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Жизнь Петра I

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Iao? I Aeaenaaae/ Aaeeeee – ia?aue Eiia?aoi? ana?inneeneee, ?iaeeeny 30
iay 1672 aiaea io aoi?iai a?aea oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a n Iaoaeueae
Ee?eeeiaiie Ia?uoeeiie, ainieoaiieoeae aiy?eia A.N. Iaoaaaaa. Aii?aee
eaaaiaea?iui ?anneacai E?aeoeia , iao/aiea iaeieaoiaai Iao?a oei
aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii.

I?aaeaiea canoaaeyao o?aoeaoiaai ?aaaiea ?aii?oiaaoue iooeo a /eia
iieeiaieea; a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeaoo n iieiaeiie eao ii aua ia aue
ioiyo io a?oaee. Iu ia ciaai, eiaaea ia/aeinue iao/aiea aai a?aiioa I.I.
Cioiaui , ii ecaanoii, /oi a 1683 a. Iao? aua ia eii/ee o/eoueny acaoea.
Aei eiioea aeecie ii i?iaeieaeae eaii?e?iaaoue a?aiiaoeeo e i?oia?aoeth.
A aeaonoaa ii ciaeiieony n “yeca?oeeoeeyie nieaeaoneiai no?iy” e
ia?aieiaao eneonnoai aeoue a aa?aaai: yoei e ia?aie/eaathony aai aiaiiua
iiciaiey aei aiaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee a naea Ai?iaueaaa (1683). Inaiueth
yoiai aiaea Iao? aua ea?aao a aea?aayiiuo eiiae. Ana yoi ia auoiaeeei ec
oaaeiia oiaaeaoieo iau/iuo “iioao” oea?neie naiuee. Ioeeiiaiey
ia/eiathony eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iieeoe/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aua?anuaatho Iao?a ec eieae. Ni nia?oueth oea?y Oaiaei?a Aeaenaaae/a,
aeooay ai?ueaa Ieeineaaneeo e Ia?uoeeiuo ia?aoiaeeo a ioe?uoia
noieeiiaaiea. 27 ai?aey oieia, nia?aaoayny ia?aae e?aniui e?ueueoeii
E?aieaaneiai aeai?oea, aue?eeioea oea?ai Iao?a, iaieaey aai noa?oaai
a?aoa Eiaiia; 15 iay, ia oii aea e?ueueoea, Iao? noiye ia?aae ae?oaie
oieiie, na?ineaoae Iaoaaaaa e Aeieai?oeiai ia no?aeaoeeea eiiuey.
Eaaaiaea ecia?aaeaao Iao?a niieieiui a yoio aeaiue aoioa; aa?iyoiaa, /oi
aia/aoeaiea auei neeueiia e /oi ionthaea aaaeoo ia/aei e ecaanoiay
ia?aiinoue Iao?a e aai iaiaaenoue e no?aeueoeai. *a?ac iaaeaeth iinea
ia/aea aoioa (23 iay) iiaaaeeoaee iio?aaiaaee io i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oiau
oea?yie auee iacia/aiu iaa a?aoa; aua iaaeaeae nionoy (29-ai), ii iiaiio
o?aaiaaieth no?aeueoeia, ca iieiaeinoueth oea?ae i?aaeaiea a?o/aii auei
oea?aaia Niouea.

Ia?oey Iao?a iono?aiaia auea io anyeiai o/anoey a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeaeao; Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia ai ana a?aiy ?aaaionoaa Niouee i?eacaeaea a
Iineao eeoue ia ianeieueei ceiieo ianyoeaa, i?iaiaey inoaeueiia a?aiy a
iiaeiineiaiii naea I?aia?aaeaineii. Ieiei iieiaeiai aeai?a
a?oiie?iaaeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ciaoiuo oaieeee, ia ?aoaaoeony
naycaoue naith noaeueao n a?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii Niouee.
I?aaeinoaaeaiiue naiiio naaa, Iao? ioo/eeny ia?aiineoue eaeea-eeai
noaniaiey, ioeacuaaoue naaa a eniieiaiee eaeiai au oi ie auei aeaeaiey.
Oea?eoea Iaoaeuey, aeaiueia “oia iaeiai”, ii au?aaeaieth aa
?iaenoaaiieea eiycy Eo?aeeia, caaioeeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio, eneeth/eoaeueii
i oece/aneie noi?iia ainieoaiey naiaai nuia. N naiiai ia/aea iu aeaeei
Iao?a ie?oaeaiiui “iieiaeuie ethaeueie ia?auo aeiiia”; ia?aua, a eiioea
eiioeia, acyee aa?o, a “ciaoiua ia?niiu” auee ioaeaeaiu. Aanueia
aa?iyoii, /oi i?inoua e ciaoiua i?eyoaee aeaoneeo ea? Iao?a iaeeiaeiai
caneoaeeaaee eee/eo “ici?ieeia”, aeaiioth ei Nioueae. A 1683 – 1685
aiaeao ec i?eyoaeae e aeia?iaieueoeaa i?aaiecothony aeaa iieea,
iinaeaiiua a naeao I?aia?aaeaineii e ninaaeiai Naiaiianeii.

