao Ia?aeie aniiieiae i/a?aaee,
ea?oi/ee e aeaoeoeeo a oiaaeaoiae iineaaiaiiie Aiaeee. Aua aoaeo/e
nooaeaioii eieeaaeaea, ?oia?o n oaeiaieuenoaeai eco/ae o?oaeu Eaieia, ia
eaieiiie iieea a aai eiiiaoa noiye athno aiaeaey. Iaeiaei eaeae aaeeeiai
o/eoaey ia iaoaee nooaeaioo eaoaoue ai O?aioeeth, a aeiaeeueneia eaceii.
Aiineaaenoaee Ia?aeie iai?i/ue caaue i naiai thiioaneii oaea/aiee.
Eiaaea ia/aoaee eieao Ieoaeea Ai?aa/aaa a Sunday Times, ieeeea?aea? n
aiciouaieai caiaoee: «Ii aea aei neo ii? eiiioieno!»

Iieeoe/aneea i?eno?anoey ?oia?oa Ia?aeiea ?aciiia?aciu. Oi?ioi ecaanoiu
aai nayce n Ia?aa?ao Oyo/a?, eioi?ay ethaeea cai?inoi caeoe e iaaiaoo a
?aaeaeoeeth aacaou The Sun. A aeaeueiaeoai Ia?aeie ecaeae aaeeeieaiiua
iaioa?u AEaeaciie eaaee. A Aano?aeee iaaiao iiaeaea?aeae eaiaeeaeaoa
Eaeai?enoneie ia?oee, caoai eaiaeeaeaoa io eiina?aaoi?ia. A 1996 aiaeo
Ia?aeie iiiiaae Eaeeoi?ieeneie ?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee… Oae eoi aea
oaeie ?oia?o Ia?aeie — eaeai?eno, eiina?aaoi?, ?anioaeeeaiaoe eee ana
aea eiiioieno? Ie oio, ie ae?oaie, ie o?aoee e oai aieaa ie /aoaa?oue.
Ii ieth?aeeno e i?aaiaoee. N iiiiuueth aeaiaaeiuo iioieia ?oia?o Ia?aeie
iiai?a/eaaao iieeoe/aneee oethaa? a naith noi?iio. Iaeie oieueei
?anioaeeeaioeu iieo/eee io iaai iaeei ieeeeii aeieea?ia ia auai?ao.

I?eaaaeai iieacaoaeueiue i?eia? aeaeueiiaeaeiie iieeoeee ?oia?oa
Ia?aeiea. A 1964 aiaeo ii i?eia?ae aacaoo The Australian —
?aniaeoaaaeueioth, ii i?aeoe/anee oauoi/ioth. Iaaiao ia cae?ue ecaeaiea,
oii?ii aeeaaeuaay a iaai aeaiueae. A a 1975 aiaeo aacaoa noaea ?oii?ii
ia auai?ao i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Iaeueeieueia O?aeca?a, eioi?ue
ioaeaaiaea?ee Ia?aeiea, i?eiya auaiaeiua aeey iaaeeaiaaiaoa ?aoaiey a
iaeanoe n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. A eacaeinue au… Aei The
Australian iieiaeie, ii aiaeoeeiciue ?oia?o Ia?aeie eoiee ia?o
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo aacao, neaeiaeneoth Daily Mirror, oaeaeiiiaieth a
Aaeaeaeaea, caoaaoee ecaeaoaeueneea ?uiee a Iaeueao?ia. Nia/aea ii
iuoaeny neoiaoue, ii aai aea i?eciaieth, «aieueiua» aacaou, ii caoai
?ani?aaee e?ueuey, e a?aieoeu Aano?aeee noaee aeey iaai oaniiaaou.

Ia?aay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay naeaeea — iieoiea a?eoaineie aine?aniie aacaou
News of World. Ia?aeie n eaaeinoueth iaioae na?ueaciiai eiieo?aioa
Iaenaaeea, a auaoea nianoaaiieee iioa?yee aeaa ieeeeiia ooioa
noa?eeiaia. *oi yoi, eae ia aacaiea e oiaiea eaae?iaaoue a oi?ioi
i?iaeoiaiiie naeaeea? Caoai auea eiiaeiineay The Sun. Iia auno?i noaea
aeaaaoue i?eaueue. Eae n/eoatho niaoeeaeenou, aacaoa ieceii?iaiay,
ioee/athuayny oaeeaeoaeueiie aacaeoneoeae, n iiaeaeyie oiiean ia
o?aoueae no?aieoea. Ii iaaeeaiaaiao ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ii aeaao ioaeeea
oi, /aai ae oi/aony, oi anoue oeaaa e c?aeeu. I aeooiaiinoe, ii?aee e
i?i/ae aunieie ae?aaaaeaie ?a/ue a ecaeaieyo Ia?aeiea ia eaeao.
Eneeth/aiea, iiaeaeoe, ninoaaeyao eieiiea ?aaeaeoi?a, ia aieueoa.
Ia/aoatho caeanue oieueei oi, /oi iieoiaaony, /oi i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea,
/oi eioa?anoao iaeneooaiiiai /eoaoaey: a?yciia aaeuea caacae, nieaoie.
*aai noieo oieueei noaouey iiae caaieiaeii «Eaieeea ii/oao ai aeai?oea»
— anai ynii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i aicethaeaiiie i?eioea *a?eca Eaieeea
Ia?ea?.

Oi, /oi aeaeae n aacaoaie ?oia?o Ia?aeie, iacuaaaony o ooaeiaeieeia
«e?aneoue a aeaeoue oeaao». Aai aacaou — yoi oae iacuaaaiay aeaeoay
i?anna. E oai ia iaiaa… Oe?aae News of World — 4,5 iei. yecaiiey?ia, a
The Sun aaeaaeiaaii /eoaee 10 iei. /aeiaae. N?aaieoa oe?aaee iaeaiueeie
Aiaeee n ia?iiiie ?inneae. Ia?aeie ieeiaaea ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia
aeinoeaiooii, nieo ii o?e /ana a nooee, eiio?iee?oao naith eiia?eth e
i?eia?aoaao, i?eia?aoaao, i?eia?aoaao. A 1981 aiaeo ii eciaiee naiei
aoeueaa?iui aeonai e eoiee aacaoo a?eoaineiai enoaaeeoiaioa The Times!
Ia yoi aea a?aiy i?eoiaeeony e aieia Ia?aeiea n a?eoaineeie
i?ionithcaie. Ii iino?iee iiaoth oeiia?aoeth n eiiiuethoa?aie, a ?aaioa
eioi?ie ia o?aaiaaeinue o/anoea i?ionithcia. Oicyei ioeoieeny — e
iineaaeiea ?aoe?iaaeenue.

Ii yoi aua ia cia/eo, /oi e?ecenu ia niioonoaiaaee Ia?aeieo. Ia iaioae
aai aeieaiaie e?ecen 1990 aiaea. Ii oioue e iinoaaee ei?ii?aoeeth ia
eieaie, ii ia neiiae iaaeeaiaaiaoa. Oieueei ca iaeei aiae Ia?aeie
auoauee New York Post, neoiee aeoeee niooieeiaie eiiiaiee Aiieiiaa,
aeia?aeny aeaaea aei ssiiiee, aaea e ii nae aeaiue ia aeaeotho
aecianiaiia-eiino?aioeaa, aoeaaeueii au?aae ec ?oe NAN i?aaa ia
o?aineyoeeth iao/ae Iaoeeiiaeueiie oooaieueiie eeae. A ia?oa 1998 aiaea
ii eoiee aaenaieueioth eiiaiaeo Ein-Aiaeaeaeana, a ai?aea oiai aea aiaea
i?eia?ae i?aaa ia iiaua na?ee «Caacaeiuo aiei», a ethia i?iaeae naie
aeo?iae TVGuide, a a ethea ?ani?iaeae 20 % Fox group, /oiau iaeaa/eoue
iieaoo aeieaa anae ei?ii?aoeee. ?oia?o Ia?aeie ia noieo ia ianoa, ii
iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io ianoiyoaeuenoa, ieeiaaea ia iioneaao ?oee e
anaaaea auoiaeeo iiaaaeeoaeai, iiyoiio aai iiaeii iacaaoue iienoeia
aaeeeei /aeiaaeii.

Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue ethaiio, aeaaea ?onneiio oeieueieeo, /oi eiaiii
ecaeaoaeuenoai Ia?aeiea ?ane?ooeei eieao Oieeeaia «Aeanoaeei eieaoe», a
ethaiio ac?ineiio — /oi eiaiii aai eiia?ey iieacaea ie?o aeaoona?eeioth
naao «Oeoaiee», — e ie o eiai ia inoaiaony niiiaiee, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ?oia?o Ia?aeie. Ii, ianiio?y ia aaniethoii i/aaeaeiia aaee/ea aai
eiia?ee, iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue e i oii oaeana, eioi?ue aucuaaao eiy
Ia?aeiea ia oieueei o eiieo?aioia, ii e o aai neoaeaueo. Noaouey iaeiiai
auaoaai aeaaiiai ?aaeaeoi?a oae e iacuaaaony «Ia?aeie oaeaniue». Iaaiao
aacaeaeinoai a aii?inao aeciana: anee aio /oi-oi iaaei, ii eaeao
iai?ieii e n/eoaao, /oi aeia?ioa caeanue ia ianoi.

«Ienoa? Ia?aeie aaaeao naay i/aiue naea?aeaiii, aai caeoeeniua
iaoeiaoeee anaeytho oaean a na?aeoea iiaaeeoaeae ianniaaeea», — ieoao
aeo?iae Herring.

A ?aaioa o Ia?aeiea oio aea i?eioeei: eeai /aeiaae ?aaioaao n
iaeneiaeueiie ioaea/ae, eeai — aei naeaeaiey. Aeaaiua ?aaeaeoi?u
iaaeeaeiia?ee Ia?aeiea iiaoo n?aaee ii/e iieo/eoue oeacaiey io «naiiai
E. ?. I.», e yoi n/eoaaony aiieia ii?iaeueiui. ?oia?oa ie?oaeatho
neeueiua ee/iinoe, iioiio /oi Ia?aeie i?aaeii/eoaao a?aoue nio?oaeieeia,
iioiaeeo ia iaai: «ss iaaeathnue, /oi iiaoaeaeath ethaeae e aeaenoaeth
nianoaaiiui i?eia?ii, oaea/aiiinoueth, i?iaeoeoeaiuie eaeayie, eioi?ua
iiiiaatho ae?oaei /oanoaiaaoue naith i?e/anoiinoue e i?ioeanno». E anee
a aeaeueiaeoai nio?oaeieee Ia?aeiea ia ono?aeaatho, oi ii eo
aacaeaeinoii oaieueiyao, ia aeaeay iiaeaaeae aeaaea aeey eo/oeo ae?ocae
naiaai iooea. Ae?oaie auaoee ?aaioiee Ia?aeiea aniiieiaao: «A eiioea
eiioeia ii nni?eony ni anaie naieie i?eaa?aeaioeaie». Ii iaoo?a Ia?aeie
— iaeeii/ea, ie n eai ia noiaeeony iaaeieai e ana?ueac. Ii iaaeeaiaaiao
ia /oaeae naycae n ecaanoiuie eeoeaie e ioaeiuie ethaeueie. Oae, ia
canaaeaieyo aeeyoaeueiiai eiina?aaoeaiiai o/?aaeaeaiey Einoeoooa Eaoi ii
neaeeo ?yaeii n O?aaeii Aanoii, aee?aeoi?ii e iniiaaoaeai ii/oiaie
neoaeau Fed Ex. Ii ieacuaaao oneoae, e aio ioaa/atho acaeiiinoueth.

O?aiao, eioi?ue aucuaaao o ethaeae eiy Ia?aeiea, iauyniyaony aua e aai
?aiooaoeeae iie/aeeaiai aecianiaia. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaaeeaiaaiao ia
ieoao neaiaeaeueiuo eiea, ia aeaeaao oio ec naieo aunooieaiee. Yoi
aaeaieia oaeeaeoaeueii, oae eae i?ioanneth aeo?iaeenoa ii ciaao ecioo?e
e, eae aiai?eony, iiiaia iiaeao naaa iicaieeoue. Aaaeue auneacuaathony
aea ii ethaiio iiaiaeo aaoiiaaiaou e aaieaeueiua nicaeaoaee i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey! A ooo nai aia aaeae, ii aaoi? yoeo no?ie oae e ia iaoea
ie/aai eioa?aniiai, e?iia iaeioi?uo iiyniaiee naieo aeaenoaee, aac
eioi?uo ?oia?o Ia?aeie ia iia iaieoenue. A iaeiie ec noaoae Business
Week /eoaai: «Ia?aeie, ianiio?y ia ooi, iiaeiyoue ei ca ni?ie eao
ianeii/aaiuo naeaeie, inoaaony caaaaei/iie oeao?ie — aiaii eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ue ieeiaaea ia aiai?eo ie?o, i /ai aeoiaao ia naiii aeaea».

Auaoee ei??aniiiaeaio Times ioiaoee, /oi Ia?aeie ciaao oiee a
aeo?iaeenoeea, ii «eiaaea aeo?iaeeno aioo?e iaai aunooiaao i?ioea
aecianiaia, iiaaaeeoaeue iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeei». Auaoay aeaia
Ia?aeiea Aiia, n eioi?ie ii i?iaeee aac iaeiai o?eaeoeaoue iaeei aiae,
auionoeea ?iiai «Naiaeiue aecian», iiaanoaothuee i naiuea iaaeeaiaaiaoa,
eioi?ay ?ooeony ecioo?e ai a?aiy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. Auei ee iiaeiaiia
a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe — o?oaeii neacaoue, ii oaeo inoaaony oaeoii:
«naiaeiay eiia?ey» ?oia?oa Ia?aeiea ?aniaeanue. Aai o?ia aeaoae —
Yeecaaao, Eyoeai e Aeaeaein — ea?atho aaaeiua ?iee a News Nia?ia. Ltd.
Noa?oee nui Eyoeai — aeoea-i?aceaeaio ei?ii?aoeee, Aeaeaein —
eniieieoaeueiue aee?aeoi? Star. A naie 73 aiaea ?oia?o Ia?aeie
ii-i?aaeiaio yia?ae/ai, oae aea iaei nieo, noae iaiiiai eo/oa
iaeaaaoueny e aeaaea aeaieeny ia eeoayiea Aaiaee Aeaia, eioi?ay aai
aaeaia iieiaea. Aaiaee ?aaioaea ia oaeaaeceiiiii eaiaea Star. Enoaoe,
Eeoath ?oia?o Ia?aeie i?eaeaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea a naiae iaooiieiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ianiio?y ia aic?ano e ia oi, /oi aua a 1997 aiaeo Ia?aeie iauyaee, /oi
naiaeiue iaeao aeoeee aai eiia?ee i?eiaaeeaaeeo aai aeaoyi (25 %), ia
iaaei caauaaoue, /oi aeaaeaeueoeai News Corp. inoaaony oeaeeeii e
iieiinoueth ?oia?o Ia?aeie. Ii ei?ieue ianniaaeea e ia niae?aaony
nieiaoue n naay ei?iio. A aai ieaiao — nicaeaiea eo/oae a ie?a
aeiaaeueiie niooieeiaie oaeaaauaoaeueiie nenoaiu.

*a?ec Niaina? *aieei

*a?ee *aieei ?iaeeeny a Eiiaeiia 16 ai?aey 1889 aiaea a naiuea a?oenoia
ithcee-oieea e au? ?aaaieii noae aunooiaoue ia noeaia. A 1894 aiaeo
Oaiia *aieei i?eaaea iaeaiueeiai *a?ee a oaao? e ai a?aiy niaeoaeey
ni?aaea aiein. C?eoaee, aeaaiui ia?acii nieaeaou, ia ioee/aeenue
aeaeeeaoiinoueth e iiaeiyee ooi. Oaiia ooea, a oicyei, iiaeiaoeaoee, eae
iaeaiueeee *a?ee ?acaeaeaao ca eoeenaie aeoa?ia, auaae aai ia noeaio,
/oiau ianei?i caiaieoue iaaeoeo. Iaeue/ee ia niooeeny e niae ianaieo,
eioi?oth eiiee Aan Yeai iae n ia?iiiui oniaoii a 1893 aiaeo. Oniao aue
ia?iiiue, e, e ?aaeinoe *a?eueca, ia noeaio noaee a?inaoue iiiaoee. A
yoio aa/a? ?iaeeeanue aai i?aeoe/iinoue: ii iauyaee, /oi nia?aa
iiaeaa?ao eo, a oae iioii aoaeao iaoue. Yoi iii?aaeeinue au? aieueoa, e
aieueoa iieaoaei aeaiaa; a *aieei iae, ieynae, ecia?aaeae aeoa?ia, iiea
Oaiia ia oaaea aai ca eoeenu. A yoio aa/a?, aniiieiaao *aieei, ii
aunooiae a ia?aue ?ac, a iaoue – a iineaaeiee. A ?aiieo eioa?aueth
*aieei ?anneacuaaao aanueia ?iiaioe/ii i oii, eae aai ioe?ue Oeeueyi
Aeaeaenii, iniiaaoaeue o?oiiu “Ainaiue eaieaoe?neeo ia?iae”: “Iaeiaaeaeu
y ecia?aaeae, eae e?eaeyaony oee/iue iaeue/eoea, eioi?uo oae iiiai a
Eiiaeiia, e aae?oa oaeaeae, /oi ia iaiy aieiaoaeueii niio?eo eaeie-oi
ioae/eia. “Aea yoio iaeue/ee i?e?iaeaeaiiue aeoa?! -aineeeeioe ii, iioii
neacae iia:Oi/aoue auoue a?oenoii?” Oiaaea y niooii i?aaenoaaeye naaa,
/oi yoi oaeia, oioy ioaoe e iaoue auee aiaeaie naycaiu n ithcee-oieeii,
ii ana, /oi noeeei ?aaioo e aeaiueae, oi anoue aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue
aua?aoueny ec neo/iie aoaeie/iie aeecie, ieaiyei iaiy, e y auneooae
eneoneoaey, a a ?acoeueoaoa /a?ac iaaeaeth oaea aunooiae a i?eai?iaeiuo
ithcee-oieeao aianoa n a?oenoaie aa?ueaoa, ecaanoiuie iiae eiaiai
“Ainaiue eaieaoe?neeo ia?iae”. ?aii?oa? ithcee-oieeueiie aacaou Iyaieo”
iienuaae aunooieaiea “ia?iae”: “Yoio y?eee e aeeaie iiia?, n e?oieoeae
enoeiiie “niee”, iiaea?eee oaao?o-aa?ueaoa “Ainaiue eaieaoe?neeo
ia?iae”, /ue? ianoa?noai ia?aioeaieoue iaaiciiaeii. Oeeueyi Aeaeaenii
i?aaenoaaeye ioaeeea ainaiue ioee/ii iao/aiiuo iaeue/eeia, eioi?ua
oaioeotho iaeei ec eo/oeo eeiaaeainia, eaeie oieueei iiaeii aiia?aceoue.
Iiia? oi?io naiae iaiau/iinoueth, eniieieoaee niaei a?inathony a ii?a
iiaeciu. Eaaeaeue ec “Eaieaoe?neeo ia?iae” – i?ae?aniue ia?acaoe thiioe,
e ana iie aea?yo iai aeanyoue i?eyoiaeoeo ieioo…”*a?ee i?eoeinue
o/eoueny eeiaaeaino oeaeyo oanoue ianyoeaa, i?aaeaea /ai aai auionoeee
ia noeaio – e ii aaeaa ia inoieaaiae io no?aoa. Ieaaeoee nui Aeaeaeniia
aniiieiaao: “Iiia/aeo ii aue i/aiue oeoei e- anee o/anoue, /oi ii ia
au?in a Eaieaoe?a,- aiieia i?eee/ii oaioeaaae. Ii aue i?ae?aniui aeoa?ii
iaioiieiu, ii na?aeoea aai i?eiaaeeaaeaei o?aaaaeee. Iaaeaeyie ii iia
ecia?aaeaoue A?yinae Oeeueyina a ?iee noa?eea ec “Eaaee ae?aaiinoae”, a
naaeii ia?eea. Iieacuaae, iiea iai ia iaaeiano”. A naiie naiuea *aieeiia
ana ianoiyei iaiaa aeaaiiieo/ii. Aai ioaoe iiaei?aae naia caei?iauea e
nieeny. Iaoue *a?ee – Oaiia iaoiaeeeanue a i?ethoa aeey
aeooaaiiaieueiuo. A ia/aea aaea eo/oeie ithcee-oieeueiuie iiia?aie auee
niaoiua neao/e. Eo/oeie ec eo/oeo auee “Aanneiaanoiua eiiaaeeaiou”
O?aaea Ea?ii, iauaaeeieaoea e i?iaeieaeeaoea naiua ?aciua o?aaeeoeee
aiaeeeneie iaioiieiu. I?aaeaea anaai oi auea noa?ay, /enoi aiaeeeneay
eeioiaaea aac neia. A 1908 aiaeo *a?eca *aieeia i?eiyee a o?oiio Ea?ii.
Caeanue ii iaeaaeae ianoa?noaii iaioiieiu, ae?iaaoeee e yeaeeea?enoeee.
A ai?aea 1910 aiaeo Ea?ii i?aaeeiaeee *aieeio aeaaioth ?ieue a iiaii
niaeoaeea – «Aanno?aoiue Aeaeeiie, eee THiue aa?ie». Yoio niaeoaeeue
i?eian oniao e Ea?ii, e *aieeio. A ei?eoe?neie “Eaieia iino” iiyaeeanue
oaeay caiaoea: Ainoiaeyuay caacaea. THiioa a 21 aiae ia oae-oi eaaei
ea?aoue ?iee, nicaeaaoea O?aaeo Eeo/aio neaao, ii *.*aieei, neeueii
ianiaoeaoee ioaeeeo naiei aanno?aoiui Aeaeeiie a iiaii neao/a Ea?ii,
i?ae?anii ni?aaeeny n yoie caaea/ae. Ii /anoiethaea e ona?aeai, ii
aeaeaei iieaeao… ianiio?y ia iieiaeinoue, o iaai oaea anoue iiuo, e,
eae oieueei ii auoiaeeo ia noeaio a ?iee Aeaeeiie, cae oioi/ao, iiieiay,
/oi ia?aae iei i?e?iaeaeaiiue eiiee”. 28 iiya?y 1913 aiaea *aieei
ooiaeeo ec o?oiiu Ea?ii. Iaaei aeaeaaoueny aeaeueoa. A yoii aea aiaeo
*aieei iiaeienuaaao eiio?aeo ni nooaeeae “Eenoioi”. Oeeueiu “Eenoioi”
?iaeaeaiu aiaeaaeeai, oee?eii, eiieenaie, ii e aia?eeaineie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth XX aaea. Eiiaaeey a?oai auniaeaaea ?aaeinoe e
ai?anoe aoaeiae. Aeey naiaai aoi?iai oeeueia *aieei i?eaeoiae einothi e
a?ei, eioi?ua iicaea eaaei ociaaaee anthaeo. Einothi A?iaeyae ca naith
aeaaaeoeaoeaeaooeaoithth aeeciue i?aeoe/anee ia iaiyeny, aeaeeii,
iiyaeeny ia naao nai niaie, *aieei ca?aiaa aai ia iaaeoiuaae, Niaeanii
eaaaiaea, ?iaeeeny ii aeiaeaeeeaui aeiai a iauae ioaeneie a?eia?iie,
aaea *aieei iicaeinoaiaae oe?i/aiiua a?thee Oaooe A?aaeey, e?ioioiue
ieaeaeae *a?eca Yeaa?e, ia?iiiua aioeiee Oi?aea Noa?eeiaa, iaeaiueeee
eioaeie A?aaeeaaa oanoy e onu, i?aaeiacia/aaoeany aeey Iaea Noyeia,
eioi?ua *aieei iiaeno?ea uaoi/eie. Ii auee e ae?oaea eaaaiaeu
aicieeiiaaiey einothia. Oa?aeoa?ioth iioiaeeo *aieei ia?aiye o noa?eea
ii i?icaeuo *oaeeea Aeien: “Iin ea?oioeie, nai ne?th/aiiue io
?aaiaoecia, nooiie eneaea/aiiua, ?anioooea, a a?thee -i?inoi
iaaiia?aceiua! Iaaa?ii, iie aio aeinoaeenue io eaeiai-ieaoaeue aaeeeaia,
nai ii aue iaeaiueeee. N oiai aeiy, eiaaea *aieei ia/ae noaaeoue
oeeueiu, ie/aai iaecaanoii i aai ee/iie aeecie. I?e/eia i?inoa – ii
aeaenoaeoaeueii caieiaeny oieueei ?aaioie. Iiaia eneonnoai ieieaeiaaei,
niaa?oaiii iiaeioeei aai. A Aiaeee ia?aua /aieeineea oeeueiu iiyaeeenue
a ethia 1914 aiaea. Oaea ciay, eae eo i?eieiatho a Aia?eea, “Eenoioi
eiiiaie” ?aeeaie?iaaea eo: “Aioiau ee au e /aieeineiio aoio? Au? ieeoi
ia i?ineaaeeny oae auno?i, eae *a?ec *aieei, ciaiaieoue eiiee Ea?ii, a
eiiaaeeyo “Eenoioia”.