Iaei-iiiaeo a Iao?a ?acaeaaaony eioa?an e oaoie/aneie noi?iia aiaiiiai
aeaea, canoaaeaoee aai eneaoue iiauo o/eoaeae e iiauo iiciaiee. “Aeey
iaoaiaoeee, oi?oeoeeaoeee, oiea?iiai ianoa?noaa e iaiae
a?oeoeoeeaeueiuo” yaeyaony i?e Iao?a o/eoaeue – eiino?aiaoe, O?aioe
Oeiia?iai. Nio?aieaoeany (io 1688 a.?) o/aaiua oao?aaee Iao?a
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ianoie/eauo aai oneeeyo onaieoue i?eeeaaeioth
noi?iio a?eoiaoe/aneie, ano?iiiie/aneie e a?oeeea?eeneie i?aioae?inoe;
oa aea oao?aaee iieacuaatho, /oi iniiaaiey anae yoie i?aioae?inoe oae e
inoaeenue aeey Iao?a oaeiie. Caoi oiea?iia eneonnoai e ie?ioaoieea
anaaaea auee ethaeiuie caiyoeyie Iao?a. Aaeeinoaaiiui e?oiiui, e
iaoaea/iui, aiaoaoaeuenoaii iaoa?e a ee/ioth aeeciue thiioe auea
aeaieoueaa aai ia A.O. Eiiooeiie, 27 yiaa?y 1689 a., ?aiueoa
aeinoeaeaiey Iao?ii 17 eao. Yoi auea, ai?i/ai, nei?aa iieeoe/aneay, /ai
iaaeaaiae/aneay ia?a. Niouey aeaieea oea?y Eiaiia oiaea oio/an ii
aeinoeaeaiee 17-oe eao, ii o iaai ?iaeaeaeenue oieueei aei/a?e.

Nai auai? iaaanou aeey Iao?a aue i?iaeoeoii ia?oeeiie ai?ueau: ciaoiua
i?eaa?aeaioeu aai iaoa?e i?aaeeaaaee iaaanoo eiyaeaneiai ?iaea, ii
iiaaaeeee Ia?uoeeiu, n Oeo. No?aoiaaui ai aeaaa, e aua?aia auea aei/ue
iaeeiiiianoiiai aeai?yieia. Aneaae ca iae iioyioeenue ei aeai?o
iiiai/eneaiiua ?iaenoaaiieee (“aieaa 30 ia?nii”, aiai?eo Eo?aeei). Oaeay
ianna iiauo eneaoaeae iano, ia ciaaoeo, i?eoii, “ia?auaiey aeai?iaiai”,
aucaaea i?ioea Eiiooeiuo iauaa ?acae?aaeaiea i?e aeai?a; oea?eoea
Iaoaeuey nei?i “iaaanoeo naith aiciaiaaeaeaea e aeaeaea aieueoa aeaeaoue
n ioaeai aa a ianiaeanee, iaaeaee a ethaae” (Eo?aeei).

Yoei, oae aea eae e ianoiaenoaii oa?aeoa?ia, iauyniyaony, /oi “ec?yaeiay
ethaiaue” Iao?a e aeaia “i?iaeieaeaeanue ?acaa oieii aiae”, – a caoai
Iao? noae i?aaeii/eoaoue naiaeiie aeecie – iioiaeioth, a iieeiaie ecaa
I?aia?aaeaineiai iieea. Iiaia caiyoea – noaeino?iaiea – ioaeaeei aai aua
aeaeueoa; n ssocu ii ia?anaeeeny ni naieie ei?aaeyie ia Ia?ayneaaneia
ica?i e aanaei i?iaiaeee oai a?aiy aeaaea ceiie. O/anoea Iao?a a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaeao ia?aie/eaaeinue, ai a?aiy ?aaaionoaa Niouee,
i?enoonoaeai i?e oi?aeanoaaiiuo oea?aiiieyo. Ii ia?a oiai eae Iao?
iiae?anoae e ?anoe?ye naie aiaiiua caaaau, Niouey ia/eiaea ana aieaa
o?aaiaeeoueny ca naith aeanoue e noaea i?eieiaoue ia?u aeey aa
nio?aiaiey. A ii/ue ia 8 aaaonoa 1689 a. Iao? aue ?acaoaeai a
I?aia?aaeaineii no?aeueoeaie, i?eianoeie aanoue i aeaenoaeoaeueiie eee
iieiie iianiinoe ni noi?iiu E?aiey. Iao? aaaeae e O?ieoea; aai
i?eaa?aeaioeu ?anii?yaeeeenue nicaaoue aeai?yineia iiie/aiea,
iio?aaiaaee e naaa ia/aeueieeia e aeaiooaoia io iineianeeo aiene e
o/eieee ei?ioeoth ?ani?aao n aeaaiuie i?eaa?aeaioeaie Niouee (ni. ei.
A.A. Aieeoeui, Neeueaano? , Oaeeiaeoue ).

Niouey auea iinaeaia a iiianou?a, Eiaii i?aaee eeoue iiieiaeueii;
oaeoe/anee aeanoue ia?aoea e ia?oee Iao?a. Ia ia?auo ii?ao, iaeiaei,
“oea?neia aaee/anoai inoaaee naia i?aaeaiea iaoa?e naiae, a nai
i?ai?iaiaeaeae a?aiy naia a caaaaao yeca?oeeoeee aiaiiuo”. I?aaeaiea
oea?eoeu Iaoaeuee i?aaenoaaeyeinue nia?aiaiieeai yiioie ?aaeoeee i?ioea
?aoi?iaoeeiiiuo no?aieaiee Niouee. Iao? ainiieueciaaeny ia?aiaiie naiaai
iieiaeaiey oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aei a?aiaeeiciuo ?acia?ia
naie oaanaeaiey. Oae, iaiaa?u iiauo iieeia eii/eeenue a 1694 a.
Eiaeooianeeie iioiaeaie (ni.), a eioi?uo “oea?ue Oaaei? Ieaoao?neie”
(?iiiaeaiianeee) ?acaee “oea?y Eaaia Naiaiianeiai” (Aooo?eeia ), inoaaea
ia iiea iioaoiie aeoau 24 ianoiyueo oaeouo e 59 ?aiaiuo.