9 aaaonoa 1914 aiaea *aieei ooiaeeo n eeiieiiiaiee “Eenoioi”.

15 ieoya?y 1977 aiaea *aieei a iineaaeiee ?ac aua?aeny ec
Iaioa?-aea-Aai. Ii iiauaae a Aaaa ia i?aaenoaaeaiee oee?ea “Iea”. N oao
ii? eae *aieeiu iainiiaaeenue a Oaaeoea?ee, i?eacae oee?ea eaaeaeue ?ac
noaiiaeeny a eo naiuea niauoeai. Neeu *aieeia auno?i oayee, oaia?ue ii
ioaeaeaeny a iinoiyiiii ooiaea. Iiae ?iaeaeanoai any naiuey, ca
eneeth/aieai Aeaea?aeaeeiu, caiyoie ia nuaieao a E Eniaiee, ii
o?aaeeoeee nia?aeanue ia aeeea ano?aoeoue i?acaeiee. O *aieeia
iaa?aeinue oaea ii?yaei/ii aioeia. A eaioi ?iaeaeanoaa ianuea Eiion
iiaeiyeny e iei ec aea?aaie, ia?yaeaiiue Naioa Eeaonii, eae ii yoi
aeaeae iineaaeiea 20 eao, /oiau ?acaeaoue iiaea?ee n aeee. Iiaea?ee io
aeaoae ioianee e *aieeio a niaeueith e inoaaeee aeaa?ue ioe?uoie, /oiau
ii neuoae, eae thiia iieieaiea aanaeeony o aeee n Naioie. Yoie ii/ueth,
a i?aae?annaaoiue /an ?iaeaeanoaa 1977 aiaea, *a?ec *aieei oeoi
neii/aeny ai nia. Iioi?iiu ninoiyeenue a 11 oo?a 27 aeaeaa?y 1977 aiaea
ia eeaaeaeua i?e aiaeeeaineie oea?eae a Aaaa. Niaeanii aiea iieieiiai,
iie auee ne?iiiuie, i?enoonoaiaaee oieueei ?iaeiua, anee ia n/eoaoue
iinea Aaeeeia?eoaiee Aeeaia Eae?a ?ioie. Eiaaea *aieei oia?, ana aai
aaeeeea eieeaae ii ?aianeo i?iecianee ii iaio i?iuaeueiua neiaa.
Noa?aeoeia o?aioeocneiai eeii ?aia Eea? ienae:”Ii aue noieiii
eeiaiaoia?aoa anao no?ai e a?aiai. Iao oaeiai nicaeaoaey oeeueia, eiai
au ii ia aaeioiiaee. Ee/ii ia iaiy iniaaiii neeueii aicaeaenoaiaaei yoi
oaeeaeoaeueiia ni/aoaiea eiiaaeee e /oanoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeueo?aae Oe/eie

A 1906 aiaeo a eacoeoneee eieeaaeae nayoiai Eaiaoey, /oi a ai?iaea
Eiiaeiia, iinooiee iaeaiueeee, oienoue, iaoeethaeee naieeaoiee
iaeue/eoea, aoaeouee ei?ieue no?aoa, nui eiiaeiineiai caeaiueea
Aeueo?aae Oe/eie. Eacoeou o/eee aai iaoaiaoeea, aiaeeeneiio e
o?aioeocneiio, iaieth, oi?ioei iaia?ai, a a i?eaea/o aeee ii iiia
oienoie ?aceiiaie iaeeie. Ca yoi Oe/eie iaanaaaea inoaeny aeaaiaea?ai
nayoui iooeai: aeai?ii naniaina (iai?yaeaiiiio, o?aaiaeiiio iaeeaeaieth
aaaeu, eioi?ay iaieioaii aeieaeia i?iecieoe) ie?iaie eeiaiaoia?ao iaycai
ia noieueei aio, neieueei aai aeia?ui ianoaaieeai. Eacoeoneay oeiea
iiiaia aeaea Aeueo?aaeo Oe/eieo: nayoay oea?eiaue nianaea /aeiaa/aneea
aeooe, a ii ne?oioeacii e iaoiaee/ii iiaa?aae eo a oaean. Aio ii noieo,
i?eaaeeaoenue e aea?aao, ?anoouaio a oaeo oeieueiiai aeai?eea, e
iaaeiaiii ace?aao ia naieo iaeiieeannieeia, aiiythueo iy/. Aai auaoee
nio/aiee, noa?ue ioaoe-eacoeo Oueth A?ae, a oanoeaeanyoua aiaeu iaa?inae
aeo?iaeenoai aeaoneee ii?o?ao ?aaeenna?a -i?ac?eoaeueiiai e aaaeiiai
ioee/ieea-anaciaeee, ia?ee n?aaee naa?noieeia (ec-ca naiae iieiiou
iaeaiueeee Aeueo?aae ia iia n ieie aiceoueny). Ii a?inee eieeaaeae ?aaee
oaoie/aneie oeieu, inoaaee oaoieeo ?aaee eeii, ii iinayiiua eacoeoaie
ca?ia aeaee anoiaeu – a eeiaiaoia?ao Oe/eie ooae, eae a iiianou?ue. Ia
noa?inoe eao ?aaeenna? ia ?ac iiaoi?ye no?aiioth o?aco: “Oyaeaeua aeaa?e
eeiinooaeee caoeiiioeenue ca iiie”. Ae?ocuey ciaee, /oi ii oioae
neacaoue, – Oe/eie “aiae” a eeii oae, eae ae?oaea aiaaeatho a ?aeeaeth.
Ai?i/ai, aei yoiai auei aua aeaeaei. Iiea /oi thiioa euao naia ianoi a
aeecie. Oie?aao aai ioaoe-caeaiuee, e ii, ainiieueciaaaoenue neo/aai,
aaaeeo ec naiaeiiai aeciana: a Eiaeaia?ii-iaaeaaoeeiiiie oeiea aai o/ao
iaoaieea, yeaeo?e/anoao, aeonoeea. Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia a naiii ?acaa?a,
e Oe/eie iuoaaony oeoe ia o?iio aeia?iaieueoeai – ec-ca iaiiia?iie
iieiiou aai ca/eneytho a ?aca?a e oneeaiii iao/atho iiae?uaiiio aeaeo.
AEanoeay a?iaeneay aeenoeeieeia, ?aiiea iiaoaeee, y?inoiua ie?eee
onaoiai ao?aeoi?a – a ?acoeueoaoa a?iey noaiiaeony aeey Oe/eiea aua
iaeiei e?aeia iai?eyoiui ainiiieiaieai. Oaiee. Oe/eie aue naea?aeaiiui e
io/oaeaeaiiui /aeiaaeii, aeeceeo ae?ocae o iaai ia auei. *a?ac
ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao O?thooi neaaeao, /oi ieeiio ia i?eoei au a
aieiao iioeiiaoue Oe/eiea ii nieia, a Aeyaeae I. Naeciee, nicaeaoaeue
ciaiaieoiai oeeueia “Oianaiiua aao?ii”, ia iiaeaeaao aai a ea/anoaa
iinoiyiiiai niooieea aeaaea a?aao. Ii ?aaioae yeaeo?eeii, i?aaeeueii
ieoaeny, noie/anee nio?aiye aeaanoaaiiinoue (yoi aiaaeueneia ninoiyiea
i?iaeeeony aei 25 eao – aieioue aei aeaieoueau), eco/ae eneonnoai a
Eiiaeiineii oieaa?neoaoa e /aou?a ?aca a iaaeaeth niio?ae, eae
iaio?aceiue Aeoaean Oa?aaien nianaao ia ye?aia Iy?e Ieeoi?ae io
ianeeueieeia e oaeeoe. Iaei-iiiaeo eeii noaiiaeeinue aai aaeeinoaaiiie
io?aaeie, aaeeinoaaiiui ie?ii, a eioi?ii ii oioae aeeoue. Eiaaea
aia?eeaineay eeiieiiiaiey “Ia?aiaoio oaeiin ieaea?c-Eanee” aeaea
iauyaeaiea a aacaou i iaai?a oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea, Oe/eie i?eoae
iaeiei ec ia?auo. Nooaeee o?aaiaaeny /aeiaae, eioi?ue aeaeaao oeo?u, a
oienoye iaieioi ?eniaae, e aai acyee ia ?aaioo. Oe/eie ooaea, Oe/eie
nthaea – i?eniio?eoa ca inaaoeoaeyie, iicaaioueoanue, /oiau aeoa?ia
aia?aiy iaei?ieee. Ii aicaeaaee ioaeae oeo?ia, caoai noae iiiiuieeii
?aaeenna?a. Aeueia ?aaeeue, aoaeouay aeaia Oe/eiea, oiaea ?aaioaea ia
“Ia?aiaoio oaeiin ieaea?c”. Ieieaoth?iay, yia?ae/iay, nia?aiiay,
?uaeaaieinay (eiaaea iia iieiao, /oi aa Aeueo?aaeo i?aayony naaoeua
aieinu, oi ia?ae?aneony a aeiiaeeieo), Aeueia auea aai iieiie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth. Oe/eie iaie/anee aiyeny aeeciaiiuo neiaeiinoae,
iia aea oooy n ieie ni?aaeyeanue – anei?a ii oaea ia iia aac iaa
iaoiaeeoueny. A 1925 aiaeo Oe/eieo i?aaeeiaeeee iinoaaeoue ia?aue
naiinoiyoaeueiue oeeuei. Aeueia, niaeaneaoayny noaoue annenoaioii
?aaeenna?a, ia aai aaaeo caaea?aeaeanue a Eiiaeiia, a ii iiaoae ia
nuaiee a Eoaeeth. I?aiaeieaa iiiaeanoai o?oaeiinoae, Oe/eie aeaaiiieo/ii
caeai/eaaao oeeuei, eioi?ue iieo/aao oi?iooth i?anno: eiiaeiineay
“Aeaeee yeni?ann” ioaeeeoao noaoueth iiae iacaaieai “Iieiaeie /aeiaae n
oaaoeie eueaa”. *a?ac ianyoe “eaa” aeaieony ia naiae Aeueia e n oao ii?
iie ia ?annoaaaeenue. Ii ia iia i?iaeeoue aac iaa e aeiy. O?oieea ?o/ee
Aeueiu oeaiei aea?aeao anth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noi?iio aeaea, oaioacey
auioneieea eacoeoneiai eieeaaeaea ?aaioaao aianth. Oe/eie oiaao
oaaaeaoue oaeiua no?aoe e oiaee ioaeeee e auoaueoue eo ia?oaeo. E
ia?aiauoiiai, e nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea no?aoeea iaiiciaaaaiinoue ie?a,
oaiiua neeu, eioi?ua iiaoo i?iyaeoueny a /ai oaiaeii:
Aeaeaea-iio?ioeoaea, eiaa?iie aeaiueia, aaciaeaeiuo n aeaeo ioeoeao,
eioi?ua aiacaiii iaeeioony ia ie/aai ia iiaeic?aaathueo ethaeae. Oe/eie
ciaao, /oi iauyniyoue ie/aai ia iaaei – ethaie /aeiaae einoeieoeaii
aeaeao oaea?a a nieio e ie/ooue ia oaeeaeony, anee iaaanoue ioeoaea
acyaoeeny naeueneioicyenoaaiiue naiieaoee aae?oa iiaiieony ca iei e
ia/iao ?anno?aeeaaoue aai ec ioeaiaoa. Ia i?aiuea?ao oe/eieianeeo
oeeueiia ioaeeea aecaeaea io oaeana, o iniai /oanoaeoaeueiuo
c?eoaeueieoe neo/aeenue ia?aiua ?anno?ienoaa. Naiiiaeaaeaiey Aeueo?aae
Oe/eie ia oa?ye ieeiaaea – yoiio aai oiaea iao/eee eacoeou. Iiaeaaeaiiua
aeaeaiey iai?a/eaaeenue eiiieaenaie, eioi?ua Oe/eie ecaeeaae i?e iiiiue
naiaai eneonnoaa. Iiae, ?aoaoea, ia?o/ieee, iiaeieoeu, aeeueioeia – ana,
/oi oa?caao, /oi aiicaaony a /aeiaa/aneia oaei, – a oeeueiao Oe/eiea
ianoo iiuiue y?ioe/aneee iiaeoaeno. Eaaeyiuo, iaaeinooiiuo, naenoaeueiuo
aeiiaeeiie o iaai oaaoatho, caeiauaatho a ia?o/ieee e, any/anee oieaeay,
oauao a iieeoeaeneee o/anoie – oaeiai ?iaea yieciaeu aeinoaaeyee Oe/eieo
iniaia oaeiaieuenoaea. Io/ayiea Oe/eie ne?uaae ca i?eau/iie eaaeyiie
ianeie. A oii, /oi Oe/eie aue aeoaiei iaeeiieei /aeiaaeii, ia auei
ie/aai neo/aeiiai – n aeaoneeo eao ii ia aa?ee, /oi ethaee aoaeoo
ioiineoueny e iaio eae e ?aaiiio, e iiyoiio ioai?iaeeeny io ieo eaaeyiie
noaiie. Ii aeaiiino?aoeaii ioeacuaaeny io anaai, /oi ia auei naycaii n
?aaioie: ia oiaeee ia i?eaiu, ia caaiaeee aeeceeo ae?ocae, ie/aai ia
aeaeae e ie/ai ia oaeaeaeny. Naith aeeciue ii iinayoee ?aaioa, eioi?ay
iicaieyea aio, 167-eeeia?aiiiaiio, o?iaeeeaiio, no?aiiiio, ieeiaaea ia
ciaaoaio, /oi oaeia ianoiyuay ethaiaue nuio caeaiueea, ii/oanoaiaaoue
naay naa?o/aeiaaeii. Ieeoi ae?oaie ia oiae oae iiaeaaaoue cei e ianeeea.
Ii ioaae ethaeae, ea?ae ia oaiiuo, e??aoeeiiaeueiuo noi?iiao
/aeiaa/aneie aeooe. Cei auei aai ?aai/ei eino?oiaioii: eniieuecoy aai,
ii ?aoae naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua caaea/e. Yoi i?iecioei iinea oiai, eae
ii ia/ae ?aaioaoue a Aieeeaoaea. A Aiaeee eeii n/eoaeinue iai?anoeaeiui,
i?inoiia?iaeiui eneonnoaii: eioaeeeaaioeey a eeiioaao?u ii/oe ia
oiaeeea, oaao?aeueiua aeoa?u ?anniao?eaaee nuaiee eae iooiaeee i?iiunae.
E oiio aea Oe/eie aue eieie -i?inoiia?iaeiue auaiai? n?aco oeacuaae ia
aai ianoi a a?eoaineie nioeeaeueiie ea?a?oee. Ii ethaee naie ai?iae,
naith ooiaeaiioth eaa?oe?o e naie caai?iaeiue aeii a othoiie aea?aaooea
A?eiae/-Oeee, ii eiaaea Aeyaeae Naeciee i?eaeanee aai a naith eiiaiaeo,
Oe/eie ni no?aoaie e eieaaaieyie ia?aa?aeny a Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou. Iinea
ia?aiai eioa?aueth aia?eeaineea aeo?iaeenou i?eoee a iaiienoaiia
ecoieaiea: Oe/eie, ieacuaaaony, iacoaie ciae iacaaiey e ?aniieiaeaiea
iueth-ei?eneeo oeeoe, a?aoee aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia a aieueoeinoaa ooaoia,
a oaeaea a?aiy ioi?aaeaiey ia?ioiaeia ia Eoao e Oaeoe! Oaeiaa auea
iai?ioiay noi?iia aai aeia?iaieueiiai aioo?aiiaai caoai?ie/anoaa:
no?aooynue io neo/aeiinoae iai?aaeneacoaiiai e iianiiai ie?a, Oe/eie eci
anao nee eco/ae aai aeaoaee. Nieiay oeeuei, ii ne?oioeacii ?ac?aaaouaae
aeia?aoeth aa?iy, oyniye, eaeiai oeaaoa aieinu o aai ie ?aco ia
iiyaeaoaeny ia ye?aia aeaiu, eae caaee aai iieieioth oaoth e /a?aiaoo,
eioi?oth aio iiaea?eee ia iyoeeaoea. I oii, /oi ii a iaeue/aeoeo
aeaoaeyo ?ac?aaaouaae ia?o?oou e ieaiu, ia i?eoiaeeony e aiai?eoue.
Iicaeiaa yoi ia?aoei a iaieth – Oe/eie eieeaeoeeiie?iaae aaoiaoniua e
ia?ioiaeiua ia?o?oou, ?anienaiey iiacaeia, eiaia ii?oiuo, niaea?aeaiea
?anoi?aiiuo iaith e ?acee/iua niiniau aea?eoue naeieio. Ii aue
eeaaeaeuai iaoe?iuo e aaniieaciuo ciaiee – aai iaia?a /anaie aiai?eoue
/a?o ciaao i /ai iiaa?aaea iinoi?iiieo a oaean. Oe/eiea yoi ia
o?aaiaeeei – ii ia ethaee ethaeae. “Ayae” – a?oaiaaoua, noaayuea
ie?oaeathueo a aeoiia iieiaeaiea ?icua?uoe, – auee aai aeaaiui
?acaea/aieai. Iaeiie aeo?ena, aeeaouae a aeiia n oeaio?aeueiui
ioiieaieai, ii eae-oi i?aiiaeian aeaa oiiiu oaey, ae?oaoth i?eaeanee ia
iaaae, aaea ana aethaea, aeeth/ay noi e aeana?o, auee aue?aoaiu a
aieoaie oeaao (“I?aaaea, e?aneai?”), o?aoueae ia aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey
i?eneae /aou?anoa eii/aiuo naeaaeie – Oe/eie ciae, /oi aaaeioth aeaaooeo
iooeei io iaeiiai caiaoa ?uau. Ii ia uaaeee ieeiai, aea?ee naiei
thoeaoeiny a iaeaiueeeo eaa?oe?eao eieeaaai /oaeiaeuiuo ?acia?ia oeaou e
e?iaaoe, eioi?ua ei iaaaea auei iinoaaeoue, a oi?ioi ainieoaiiuo ainoae
naaeae ia iniaua aeeaaiiua iiaeooee, eioi?ua iaiaaeeaiii ecaeaaaee
a?iieee iai?eee/iue caoe. Ecaanoiaeoaai aeoa?a ny?a Aa?aeueaea aeth
Ii?uea ii eae-oi i?eaeanee ia aae-ianea?aae. Oio i?eoae a einothia
oo?aoeeiai noeoaia e… iaia?oaeee, /oi ana inoaeueiua ainoe iaeaou a
niieeiae. Aeaoae Oe/eie oiaea ia ethaee: iie iaiiieiaee aio i
nianoaaiiii oiueii aeaonoaa e i oii, eae aai ae?acieee oee/iua
iaeue/eoee.

Aaiaeaeaiei A?eooai(Britten)(1913-1976)

Aiaeeeneee eiiiiceoi?, ieaieno, aee?eae??, iocueaeueiue iauanoaaiiue
aeayoaeue, ?iaeeeny 22 iiya?y 1913 a Eionoiooa (a?aonoai Naooiee). Ia/ae
ni/eiyoue a aic?anoa 4 eao, iao/aeny ea?a ia oi?oaieaii n naie eao, ia
aeueoa – n aeanyoe. E 14-eaoiaio aic?anoo eiae a naiai ii?ooaea aieaa
noa iionia. N?aaee o/eoaeae A?eoaiia – O.A?eaeae, Aeae. Ae?eaiae e
A.Aaiaeaeaiei; o aeaoo iineaaeieo ii caieiaeny a eiiaeiineii Ei?ieaaneii
iocueaeueiii eieeaaeaea (1930-1933). Oa?aeoa? aea?iaaiey A?eooaia
ii?aaeaeee i?aiaeaaeaiea a aai oai?/anoaa aieaeueiuo aeai?ia. ?yae
eo/oeo no?aieoe aai iocuee iaienaiu aeey aieina n i?eano?ii, iai?eia?,
«Ica?aiey» (Les Illuminations, 1939); «Na?aiaaea» (Serenada, 1943);
«Iieoth?i» (Nocturne, 1958) e aeey aieina n oi?oaieaii «Naiue niiaoia
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei» (Seven Sonnets of Michelangelo, 1940); «Aeooiaiua niiaou
Aeaeiia Aeiiia» (The Holy Sonnets of John Donne, 1945); «Ceiiea neiaa ii
O.Oa?aee» (Winter Words, 1953); «Oanoue o?aaiaioia ec A?eueaea?eeia»
(Six Hlderlin Fragments, 1958). N?aaee iiiai/eneaiiuo ni/eiaiee aeai?a
eaioaou auaeaeythony – «Aeeoy iai ?iaeeeinue» (A boy was born, 1933),
«Aeii na. Oeaoeeeee» (Hymn to St.Cecilia, 1942), «Aaiie eieyaeie» (The
ceremony of carols, 1942), «Na. Ieeieae» (Saint Nicolas, 1948), «Eaioaoa
ieeina?aeey» (Cantata misericordium, 1963). A oe?iei ecaanoiii
iiioiaioaeueiii «Aiaiiii ?aeaeaia» (War Requiem), aaea noeoe iiaeaoaai a
Ia?aoth ie?iaoth aieio aiaeeeneiai iiyoa O.Ioyia ia?aiaaeathony n
oaenoaie eaoiee/aneie caoiieieiie iannu, iocuea ?ane?uaaao oaio
aanniuneaiiinoe anao aiei. Iia?u A?eooaia aeaiiino?e?otho oiieia
i?iieeiiaaiea eo aaoi?a a /aeiaa/aneoth ineoeeo. «Ieoa? A?aein» (Peter
Grimes) ii iiyia Aeae.E?aaaa «Ianoa/ei» (The Borough) aue iaienai ii
caeaco Oiiaea Na?aay Eonaaeoeeiai e n?aco iinea i?aiuea?u, i?ioaaeoae a
Eiiaeiia a 1945, i?eian eiiiiceoi?o a?iieee oniao. Aeaa ae?oaea aieueoea
iia?u A?eooaia, «Aeeee Aaaeae» (Billy Budd, 1951) ii iiaaeea Iaeaeeea e
«Aei?eaia» (Gloriana, 1953), eioi?ay ni/eiyeanue niaoeeaeueii e
ei?iiaoeee Aeecaaaou II, ia i?eia?aee noieue aea oe?ieie ecaanoiinoe.
Caoi eaia?iua iia?u A?eooaia, nicaeaiiua aeey ?oeiaiaeeiie ei Aiaeeeneie
iia?iie o?oiiu (English Opera Group), naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia
eneeth/eoaeueiii ianoa?noaa eo aaoi?a: yoi «Ii?oaaiea Eoe?aoeee» (The
Rape of Lucretia, 1946), «Aeueaa?o Oa??eia» (Albert Herring, 1947),
«Aeaaaeoa nicaeaaeei iia?o!» (Let us Make an Opera, 1949) e «Iiai?io
aeioa» (The Turn of the Screw, 1954). Iiaeii oaeaea oiiiyiooue «Iiaa
eia/aa» (Noye’s Fludde, 1958) -aeaoneoth iia?o-ienoa?eth ia oaeno
«*anoa?neiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ie?aeey» e o?aoaeoiue aaeao «I?eioe iaaiae»
(The Prince of Pagodas, 1957). A 1960 iiyaeeanue i/aiue oaea/iay iia?a
«Nii a eaoithth ii/ue» (ia?oeoo?a aeey i?eano?a n?aaeiaai ninoaaa). O?e
iia?u-i?eo/e i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oea?eiaiiai eniieiaiey: «?aea E??eth»
(Curlew River, 1964), «Iauiia aeaenoai» (The Burning Fiery Furnace,
1966) e «Aeoaeiue nui» (The Prodigal Son, 1968). A 1973 ninoiyeanue
i?aiuea?a iineaaeiae iia?u A?eooaia – «Nia?oue a Aaiaoeee» (Death in
Venice) no O. Iaiio. N?aaee i?eano?iauo ni/eiaiee A?eooaia – «I?inoay
neioiiey» (Simple Symphony, 1934) aeey no?oiiiai i?eano?a,
«Neioiiey-?aeaeai» (Sinfonia da Requiem, 1940), «Aanaiiyy neioiiey»
(Spring Symphony, 1949) aeey nieenoia, oi?a e aieueoiai i?eano?a,
«Neioiiey aeey aeieii/aee n i?eano?ii» (1964). A?eooai i?aainoiaeii
aeaaeae oi?iie aa?eaoeee: a yoii aeai?a iaienaiu aeaa caia/aoaeueiuo
ni/eiaiey – «Aa?eaoeee ia oaio O?yiea A?eaeaea aeey no?oiiiai i?eano?a»
(1937) e «Iooaaiaeeoaeue ii i?eano?o aeey thiioanoaa» (The Young
Person’s Guide to the Orchestra, 1946), Iooaaiaeeoaeue ninoieo ec
aa?eaoeee e ooae ia oaio I??naeea. A ianeaaeee A?eooaia eiathony
eiioea?ou aeey oi?oaieaii (1938) e ne?eiee (1939) n i?eano?ii; n?aaee
eaia?ii-eino?oiaioaeueiuo aeai?ia – aeaa no?oiiuo eaa?oaoa (1941 e
1945). A?eooai noae Eaaaea?ii i?aeaia eaaaea?ia ii/aoa (1953) e iy?ii
(1976). Oia? A?eooai a Ieaeai?i 4 aeaeaa?y 1976.

Rolling Stones

Naiia ia/aei oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia – eioa?aniaeoaa a?aiy a aiaeeeneie
iiioey?iie iocuea. Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo oeao? iocueaeueiie aeecie
Eiiaeiia oiai a?aiaie aue aeoa?eno e ieaieno Aeaenen Ei?ia?. Iocuea
Ei?ia?a auea no?aiiui ii oai a?aiaiai nieaaii aeaeaca (ii ianeieueei eao
ea?ae n o?iiaiienoii E?enii Aa?aa?ii), aethcia e ?eoi-yiae-aethca. A
ia?oa 1962 aiaea Ei?ia? iniiaae naie eaaaiaea?iue ainaiaeue “Aethc
eiei?ii?aeoaae”, a ninoaaa eioi?iai ea?aee a ?aciia a?aiy i?ineaaeaiiua
iuia iocueaiou: Y?ee Eeyioii, Aeaeae A?thn, Aeaeeiaeaea? Aaeea?, Y?ee
Aa?aeii, Iie Aeaeiin, Eiia Aeaeii Aioeae?e, A?yi Aiiae, Aeaeii
Iaeeioeei, a eaaea Iee Aeaeaaaa?, A?aeai Aeaeiin, *a?ee Oiooa e Eeo
?e/a?ae – aoaeouea o/anoieee “?ieeea noioic”.

Iee Aeaeaaaa? ?iaeeeny a Aea?ooi?aea a 1943 aiaeo. A Eiiaeiia, aoaeo/e
nooaeaioii Oeieu Yeiiiieee, ii ni naiei i?eyoaeai ii Aea?ooi?aeo Eeoii
?e/a?aeii ea?ae a ?aciuo a?oiiao ?eoi-yiae-aethca, iiea iaa ia auee
aiaea/aiu a iocueaeueiue e?oa A. Ei?ia?a. Oai iie iiciaeiieeenue n
aeoa?enoii A?aeaiii Aeaeiinii (ianoiyuaa eiy Euethen A?aeai
Oiieei-Aeaeiin) e oaea?ieeii Ei?ia?a *a?ee Oioonii. Aeaeaaaa?, ?e/a?ae e
Aeaeiin ninoaaeee yae?i aoaeouae a?oiiu. I?eaeaeay ?aciuo iocueaioia,
iie ia/aee aunooiaoue nianoaaiiui ainaiaeai, inoaaaynue i?e yoii a
“Aethc eiei?ii?aeoaae”. Oiaaea aea iie iacaaee naay “?ieeeia Noioic” –
“Eaoyueany eaiie” – ii iaeiie ec ianai Iaaeaee Oioa?ca.

*a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa ei i?eoiaeeony caiaieoue “Aethc
eiei?ii?aeoaae” ia noeaia i?anoeaeiiai eeoaa “Ia?ee” – yoio eiioea?o e
iieiaeee ia/aei ea?uea?u “?ieeea noioic”. Aacaoa “Aeaeac Iuethc”,
niiauay i aunooieaiee a?oiiu, i?eaaea neiaa Ieea Aeaeaaaa?a:
“Iaaeathnue, ian ia n/eoatho ?ie-i-?ieeueiui ainaiaeai”. Iniiao
?aia?ooa?a eieeaeoeaa ninoaaeyee ai?iaeneea – i?aiouanoaaiii /eeaaneea –
aethcu n oa?aeoa?iui, oneeaiiui caoeii. (Enoaoe, eiaiii Iaaeaee Oioa?c,
iaaieueiue e?anoiue ioaoe a?oiiu, a 1958 aiaeo aia?aua eniieiee aethcu
ia yeaeo?e/aneie, a ia ia aeonoe/aneie aeoa?a). Aeaaea a oaioeaaaeueiua
iiia?a *aea Aa??e eee Ai Aeeaeee “?ieeea noioic” niiaea i?eaianoe
iaeioi?ia aethciaia cao/aiea. Oioy auei au iaaa?ii aeoiaoue, /oi
iieiaeua aiaeeeneea iocueaiou eiie?iaaee ianoa?ia aethca. Iaeuecy
caauaaoue, /oi aeeyiea ia ieo ieacaee e aieaeueiua a?oiiu oeia
“Ieyooa?c” eee “Eionoa?c”, oaeea ianoa?a ?eoi-yiae-aethca, eae Ioen
?aaeaeeia, Nieiiii Aa?e e ?ooon Oiian, e, eiia/ii, eniieieoaee
?ie-i-?ieea: Aaaeaee Oieee, Aeaea??e Ee Euethen, Yeaen I?anee. Iethn,
?acoiaaony, neeooe, ei?ieai eioi?iai a Aiaeee a oi a?aiy aue Eiiie
Aeiiaaai. A ?aiieo ianiyo “?ieeea noioic” iao?oaeii oneuoaoue aeeyiea
oiai eee eiiai eniieieoaey, ii, aianoa n oai a?oiia oii?ii nicaeaaaea
naie iocueaeueiue ycue, naia cao/aiea, n aiaeaie noaiiaeaoaany ana aieaa
e aieaa io/aoeeaui.

Anei?a “?ieeea noioic” oaea aunooiaee n ?aaoey?iuie eiioea?oaie. *a?ee
Oiooa noae eo iinoiyiiui oaea?ieeii, a?oiia niaieea ianeieueei
aan-aeoa?enoia, iiea ia inoaiiaeeanue ia Aeeea Oaeiaia, ioeacaeanue io
oneoa ieaienoa e aeoa?enoa ssia Notha?oa, oioy ii e i?iaeieaeae ec?aaeea
ea?aoue n ieie e caienuaaoueny ia ieanoeiee.

Ecaanoiinoue – oioy e ianeieueei neaiaeaeueiay – e iei i?eoea aeiaieueii
auno?i. I?anna e ioaeeea auee oiee?iaaiu eo iocueie, ianiyie n iannie
aea?aiiiuo au?aaeaiee, iaia?ie aea?aeaoueny ia noeaia, enoiaeeaoei io
ieo aeooii iai?ee?uoie /oanoaaiiinoe. Ii ninoiyiea oiea i?ioei, e o
a?oiiu iiyaeeenue ia?aua ianoiyuea iieeiiieee.

A ethia 1963 aiaea auoae ia?aue neiae a?oiiu, caiyaoee 21-a ianoi a
a?eoaineeo oeoia?aaeao. Yoi iaeuecy auei iacaaoue iniaui oniaoii, ii
“ni?ieaiyoea” iicaieeea “?ieeeiaai” i?enooieoue e caienyi neaaeothueo
ieanoeiie e ioi?aaeoueny a oo?ia ii Aiaeee aianoa n a?aoueyie Yaa?ee,
Eeooe ?e/a?aeii, Ai Aeeaeaeee e Aeaeeinii Aeinaioii.

Ca yoei iineaaeiaaee iiaua aano?iee, aunooieaiey ii oaeaaeaeaieth, e
aaniie 1964 aiaea auoea ia?aay aeieaiea?athuay ieanoeiea “?ieeea
noioic”. Ainaiaeue ia niia caiaieoue “Aeoec” a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee,
oai aieaa, /oi iineaaeiea auee a aieueoae noaiaie i?eaieaiu e ii naiae
iocuea, e ii aiaoiaio aeaeo aeey n?aaeiaai eeanna e n?aaeiaai aic?anoa,
ii yiooceaci iieiaeaaee i?eaae e oiio, /oi ii iiioey?iinoe “?ieeeiae”
i?i/ii caiyee aoi?ia ianoi ai anao aiaeiauo oeo-ia?aaeao. Eiiieaen
“aoi?iai ianoa” aeieai ia ioioneae a?oiio. Iiaeao auoue, a yoii iaeia ec
i?e/ei eca?aiiiai eie noeaie/aneiai iaeeea – yoaeeo i?ace?athueo
iauanoaaiiua oneiaiinoe aoioa?ae, aeaiiino?aoeaii a?oauo e aucuaathueo.
Anee “Aeoec” a aeacao ioaeeee auee aanaeuie, ino?ioiiuie ethaeueie,
i?aa?auaaoeie ethaoth i?ann-eiioa?aioeeth a ene?yuaany oio, oi “?ieeea
noioic” auee iieiu i?a/iiai na?eacia. I?e yoii aeaa a?oiiu, i?aaaea,
ioiineeenue ae?oa e ae?oao n aieueoei oaaaeaieai e ioithaeue ia
ioaa?aaee eaeath oai?/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Enoi?ey “?ieeea noioic” iinea 1965 aiaea, iniaaiii iinea ianie
“Oaeiaeaoai?aiea”, i?eianoae ae ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue, – yoi enoi?ey
no?aieoaeueiiai aceaoa a?oiiu e noia?neaaa, e iieiaeaieth eo/oaai
?ie-ainaiaey ie?a (oaea iinea ?aniaaea “Aeoec”). Io ieo anaaaea aeaeaee
/aai-oi iaiaueiiaaiiiai, neaiaeaeueiiai. Oau, naiia neaiaeaeueiia e
iaiaueiiaaiiia a enoi?ee a?oiiu i?iecioei ia a iocuea, a a ioaeeea ai
a?aiy eo eiioea?oa a Aoeaiiioa a 1969 aiaeo, eiaaea ia?aae noeaiie
“Aiaaeaie aaea” aue oaeo iaeei ec c?eoaeae. O?aaaaeey a Aoeaiiioa noaea
ia?iiiui oieii aeey iocueaioia, eioi?ua aua iaoiaeeeenue iiae
aia/aoeaieai io nia?oe A?aeaia Aeaeiina (3 ethey 1969 aiaea). A
iineaaeiea ianyoeu naiae aeecie Aeaeiin ana aieueoa ioaeaeyeny io
inoaeueiuo o/anoieeia ainaiaey e a ethia cayaee i naiai auoiaea ec
a?oiiu. Aai caiaiee Iee Oaeei?.