?anoe?aiea ii?neeo caaaa iiaoaeeei Iao?a aeaaaeaeu niaa?oeoue
iooaoanoaea ia Aaeia ii?a, i?e/ai ii iiaeaa?aaeny na?ueaciie iianiinoe
ai a?aiy iiacaeee ia Nieiaaoeeea ino?iaa. Ca yoe aiaeu oeaio?ii
?acaoeueiie aeecie Iao?a noaiiaeony aeii iiaiai aai ethaeioea, Eaoi?oa,
a Iaiaoeeie neiaiaea. “Ooo ia/aeinue aeaaionoai, iueyinoai oae aaeeeia,
/oi iaaiciiaeii iienaoue, /oi ii o?e aeie, caia?oenue a oii aeiia,
auaaee iueyiu e /oi iiiaei neo/aeinue iooiai e oie?aoue” (Eo?aeei). A
aeiia Eaoi?oa Iao? “ia/ae n aeiiaie eiicaineeie iaoiaeeoueny e aio?
ia/ae ia?aue auoue e iaeiie aei/a?e eoia/aneie” (ni. Iiin Aiia ). “N
i?aeoeee”, ia aaeao Eaoi?oa, Iao? “iao/eeny oaioeiaaoue ii-iieuenee”;
nui aeaoneiai eiienna?a Aooaiaio o/ee aai oaooiaaieth e aa?oiaie acaea,
aieeaiaeaoe Aeieon – i?aeoeea aieeaiaeneiai ycuea; ai a?aiy iiacaeee a
A?oaiaaeuene Iao? ia?aiaeaeny a iao?inneee aieeaiaeneee einothi.

Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei onaiaieai aa?iiaeneie aiaoiinoe oei auno?ia
?ac?ooaiea noa?iai i?eaeai?iiai yoeeaoa; auoiaeeee ec oiio?aaeaiey
oi?aeanoaaiiua auoiaeu a niai?ioth oea?eiaue, ioaee/iua aoaeeaioeee e
ae?oaea “aeai?iaua oea?aiiiee”. “?oaaoaeuenoaa ciaoiuo ia?niiai” io
oea?neeo ethaeioeaa e i?eaeai?iuo oooia, oae aea eae e o/?aaeaeaiea
“anaoooaeoaai e anaiueyiaeoaai niai?a”, aa?oo naia ia/aei a oie aea
yiioa. A 1694 a. oia?ea iaoue Iao?a. Oioy oaia?ue Iao? “nai iiioaeaeai
aue anooieoue a oi?aaeaiea, iaeiaei aea o?oaea oiai ia oioae iiianoe e
inoaaee ana naiaai ainoaea?noaa i?aaeaiea – ieieno?ai naiei” (Eo?aeei).
Aio auei o?oaeii ioeacaoueny io oie naiaiaeu, e eioi?ie aai i?eo/eee
aiaeu iaaieueiiai oaeaeaiey io aeae; e aiineaaenoaee ii ia ethaee
naycuaaoue naay ioeoeeaeueiuie iaycaiiinoyie, ii?o/ay eo ae?oaei eeoeai
(iai?eia?, eiycth-eana?th ?iiiaeaiianeiio, ia?aae eioi?ui Iao? ea?aao
?ieue aa?iiiiaeaeaiiiai), a nai inoaaaynue ia aoi?ii ieaia.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iaoeia a ia?aua aiaeu nianoaaiiiai i?aaeaiey Iao?a
i?iaeieaeaao eaeoe naiei oiaeii; Iao? aiaoeaaaony a yoio oiae eeoue
oiaaea e iinoieueeo, eiaaea e iineieueeo yoi ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui
aeey aai aiaiii-ii?neeo caaaa. I/aiue nei?i, iaeiaei aea, “ieaaeai/aneia
ea?aiea” a nieaeaou e ei?aaee i?eaiaeeo Iao?a e na?ueaciui
cao?oaeiaieyi, aeey ono?aiaiey eioi?uo ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui
nouanoaaiii iio?aaiaeeoue noa?ue ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie. “Oooeee iiae
Eiaeooiaui, a oaia?ue iiae Acia ea?aoue aaeai” – oae niiauaao Iao? O.I.
Ai?aeneio a ia/aea 1695 a. ia Acianeii iioiaea (ni. Acia, Acianeay
oeioeeey).

Oaea a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo, iiciaeiieaoenue n iaoaeianoaaie Aaeiai ii?y,
Iao? ia/ae aeoiaoue i ia?aianaiee naieo ii?neeo caiyoee ia
eaeia-ieaoaeue ae?oaia ii?a. Ii eieaaaeny iaaeaeo Aaeoeeneei e
Eanieeneei; oiae ?onneie aeeieiiaoee iiaoaeee aai i?aaeii/anoue aieio n
Oo?oeeae e E?uiii, e oaeiie oeaeueth iioiaea iacia/ai aue Acia – ia?aue
oaa e auoiaeo a *a?iia ii?a. Oooeeaue oii nei?i en/acaao; ienueia Iao?a
noaiiayony eaeiie/iaa, ii ia?a oiai eae iaia?oaeeaaaony
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue aienea e aaia?aeia e na?ueaciui aeaenoaeyi.
Iaoaea/a ia?aiai iioiaea canoaaeyao Iao?a naeaeaoue iiaua oneeey.
Oeioeeey, iino?iaiiay ia Ai?iiaaea, ieacuaaaony, iaeiaei, iaeii?eaiaeiie
aeey aiaiiuo aeaenoaee; auienaiiua Iao?ii eiino?aiiua eiaeaia?u
iiacaeuaatho; Acia naeaaony a 1696 a. “ia aeiaiai?, a ia aiaiiui
i?iiuneii”.