Oaean aoeaiiioneeo niauoee io?acaee a?oiio. Eo ianie e, iniaaiii,
eiioea?oiua aunooieaiey noaee naea?aeaiiaa, iocueaiou, ii-iiaiio
acaeyioee ia ioiioaiey a?oenoia e ioaeeee, ia ioaaonoaaiiinoue
eniieieoaey ia?aae neooaoaeyie. Iie ia eciaieee naie oai?/aneee e
noeaie/aneee iaeee, ii iaaeeii i?iecioae. O “?ieeea noioic”
i?iaeieaeatho auoiaeeoue ieanoeiee n i?ae?aniuie, iieuecothueieny
caneoaeaiiie iiioey?iinoueth ianiyie, ii eo aeueaiiu a oeaeii iinoaiaiii
noaiiayony ana aieaa e aieaa ia?iaiuie e -aeaaiia – eneonnoaaiiuie.
Caaei?a, iaii?a, aoeiie yia?aee oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia noaiiaeoueny ana
iaiueoa e iaiueoa. A ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu iiiaea ieanoeiee a?oiiu
cao/aee oaea eae naiiia?iaeee, e a 1987 aiaeo a?oiia “?ieeea noioic”
i?ae?aoeea naia nouanoaiaaiea. E yoiio a?aiaie o Ieea Aeaeaaa?a oaea
auoei ianeieueei nieueiuo ieanoeiie, ia ?ac ii i?iaiaae naie neeu e eae
eeiiaeoa?. Nianoaaiiua aeenee auioneae e Aeee Oaeiai; Eeo ?e/a?ae ana
/aua aunooiae eae i?iaethna?, a /anoiinoe ii ?aaioae ni ciaiaieoie
A?aoie O?aeeei.

Ia iiiaea a?oiiu iinea ?aniaaea iiyoue noaiiaeeenue ae?oaeiie eiiiaieae
e i?iaeieaeaee ?aaeiaaoue neoo iaeiiaia, ii “?ieeeiaai” yoi oaeaeinue. A
eiioea 1997 aiaea e a ia/aea 1998 iie nia?aeenue e ?aoeee aeaoue ie?iaia
oo?ia. Ii, eae neiaeeony a aeaeueiaeoai noaeueaa o/anoieeia a?oiiu, e
eaeea au oaea/e eee i?iaaeu eo ie aeaeoo, naieie ianiyie oanoeaeanyouo –
ia/aei naieaeanyouo aiaeia iie iaanaaaea aioee a enoi?eth ie?iaie
?ie-iocuee, e yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho eo naaiaeiyoiea eiioea?ou,
niae?athuea aioeaae, i?ienoiaeyuea ii anaio ie?o a 1997-1998 aiaeao.

Noeia

Noeia /anoi ia iiaeao caniooue ii/aie, iniaaiii iinea ia?aeaoia, a
eaoaoue aio i?eoiaeeony iiiai. Ii oiaeeo ii aeiio, caaeyaeuaaao a
niaeueie aeaoae, onaaeeaaaony aaea-ieaoaeue a ainoeiie e, aeyaey ia
neythuea iaiaeueieoeu, aeaeaao, /oi ia eo?eo. Iioii, iaeiiaoe eiaeeony a
iinoaeue e oa?aueony a oaiiioo. Ii aiai?eo, /oi a oaeea iiiaiou aio
eiiaaea noaiiaeony no?aoii…- ss eaaeo e aeoiath: /oi y ooo aeaeath?
Eae y aiiaua nthaea iiiae? E iia ia/eiaao eacaoueny, /oi nae/an
ioeoaea-ieaoaeue ec oaiiiou aunei/eo ia?iiiue e?the. E iiaeoeaieo iaiy e
ooaueo iacaae. Iaanaaaea ooaueo io yoie iiae aeecie…Eoaea eiaiii
“iacaae”, ii ia ooi/iyao. Aeaeeii, aio iaaaaeii. Oioy auei au ana-oaee
eioa?anii ociaoue eoaea: aaaeue, /oiau aeiaeoueny iuiaoiae, “yoie”
aeecie, Noeiao i?eoeinue neiiaoue eae ieieioi aeaa i?aaeuaeouea.

Iaeiaaeaeu ii neacae, /oi ie ca /oi ia naaoa ia oioae au aa?iooue naia
aeaonoai e niiaa noaoue iaeaiueeei Ai?aeiiii Naiia?ii. Aeaa aeaaiuo
oeaaoa a aai aeaoneeo ainiiieiaieyo -/a?iue e na?ue. Yoi ia
i?aoaaee/aiea: a oii ?aeiia Iuetheanea, aaea ii au?in, ae?oaeo oeaaoia
ii/oe ia ano?a/aeinue. *a?iue – yoi oaieue, eioi?ue ?yaeii n ai?iaeii
aeiauaaee, e a ai?iae i?eaiceee, e a?oceee ia ei?aaee. Na?ue – yoi ii?a,
ii eioi?iio ei?aaee oieuaaee, na?ia aeaaea a nieia/ioth iiaiaeo.

Aua /a?iia – nooaiu iooeia-eacoeoia. Aiaiaiyciaiiua ?iaeeoaee Ai?aeiia
Naiia?a ia iuneeee eiiai iao/aiey, e?iia eaoiee/aneiai. Iii a Aiaeee aei
neo ii? i?aeoeeoao oaeaniua iaeacaiey. Ai?aeii, ie iaaiaeiinoueth, ie
i?eia?iui iiaaaeaieai ia ioee/aaoeeny, e iiiuia aea?aeeo ?aei?ae naiae
oeieu. Ca iaeei ec o/aaiuo aiaeia iaae iei niaa?oeee 52 yecaeooeee.

Aeaa aaeuo iyoia – iooeianeay oaeaaeea e iaoa?eineay oieoi?ia. Ioaoe aue
iiei/ieeii, iaoue – iaaenano?ie. Ii oi?ioi o/eeny. O iaai i?inoi ia auei
ae?oaiai auoiaea. ?acoiaaony, ii ia ciae, /aai noieei ?iaeeoaeyi
ii?aaeaeeoue aai a oi?iooth eaoiee/aneoth oeieo. Oae aaaeue e ?iaeeoaee
iiiyoey ia eiaee, /aai noieei aio eaaeaeue aeaiue ano?a/aoue oai ae?oaeo
aeaoae, ca?aiaa ia?a/aiiuo ia ae?oaoth aeeciue i?inoi ii i?aao
?iaeaeaiey. O ieo aeaaea aiaeeeneee ycue aue ae?oaie – oaeie, /oi
Ai?aeiio, n aai iaa?enoie?aoe/aneei i?ieciioaieai, eaaeaeue ?ac noieei
o?oaea ioe?uoue ?io o aeinee, oioy o?ie ii ciae anaaaea. Iinea oeieu ii
iioae a iaaeaaiae/aneee eieeaaeae e noae i?aiiaeaaaoaeai aiaeeeneiai
ycuea.

A iocuea? Io aea, “Aeoec” oaea auee e eii/eeenue, ii aaaeue ?iaeeeny a
1951-i e oniae iioaioeaaaoue iiae “Aeoec” ia oeieueiuo aa/a?eieao.
Ai?aeii aeaaea naiinoiyoaeueii e aiieia i?eee/ii auo/eeny ea?aoue –
i?aaaea, ia ia oi?oaiueyii, a ia aan-aeoa?a. Ii ia iocueo ii ia aeaeae
noaaee. Aea e i?aaeeny aio nianai ia ?ie, a oaea iniiaaoaeueii iaiiaeiue
aeaeac. E, i?iaa?ea oao?aaeee naieo o?aoueaeeannieeia, ii oiaeee
aa/a?aie ia ?aiaoeoeee iueth-eaneneiai aea-ayiaea i?inoi aeey aeooe.

Ia iaeiii ec aunooieaiee aai e caiaoee Notha?o Eioieaiae, oe?iei
ecaanoiue a oceeo e?oaao oaea?iee ianeieueeeo eiiioaoeo ?ie-a?oii. E
i?aaeeiaeee Ai?aeiio iiei?eoue aanue ie?. A caiaeii niaieoue eiy ia
aieaa cao/iia. Aeiionoei, Noeia. Ii/aio? Iioiio /oi ii-aiaeeenee sting –
yoi “aeaei”. A Eioieaiae e caiaoee ia?iy a iniiaiii ec-ca i/aeeiie
?anoeaaoee. Oi anoue nia?aa ii oneuoae i?eee/iua aanu, a iioii iioa?ee
aeacaie, iiea iaeiiaoe ia iaoae: Ai?aeii Naiia? anaaaea i?eoiaeee ia
aunooieaiey i?eano?a a naiai eo/oai naeoa?a – i?inoi?iii, a oe?ieoth
ai?eciioaeueioth /a?ii-aeaeooth iieino.

Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, Naiia? e yoiio iiiaioo aue oaea aeaiao. E nuio aua aiaea
ia eniieieeinue. Oi anoue au i?aaenoaaeyaoa, aei eaeie noaiaie iaaei
auei ia oioaoue ne?iiii o/eoaeuenoaiaaoue a Iuetheanea, /oiau
niaeaneoueny ia aacoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea /aeiaaea, eioi?iai aia?aua a
aeecie aeaeeoue. Naiia? niaeaneeny e naeaeaeny Noeiaii. E n nuiii e
aeaiie oaoae a Eiiaeii.

…Iie iinaeeeenue a neaioa – ionoothuae eaa?oe?a, naiiaieueii caiyoie e
i?aa?auaiiie a eiiioio eiiiaieae io/anoe oaeeo aea ennooieaiiuo
?iiaioeeia. Eioieaiae auno?aiueei iiaeuneae aua iaeiiai aeoa?enoa e
iauyaee i nicaeaiee iaie-?ie-a?oiiu Police.

Noeia, ieeaeeo neiiaoee e iaieo ia ieoaaoee, ec eiiiu naieo nieiiaiiuo
aiein nii?oaeee aiooeoaeueiue “e?ieac” e aue?anee eiino?oeoeeth a
aeecia?aaeinoiue naeaoiaue oeaao.

…Noeia ieacaeny ia?aui, eoi iniuneaiii eniieueciaae ?ie eae n?aaenoai
aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa, aiaaonoaa, ii aieueoiio n/aoo – aeaaineiaaiiie
ao?aeoaciinoe. Ia oi /oiau ?ie anaaaea e aaciaiai?i/ii io?eoeae
nuoinoue, aeinoaoie e aicaeaeaiiue naae, ii ia/eiae ii eiaiii n yoiai. A
iioii, iinoaiaiii anai yoei ia?anoay, oa?thii i?eciae auoaia?a/eneaiiua
ao?aeoaciua ?aaeinoe iiai/iui i?iaeoeoii naiaai i?ioea ieo aoioa.

A Noeia ieeiaaea ia aue ieeaeei aoioa?ai, aio a /ai aeaei. E aaniethoii
ie/aai ia eiae i?ioea oaiii-caeaiiai iethua ia oaiii-e?aniuo noa?uo
noaiao. Aieueoa oiai, aio oioaeinue oaeeo noai e oaeiai iethua. E noae
ii ?ie-iocueaioii, /oiau ca?aaioaoue ia noaiu e ia iethu, iineieueeo
o/eoaeuenoai a ieaaeoeo eeannao noeeei ?acaa /oi na?ue aeaeaciaaoii aea
aa?aiue ia iiaeieiiieea.

A 1978-i iie caienaee ia?aue aeueaii. A 1983-i aeaeathueo iiianoue ia
eiioea?o Police ia aiauaee 70-ouny/iua oooaieueiua noaaeeiiu, a
i?iaeaeiooay a?eoaineay e?eoeea eiaiiaaea a?oiio “naiie cia/eiie a
enoi?ee ?ie-iocuee iinea “Aeoec””. A 1984-i Noeia yoo a?oiio iioi?iiee,
iauyaea ia ooiaea.

I?anna ana yoe oanoue caacaeiuo eao aeooe ia /ayea a Noeiaa. Oaeie
aieoaiaeacue, nii?oeaiue, i?iaeioeeaeueiue o/eoaeue, ieoao oaeaioeeaua
noeoe e eioa?anioth iocueo, a eaaeaeii eioa?aueth iauyniyaony a ethaae e
aeaia e, i?aaenoaaueoa, ieeiaaea ia eo?ee! Aai aeaaea iacuaaee “cieioui
iaeue/eeii” ?iea e noaaeee a i?eia? aieaa ia/anaiui e iaiaa oiuoui e
oaeaioeeaui.

Noeia ca?aaaouaae naie oniao, ea?ay ii i?aaeeai ?iea. E ia/ae
caea?uaaoueny. Aiaeo a 80-i ii iieieioee oioi?aii?oa?a, iieacaaoaainy
neeoeii iacieeeaui. Iieaiaea a iauae neiaeiinoe Noeia ea/eeny io
ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe.

Aua /a?ac ianeieueei eao, ioaa/ay a eioa?aueth ia aii?in i oii, i?ioae
ee ii /a?ac ana oa?iee ?iea, Noeia ?aaiiaeooii iiaeae iea/aie: “Au
eiaaoa a aeaeo, oiio?aaeye ee y ia?eioeee e caieiaeny ee a?oiiiaui
naenii? A eaeie-oi ia?eiae – ii/oe iinoiyiii”.

E n/anoueth, ia oieueei yoei ii caieiaeny. Aua ii, iai?eia?, oooaee?iaae
THiaa: «ss iiiye, /oi aeaeaoue aeaeueoa. I?inoi iai?aaeoue naieo
“aeaiiiia” a ioaeiia ?onei. ?ac?ooeoue ia nianoaaiioth ee/iinoue, a ana,
/oi nicaeae aei yoiai, e ia/aoue niiaa». Ii a?inee Police, ?acaaeny n
aeaiie, iaa?ae iaeiecaanoiuo oaiiieiaeeo aeaeaciaiia e caienae aeueaii
“Nii i neieo /a?aiaoao”.

E ia/aeo aeaayiinouo ii aeinoea anaai, /aai oieueei iiaeii auei
aeinoe/ue. Aeueaiiu Noeiaa iieieaiinii noaiiaeeenue ieaoeiiauie e
ia?anoaee a?icaeueyie iaa?aae, ii nieiaeny a aieueoii eeii – a ia?a n
aaeeeie aeo?enie Iy?ee No?ei e o eoeueoiaiai ?aaeenna?a Aeyaeaea Eei/a.
Iieiaeaiueeea aeaaooee e eioaeeeaaioiua aeaiu ii anaio ie?o noiaeeee n
oia io aai ianai,a oioiiiaeaeue O?oaee Noaeea? ?iaeeea aio aua aeaieo
aeaoae. Ii eoiee caiie XVI aaea Eaee-Oaon n 60 ae?aie caiee. N
oaiii-e?aniie ia?aaeie e oaiii-caeaiui iethuii. Iie n O?oaee aeieai
auae?aee naaa aeii, e yoio iii?aaeeny ei aieueoa anaai. Iaoiaeeony ii,
enoaoe, iaiiaeaeaeo io ciaiaieoiai Noioioaiaeaea, a i?aaeiei
aeaaeaeueoeai caiea aue aaeeeee ne?eia/ Eaaoaee Iaiooei.

O?oaee ?iaeeea aio /aoaa?uo aeaoae, oae /oi a iauae neiaeiinoe eo o
Noeiaa oaea oanoa?i. E ana, aeeth/ay aeaieo io a?aea n O?yinen,
i?aaeii/eoatho iaeoaoue n iooeii. Noeia neuaao ia?acoeiai-iieacaoaeueiui
iooeii. E nai iauyniyao yoi eiiieaenii aeiu. “I?aaenoaaueoa, /oi iaiu
iaaeaeyie, a oi e ianyoeaie ia auaaao aeiia e ii oaeaaeci?o aai iiaeii
oaeaeaoue /aua, /ai ca naiaeiui noieii. A a oeiea ia aan iieacuaatho
iaeueoeaie, iioiio /oi aao iaia – Noeia! ss iuoathnue i?iaiaeeoue n ieie
eae iiaeii aieueoa a?aiaie, a Noeiaa, aoiaey aeiiie, inoaaeyoue ca
ii?iaii”.

…Noeia anoaao ?aii, ieeae ia iicaea ainueie. Eooaynue a iaiuneeii
aei?iaie oaeao (ii ethaeo ai?/aoue ia aei?iaiaecio naieo aauae, iieoiay
eo n yaiui oaeiaieuenoaeai), oeaiaao aineeii a oo?aoeeoth ia?ioth,
iai?oaeiaaiioth a iaeiie ec aaiiuo. Iioii – aeaa /ana eiae e
iaaeeoaoeee. Noeia ia aaeeiiaeaeu auaae a Eiaeee, i?e/ai ia oo?enoii, a
/anoiui iaeiiieeii.

A iinea aaie, eiae e caao?aea Noeia naaeeony aaea-ieaoaeue ai aeai?a e
aeeeiiuie iaeueoeaie ia?aae?aao no?oiu ia aeoa?a, /oi-oi ai?ii/a. Ii yoi
?aaeei, oieueei anee iao caienae e oaeaoio, eiioea?oia e eioa?aueth.

Ai?i/ai, Noeiao aeaaii ioeacaii io ?iea. Ana naie “A?yiie” e i?i/ea
iocueaeueiua iaa?aaeu aio oaea eao aeanyoue ii iieo/aao eae eo/oee
iii-iaaaoe, ca eo/oee iii-aeueaii e oae aeaeaa. Naie iaa?aaeu ii
ca?aaaouaaao e iieo/aao ioioii. E iiaeaeii.

Oiian Aaeinai?i (1727—1788)

«Anee au iaoa iaoeey i?iecaaea aeinoaoi/ii oaeaioia, /oiau iu
oaeinoieeenue /anoe eiaiiaaoueny aiaeeeneie oeieie aeeaiiene, eiy
Aaeinai?i ia?aoei au e iioiinoao n?aaee ia?aaeoeo iineoaeae a?
ca/eiathuaeny neaau». Yoe neiaa neacaiu Aeaeiooa ?aeiieaenii a aai
ciaiaieoie ?a/e iaiyoe Oiiana Aaeinai?i, i?iecian?iiie a Ei?ieaaneie
aeaaeaiee eneonnoa. Ec anao ianoa?ia aiaeeeneie aeeaiiene XVIII a.
Aaeinai?i oaea i?e aeecie aue i?eciai naiui auaeathueiny.

Oiian Aaeinai?i ?iaeeeny a naeaiee N?aeaa??e (ia ainoiea Aiaeee) a
naiuea oi?aiaoea noeiii. Caeii/ea iao/aiea a Eiiaeiia, iieiaeie
ooaeiaeiee aa?ioeny a ?iaeiua ianoa, a a 1752a. iinaeeeny a ninaaeiai
ai?iaeea Einae/a.

Ia oai?/anoai ianoa?a iiaeeyee aeeaiienue o?aioeocneiai ?ieiei, a oaeaea
o?aaeeoeey «noeai niaanaaeiaaiey» (a /anoiinoe, iieioia Oiaa?oa). Ia?aua
c?aeua i?iecaaaeaiey Aaeinai?i — «Noi?oae Yiae?thn» (1749 a.), «Noi?oae
Ee?ae» (ieiei 1750 a.), «Aaoiii?o?ao n aeaiie e aei/a?ueth» (ieiei 1751
— 1752 aa.) e ae?oaea — auiieiaiu eiaiii a yoii aeai?a. Iaeiaei a aai
a?oiiiauo ii?o?aoao, eae i?aaeei, iao aeaenoaey, aa?ie ia?auaiu eeoeii e
c?eoaeth e ii/oe anaaaea ecia?aaeaiu ia oiia iaecaaea. Ia?niiaaee
Aaeinai?i /oanoaotho naay anoanoaaiii, eaaei, e a eo ioiioaieyo oea?yo
ethaiaue e niaeanea (ia neo/ae, ii ooaeiaeiee oae /anoi ia?auaeny e
naiaeiui ii?o?aoai).

A 1759 a. Aaeinai?i ia?aa?aeny a Aao — a?enoie?aoe/aneee eo?i?o. Eiaiii
caeanue ii iiciaeiieeny n oai?/anoaii Aioiiena aai Aeaeea. Ia?aaeiua
ii?o?aou ciaiaieoiai oeaiaiaeoea ieacaee neeueiia aeeyiea ia
ooaeiaeieea.

Aa?ie ii?o?aoa, ae?oa ooaeiaeieea Aeaeiiaoai Aaooe, thiioa aeaeaei ia
ciaoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, aeanoyua «aio?e a ia?ac» ooii/?iiiai iieiaeiai
a?enoie?aoa.