Iao? ooiii i?acaeioao iiaaaeo, ii oi?ioi /oanoaoao iacia/eoaeueiinoue
oniaoa e iaaeinoaoi/iinoue nee aeey i?iaeieaeaiey ai?ueau. Ii
i?aaeeaaaao aiy?ai noaaoeoue “oi?ooiu ca aeanu” e ecuneaoue n?aaenoaa
aeey iino?ieee oeioa, /oiau i?iaeieaeaoue aieio n “iaaa?iuie” ia ii?a.
Aiy?a aiceiaeeee iino?ieeo ei?aaeae ia “eoiiainoaa” naaoneeo e aeooiaiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, eiaaoeo ia iaiueoa 10 aeai?ia; inoaeueiia ianaeaiea
aeieaeii auei iiiiaaoue aeaiueaaie. Iino?iaiiua “eoiiainoaaie” ei?aaee
ieacaeenue iicaeiaa ieeoaea ia aiaeiuie, e aanue yoio ia?aue oeio,
noieaoee ianaeaieth ieiei 900 ouny/ oiaaeaoieo ?oaeae, ia iia auoue
oiio?aaeai ie aeey eaeeo i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
ono?ienoaii “eoiiainoa” e aaeaeo oie aea oeaee, oi anoue aieiu n
Oo?oeeae, ?aoaii auei nia?yaeeoue iinieuenoai ca a?aieoeo aeey
cae?aieaiey nithca i?ioea “iaaa?iuo”. “Aiiaa?aee?” a ia/aea acianeiai
iioiaea e “eaieoai” a eiioea, Iao? oaia?ue i?eiueaao e iinieuenoao a
ea/anoaa “aieiioa?a Iao?a Ieoaeeiaa” n oeaeueth aeeaeaeoaai eco/aiey
ei?aaeano?iaiey. 9 ia?oa 1697 a. iinieuenoai aeaeioeinue ec Iineau n
iaia?aieai iinaoeoue Aaio, ei?ieae aiaeeeneiai e aeaoneiai, iaio,
aieeaiaeneea ooaou, eo?oth?noa a?aiaeaiao?aneiai e Aaiaoeeth.

Ia?aua caa?aie/iua aia/aoeaiey Iao?a auee, ii aai au?aaeaieth, “iaei
i?eyoiu”: ?eaeneee eiiaiaeaio Aeaeueaa?a neeoeii aoeaaeueii iiiye
eieiaieoi oea?y e ia iicaieee aio iniio?aoue oe?aieaiey: iicaeiaa Iao?
naeaeae ec yoiai eioeeaeaioa casus belli. Iuoiay ano?a/a a Ieoaaa e
ae?oaeanoaaiiue i?eai eo?oth?noa a?aiaeaiao?aneiai a Eaieanaa?aa
iii?aaeee aeaei. Ec Eieueaa?aa Iao? iiaoae aia?aae, ii?ai, ia Ethaae e
Aaiao?a, no?aiynue nei?aa aeinoeaiooue naiae oeaee – aoi?inoaiaiiie
aieeaiaeneie aa?oe a Naa?aeaia, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie aio iaeiei ec
iineianeeo ciaeiioeaa. Caeanue Iao? i?iaue 8 aeiae, oaeeaeyy ianaeaiea
iaeaiueeiai ai?iaeea naiei yeno?aaaaaioiui iiaaaeaieai.

Iinieuenoai i?eauei a Ainoa?aeai a n?aaeeia aaaonoa e inoaeinue oai aei
na?aaeeiu iay 1698 a., oioy ia?aaiai?u auee eii/aiu oaea a iiya?a 1697
a. A yiaa?a 1698 a. Iao? iiaoae a Aiaeeth aeey ?anoe?aiey naieo ii?neeo
iiciaiee e inoaaaeny oai o?e n iieiaeiie ianyoea, ?aaioay
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia aa?oe a Aeaiooi?aea. Aeaaiay oeaeue iinieuenoaa ia
auea aeinoeaiooa, oae eae ooaou ?aoeoaeueii ioeacaeenue iiiiaaoue ?innee
a aieia n Oo?oeeae; caoi Iao? oiio?aaee a?aiy i?aauaaiey a Aieeaiaeee e
a Aiaeee aeey i?eia?aoaiey iiauo ciaiee, a iinieuenoai caieiaeinue
caeoieie i?oaeey e anaaiciiaeiuo ei?aaaeueiuo i?eiania, iaeiii ii?yeia,
?aianeaiieeia e o. i. Ia aa?iiaeneeo iaaethaeaoaeae Iao? i?iecaae
aia/aoeaiea ethaiciaoaeueiiai aeeea?y, caeioa?aniaaiiiai i?aeiouanoaaiii
?aianeaie, i?eeeaaeiuie ciaieyie e anaaiciiaeiuie aeeeiaeieaie e
iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoiai, /oiau eioa?aniaaoueny nouanoaaiiuie /a?oaie
aa?iiaeneie iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie. Aai ecia?aaeatho
/aeiaaeii e?aeia aniueue/eaui e ia?aiui, auno?i iaiythuei iano?iaiea e
ieaiu e ia oiathuei aeaaeaoue niaie a ieioou aiaaa, iniaaiii iiae
aeeyieai aeia. Iao? eniuoae caeanue iiaoth aeeieiiaoe/aneoth iaoaea/o,
oae eae Aa?iia aioiaeeanue e aieia ca eniaineia ianeaaenoai e oeiiioaea
i i?eie?aiee Aano?ee n Oo?oeeae, a ia i aieia iaaeaeo ieie.