Oniao o aiaaouo caeac/eeia iicaieee Aaeinai?i a 1774 a. ia?aaoaoue a
Eiiaeii. Ii o/anoaiaae a aunoaaeao Ei?ieaaneie aeaaeaiee eneonnoa,
iinoiyiii iauaeny n ecaanoiuie ooaeiaeieeaie, aeo??aie, iocueaioaie.

A 80o aa. Aaeinai?i nicaeae ii?o?aou iocueaioa e ienaoaeueieoeu Yeecaaao
Eeiee Oa?eaeai (1783 a.) e auaeathuaeny o?aae/aneie aeo?enu Na?u
Neaeaeiin (1785 a.). Iaeee “” Yeecaaao Oa?eaeai eceo/aao iaaeiinoue e
iaayiea. Oeao?a aa?ieie naycaia n iaecaaeai: oaiii-ei?e/iaaua e?anee
aa/a?iaai eana aaeeeieaiii iooaiytho o?ieia cieioenoia neyiea a?
ieaouey, iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi eeiey i?e/?nee iiaoi?yaony a i/a?oaieyo
e?iiu aea?aaa. Iaecaae aini?eieiaaony eae io?aaeaiea aeooaaiiai ni
noiyiey aeaiueiu.

Ii?o?ao Na?u Neaeaeiin nianai eiie. Iiiaia a i?i ?ann/eoaii ia aiaoiaa
aia/aoeaiea — yeaaaioiue einothi, aa?oaoiay ae?aie?iaea caiaaan,
iaienaiiua n aieueoei ianoa?noaii. A iaeeea aeo?enu /oanoaoaony ia?iiiay
neea oa?aeoa?a, ii a? aioo?aiiee ie? iaaeinooiai. Neaeoeiinaeo?ena
ne?uaaao io c?eoa ey Neaeaeiin aeaiueio.

Aeaaiue aeai? a aeeaiiene Aaeinai?i — yoi ii?o?ao, ii nai ooaeiaeiee
n/eoae naay i?aaeaea anaai iaecaaeenoii. Ii ia?aaeei oyaioeeny ?aaioie
iaae ii?o?aoaie, e aai i/aiue iai?/aei neaioe/aneia ioiioaiea e iaecaaeo
a aeaaeaie/aneeo e?oaao.

Ia iaecaaee Aaeinai?i iiaeeyea aieeaiaeneay o?aaeeoeey XVII a. Eae e
aieeaiaeneea ooaeiaeieee, ii ecia?aaeae aeeaiieniua naeueneea aeaeu,
iaycaoaeueii aeeth/ay a ieo /aeiaaea. Aa?ie iau/ii iieacaiu a iooe
(«Iiaicea», 1767 a.; «Aica?auaiea e?anoueyi n ?uiea», 1767—1768 aa.;
«?a/iie iaecaae n oeao?aie a eiaeea», 1768— 1770 aa., e ae?.).
Ooaeiaeiee ii/oe ia eniieueciaae iaoo?iua iaaethaeaiey a naieo
iaecaaeao: i?enooiay e ?aaioa, ii no?iee ia noiea iaaieueooth iiaeaeue
ec eaiaoeia, aaoie, ianea, eoni/eia ioa, a caoai aini?iecaiaeee a? ia
oienoa.

E?enoioa? ?ai (1632-1723)

Iiaue yoai a enoi?ee aiaeeeneie a?oeoaeoo?u ia/aeny ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XVII a., eiaaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua iino?ieee ny?a E?enoioa?a ?aia,
aa?iyoii iaeaieaa auaeathuaainy aiaeeeneiai ciae/aai. ?ai aue o/?iui,
caieiaeny aiaoiieae, oeceeie, ano?iiiieae e iaoaiaoeeie; oieueei a 60a
aa. ii ia?aoeeny e a?oeoaeoo?a.

A 1665 a. ?ai i?aaei?eiye iooaoanoaea a Ia?eae, /oiau eco/aoue ii
no?ieee nia?aiaiiuo o?aioeocneeo a?oeoaeoi?ia. Iniaaiii aai
caeioa?aniaaee eoiieueiua o?aiu a Ia?eaea e aai i?eai?iaeao (a Aiaeee
oiaaea ia auei ie iaeiie oea?eae n eoiieii). Iiacaeea ai O?aioeeth —
aaeeinoaaiiia a aeia?aoee a?oeoaeoi?a iooaoanoaea ca a?aieoeo — iea caea
aieueoia aeeyiea ia an? aai iineaaeothuaa oai?/anoai.

A naioya?a 1666 a. Eiiaeii aue ioaa/ai ia?iiiui iiaea?ii, eioi?ue
oie/oiaeee noa?ue niai? Nayoiai Iaaea, ainaiueaeanyo naiue oea?eaae e
nauoa o?eiaaeoeaoe ouny/ aeiiia. Nia?aiaiieee aiai?eee: «Eiiaeii aue, ii
aai aieueoa iao».

Nionoy o?e aiaea iinea iiaea?a ?aia iacia/eee ei?ieaaneei a?oeoaeoi?ii.
Ii aicaeaaee ?aaiou ii ia?ano?ieea ai?iaea e iinayoee ei ii/oe anth
aeeciue. Aaioeii yoeo ?aaio noaei iiaia caeaiea niai?a Nayoiai Iaaea —
aeaaiue oaaeaa? ?aia. E?iia oiai, a 1670—1686 aa. ii aai i?iaeoai aueoe
iino?iaiu iiaua ee?ie/iua aeiia e iyoueaeanyo aeaa oea?eae (eiia/ii, ?ai
?aaioae ia iaeei, a n oeaeie eiiaiaeie iiiiuieeia).

Ieeoi oiaaea ia ciae, eae aeieaeia auaeyaeaoue aiaeeeaineay oea?eiaue:
aaaeue nai?aaoea o?aiu no?ieeenue au? a N?aaeiea aaea. Oaia?ue ioaeii
auei ni?iaeoe?iaaoue caeaiey niaoeeaeueii aeey aiaeeeaineiai
aiaineoaeaiey. Ana ioaiaeeaoeany iiae ieo o/anoee auee iai?aaeeueiie
oi?iu, iiyoiio eaaeaeay aiiaue iino?iaiiay oea?eiaue eiaea naie iniaue
ieai. Iaeiaei ana oea?eae iauaaeeiye iaeei aeaaiue iioea — eieieieueie,
auniei iiaeieiaaoeany iaae ai?iaeii.

Iineaaeiaa e?oiiia nii?oaeaiea a?oeoaeoi?a — ei?ieaaneee ainieoaeue a
A?eiae/a, aicaaae?iiue ?aiii a 1696— 1716 aa. iaaeaeaei io Eoeicoaona
Eieai Aeaeiina. Ainieoaeue ninoieo ec aeaoo neiiao?e/iuo ei?ionia, iaae
eioi?uie aicauoathony aaoie n eoiieaie. Eieiiiaaeaie ec naeaiaiiuo
eieiii ei?iona auoiaeyo ia ?acaeaeythuoth eo iaaieueooth ieiuaaeue. Yoe
eieiiiaaeu ia?acotho i/aiue yooaeoioth ia?niaeoeao, caeai/eaathuothny
Eoeicoaonii.

Aeaeii O?aieeei

O?aieeei (ny? Aeaeii Franklin. 1786 – 1848) – ciaiaieoue aiaeeeneee
ii?aieaaaoaeue. A 1803 a. nii?iaiaeaeae Oeeiaea?na a aai iooaoanoaee a
Aano?aeeth; a 1805 a. n?aaeaeny i?e O?aoaeueaa?a; a 1815 a. aue ?aiai
iiae Iiaui I?eaaiii. A 1818 a. eiiaiaeiaae a?eaii a yeniaaeeoeee e
naaa?iiio iiethno eaieoaia Aooaia. A 1819 a. i?aaei?eiye yeniaaeeoeeth a
caiee o onouey ?aee Iaaeiuo ?oae e, iinea aaneiia/iuo o?oaeia aeinoeaioa
oeaee a 1820 a., ?acuneae naiaiaeiue ioi eueaea aa?aa, n iiiai/eneaiiuie
ino?iaaie. Ii aeioae aei iuna Oo?iaaai (Turnagain), aaea iaaeinoaoie
nuanoiuo i?eiania canoaaee aai aa?iooueny. A 1825 a. O. i?aaei?eiye
iiaia iooaoanoaea, n oeaeueth ioe?uoue noaeioiaeiue iooue io onouey ?aee
Iyeeaice e Aa?eiaiao i?ieeao, eoaea aio aeieaeai aue aueoe ia ano?a/o
eaieoai Ae/ae (Beechey) ec Oeoiai ieaaia. Ii i?iieue ii ?. Iyeeaice,
auoae a Eaaeiaeoue ieaai, ioe?ue i-aa Ia??e, Eaiaeaeue, Iaeee e ae?oa. e
a 1829 a. aica?aoeeny a Aiaeeth. Ai a?aiy yoeo iooaoanoaee O. ioe?ue
aa?aaa ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe 36 a?aaeonia aeieaiou, naeaeae aaaeiua
iaaethaeaiey iaae caiiui iaaiaoeciii e nia?ae aiaaoua
anoanoaaiiienoi?e/aneea eieeaeoeee. A 1835 – 43 a. O. aue aoaa?iaoi?ii
ia Aaiaeeiaiiaie caiea. A 1845 a. ioi?aaeeny a iiaoth yeniaaeeoeeth e
naaa?iiio iiethno, iaia?aaaynue /a?ac Aaooeiia caeea e i?ieea
Eaieanoa?a, ii i?ieiaeaiiiio eaieoaiii Ia??e iooe, i?iieeiooue a i?ieea
Aa??io aei iuna Aaeueea?a eee aei 98? cai. ae., a ioooaea ii aiciiaeii
i?yiiio iai?aaeaieth ieuoue a Aa?eiaia i?ieea. 26-ai ethey yeniaaeeoeeth
aeaeae eaieoai Aeaiia?, iaoaaeoee ei?aaee a caeeaa Iaeueaeey iiae
74a?aae.48′ naa. oe?. e 66a?aae.13′ cai. aeiea. ai aeanoe eueaeia e
i?eaacoee aaeie?aeoaenoao iineaaeiaa ienueii O., iieiia iaaeaaeae. 1846
a. i?ioae, ia i?eiany ieeaeeo ecaanoee ia ioaaaeiii iooaoanoaaiieea, ii
ieeoi aua ia aaniieieeny; eiaaea aea e 1847, e 1848 aa. ia i?eianee
ieeaeeo aanoae ia o/anoe yeniaaeeoeee, oi aeaia O. e ae?ocuey aai
iiaeiyee ia iiae anth a?eoaineoth iaoeeth. Ana iienee, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eieiaeenue ec Aa?iiu e ec Aia?eee, ia ei?aaeyo e nooei iooai,
inoaaaeenue aac?acoeueoaoiuie, iiea, iaeiiaoe, a aaaonoa 1850 a. ia
ainoi/iie ieiia/iinoe i-aa Ae/ae, i?e onouea Aaeeeiaoiiiaa i?ioiaea, ia
auee ioe?uou eaieoaiaie Iiiaiae e Iaiie neaaeu eaaa?iie noiyiee e
iaeaeaiu inoaoee ?acee/iuo aauae, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoea, /oi caeanue
aeeee iaeioi?ia a?aiy ethaee a?eoaineiai eacaiiiai noaeia. Iaiie e
Aeaeii ?inn, anei?a iinaoeaoea iiyoue yoi ianoi, iaoee iiiai neaaeia, a
oaeaea 3 iiaeeu oia?oeo /eaiia yeniaaeeoeee e ii iaaeienyi ia iiaeeao
ociaee, /oi yeniaaeeoeey i?iaaea caeanue ia?aoth ceio 1845-46 a.
Aeaeueiaeoea naaaeaiey iieo/ee a ai?aea 1854 a. Aeaeii ?y (Rae), a
caeeaa Iaeee. Ii ?anneacai yneeiinia, ia ?annoiyiee 10 – 12 aeiae iooe
ia C, ii oo noi?iio aieueoie ?uaiie ?aee, aaniith 1850 a. ianeieueei
aaeuo ioae/ei iiaeaee io iaaeinoaoea nuanoiuo i?eiania. Ociaa yoi, ?y
iai?aaee ooaea naie iienee, e aio oaeaeinue iieo/eoue iaeioi?ua
i?aaeiaou – iai?. na?aa?yiua eiaeee n aa?aaie e eiaiaie ioeoea?ia, –
eioi?ua ia inoaaeyee niiiaiey a oii, /oi ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeioi?ua /eaiu
yeniaaeeoeee iiaeaee caeanue. Aiaeeeneia aaeie?aeoaenoai, iieaaay, /oi
ie iaeiiai ec /eaiia o?aieeeiianeie yeniaaeeoeee oaea iao a aeeauo,
i?ae?aoeei aeaeueiaeoea ?anneaaeiaaiey e iienee; ii aaeiaa
ii?aieaaaoaey, eaaee O. (oia?ea a 1875 a.) nia?yaeeea a 1857 a.
iaaieueoie ei?aaeue, iiae eiiaiaeith eaieoaia. I’Eeeioiea, eioi?ue a iaa
1859 a. iaoae caieneo ioeoea?ia O., E?icuea e Oeoeaeaeaina. Ec yoie
caienee noaei ecaanoii, /oi iaa noaeia O., “Y?aa” e “Oa??i?”, auee
caoa?ou eueaeaie o naaa?i-caiaaeiiai aa?aaa Caiee ei?iey Aeeueaaeueia
12-ai naio. 1846 a. e iinea nia?oe O., 22 ai?aey 1848 a., iieeioou
yeeiaaeai. Inoaaoeany a aeeauo, a /enea 105 /ae., iiae ia/aeuenoaii
E?icuea, aunaaeeeenue ia aa?aa iiae 69?37′ naa. oe?. e 98?4′ cai.
aeiea., ioeoaea iaaeayeenue aeia?aoueny aei ?uaiie ?aee Aaea, ii a
aei?iaa iiaeaee io onoaeinoe e eeeiaoa. A 1879 a. yeniaaeeoeey iiae
ia/aeuenoaii Oaaoee ioe?uea aeaeueiaeoea neaaeu e inoaoee, ii ienai
ieeaeeo ia iaoea.

Euethen Ey??iee

EY??IEE (Carroll) Euethen (inaaaeiiei; ianoiyuaa eiy *a?ec Eaooeaeae
Aeiaeaenii, Dodgson) (27.1.1832, Aea?naa?e, – 14.1.1898, Aeeoi?ae),
aiaeeeneee ienaoaeue. I?ioanni? iaoaiaoeee Ienoi?aeneiai oi-oa
(1855-81), caieiaeny aeaaiui ia?acii iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeeie. Ey??iee
iaienae neaci/ioth iiaanoue “Aeena a no?aia /oaean” (1865, ?on. ia?.
1923) e a? i?iaeieaeaiea “A Caca?eaeuea” (1871, ?on. ia?. 1924), noaaoea
ethaeiuie aeaoneeie eieaaie. Neaaeothuea eeoa?aoo?iua iiuou Ey??ieea
oniaoa ia eiaee. E?iiece?oy iaae oaaeiiaie iuoeaiey a o?aaeeoeeyo
“iiycee aanniuneeoe”, Ey??iee a oi aea a?aiy aeae a “Aeena” ianiaoeeaia
ecia?aaeaiea iicaeiaaeeoi?eaineie Aiaeee.

Aaaoa E?enoe

Aiaeeeneay ienaoaeueieoea, “ei?ieaaa aeaoaeoeaa” (Queen of Crime).
?iaeeeanue Aaaoa E?enoe 15 naioya?y 1890, a Oi?eaaa (Torquay), a?aonoai
Aeaaii, Aiaeey. Ia?aciaaieai Aaaou, ?aii iioa?yaoae iooea, caieiaeanue
iaia. A 1914 auoea caioae ca eao/eea A?/eaaeueaea E?enoe (Colonel
Archibald Christie). A aiaeu Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu Aaaoa Ieeea? ?aaioaea
iaaenano?ie a aiaiiii ainieoaea, o/eeanue oa?iaeieiaee. A yoi aea a?aiy,
a ia?a?uaao iaaeaeo aeaaeo?noaaie, ia/aea ienaoue aeaoaeoeau. Ii aa
nianoaaiiui neiaai, ni/eiyoue Aaaoa ia/aea ec i?inoiai iiae?aaeaiey
nano?a, oaea ia/aoaaoaeny a aeo?iaeao. Iieiaeay ienaoaeueieoea n/eoaea,
/oi /eoaoaee n i?aaeoaaaeaeaieai ioianoony e oiio, /oi aaoi?ii
aeaoaeoeaia yaeyaony aeaiueia, e oioaea acyoue naaa inaaaeiiei Ia?oei
Oyno eee Iinoei A?ae. Ecaeaoaeue ianoiye ia nio?aiaiee nianoaaiiuo eiaie
e oaieeee ienaoaeueieoeu, oaaaeea aa a oii, /oi eiy Aaaoa auei ?aaeeei e
caiiieiaeinue. ?iiaiu, ia ioiineaoeany e aeaoaeoeaiui, auoiaeeee iiae
inaaaeiieiii Iy?e Oynoiaeeio (Mary Westmacott). Anaai iiae yoei
inaaaeiieiii auei iaia/aoaei 10 ?iiaiia. A ia/aoe ia?aue ?iiai Aaaou
E?enoe (“Oaeinoaaiiia i?anooieaiea a Noaeena”; The Mysterious Affair at
Styles) iiyaeeny a 1920. Oiaaea aea “iiyaeeny” e /anoiue aeaoaeoea
aaeueaeaoe Y?etheue Ioa?i (Hercule Poirot), ieacaaoeeny a aeaeueiaeoai
aa?iai 25 aeaoaeoeaiuo ?iiaiia Aaaou E?enoe. Aeaatho ae?oaiai “/anoiiai
aeaoaeoeaa” – ienn Ia?ie (Miss Marple) – ninoiyeny a 1930 aoaeo, eiaaea
a naao auoae ?iiai “Oaeenoai a aeiia aeea?ey” (Murder at the Vicarage).
Ianoiyuee /eoaoaeueneee oniao i?eoae e Aaaoa E?enoe a 1926, eiaaea ia
i?eeaaee aue auiouai ?iiai “Oaeenoai ?iaeaea?a Ye?ieaea” (The Murder of
Roger Ackroyd). Iiioey?iinoe ienaoaeueieoeu niinianoaiaaei e oi, /oi aa
aeaoaeoeau ia/aoaeenue ia oieueei eae ioaeaeueiua eieae, ii e
ioaeeeiaaeenue ia no?aieoeao ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe a Aiaeee e NOA. A
1957 ia ye?aiu auoae ia?aue oeeuei ii iioeaai iueanu Aaaou E?enoe
(“Naeaeaoaeue iaaeiaiey”; Witness for the Prosecution). A 1926 oia?ea
iaia Aaaou, a aa ioae, iieeiaiee A?/eaaeueae E?enoe, iio?aaiaae
?acaiaea. ?aaeoeey Aaaou E?enoe auea noieue iaiaeeaeaiia, /oi naia
ienaoaeueieoea a aoaeouai n o?oaeii iiaea aa iauynieoue: Aaaoa en/acea.
A oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae aa oneeaiii eneaee e, iaeiiaoe, iaia?oaeeee
a ioaea, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiioth iiae eiaiai… aeaiueiu, ia eioi?ie
niae?aeny aeaieoueny aa ioae. A 1928 a?ae Aaaou e A?/eaaeueaea E?enoe,
io eioi?iai ?iaeeeanue aei/ue ?icaeeiaea (Rosalind), ?aniaeny. A 1930
Aaaoa E?enoe auoea caioae aoi?e/ii, ca a?oaieiaa ny?a Iaena Iaeeiaaia
(Sir Max Mallowan). N oao ii? iia ia?eiaee/anee i?iaiaeeea ianeieueei
ianyoeaa a aiaeo a Ne?ee e E?aea a yeniaaeeoeeyo aianoa n ioaeai. Oia?ea
Aaaoa E?enoe 12 yiaa?y 1976 a Aaeeeiaoiia, Ienoi?aeoe?. Ia aeaiiue
iiiaio (naioya?ue 2003) a Aiaeee i?iaeeaaao aioe Aaaou E?enoe – Iyoueth
I?e/a?ae (Mathew Prichard). Aaaoa E?enoe – aaoi? aieaa nioie ?anneacia,
17 iuean, aieaa 70 aeaoaeoeaiuo ?iiaiia, ia?aaaaeaiuo ia 103 ycuea.
N?aaee i?iecaaaeaiee – na?ee ?iiaiia e iiaanoae i aeaoaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ienn Aeaeaei Ia?ie e ienoa?a Y?ethey Ioa?i: “Oaeinoaaiiia
i?anooieaiea a Noaeena” (The Mysterious Affair at Styles; 1920; ?iiai),
“Ioa?i ?anneaaeoao” (1924), “Oaeia eaieiia” (1925), “Oaeenoai ?iaeaea?a
Ye?ieaea” (The Murder of Roger Ackroyd; 1926; ?iiai), “Oaeenoai a aeiia
aeea?ey” (Murder at the Vicarage; 1930; ?iiai), “Ainoi/iue yeni?ann”
(1934; ?iiai), “Nia?oue ia Ieea” (1937), “I eee I?”, (1941),
“?aceo/aiiua aaniie” (Absent in the Spring; 1944; ?iiai auoae iiae
inaaaeiieiii Iy?e Oynoiaeeio), “Naeaeaoaeue iaaeiaiey” (Witness for the
Prosecution; 1953; iueana), “Iuoaeiaea” (Mousetrap; 1954; iueana;
aia?aua auea iinoaaeaia ia noeaia eiiaeiineiai oaao?a Aiaannaaei? a 1952
e ca 21 aiae oniaoii auaea?aeaea 8862 iinoaiiaee), “Aeanyoue iaa?eoyo”
(1967; ?iiai), “Nia?oue a iaeaeao” (Death in the clouds), “Aeaiue
iiieiiaaiey” (“Naa?eathuee oeeaieae”; Sparkling Cyanide), “Iyoue
ii?inyo” (Five little pigs), “Caiaaan” (Curtain; 1975, iioaeeeiaai a
1976; iineaaeiee ?iiai ia Y?ethea Ioa?i), “Sleeping Murder” (1975,
iioaeeeiaai a 1976; iineaaeiee ?iiai i ienn Ia?ie), Aaoiaeia?aoey
(iioaeeeiaaia a 1977) 12 yiaa?y 1976 aiaea a Oieeeiaoi?aea Aaaoa E?enoe
neii/aeanue.

*a?euec Ayaaeaeae

Ecia?aoaoaeue ia?aiai a enoi?ee ianoiyuaai eiiiuethoa?a (oae aei eiioea
e ia ?aaeeciaaiiiai) ?iaeeeny a 1791 aiaeo a ai?iaea Oeiiooa ia
thai-caiaaea Aiaeee a naiuea aaiee?a. Ii aue neaaui ?aaaieii e aei 11
eao o/eeny aeiia. N aeaonoaa ii eioa?aniaaeny iaoaiaoeeie (i?aaeii/eoay
/oaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo eieaeae ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a!), ethaee
iaoaie/aneea ea?ooee, eioi?ua caoai iao/eeny aeaeaoue nai. Eiaaea a 1810
aiaeo *a?euec iinooiee a O?eieoe – eieeaaeae Eaia?eaeaeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa, ieacaeinue, /oi ii ciaao iaoaiaoeeo cia/eoaeueii eo/oa
naa?noieeia. Iioiaea, /oi yoi neeueii enii?oeei aai oa?aeoa?. *ai
aeaeueoa, oai aieaa neei/iui e iaoaeea/eaui noaiiaeeny yoio /aeiaae.
*a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy *. Ayaaeaeae ooae ec O?eieoe-eieeaaeaea, n/eoay,
/oi aai ae?ocuey Ae. Aa?oaeue e Ae. Ieeie aeinoeaee a iaoaiaoeea
aieueoaai, /ai ii. Auoue aea o?aoueei ii n/eoae ieaea naiaai
aeinoieinoaa. Ia?aeaey a eieeaaeae na. Iao?a, ii ieii/ee aai a 1814
aiaeo, eae e oioae, ia?aui… Aai ia?aua iaoaiaoe/aneea o?oaeu auee
ioeaiaiu nia?aiaiieeaie, aai eca?aee /eaiii Ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa, ii
Ayaaeaeae iaiaaeeaiii iinni?eeny n aieueoeinoaii «aeanoue eioueo» yoie
Aeaaeaiee iaoe. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a 1826 aiaeo aio ia aeinoaeanue
inaiaiaeeaoayny aeieaeiinoue nae?aoa?y Ei?ieaaneiai iauanoaa, oioy ii
aue aeinoiei aa aieaa ae?oaeo. Caieiaynue ano?iiiieae, noaoenoeeie,
oi/iie iaoaieeie, Ayaaeaeae iinoiyiii noaeeeaaeny n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
i?iecaiaeeoue o?oaeiaieea au/eneaiey. Iaeiiaoe aio iaaeiaei n/eoaoue
a?o/ioth, e a 1822 aiaeo ii ia/ae eiino?oe?iaaoue au/eneeoaeueiua
iaoeiu. Ia?aay iaoeia Ayaaeaeaea, iacaaiiay ei «?aciinoiie», auea eeoue
i/aiue neiaeiui a?eoiiiao?ii. Iinoaiaiii niaa?oainoaoy aa, Ayaaeaeae, a
eiioea eiioeia, naeaeae eiino?oeoeeth naiae iaoeiu noieue neiaeiie, /oi
e a iuiaoiaa a?aiy iino?ieoue oaeie aiia?ao auei au i?iaeaiaoe/ii… Ia
aeiaaaey yoo ?aaioo aei iaoaie/aneiai aiieiuaiey, Ayaaeaeae ioaeaeny. O
iaai aicieeea eaeay nianai ae?oaie iaoeiu, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea
«aiaeeoe/aneie». Yoi e aue ia?aue a ie?a eiiiuethoa?… A 1843-1849 aiaeao
Ayaaeaeae auionoee iieiue eiiieaeo /a?oaaeae yoie iaoeiu, ii neiaaniiai
iienaiey aa ia naeaeae. Ia iaoa n/anouea, a 1840 aiaeo Ayaaeaeae aue
i?eaeaoai a Eoaeeth n eaeoeeyie ia aiaeeoe/aneie iaoeia, eioi?ua
caeiiniaeoe?iaae, a caoai ecaeae E. O. Iaiaa?. Aiineaaenoaee yoio o?oae
ia?aaaea e eiiiaioe?iaaea Aaea Eaaeaen, aa?iay nio?oaeieoea Ayaaeaeaea.
Iia aea e iaienaea ianeieueei i?ia?aii aeey aiaeeoe/aneie iaoeiu. A 1871
aiaeo Ayaaeaeae oia?, ?aci/a?iaaiiue a aeecie e ia ioeaiaiiue
nia?aiaiieeaie. Aai caia/aoaeueiay iaoeia oae e inoaeanue eeiie
/a?oaaeae… Iuiaoiea niaoeeaeenou aea i?eciaee, /oi iia ii naiaio
ono?ienoao auea eo/oa ia?auo yeaeo?iiiuo iaoei XX aaea.

Oiian Ii?

Oiian Ii? (More) (7 oaa?aey 1478, Eiiaeii – 6 ethey 1535, oai aea),
aiaeeeneee aoiaieno, ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue, ienaoaeue. I?ienoiaeee
ec caaeeoi/iie naiuee eiiaeiineiai th?enoa. Ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea
iieo/ee a a?aiiaoe/aneie oeiea Nayoiai Aioiiey. O?eiaaeoeaoe eao aue
i?eiyo iaaeii a aeii a?oeaieneiia Eaioa?aa?eeneiai Aeaeiia Ii?oiia. A
1492-1494 aiaeao o/eeny a Ienoi?aeneii oieaa?neoaoa, caoai ii ianoiyieth
iooea i?ioiaeee eo?n th?eaee/aneeo iaoe a oeieao i?aaiaaaeaiey Eiiaeiia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii Ii? eco/ae eeanne/aneea ycuee (eaoeineee e a?a/aneee),
i?iecaaaeaiey e?oiiaeoeo aioe/iuo e ?aiiao?enoeaineeo iuneeoaeae
(Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey, Aaaonoeia). Ii naeeceeny n e?oaeeii ienoi?aeneeo
aoiaienoia – Aeaeiiii Eieaoii, Oiianii Eeiae?ii, Oeeueyiii A?ioeeiii,
Oeeueyiii Eeee, a 1499 aiaeo iiciaeiieeny n Y?aciii ?iooa?aeaineei, n
eioi?ui aai naycuaaee ioiioaiey naiie oaniie ae?oaeau (a aeiia Ii?a
Y?aci iaienae e aio iinayoee naith “Iioaaeo Aeoiinoe”). Ieiei 1502 aiaea
Ii? noae aaeaieaoii e i?aiiaeaaaoaeai i?aaa. A 1504 aiaeo aue eca?ai a
ia?eaiaio, a noaiao eioi?iai oaaaeeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea oeiainiauo
i?eoycaiee ei?iey Aai?eoa VII. Iinea yoiai, iianaynue ?ai?annee, aue
auioaeaeai ia a?aiy inoaaeoue iieeoeeo e aa?iooueny e aaeaieaoneie
i?aeoeea. A 1510 aiaeo Ii? niiaa a ia?eaiaioa, nicaaiiii iiaui ei?ieai,
Aai?eoii VIII; ii i?aaenoaaeyao eiiaeiineeo ai?iaeai; oiaaea aea aue
iacia/ai iiiiuieeii ai?iaeneiai oa?eoa. A 1515 aiaeo a ninoaaa
aiaeeeneiai iinieuenoaa aue iai?aaeai aeey ia?aaiai?ia ai Oeaiae?eth. Ai
Oeaiae?ee Ii? i?enooiee e ?aaioa iaae ia?aie eieaie “Ooiiee”, eioi?oth
caaa?oee ii aica?auaiee aeiiie; aoi?ay eieaa “Ooiiee” (nianoaaiii
iiaanoaiaaiea i yeiau iaaeaaii ioe?uoii ainoaea?noaa ooiieeoeaa) auea a
iniiaiii iaienaia ai?acaei ?aiueoa. “Ooiiey” ecaeaia a eiioea 1516 aiaea
a Eoaaia. A ia?aie aa /anoe niaea?aeeony aiaeec
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey Aiaeee, ino?ay e?eoeea
iai?aaeeaaiee, oicyenoaaiiiai iiiiiieecia, ?aceiaeaiey aiaeeeneie
aea?aaie, i?aanoaaiiiai oiaaeea iauanoaa; ai aoi?ie iienuaaaony
eaeaaeueiue iauanoaaiiue no?ie, iniiaaiiue ia ia/aeao iauiinoe, no?ie, a
eioi?ii i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea caieiatho ethaee ia?aciaaiiua e
aeia?iaeaoaeueiua. O?aouea, aacaeueneia ecaeaiea “Ooiiee” 1518 aiaea
auei aeiiieiaii “Yiea?aiiaie” Ii?a – nia?aieai iiyoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee
?aciiai aeai?a (noeoioai?aiee, iiyi e nianoaaiii yiea?aii).
Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeiia?aiaiii n “Ooiieae” ienaeanue “Enoi?ey ?e/a?aea
III”, inoaaoayny iacaaa?oaiiie (ecaeaia aiiieiii a 1543 aiaeo a ninoaaa
o?iieee Aeaeiia Aa?aeeiaa, caoai a 1548 e 1550 aiaeao a o?iieea
Yaeoa?aea Oieea n oeacaieai ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aa Ii?o). Aai?eo VIII,
ioeaiea e?eoe/aneee iaoin “Ooiiee”, iacia/ee aa aaoi?a a 1517 aiaeo
naiei niaaoieeii. A 1518 aiaeo Ii? oaea ei?ieaaneee nae?aoa?ue, ii
auiieiyao aeeieiiaoe/aneea ii?o/aiey, n 1521 aiaea canaaeaao a
“Caacaeiie iaeaoa” – aunoai noaeaaiii o/?aaeaeaiee Aiaeee. Oiaaea aea ii
aue iacia/ai iiiiuieeii eacia/ay ei?ieaanoaa e oaeinoiai ?uoea?neiai
caaiey, anei?a iieo/ee cia/eoaeueiua caiaeueiua iiaeaeiaaiey. A 1521
aiaeo io eiaie Aai?eoa VIII aue iaia/aoai o?aeoao “Caueoa naie oaeinoa
i?ioea Ia?oeia Ethoa?a”, ?aaeaeoi?ii eioi?iai, a aiciiaeii, e niaaoi?ii
aue Ii?. Ethoa? iineae ?aceee ioaao ei?ieth, ia /oi Ii? a 1523 aiaeo
ioicaaeny “Ioiiaaaeueth Ethoa?o”, iaaeiyy aai a iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoaa
i?inoiai ia?iaea e aoioo i?ioea caeiiiuo i?aaeoaeae. A 1523 aiaeo n
iaeia?aiey ei?iey Ii? eca?ai nieea?ii iaeaou iauei, a 1525-1529 aiaeao
ii eaioeea? aa?oeianoaa Eaieanoa?neiai, a a ieoya?a 1529 aiaea iinea
niauaiey ea?aeeiaea Oiene, Ii? noaiiaeony ei?aeii-eaioeea?ii Aiaeee. A
iaa 1532 aiaea ei?ieue Aai?eo VIII, i?eiyaoee iinea eiioeeeoa n iaiie
noi?iio ?aoi?iaoeee, canoaaee aiaeeeneia aeooiaainoai iiae/eieoueny
eiio?ieth ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. Ii?, eioi?ue a iieaieea n ?aoi?iaoi?aie
caueuae onoaiiaeaiey eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, aeieaeai aue oeoe a ionoaaeo.
Ioeacaaoenue i?eciaoue “Aeo i aa?oiaainoaa”, i?iaicaeaoaaoee ei?iey
aeaaie aiaeeeneie oea?eae, Ii? a ai?aea 1534 aiaea aue caeeth/ai a
Oaoy?, a a neaaeothuai aiaeo iaaeiai a ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia e eaciai.
A 1886 aiaeo i?e/eneai eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth e eeeo aeaaeaiiuo, a
1935 aiaeo – e eeeo nayouo (iaiyoue 22 ethiy e 6 ethey).

E?iiaaeue Oiian

E?iiaaeue (Cromwell) Oiian (ieiei 1485, Iaoie, — 28.7.1540, Eiiaeii),
aiaeeeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue. A 1533 iacia/ai eaioeea?ii
eacia/aenoaa, a 1534 ainoaea?noaaiiui nae?aoa??i, n 1535 aaia?aeueiue
aeea?ee ei?iey ii oea?eiaiui aeaeai, n 1536 ei?ae-o?aieoaeue iaeie
ia/aoe, a 1539 ei?ae-aeaaiue i?aaeoaeue Aiaeee. A 1540 iieo/ee oeooe
a?aoa Ynnaena. Nua?ae aieueooth ?ieue a oe?aieaiee aiaeeeneiai
aaniethoecia i?e ei?iea Aai?eoa Vlll, a /anoiinoe a i?iaaaeaiee
?aoi?iaoeee. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea E?iiaaeue auea iai?aaeaia ia naeeaeaiea
Aiaeee n aa?iaineeie i?ioanoaioneeie eiycueyie. A ?acoeueoaoa eio?ea
i?eaeai?iie a?enoie?aoee aue iaaei?i a ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia e a?ane,
caeeth/?i a oth?ueio e eaci?i.

Aiae?ae Nayoie

Aiae?ae Nayoie — aiinoie Eenona O?enoa, aue a?ao Iao?a e caieiaeny
aianoa n iei a Eaia?iaoia, ia Aaeeeaeneii ica?a, eiaeath ?uau, eiaaea
Eenon i?ecaae aai neaaeiaaoue ca niaith (Iaoo. VI, 18 e neaae.). Ii
iiaanoaiaaieth Aaaia. Eiaiia (Eiai. I, 41), ii aue iaeiei ec o/aieeia
Eiaiia E?anoeoaey e aua ?aiueoa naiaai a?aoa aue i?ecaai ia Ei?aeaia
Eenonii. Iiyoiio a a?a/aneii i?aaeaiee ii iineo eiy “Ia?aicaaiiiai”
(???????????). Ii Na. Aaaiaaeeth, ii ni naiei a?aoii e aeaoiy nuiiaueyie
Caaaaeay aue a /enea aeeaeaeoeo O?enoiauo o/aieeia. Ii oea?eiaiiio
i?aaeaieth, aianoa ni naiei a?aoii i?iiiaaaeiaae o?enoeainoai “neeoai”,
o. a. ia?iaeai, aeeaoei ia thaeiuo, ainoi/iuo e naaa?i-ainoi/iuo aa?aaao
*a?iiai ii?y. Ii neacaieth ?onneeo eaoiienae, i?iiiaaaeiaae a Ae?aaiae
?one, aue ieiei iuiaoiaai Eeaaa, aaea aiae?ocee e?ano, aeioiaeee aei
Iiaai?iaea e naea A?oceia, aaea aiae?ocee aeace naie. A Neiiia aua a IX
noie. iieacuaaee aai eaoaae?o ec /a?iuo eaiiae. Io aa?aaia Iiioa ii
/a?ac I?iiiioeaeo ia?aoae ai O?aeeth e A?aoeeth e a Iao?ana aue ?aniyo
ii i?eeacaieth i?ieiinoea Yaay, eee Yaaaoa. IIiae iacaaieai “Aeou”, eee
“Aeayiey Aiae?ae nayoie”, nio?aieeanue, oioy a iicaeiaeoeo ia?aaeaeeao
ia a?a/aneii e eaoeineii ycueao, aiie?eoe/aneay enoi?ey aiinoieia,
ecaanoiay aua Aanaaeth e aaoi?ii eioi?ie aue, eae iieaaatho, aiinoee
Oa?eion. E?iia oiai, ia a?a/aneii ycuea nio?aieeenue aeaa io?uaea
“Aeayiey Aiae?ae nayoie e Iaoaay iaaeaeo ethaeiaaeaie” e ia?oe?ieiaa
(“Martyrium”) yoiai aiinoiea, ?aaii eae iaeioi?ua io?uaee ec “Aeayiee
Iao?a e Aiae?ae nayoie”; ana iie iaia/aoaiu Oeoaiaei?oii a “Acta
apostolorum apocryphorum” (Eaeioeea, 1851), a oaeaea a aeiiieiaiee e
“Apocalypses apocryphae” (Eaeioe., 1866). A eao. ?aaeaeoeee “Virt u tes
Andreae”, iiaanoaothuea i anao iooaoanoaeyo aiinoiea io Iiioa aei
A?aoeee, e “Passio Andreae” ecaeaiu a Eaeueia a 1531 e aioee oaeaea a
nai?iee Aaaeeana. “Passio” iineoaeeea iniiaie iaeiiai aiaeinaeniineiai
noeoioai?aiey, niaea?aeauaainy a “Codex Vercellensis” e ecaeaiiiai
A?eiiii (“Aiae?ae nayoie und Elene”, Eannaeue, 1841), ?aaii eae A?aeiii
a “Bibliotek der angels ae chs. Poesie” (2 o., Aaoo., 1857—68). Ii
iaeiiio iicaeiaeoaio neacaieth, Aiae?ae nayoie aue aiinoieii a
Eiinoaioeiiiiea, aaea ii iinayoee ia?aiai aieneiia Noaoey. I?aaeaiea i
oii, /oi ii aue i?eaaiaeaeai ei e?anoo, iiia?a/iua a?onuey eioi?iai auee
aaeaeaiu iaeneinue (Aiae?aaaneee e?ano), eiaao aanueia iicaeiaa
i?ienoiaeaeaiea. E?iia ?innee, e Oioeaiaeey /oeo yoiai aiinoiea eae
iao?iia naiae no?aiu. A iaaeo yoeo no?aiao o/?aaeaeai a /anoue aai
Aiae?aaaneee i?aeai. Iaiyoue nayoiai i?acaeioaony 30 iiya?y.
I?aaeoanoaothuay yoiio aeith ii/ue iineo o ia?iaea iacaaiea Aiae?aaaa
aa/a?a eee Aiae?aaaie ii/e, a eioi?oth, ii ia?iaeiiio iiaa?ueth,
iieiaeui aeaaooeai e ia?iyi yaeyaony ia?ac noaeaiuo.