Noaniaiiue a naieo i?eau/eao no?iaei yoeeaoii aaineiai aeai?a, ia
iaoiaey e iiauo i?eiaiie aeey ethaiciaoaeueiinoe, Iao? niaoee iieeiooue
Aaio aeey Aaiaoeee, aaea iaaeayeny eco/eoue no?iaiea aaea?. Ecaanoea i
No?aeaoeeii aoioa aucaaei aai a ?inneth; ii aei?iaa ii oniae eeoue
iiaeaeaoueny n iieueneei ei?ieai Aaaonoii (a ianoa/ea ?aaa), e caeanue,
n?aaee o?aoaeiaaiiai iai?a?uaiiai aanaeuey, iaeueeioea ia?aay eaeay
caiaieoue iaoaeaaoeeny ieai nithca i?ioea oo?ie ae?oaei ieaiii,
i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai, acaiai oneieuecioaoaai ec ?oe *a?iiai ii?y, auei au
Aaeoeeneia. I?aaeaea anaai i?aaenoiyei iieii/eoue ni no?aeueoeaie e ni
noa?ui ii?yaeeii aiiaua. I?yii n aei?iae, ia iiaeaeaaoenue n naiueae,
Iao? i?iaoae e Aiia Iiin, iioii ia naie I?aia?aaeaineee aeai?. Ia
neaaeothuaa oo?i, 26 aaaonoa 1698 a., ii nianoaaiii?o/ii ia/ae no?e/ue
ai?iaeu o ia?auo naiiaieeia ainoaea?noaa. No?aeueoeu auee oaea ?acaeou
Oaeiui iiae Aine?anaineei iiianou?ai, e ca/eiueee aoioa iaeacaiu.

Iao? aiciaiiaee neaaenoaea i aoioa, noa?aynue iouneaoue neaaeu aeeyiey
ia no?aeueoeia oea?aaiu Niouee. Iaeaey aeieacaoaeuenoaa nei?aa acaeiiuo
neiiaoee, /ai ii?aaeaeaiiuo ieaiia e aeaenoaee, Iao? oai ia iaiaa
canoaaee iino?e/ueny Nioueth e aa nano?o Ia?oo . Yoei aea iiiaioii Iao?
ainiieueciaaeny, /oiau ianeeuenoaaiii iino?e/ue naith aeaio, ia
iaaeiyaoothny ie a eaeie i?eeiniiaaiiinoe e aoioo. A?ao oea?y, Eiaii,
oia? aua a 1696 a.; ieeaeea nayce ni noa?ui ia naea?aeeaatho aieueoa
Iao?a, e ii i?aaeaaony ni naieie iiauie ethaeioeaie, n?aaee eioi?uo
auaeaeaaaony ia ia?aia ianoi Iaioeeia, eaeie-oi iai?a?uaiie aaeoaiaeee,
ea?oeio eioi?ie ?enoao Ei?a. Ie?u e iiiieee niaiythony eaciyie, a
eioi?uo oea?ue nai ea?aao eiiaaea ?ieue iaea/a; n eiioea naioya?y ii
eiiaoe ieoya?y 1689 a. auei eaciaii aieaa ouny/e no?aeueoeia. A oaa?aea
1699 a. iiyoue eacieee no?aeueoeia nioiyie. Iineianeia no?aeaoeeia
aienei i?ae?aoeei naia nouanoaiaaiea.

Oeac 20 aeaeaa?y 1699 aiaea i iiaii eaoin/eneaiee oi?iaeueii i?iaae
/a?oo iaaeaeo noa?ui e iiaui a?aiaiai. 11 iiya?y 1699 a. aue caeeth/ai
iaaeaeo Iao?ii e Aaaonoii oaeiue aeiaiai?, eioi?ui Iao? iaycuaaeny
anooieoue a Eia?eth e Ea?aeeth oio/an ii caeeth/aiee ie?a n Oo?oeeae, ia
iicaea ai?aey 1700 a.; Eeoeyiaeeth e Ynoeyiaeeth, niaeanii ieaio
Ieoeoey, Aaaono i?aaeinoaaeye naaa. Ie? n Oo?oeeae oaeaeinue caeeth/eoue
eeoue a aaaonoa. Yoei i?iiaaeooeii a?aiaie Iao? ainiieueciaaeny aeey
nicaeaiey iiaie a?iee, oae eae “ii ?aniouaiee no?aeueoeia ieeaeie iaoiou
nea ainoaea?noai ia eiaei”. 17 iiya?y 1699 a. aue iauyaeai iaai? iiauo
27 iieeia, ?acaeaeaiiuo ia 3 aeeaecee, ai aeaaa eioi?uo noaee eiiaiaee?u
iieeia I?aia?aaeaineiai, Eaoi?oianeiai e Aoou?neiai. Ia?aua aeaa
aeeaecee (Aieiaeia e Aaeaea ) auee aiieia noi?ie?iaaiu e na?aaeeia ethiy
1700 a.; aianoa n iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie aieneaie, anaai aei 40 ouny/, iie
auee aeaeioou a oaaaeneea i?aaeaeu ia ae?oaie aeaiue ii iaia?iaeiaaiee
ie?a n Oo?oeeae (19 aaaonoa). E iaoaeiaieuenoaeth nithcieeia, Iao?
iai?aaee naie aienea e Ia?aa, acya eioi?oth ii iia oa?iaeaoue Eeoeyiaeee
e Ynoeyiaeee.