Na. Iao?ee E?eaiaeneee

?iaeeeny Iao?ee (oiaaea aai caaee Noeeao) i?eia?ii a 387 aiaeo, a
A?eoaiee. Ii aue, eae ii nai ieoao, aioeii o?enoeaineiai nayuaiieea e
nuiii aeeaeiia Eaeueio?iey, eioi?ue i?eiaaeeaaeae e ciaoiiio naiaenoao e
aue ?eineei aeaeo?eiiii (?aia /eiiaieea). Ii aue ec a?eooia, a iaoue
iaeue/eea, aeeceay ?iaenoaaiieoea Na. Ia?oeia Oo?neiai, iie?iaeoaey
Aaeeee, – ec o?aieia. Oanoiaaeoeaoe eao nayoie aue oaiai a ?aanoai ec
eiaiey naiaai iooea. Iaiaaoea ia eiaiea (yoi auee ecaiaiiua nuiiauey
a?eooneiai ei?iey) oaeee aai iooea, nano?u aai i?iiaee aac aanoe. Nayoie
Aaaea Aeinoiii/oaiiue ?anneacuaaao, /oi a oa aiaeu ana a?eoaineea aieiu
ioi?aaeeenue ii i?eeacaieth ?eineeo aeanoae e ?eio, /oiau iai?iiyoue
ai?iae, inoaaea naie caiee aaccaueoiuie. Yoi i?eaaei ei iiiaei
aaccaeiieyi e iianiinoyi a oao e?ayo. Iao?ee aue i?iaeai a ?aanoai a
E?eaiaeeth, aaea e i?aauaae a iiaeiiaaiee o oicyeia, iiea ia aaaeae,
auiieiyy iieo/aiiia a ioe?iaaiee io Aiaa iiaaeaiea. Ii e iioii ia?aaeei
iieo/ae oaeea ioe?iaaiey io Aeeoi?a, aiaaea Aiaeueaai, /anoi yaeyaoaainy
aio a ia?aca ioeoeu. A ?aanoaa nayoie ian iaaoe a oaaeeiaiiuo ianoao,
ai?ao e eanao. Oai, nica?oeay oai?aiea, ii iao/eeny aa?eoue e iieeoueny,
aic?anoay a ethaae e Aiao. Na. Iao?ee noae iiaeeeiiui /aeiaaeii iieeoau,
aeinoeaoei aunio iieeoaaiiiai nica?oeaiey. Ii aai eniieiaiiui aa?u
iieeoaai Aia /anoi oai?ee /oaeana. Aea aea?oao iai Ainiiaeue ii
oiaeaoaenoao Nayoiai Iao?eea aea? iieeoau e ethaiaue e iae, iiaeiaiua
oai, eioi?uie Ii iaaeaeee naiaai i?ineaaeaiiiai neoaeeoaey. Oioy nai
nayoie ieoao, /oi aaaeae, eaaaiaeu ?anneacuaatho, aoaeoi ii ia oioae
ooiaeeoue aac ?ac?aoaiey oicyeia. Oio aea iio?aaiaae a ieaoo ca naiaiaeo
neeoie cieioa ?acia?ii n aieiao naiiai Iao?eea. Aiaae Aeeoi? aaeae
oiaaea thiioa neaaeiaaoue ca aeeeei eaaaiii, eioi?ue e aueiiae ec caiee
yoio neeoie. Eiaaea nayoie aeinoea iiaa?aaeuey, aaea, ii neiaai aiaaea,
aai aeaeae ei?aaeue, oai, ii aeeoeeiui ?anneacai, aai noaaoee aeaaeaeaoe
aa?aaa e niiaa i?iaeae a ?aanoai. Ii Aia iaeacae ceiaeay – eiaaea ii e
aai aeiii/aaeoeu ?anniao?eaaee iieo/aiiua a oieaoo iaaeiua eioaeee, eo
?oee e?aiei i?eeeiee e iaoaeeo. Iacaaea/eeaue aeaeaoe ?aneayeny, aue
i?iuai Iao?eeii, aueoiee aai ec ?aanoaa e niaaaeee aeaiueaaie ia
aei?iao. Eaaaiaea aiai?eo, /oi aa?ioaoenue, oaea aieneiiii, nayoie
e?anoee aai. Iinea aeieaiai iooe, iienaiiiai a “Eniiaaaee”, nayoie
aa?ioeny a ?iaeiua e?ay. Oai aio niiaa yaeeny a aeaeaiee oio aea aiaae e
iiaaeae aa?iooueny a E?eaiaeeth n i?iiiaaaeueth O?enoa. Ii i?aaeaea ii
aeieaeai aue iieo/eoue ia?aciaaiea. Aeey yoiai nayoie ioi?aaeeny a
Aaeeeth (iuiaoiyy O?aioeey), aaea iao/aeny iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Na.
Aa?iaia, aieneiia Iena??neiai (eioi?ue ?oeiiieiaeee aai a aeeaeiiu iiae
eiaiai Iao?eea) e iiiaoia iiianou?y Na. Aiii?aoa ia i. Ea?eia (ieiei
iuiaoieo Eaii a I?iaaina), iaeiiai ec iieioia iiiaoaneie aeecie Aaeeee.
Anei?a Na. Aa?iai, ioi?aaeyynue a A?eoaieth, ai?ioueny n a?anueth
Iaeaaey (eioi?ue iieaaae, aoaeoi /aeiaae iiaeao nai, oieueei naieie
aeaeaie e aac aeaaiaeaoe Aiaeueae, aeinoeaiooue nianaiey), acye n niaie
e Na. Iao?eea, naiaai o/aieea. Aianoa n a?oiiie nayuaiieeia iie oiaeeee
ii A?eoaiee, ii?iaa?aay a?anue e aica?auay ethaeae e Aiao, niaa?oay
aaeeeea /oaeana enoeaeaiey. ?anneacuaatho, /oi iaeiaaeaeu Na. Iao?ee
i?aaeeiaeee Na. Aa?iaio iinoeoueny ?aaee ia?auaiey iaeiiai ec ai?iaeia,
aiaaoaai a a?anue. Iaeiaei ai?iae ia ia?aoeeny, e a eiioea o?aoueaai
aeiy iinoa caiey ?acaa?ceanue e iiaeioeea aai. Oi ianoi, aaea iinoeeenue
Nayoua e eo niooieee, noaei iioii o?aaeeoeeiiiui ianoii, eoaea aeey
iinoa niae?aeenue ianoiua nayuaiieee. Ai a?aiy yoiai iooaoanoaey Na.

A ?acoeueoaoa naiaai iao/aiey, Na. Iao?ee ociae ana, /oi auei
iaiaoiaeeii aeey aai aoaeouae iennee. Iniaoth ethaiaue ieoae nayoie e
Neiao Aiaeueaio – ia yoii aiai?eo, iai?eia?, aai “Eniiaaaeue”. A yoii
iaaieueoii iiaanoaiaaiee ii i?eia?ii aeaanoe ?ac yaii eee iayaii,
iaiaeaie, nnueaaony ia Nayuaiiia Ienaiea. Aea aea?oao Ainiiaeue e
iuiaoiei o?enoeaiai oaeoth aea ethaiaue e Naiaio Neiao, Naiae Oea?eae e
Naiae aiea. Nayoiio, ooaa?aeaeaaoaio o?enoeainoai, i?eoiaeeeinue,
eiia/ii aea, i?ioeainoiyoue ycu/aneei aa?iaaieyi e auaea?aeeaaoue
noieeiiaaiey ni noi?iiieeaie ycu/anoaa. Eiaaea ii oae a noieeoeo
E?eaiaeee, Oa?o, /oiau i?iiiaaaeiaaoue oai ia Ianoo, ei?ieue-ycu/iee
ono?iee ia iaai canaaeo a eano. Nayoie aea e ana aai niooieee ii iooe
iaee aeii-iieeoao, ei ninoaaeaiioth, eioi?ay oaia?ue ecaanoia eae “Ueo
Na. Iao?eea” eee “Iieueaa ieaiy”. E i?iecioei /oaei – aianoi eee?eeia
aieiu oaeaeaee eeoue i?ioiaeeaoaa ieii ieaiuea noaaei. Ii neiaai aeeoey,
ia?aae nia?oueth aiaae iaauae nayoiio, /oi yoa iieeoaa anaaaea aoaeao
ia?aaeaeaoue io cea /eoathueo aa n aa?ie. AEeoey e eaaaiaeu iienuaatho
iiiaea ae?oaea /oaeana, niaa?oaiiua nayoui Iao?eeii. Eiua aa?yo anai
yoei enoi?eyi, eiua – ia anai, ii ianiiiaiii iaeii – Aia anaaaea
niioonoaoao /aeiaaeo, eioi?ue n aa?ie e naiiioaa?aeaiiinoueth iinayuaao
naay eniieiaieth Aai aiee. Aeey Aiaa aea, eae aa?ee Na. Iao?ee e eae
aa?ei e iu, iao ie/aai iaaiciiaeiiai. Oia? Na. Iao?ee a 493 aiaeo,
iieo/ea i?aaeaea ec ?oe niooieea-nayuaiieea Nayoia I?e/anoea. Aiai?yo,
/oi ianoi aai nia?oe ana auei ie?oaeaii iithueie ioeoeaie, e iiiaea
aeoiaee, /oi oi auee aiaaeu Aiaeuee, i?eiyaoea aeae ioeoe, eae yoi
aeaeae i?eoiaeeaoee e nayoiio a aeaeaieyo aiaae Aeeoi?.

ssi Oeaieia

OEAIEIA ssi Eaieanoa? (28 iay 1908, Eiiaeii 12 aaaonoa 1965, oai aea),
aiaeeeneee ienaoaeue. Ec aiaaoie a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuee. Ioaoe ssia,
iiaeaoee a 1914 a n?aaeaiee ia Niiia, aue ae?oaii O. *a?/eeey. Oeaieia
ainieouaaeny a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii eieeaaeaea Eoiia e Ei?ieaaneie aiaiiie
aeaaeaiee a Naiaeoa?noa, caoai i?iaeieaeee ia?aciaaiea a oieaa?neoaoao
Ithioaia e AEaiaau, aaea eco/ae iaiaoeeee e o?aioeocneee ycuee. Iicaeiaa
ii auo/ee e ?onneee ycue.

Oeaieia aioiaee naay e ea?uea?a aeeieiiaoa, ii ia auaea?aeae
anooieoaeueiue yecaiai a IEAe e ii i?ioaeoeee naiuee iieo/ee a 1939
ianoi ei??aniiiaeaioa a Aaaionoaa ?aeoa?. A ea/anoaa niaoeeaeueiiai
ei??aniiiaeaioa aaaionoaa ii iai?aaeyaony a 1933 a Iineao aeey inaauaiey
noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna iaae nio?oaeieeaie eiiiaiee Iao?iiieeoai-Aeeea?n,
iaaeiyaoeieny a oieiiaaea e a?aaeeoaeuenoaa. A oii aea aiaeo Oeaieia
i?eieiaao i?aaeeiaeaiea aieoe ia?oia?ii a aaieianeia i?aaei?eyoea e
ooiaeeo ec aaaionoaa ?aeoa?.

Ii /a?ac 5 eao a 1938 Oeaieia niiaa a ea/anoaa ei??aniiiaeaioa (oaia?ue
oaea aacaou Oaein) iinauaao Iineao n oi?aiaie aeaeaaaoeeae ai aeaaa n
ieieno?ii aiaoiae oi?aiaee a i?aaeoaeuenoaa I. *aiaa?eaia. Iinea ia/aea
Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu Oeaieia, i?ecaaiiue ia aiaiioth neoaeao, caiye iino
iiiiuieea aee?aeoi?a nae?aoiie neoaeau AIO, aaeie?aea Aeae. Aiaeo?e. Ii
eo?e?oao ?yae nae?aoiuo iia?aoeee, ?oeiaiaeeo inaiaiaeaeaieai
aiaiiiieaiiuo a Ii?aaaee, onoaiaaeeaaao ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea iaiaoeeeo
?aeao Oao, iaania/eaaao ?acaaaeaeaiiuie aunaaeeo nithcieeia a Eoaeee. Ii
iaeiie ec aa?nee, noaaoae ecaanoiie a 1997, Oeaieia yeiau
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?ac?aaaouaae e i?eieiae o/anoea a iia?aoeee ii
iioeuaieth Ia?oeia Ai?iaia 1 iay 1945. Iia?aoeey iineea eiaeiaia
iacaaiea Aeaeaein Aiiae. A 1946 Oeaieia auoae a ionoaaeo e aei 1959
aicaeaaeye eiino?aiiue ioaeae aacaoiiai o?anoa Eainee. I?ioanneiiaeueiay
ienaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue Oeaieiaa ia/aeanue aeiaieueii iicaeii, n
?iiaia Eaoa ?iyeue (1953). Aeaaiue aa?ie yoiai ?iiaia e anao
iineaaeothueo iinee eiy Aeaeaein Aiiae. *a?ac aiae auoae aoi?ie ?iiai n
oai aea aa?iai AEeae e ionoue oie?atho ae?oaea. Anaai Oeaieia iaienae 14
?iiaiia i Aeaeaeina Aiiaea (iaeaieaa ecaanoiu n?aaee ieo: Ae-? Ii,
A?eeeeaiou aa/iu, Ec ?innee n ethaiaueth, Ia oaeiie neoaeaa Aa
Aaee/anoaa, Aieaeoeiaa?). Ii/oe ana ?iiaiu Oeaieiaa auee ye?aiece?iaaiu
e i?eianee neaao ia oieueei ienaoaeth, ii e iiiaei aeoa?ai. Aeaaiue
aa?ie, aaaio 007 (aeaa oeeo?u 0 aeatho i?aai ia oaeenoai), auno?i
caaiaaae ethaiaue ioaeeee. Iniaoth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue iiaanoaiaaieth
i?eaeatho ianiio?y ia oneiaiinoue e iaeioi?oth oaioanoe/iinoue niauoee e
neooaoeee oi/iinoue aaoi?a a iienaiee aeaoaeae, ianoaiiaee e ianoa
aeaenoaey, eaaeay e?iiey ii ioiioaieth e aa?ith e naiiio naaa. Eae au ec
/oanoaa i?ioanoa i?ioea oi?aeia e?eoeee a oii, /oi ii yaeyaony aaoi?ii
iaeiiai aa?iy, Oeaieia ieoao eieao iooaoanoaee, iiaanoue aeey aeaoae
*eooe-*eooe…Ayia-Ayia, aeanoyua ye?aiece?iaaiioth O. Aeeniaai. Iaeiaei
aeey ieeeeiiia /eoaoaeae ssi Oeaieia inoaaony aaoi?ii ?iiaiia i
iaio?aceiii Aeaeaeina Aiiaea.

Eieeeic Aeaeiai 23 iay 1933

Aeaeiai Eieeeic – aia?eeaineay eeiiaeo?ena, niyaoayny a aieaa /ai 50
oeeueiao e iiiai/eneaiiuo na?eaeao. Aieueoei oniaoii ai anai ie?a
iieuecoaony na?eae «Aeeianoey», a eioi?ii iia nua?aea iaeio ec aeaaiuo
?ieae (Aeaenen). Aaoi? ianeieueeeo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo eiea. Aeaeiai
Eieeeic ?iaeeeanue 23 iay 1933 aiaea. Iia niyeanue aieaa /ai a iieonioia
oeeueiia, ia n/eoay iiiai/eneaiiuo yieciaeia a na?eaeao. A oa/aiea
nuaiie ciaiaieoiai na?eaea «Aeeianoey» iia, eae aiai?eony, ?aciaiyea
«na?aa?yiue iieoeiiee». Oae aea, eae aa aa?ieiy, auea ianeieueei ?ac
caioaeai. *oi, i?yii neaaeai, iaoaeeaeoaeueii… Ii aeaiiieci aa
ioithaeue ia a yoii. ?iaeaeaiiay iiae ciaeii Aeeciaoeia, Aeaeiai
i?eciaaony a aeaienoaaiiinoe naiaai oa?aeoa?a. Ii aa neiaai, iia aieueoa
anaai ethaeo iooaoanoaiaaoue (/aiiaeai, eieaa e naiieao – eo/oaa
oaeiaieuenoaea), oaaaeaao a ethaeyo e a naaa ea?o oia, ioee/aaony
aeeciaethaeai, aanaeui e iacaaeneiui i?aaii. Oioy o Aeaeiai Eieeeic o?ia
aeaoae, ii aaeaine?iaaiey iaaeaeo ?aaeueiui noi?oaii, naiueae e
a?oenoe/aneie ea?uea?ie o iaa oiaea ia iieo/eeinue. Eaaeaeue ec aa
a?aeia oa?iae oeanei. *aeiaae, n eioi?ui iia ninoiyea a ia?aii a?aea,
aeoa? Iaenaaee ?eae, aue noa?oa ia 15 eao. Ai a?aiy ia?aie ano?a/e ii
aeae ae ia?eioee e ecianeeiaae. Iicaea ii iuoaeny ca iaee/iua
i?aaeinoaaeoue aa iaooyiiio oaeoo ia ianeieueei ethaiaiuo ii/ae, iinea
?acaiaea iuoaeny aa oaioaaee?iaaoue. Aoi?ie noi?oa, Yioiie Iuethee,
aiaeeeneee eiiiiceoi?, ni/eiyaoee ithceeeu, aae naay ia noieue
oco?iaoi?nee. Ii ii aeaeae aeaeaoue Aeaeiai aicea naay oieueei a ?iee
aeiiioicyeee e iaoa?e aai aeaieo aeaoae, oi anoue «neaaoth,
ianaiinoiyoaeueioth ee/iinoue», i /ai iicaea a naieo iaioa?ao ienaea
Aeaeiai Eieeeic. Ai a?aiy a?aea n Iuethee aa i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?ino
inoaiiaeeny. O?aoee ioae Aeaeiai, iocueaeueiue iaiaaeaea? ?ii Eann,
neiiaeny ia oii, /oi oa?iae iaoaea/e ia ?aaioa eae ?ac a oi a?aiy,
eiaaea caeaaeeeanue ea?uea?a Aeaeiai. Ii noae ia?eiiaiii. I?eiya ?aoaiea
aueoe caioae a /aoaa?oue ?ac – ca Ieoa?a Oieia, eioi?ue aue ia 14 eao
iieiaea aa, – aeo?ena i?iyaeea ioaeanoai. Iia iieaaaea, /oi a ioee/ea io
ioae/ei, eioi?ua noa?oa aa, ii niiaeao «aini?eieiaoue aa aicea naay eae
?aaioth». Eae e a na?eaea, aaea Aeaen iaiiiai iieiaea aa, iia e a aeecie
ia iiaiyeanue a /aoaa?oue ?ac iaaai/aoueny (a oea?eae ne?iiiie, ii a
Ean-Aaaana) a naie 52 aiaea n 38-eaoiei Ieoa?ii Oieiii, auaoei
?ie-iaaoeii. Iaeiaei /a?ac aiae iie ?annoaeenue. Yoi auea aaiaeueiay
enoi?ey, eai iieiaeie ioae aethaeeny a naith iaae/a?eoeo Eaoe, aei/ue
Aeaeiai. 17 oaa?aey 2002 aiaea Aeaeiai Eieeeic a iyoue ?ac auoea caioae.
Nithc aeaoo ethayueo na?aeaoe noae ca?iaeaeaoueny, eiaaea Eieeeic
aano?iee?iaaea ii NOA ni niaeoaeeai “Ienueia ethaae”, a eioi?ii
eniieiyea aeaaioth ?ieue. I?i iyoiai ioaea ecaanoii oieueei oi, /oi
ciaoo aai Ia?ne Aeanii, /oi ii ia 32 aiaea iieiaea naiae iaaanou, /oi
?iaeeeny ii a Ia?o e ?aaioaao oaao?aeueiui iaiaaeaea?ii. A a?iieeo
i?iaeoao, ?aaii eae e a a?iieeo neaiaeaeao ia caia/ai. Ia aii?in, ii/aio
iia ianeieueei ?ac auoiaeeea caioae, Aeaeiai ioaaoeea: «ss /oanoaoth
naay iaiiiai eo/oa, anee ?yaeii ni iiith ioae – /aeiaae, eioi?ue iaiy
ethaeo e eioi?iai y ethaeth. Iaiy nae/an oaea ia i?aeueuatho ?aciua
i?eeeth/aiey. Eiaaea ou iieiaea, oi aaaeii, eiia/ii, /oiau ca oiaie
ooaaeeaaee ioae/eiu e /oiau n oiaie i?ienoiaeeei /oi-ieaoaeue
eioa?aniia. Ii /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy yoi iaaeiaaeaao. A iieiaeinoe
naen aeey iaiy aue aaaeiie /anoueth aeecie, /ai-oi niaa?oaiii
ii?iaeueiui, aea e nae/an ec-ca iaai y ia eniuouaath /oanoaa aeiu.
Ii-iiaio, eiaaea-ieaoaeue iaaei ia?anoaoue niaoue n ?aciuie ioae/eiaie.
Oai aieaa naaiaeiy i?eoiaeeony auoue iaiiiai inoi?iaeiaa ec-ca anao yoeo
iiyaeaoeony oaeaniuo aieaciae. Ii iacaaeneii io yoiai neaaeoao iii?inoo
ciaoue, /oi ou iiaeaoue naaa iicaieeoue. Anoue aeaiueiu, eioi?ua iiaoo
eiaoue iiiaeanoai ethaiaiuo i?eeeth/aiee, ie/ooue io yoiai ia no?aaeay.
Ae?oaea eniuouaatho iaeaeo, anee, iai?eia?, n eai-ieaoaeue ia?aniaee, a
ia neaaeothuaa oo?i ii aeaaea ia iicaiiee. Aeey iaiy aea /aeiaa/aneea
ioiioaiey aaaeiaa, /ai naen». Ii aeaaea ethaiaue ia iaoaao aeo?ena
aca?oii ioaeaaaoueny ?aaioa. Eiaaea a «Aeeianoee» noeaia?enou iaaeieai
inoaaeee Aeaenen ca eaae?ii, iia «?aaioea» a Iiiaei, ii ia a eaceii, a
ia nuaiee a ieie-na?eae «Iiioa-Ea?ei», aaea nua?aea eiaa?ioth e
iaieuenoeoaeueioth niaaoneoth oieiieo, ainieoaiioth a Aiaeee e
?aaioathuoth «iiae e?uoae» iia?iie iaaeoeu ia a?eoaineoth ?acaaaeeo ai
a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. A yoii na?eaea ?yaeii n iae – iaio?aceiue
Aeaei?aeae Aaieeueoii e oaeaioeeaue Iaeeieuei Iaeaeaoyee. I naieo
ia?oia?ao Aeaeiai anaaaea iocuaaaony n iioaaeie. Ii aa neiaai,
naaeiaeanue Aeaeii Oi?naeo (Aeaee) – «aeoa? aunieiai eeanna, ianoiyuee
aeaeaioeueiai e ia ye?aia, e a aeecie. Aeaai?iaeai, aaeeeiaeooai,
naea?aeai. Aai iiaaaeaiea, inaiea, aeanou auaeatho /aeiaaea iienoeia
yeaaaioiiai. Auoue ?yaeii n iei ethaie aeaiueia aeinoaaeyao
oaeiaieuenoaea, a ea?aoue ia nuaii/iie ieiuaaeea – eaaei e ?aaeinoii».
Aiineaaenoaee Aeaeiai Eieeeic, nicaeaaoay neaiaeaeueiua iaioa?u i
nuaieao «Aeeianoee», noaea ienaoue eieae. Iia aaoi? o?ao ?iiaiia. Yoi,
ii neiaai aeo?enu, «eieae ia oaeeaeoaeueiuo, i?ae?aniuo, caia/aoaeueiuo
ethaeyo, eioi?ui a aeecie i?eoeinue oae iiiai no?aaeaoue». Iie iiiaee a
nienee aanonaeea?ia a Aiaeee. Iineaaeiee ?iiai aucaae a?aiaeeiciue
noaeaaiue i?ioeann Aeaeiai Eieeeic i?ioea ecaeaoaeuenoaa «?yiaeii Oaon»,
iio?aaiaaaoaai aa?iooue aaain a 1,2 ieeeeiia aeieea?ia ca
«ia/eoaaaeueiue» iaoa?eae. Ii Aeaeiai auea?aea i?ioeann, i?e/ai
aeiiieieoaeueii ionoaeeea nieeaeioth noiio «ca i?e/eiaiiue ii?aeueiue
oua?a». Ii, iiieii aiaeueaai aea?a, eeoa?aoo?iua niiniaiinoe Aeaeiai
oianeaaeiaaea io iooea Aeaei Eieeeica, eioi?ue aeaaiui-aeaaii iaienae
eieao i aeaieo naieo aei/a?yo – Aeaeiai e Aeaeaee (iia ecaanoia a ?innee
iiae iacaaieai «Eaee», «Aieeeaoaeneee ciiia?e», «Aieeeaoaeneea aeaiu» e
ae?.), eioi?ua i/aiue ?aii aueaoaee ec ?iaeiiai aiacaea e
naiinoiyoaeueii aeiaeeenue aieueoeo oniaoia. Iniaaiii Aeaeiai. A
«Aeeianoee» anoue aeo?enu, eioi?ua ea?atho aeaiuei iaiiiai iieiaea naieo
eao. Nae/an yoi oaea i?eau/ii. Ii /oi ca yoei noieo? «Eiia/ii, – aiai?eo
Aeaeiai, – aeaiueiu ethaiai aic?anoa iiaoo auaeyaeaoue oi?ioi. E
naaiaeiy aeo?enu c?aeiai aic?anoa iinoiyiii aeieacuaatho yoi. Eo oaea
iaeuecy «ioi?aaeyoue ia naaeeo», eae ?aiueoa, a 25 eao. Ia eaaeaeay
noaiao Eeiaeie Yaain eee Aeaeaiie Ey?iee, ii eaaeaeay iiaeao e eo
o?iaith i?eaeeceoueny. Iaeuecy oienoaoue, iaeuecy iineoue ia?yoeeaua
ieaouey eee eiaoue ioa?aoeoaeueioth i?e/aneo. Iaaei inoaaaoueny aeey
ioae/ei i?eaeaeaoaeueiie».