Oieueei e eiioeo naioya?y aienea nia?aeenue o Ia?au; oieueei a eiioea
ieoya?y aue ioe?uo iaiiue ii ai?iaeo (ni. Ia?aa, XX, 652). Ea?e XII
oniae ca yoi a?aiy iieii/eoue n Aeaieae e iaiaeeaeaiii aeey Iao?a
aunaaeeeny a Ynoeyiaeee. Ii/ueth n 17 ia 18 iiya?y ?onneea ociaee, /oi
Ea?e XII i?eaeeaeaaony e Ia?aa. Iao? oaoae ec eaaa?y, inoaaea
eiiaiaeiaaiea i?eioeo aea E?oa, iaciaeiiiio n nieaeaoaie e iaecaanoiiio
ei – e ainueieouny/iay a?iey Ea?ea XII, onoaeay e aieiaeiay, ?acaeea aac
anyeiai o?oaea ni?ieaouny/iia aienei Iao?a. Iaaeaaeaeu, aicaoaeaeaiiua a
Iao?a iooaoanoaeai ii Aa?iia, niaiythony ?aci/a?iaaieai. Ea?e XII ia
n/eoaao ioaeiui i?aneaaeiaaoue aeaeaa oaeiai neaaiai i?ioeaieea e
ia?auaaony i?ioea Iieueoe. Nai Iao? oa?aeoa?ecoao naia aia/aoeaiea
neiaaie: “oiaaea iaaiey eaiinoue ioiaiaea e e o?oaeiethaeth e eneonnoao
aeaiue e ii/ue i?eioaeeea”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, n yoiai iiiaioa Iao?
i?aia?aaeaaony. Iio?aaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe inoaaony i?aaeiyy, ii iia
iaoiaeeo naaa eiia, eo/oaa i?eeiaeaiea; ana iiiuneu Iao?a ono?aieaiu
oaia?ue ia oi, /oiau iaeieaoue niia?ieea e oe?aieoueny ia Aaeoeeneii
ii?a.

Ca ainaiue eao ii iaae?aao ieiei 200 000 nieaeao e, ianiio?y ia iioa?e
io aieiu e io aiaiiuo ii?yaeeia, aeiaiaeeo /eneaiiinoue a?iee n 40 aei
100 ouny/. Noieiinoue yoie a?iee iaoiaeeony aio a 1709 a. ii/oe aaeaia
aei?iaea, /ai a 1701 a.: 1 810 000 ?oaeae aianoi 982 000. Ca ia?aua 6
eao aieiu oiea/aii auei, naa?o oiai, noaneaeee ei?ieth iieueneiio ieiei
iieooi?a ieeeeiia. Anee i?eaaaeoue nthaea ?anoiaeu ia oeio, ia
a?oeeea?eth, ia niaea?aeaiea, oi iauee ?anoiae, aucaaiiue aieiie,
ieaaeaony 2,3 ieeeeiia a 1701 a., 2,7 ieeeeiia a 1706 a. e 3,2 ieeeeiia
a 1710 a. Oaea ia?aay ec yoeo oeeo? auea neeoeii aaeeea a n?aaiaiee n
oaie n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ua aei Iao?a aeinoaaeyeenue ainoaea?noao
ianaeaieai (ieiei 1 1/2 ieeeeiia). Iaaei auei eneaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua
enoi/ieee aeioiaea. Ia ia?aia a?aiy Iao? iaei caaioeony ia yoii e i?inoi
aa?ao aeey naieo oeaeae ec noa?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee – ia
oieueei eo naiaiaeiua inoaoee, ii aeaaea e oa eo noiiu, eioi?ua
?anoiaeiaaeenue i?aaeaea ia ae?oaia iacia/aiea; yoei ?anno?aeaaaony
i?aaeeueiue oiae ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu.

E ana-oaee e?oiiua noaouee iiauo ?anoiaeia ia iiaee iie?uaaoueny noa?uie
n?aaenoaaie, e Iao? aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo i?eioaeaeai aue nicaeaoue
iniaue ainoaea?noaaiiue iaeia. A?iey niaea?aeaeanue ec aeaaiuo aeioiaeia
ainoaea?noaa – oaiiaeaiiuo e eaaaoeeeo iioeei, nai? eioi?uo ia?aaeai aue
a iiaia oeaio?aeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea, ?aoooo. Aeey niaea?aeaiey iiaie
eaaaea?ee, iaa?aiiie a 1701 a., iiiaaeiaeeinue iacia/eoue iiaue iaeia
(“ae?aaoineea aeaiueae”); oi/ii oae aea – e ia iiaeaea?aeaiea oeioa
(“ei?aaaeueiua”). Iioii nthaea i?eniaaeeiyaony iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea
?aai/eo aeey iino?ieee Iaoa?ao?aa, “?ae?ooiua”, “iiaeai?iua”; a eiaaea
ana yoe iaeiae noaiiayony oaea i?eau/iuie e neeaathony a iauoth noiio
iinoiyiiuo (“ieeaaeiuo”), e iei i?eniaaeeiythony iiaua yeno?aiiua nai?u
(“cai?iniua”, “iaieeaaeiua”). E yoeo i?yiuo iaeiaia, iaeiaei, nei?i
ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii, oai aieaa /oi nae?aeenue iie aeiaieueii
iaaeeaiii e cia/eoaeueiay /anoue inoaaaeanue a iaaeieiea. ?yaeii n ieie
i?eaeoiuaaeenue iiyoiio ae?oaea enoi/ieee aeioiaea. Naiay ?aiiyy
auaeoiea yoiai ?iaea – aaaaeaiiay ii niaaoo Eo?aaoiaa aa?aiaay aoiaaa –
ia aeaea iaeeaeaaoeony io iaa aa?uoae. Oai aieueoaa cia/aiea eiaea ii?/a
iiiaou. Ia?a/aeaiea na?aa?yiie iiiaou a iiiaoo iecoaai aeinoieinoaa, ii
i?aaeiae iiieiaeueiie oeaia, aeaea ii 946 ouny/ a ia?aua 3 aiaea (1701 –
1703), ii 313 ouny/ – a neaaeothuea o?e; ionthaea auee auiea/aiu
eiino?aiiua noaneaeee.

Iaeiaei nei?i aanue iaoaee aue ia?aaeaeai a iiaoth iiiaoo, a noieiinoue
aa a ia?auaiee oiaea iaiieiaeio; oaeei ia?acii, iieueca io ii?/e iiiaou
auea a?aiaiiay e nii?iaiaeaeaeanue ia?iiiui a?aaeii, ?iiyy noieiinoue
anao aiiaua iinooieaiee eaciu (aianoa n oiaaeeii noieiinoe iiiaou).
Iiaie ia?ie aeey iiauoaiey eacaiiuo aeioiaeia auea ia?aia?i/ea, a 1704
a., noa?uo ia?i/iuo noaoae e ioaea/a ia ia?ie iiauo; ana aeaaeaeue/aneea
?uaiua eiaee, aeiiaoiea aaie, iaeueieoeu, iinoiyeua aeai?u iaeiaeaiu
auee ia?ieii, e iauay oeeo?a eacaiiuo iinooieaiee ii yoie noaouea
iiaeiyeanue e 1708 a. n 300 aei 670 ouny/ aaeaaiaeii.

Aeaeaa, eacia acyea a naie ?oee i?iaeaaeo niee, i?eianooth ae aei 300
ouny/ aaeaaiaeiiai aeioiaea, oaaaea (yoi i?aaei?eyoea ieacaeinue
iaoaea/iui), ?yaea ae?oaeo nu?uo i?iaeoeoia, aeaaaaoeo aei 100 ouny/
aaeaaiaeii. Ana yoe /anoua ia?ii?eyoey oaeiaeaoai?yee aeaaiie caaea/a –
ia?aaeeoue eae-ieaoaeue o?oaeiia a?aiy. Nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aoi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee Iao? ia iia a yoe aiaeu oaeaeeoue ie
ieioou aieiaiey, oae eae i?eaioiaeaiea n?aaenoa ai?ueau caieiaei ana aai
a?aiy e o?aaiaaei aai i?enoonoaey ai anao eiioeao ainoaea?noaa. A
noa?oth noieeoeo Iao? noae i?eacaeaoue oieueei ia nayoee; caeanue
aiciaiiaeyeanue iau/iay ?acaoeueiay aeeciue, ii aianoa n oai
ianoaeaeaeenue e ?aoaeenue iaeaieaa iaioeiaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea.
Iieoaaneay iiaaaea (i oiaea aieiu ni. Naaa?iay aieia) aeaea Iao?o
aia?aua iinea ia?aneiai ii?aaeaiey aiciiaeiinoue acaeioiooue naiaiaeii.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acia?aoueny a ianna ioaeaeueiuo ?anii?yaeaiee ia?auo
aiaeia aieiu noaiiaeeanue ana ianoiyoaeueiaa; e ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa
ianaeaiey, e ?ano?nu eaciu neeueii ineoaeaee, a aia?aaee i?aaeaeaeaeinue
aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Ec yoiai iieiaeaiey Iao? iaoae i?eau/iue oaea aeey iaai enoiae: anee
n?aaenoa ia oaaoaei ia ana, iie aeieaeiu auee auoue oiio?aaeaiu ia naiia
aeaaiia, oi anoue ia aiaiiia aeaei. Neaaeoy yoiio i?aaeeo, Iao? e
?aiueoa oi?iuae oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea no?aiie, ia?aaeaaay nai?u n
ioaeaeueiuo ianoiinoae i?yii a ?oee aaia?aeia, ia eo ?anoiaeu, e ieioy
oeaio?aeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, eoaea aeaiueae aeieaeiu auee iinooiaoue ii
noa?iio ii?yaeeo. Anaai oaeiaiaa auei i?eiaieoue yoio niinia a
iiaicaaiaaaiiie no?aia – a Eiaa?iaieaiaeee, ioaeaiiie a “aoaa?iaoeeth”
Iaioeeiao. Oio aea niinia aue ?ani?ino?aiai ia Eeaa e Niieaine – aeey
i?eaaaeaiey eo a iai?iieoaeueiia iieiaeaiea i?ioea iaoanoaey Ea?ea XII,
ia Eacaiue – aeey onie?aiey aieiaiee, ia Ai?iiaae e Acia – aeey
iino?ieee oeioa. Iao? oieueei noiie?oao yoe /anoe/iua ?anii?yaeaiey,
eiaaea i?eeacuaaao (18 aeaeaa?y 1707 a.) “?inienaoue ai?iaea /anoyie,
e?iia oao, eioi?ua a 100 aa?noao io Iineau, – e Eeaao, Niieaineo, Aciao,
Eacaie, A?oaiaaeueneiio”.