Aaianna ?aaea?aea ( 1937 )

Aaianna ?aaea?aea ?iaeeeanue 30 yiaa?y 1937 aiaea a Eiiaeiia
(Aaeeeia?eoaiey). O/eeanue a Oeaio?aeueiie oeiea iocuee e ae?aiu a
Eiiaeiia, ia oaao?aeueiie noeaia aeaathoe?iaaea a 1957 aiaeo, a aiaeii
iicaea aia?aua niyeanue a eeii (`Iiae ianeie`). A ia/aea 60 – o aiaeia
ea?aea a ninoaaa Ei?ieaaneie Oaenie?ianeie o?oiiu, a 1966 aiaeo
aa?ioeanue a eeii (`A Man for All Seasons`). Ia ?oaaaea 60 – 70-o aiaeia
Aaianna ?aaea?aea noaiiaeony iaeiie ec naiuo iiioey?iuo aeo?en ie?a e
caaiaauaaao n?aco ianeieueei i?anoeaeiuo iaa?aae – `Inea?`, `Cieioie
aeiaon`, A?ai – i?e Eaiineiai eeiioanoeaaey. N?aaee eeii?aaio yoiai
ia?eiaea – oeeueiu `Ii?aai!`, `Aenaaei?a`, `Ia?ey, ei?ieaaa
oioeaiaeneay`, `Oioioaaee/aiea` (`Aeio – ai`), `Eaiaeio`. Aeo?ena
?aaioaea n oaeeie ?aaeenna?aie, eae Eai ?annae, Oiie ?e/a?aenii,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei Aioiieiie, Aeaeii Oeaceiaa?. Iiaui oniaoii ?aaea?aea
noaea ?ieue a oeeueia O?aaea Oeeiiaiaia `Aeaeoeey`. Oaeaioeeaay aeo?ena
i?iaeieaeaao aeoeaii nieiaoueny a eeii: `Ainoiioeu` (1984), `Iioi?iiu
Noaeeia` (1990), `Iaeaiueeay Iaeanna` (1994), `Iaauiieieiia caaeaiea`
(1996). Aaianna ?aaea?aea ecaanoia ia oieueei naieie ?ieyie, ii e
eaai?aaeeeaeueiuie iieeoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie. O iaa o?ia aeaoae: aei/a?e
Iaoaoa e Aeaeiyee ?e/a?aenii (iaa – aeo?enu) io a?aea n ?aaeenna?ii Oiie
?e/a?aeniiii e nui io aeoa?a O?aiei Ia?i, n eioi?ui iia ?aaioaea a
oeeueia `Eaiaeio`.

Iie IaeEa?oie

Aeaeaein Iie IaeEa?oie ?iaeeeny 18 ethiy 1942 aiaea a eeaa?ioeueneii
?aeiia Yioeeae. Iicaeiaa naiuey ia?aaoaea a ?aeii Oieeyene, caoai a
Niae, a a 55-ii iainiiaaeanue a ?aeiia Ieea?oii, anaai a 2 ieeyo io
aeiia, aaea aeee Aeaeii Eaiiii. Ii oa?aeoa?o iaeaiueeee Iie aue i?yiie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth Aeaeiio Eaiiiio. Ni anaie ii aae naay aaaeeeai e
oaeoe/ii, oioy iaeuecy auei iacaaoue aai iae-iaeue/eeii. Eae e Aeaeii ii
aue naaa ia oia e aei?iaeee naiae iacaaeneiinoueth, eioi?oth, iaeiaei ,
ooaa?aeaeae ia aa?anneaiinoueth e aoioa?noaii, a /enoi aeeieiiaoe/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie. A ia/aeueiie oeiea ii aue iaeiei ec eo/oeo o/aieeia e,
ieii/ea aa, eaaei iinooiee a n?aaeithth oeieo aeey iaeue/eeia n iuoiui
iacaaieai “Eeaa?ioeueneee einoeooo”. Iieo auei 14 eao, eiaaea neo/eeanue
o?aaaaeey. O Iy?e IaeEa?oie iaia?oaeeee ?ae, e 31 ieoya?y 1956 aiaea iia
oia?ea. Ia?aue a naiae aeecie iocueaeueiue eino?oiaio, o?oao, Iie
iieo/ee a iiaea?ie io aeyaee, eiaaea aio auei 12, ii oae aai e ia
inaiee. A 14 ii iii?inee iooea eoieoue aio aeoa?o. Iie aue eaaoa, ii,
eae nai ii ooaa?aeaeae iiiai eao nionoy, ii-ianoiyuaio iniciae naay
oaeiaui oieueei eneeth/eoaeueii /a?ac aeoa?o. N oiai iiiaioa ana
inoaeueiia iioa?yei aeey Iiea cia/aiea. Ii iia ea?aoue nooee iai?ieao,
ea?aoue ia e?ueueoea, a aaiiie, a ooaeaoa, ia oeieueiii aeai?a. Eae
iiiaea naa?noieee, Iie noa?aeny ia i?iioneaoue eiioea?ou neeooe-a?oii,
/anaie neooae ii ii/ai i?ia?aiiu ?aaeeinoaioeee “Radio Luxemburg”. Ii
?aco/eaae oeyaa?u Yeaena I?anee, Eeooe ?e/a?aea e iiae?aaeae yoei
caacaeai aeiaieueii eneonii. Oai ia iaiaa ii ia niaoee i?eieiooue e
eaeie-ieaoaeue a?oiia eee ia?aciaaoue naith. A oeiea iaeiei ec ae?ocae
Iiea aue Aeaai Aiyi. Aeaai a?aiy io a?aiaie ea?ae a a?oiia Aeaeiia
Eaiiiia “The Quarrymen” e iaeiaaeaeu, 6 ethey 1957 aiaea, iicaae Iiea ia
aa aunooieaiea. Oai Eaiiii e IaeEa?oie aia?aua ano?aoeeenue. *a?ac
iaaeaeth Aeaeii i?eaeanee Iiea a naie ainaiaeue. E oiio a?aiaie Iie oaea
ia/ae ni/eiyoue naie nianoaaiiua eiiiiceoeee, e oaia?ue iie aaeaiai n
Aeaeiiii i?eaeoiuaaee i?eaeiaeueiua iaeiaeee e a?aiaee?iaee. E eiioeo
1958 aiaea a eo aaoi?neii a?oeaa ian/eouaaeinue oaea ieiei iieonioie
ianai, aeeth/ay ?aiiea aa?eaiou “Love me do”, “One After 909”. Aei 1961
aiaea Iie, eae e Aeaeii, ea?ae ia ?eoi-aeoa?a, a aan aeoa?o a?ae a ?oee
eeoue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea Notha?o Naoeeeoo ia iia aueoe ia noeaio.
Iinoiyiiui aan-aeoa?enoii IaeEa?oie noae oieueei eaoii 1961 aiaea,
eiaaea Notha?o iieeioe a?oiio. Aei 1966 aiaea aeia?aoey Iiea IaeEa?oie
ninoaaeyea aaeeiia oeaeia n aeia?aoeae “AEOEC”. Aai aeaatho eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai eiiiiceoi?a ninoiyeny a eiioea 1966-ai, eiaaea ii
ni/eiee iocueo e oeeueio “The Family Way”. A aeaeueiaeoai Iie aunooiee
aaoi?ii iniiaiie eaeae eiioeaiooaeueiiai aeueaiia “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely
Hearts Club Band” ( 1967 ), aio aea i?eiaaeeaaeaea aaaeouay ?ieue a
nicaeaiee oeeueia “Magical Mystery Tour” (1967), aeueaiia “Abbey Road”.
Nieueioth ea?uea?o IaeEa?oie ia/ae aua aei ?aniaaea eaa?oaoa. A iiya?a
69-ai – ia?oa 70 aiaea ii caienae a aeiiaoiae nooaeee naie aeaathoiue
aeueaii “McCartney”, eioi?ue oe?ia “Apple” auionoeea 17 ai?aey 1970
aiaea. Iie iaeei eniieiee ana eino?aiaioaeueiua ia?oee, caienaa eo
iaoiaeii iiiaie?aoiiai iaeiaeaiey. Eeoue a aieaeueiuo ia?oeyo ii
ainiieue- ciaaeny iiiiuueth aeaiu Eeiaeu Enoiai. Eeiaea oioue e ?aaioaea
a ?ie- aeo?iaeenoeea, iaeaaeaea aieaa /ai ne?iiiuie iiciaieyie a iocuea,
e Iieo i?eoeinue i?eeiaeeoue iaiaei oneeee, /oiau iao/eoue aa aeey
ia/aea oioy au niinii ea?aoue ia oi?oaieaii e iaoue. Aiae nionoy, a iaa
1971-ai, Iie e Eeiaea auionoeee iiaue aeueaii “Ram”, caienaiiue a
Iueth-Ei?ea n o/anoeai oaea?ieea Aeaiie Naeoyeea. Yoa ieanoeiea oiaea
eiaea e?oiiue eiiia?/aneee oniao. A oa aeie IaeEa?oie io/aoeeai iniciae,
/oi aio oyaeaei e ia othoii oai?eoue a iaeeii/eo, /oi ii, eae a
aicaeooa, ioaeaeaaony a aoiinoa?a ainaiaey, eieeaeoeaiiai oai?/anoaa.
Eaoii 1971 aiaea ii noi?ie?iaae ia?aue ninoaa a?oiiu “Wings”, eoaea
aioee Eeiaea, Aeaiie Naeoyee e aeoa?eno Aeaiie Eaei. N ieie ii caienae e
a aeaeaa?a oiai aea aiaea auionoee aeueaii “Wild Life”. Ieanoeieo
iinoeaea noaeueaa i?aaeuaeoueo: ioaeeea auea a ainoi?aa, e?eoeee –
iaoaee a?iiu e iieiee. A naiii ia/aea 1972 aiaea e ainaiaeth
i?eniaaeeieeny nieiaeoa?eno Oai?e IaeEaeeio. I?e anai oii ioiioaiey a
a?oiia neeaaeuaaeenue iai?inoi. Aeaiie Naeoyee e Oai?e IaeEaeeio ana
/aua auneacuaaee Iieo iaoaeiaieuenoaea eniieieoaeueneei o?iaiai Eeiaeu,
i?aaeeaaay acyoue aianoi iaa aieaa iiuoiiai ieaienoa. Eiioeeeo iac?aaae
e i?eaae e oiio, /oi Naeoyee e IaeEaeeio iieeioee a?oiio a naiue
iaiiaeoiaeyuee iiiaio. A ieoya?a 1979 aiaea IaeEa?oie aue iaa?aaeaeai
ecaeaoaeyie “Eieae ?aei?aeia Aeiianna” “?iaeeaaui aeeneii” eae naiiai
iiioey?iiai iocueaioa e eiiiiceoi?a-ianaiieea anao a?aiai e eae
iaeaaeaoaey iaeaieueoaai eiee/anoaa “cieiouo” ieanoeiie. 26 naioya?y
1989 aiaea ia/aeinue e?oainaaoiia aano?ieueiia oo?ia, ia?aia iinea 1976
aiaea, eiioea?oii a Inei e i?iaeieaeaeinue aei aaniu 1990-ai. Eae e
iyoiaaeoeaoue eao iacaae, a oiaea aano?ieae aue caienai o?ieiie
eiioea?oiue aeueaii.

Inea? Oaeeueae (16.10.1854-30.11.1900)

Inea? Oaeeueae, iieiia eiy Inea? Oeiaae I’Oeaaa?oe Oeeea Oaeeueae (Oscar
Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wild), ?iaeeeny 16 ieoya?y 1854 aiaea a
Aeoaeeia (E?eaiaeey).

N 1864 ii 1871 aiae Oaeeueae iinauae Ei?ieaaneoth ii?oi?neoth oeieo a
Yiieneeeeaia, caoai i?iaeieaeee ia?aciaaiea a O?eieoe-eieeaaeae
(Aeoaeei) e a Eieeaaeaea Nayoie Iaaaeaeeiu (Ienoi?aea), iineaaeiee
ieii/ee n ioee/eai a 1878 aiaeo.

Naie iaaeiaue ianyoe Oaeeueae i?iaae a Ia?eaea a 1884 aiaeo, eiaaea
aeaieeny ia Eiinoaioeee Eeieae. A 1885 e a 1886 aiaeo o ieo ?iaeeeenue
nuiiauey.

A 1886 aiaeo Oaeeueae iiciaeiieeny ni nooaeaioii Ienoi?aea ?iaa?oii
?innii e aethaeeny a iaai. Oaeeueaeo i?eoeinue ia/aoue aeaieioth
aeeciue…

A 1891 aiaeo oaeaeaea naao e n?aco aea noaea iieueciaaoueny
niianoeaaoaeueiui oniaoii iiaanoue “Ii?o?ao Aei?aaia A?ay”. A yoii aea
aiaeo Oaeeueae iiciaeiieeny n ei?aeii Aeueo?aaeii Aeoaeanii e ia/aeny
no?anoiue ?iiai.

Iaeei ec i?eyoaeae Aeoaeana caaeaaeae ienueiaie Oaeeueaea e ethaiaieeo e
ia/ae aai oaioaaee?iaaoue. *anoue ienai iiiaea a ?oee iooea Aeoaeana,
ia?eeca Eaeinaa??e. …Eaeinaa??e i?aaenoaaee noaeo aeieacaoaeuenoai a
aeaea nienea ec 12 iieiaeuo ethaeae, eioi?ua auee aioiau iiaeoaa?aeeoue
a noaea oi, /oi Oaeeueae i?enoaaae e iei n niaeiieoneeie
i?aaeeiaeaieyie.

25 iay 1895 aiaea Inea? Oaeeueae aue i?eaiai?ai e aeaoi aiaeai
eaoi?aeiuo ?aaio. A iaa 1897 aiaea ii auiouai ec ?aaeeianeie oth?ueiu.

Oia? 30 iiya?y 1900 aiaea a aic?anoa 46 eao a Ia?eaea.

Sources

1. Dictionary of Britain / Adrian Room – Oxford :Oxford University Press
, 1987.

2. Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know/
E.D.Hirsch , Jr., Joseph Kett ,James Trefil. – Boston: Houghton/Mifflin
Company, 1988.

3. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture.-Harlow ,Essex:
Longman Group UK Limited , 1992.

4. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Encyclopedic Dictionary. -Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1992.

5. Paul, Anthony. A Guide to the English -Speaking World. -Harlow and
London: Longman group Limited , 1975.

6. The History Today Companion to British History / Ed. By Juliet
Gardiner and Neil Wenborn. – London: Collins and Brown Limited,1995.

7. Webster’s New World Encyclopedia .Pocket Edition. Newly Revised and
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