Iinea iieoaaneie iiaaaeu yoa iayniay iuneue i iiaii
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oeiainiaii ono?ienoaa ?innee iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea. I?eienea ai?iaeia e oeaio?aeueiui ioieoai, aeey aceiaiey n ieo
anyeeo nai?ia, i?aaeiieaaaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia auyniaiea, eoi e /oi
aeieaeai ieaoeoue a eaaeaeii ai?iaea. Aeey i?eaaaeaiey a ecaanoiinoue
ieaoaeueueeia iacia/aia auea iianaianoiay ia?aienue; aeey i?eaaaeaiey a
ecaanoiinoue ieaoaaeae aaeaii auei nia?aoue naaaeaiey ec i?aaeieo
oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. ?acoeueoaou yoeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ?aaio
iaia?oaeeee, /oi ainoaea?noai ia?aaeeaaao na?ueaciue e?ecen. Ia?aienue
1710 a. iieacaea, /oi, aneaaenoaea aani?a?uaiuo iaai?ia e iiaaaia io
iiaeaoae, ieaoaaeiia ianaeaiea ainoaea?noaa neeueii oiaiueoeeinue:
aianoi 791 ouny/ aeai?ia, /eneeaoeony ii ia?aiene 1678 a., iiaay
ia?aienue ian/eoaea oieueei 637 ouny/; ia anai naaa?a ?innee, ianoai aei
Iao?a aeaaioth /anoue oeiainiaie oyainoe, oaueue aeinoeaea aeaaea 40%.
Aaeaeo oaeiai iaiaeeaeaiiiai oaeoa, i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeeinue
eaii?e?iaaoue oeeo?u iiaie ia?aiene, ca eneeth/aieai iano, aaea iie
iieacuaaee i?eaueue ianaeaiey (ia thai-ainoiea e a Neae?e); ii anai
inoaeueiui ianoiinoyi ?aoaii auei aceiaoue iiaeaoe niia?acii ni noa?uie,
oeeoeaiuie oeeo?aie ieaoaeueueeia. E i?e yoii oneiaee, iaeiaei,
ieacaeinue, /oi ieaoaaee ia iie?uaatho ?anoiaeia: ia?auo ieacuaaeinue 3
ieeeeiia 134 ouny/, iineaaeieo – 3 ieeeeiia 834 ouny/ ?oaeae. Ieiei 200
ouny/ iiaei auoue iie?uoi ec nieyiiai aeioiaea; inoaeueiua iieieeeeiia
ninoaaeyee iinoiyiiue aeaoeoeeo. Ai a?aiy ?iaeaeanoaaineeo nuacaeia
aaia?aeia Iao?a a 1709 e 1710 aiaeao ai?iaea ?innee auee ieii/aoaeueii
?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo 8 aoaa?iaoi?aie; eaaeaeue a naiae “aoaa?iee”
niae?ae ana iiaeaoe e iai?aaeye eo, i?aaeaea anaai, ia niaea?aeaiea
a?iee, oeioa, a?oeeea?ee e aeeieiiaoee. Yoe “/aou?a ianoa” iiaeiuaee
aanue eiinoaoe?iaaiiue aeioiae ainoaea?noaa; eae aoaeoo iie?uaaoue
“aoaa?iee” ae?oaea ?anoiaeu, e i?aaeaea anaai naie, ianoiua – yoio
aii?in inoaaaeny ioe?uoui. Aeaoeoeeo aue ono?aiai i?inoi nie?auaieai ia
niioaaonoaaiioth noiio ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Oae eae niaea?aeaiea
a?iee auei aeaaiie oeaeueth i?e aaaaeaiee “aoaa?iee”, oi aeaeueiaeoee
oaa yoiai iiaiai ono?ienoaa ninoiye a oii, /oi ia eaaeaeoth aoaa?ieth
aiceiaeaii auei niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieeia. Aeey iinoiyiiuo
niioaiee n ieie aoaa?iee iacia/eee e iieeai naieo “eiienna?ia”. Naiui
nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii oaeiai ono?ienoaa, aaaaeaiiiai a aeaenoaea n
1712 a., auei oi, /oi iii oaeoe/anee oi?acaeiyei noa?ua oeaio?aeueiua
o/?aaeaeaiey (ni. I?eeacu), ii ia caiaiyei eo ieeaeeie ae?oaeie.
Aoaa?iee iaiin?aaenoaaiii niineeenue n a?ieae e n aunoeie aiaiiuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, ii iaae ieie ia auei ieeaeiai aunoaai i?enoonoaaiiiai
ianoa, eioi?ia au iiaei eiio?iee?iaaoue e niaeaoaoue eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea. Iio?aaiinoue a oaeii oeaio?aeueiii o/?aaeaeaiee
ii/oanoaiaaeanue oaea a 1711 a., eiaaea Iao? aeieaeai aue iieeiooue
?inneth aeey i?ooneiai iioiaea (ni. Oo?aoeeea aieiu). “Aeey ioeo/ae
naieo” Iao? nicaeae Naiao (ni.). Aoaa?iee aeieaeiu auee iacia/eoue a
Naiao naieo eiienna?ia “aeey ni?ina e i?eieiaiey oeacia”. Ii ana yoi ia
ii?aaeaeyei n oi/iinoueth acaeiiiai ioiioaiey Naiaoa e aoaa?iee.

Ana iiiuoee Naiaoa i?aaieciaaoue iaae aoaa?ieyie oaeie aea eiio?ieue,
eaeie iaae i?eeacaie eiaea o/?aaeaeaiiay a 1701 a. “Aeeaeiyy
eaioeaey?ey”, eii/eeenue niaa?oaiiie iaoaea/ae. Aacioaaonoaaiiinoue
aoaa?iaoi?ia yaeyeanue iaiaoiaeeiui iineaaenoaeai oiai, /oi
i?aaeoaeuenoai naii iinoiyiii ia?ooaei onoaiiaeaiiua a 1710 – 1712
aiaeao ii?yaeee aoaa?ineiai oicyenoaa, a?aei o aoaa?iaoi?a aeaiueae ia
ia oa oeaee, ia eioi?ua ii aeieaeai aue ieaoeoue eo ii athaeaeaoo,
naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaeinue iaee/iuie aoaa?ineeie noiiaie e o?aaiaaei io
aoaa?iaoi?ia ana iiauo e iiauo “i?eai?ia”, oi anoue oaaee/aiey aeioiaea,
oioy au oeaiie oaiaoaiey ianaeaiey. Iniiaiay i?e/eia anao yoeo ia?ooaiee
caaaaeaiiiai ii?yaeea auea oa, /oi athaeaeao 1710 a. oeene?iaae oeeo?u
iaiaoiaeeiuo ?anoiaeia, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea, iie i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe
e ia oiauaeenue aieaa a ?aieao athaeaeaoa. ?ino a?iee oaia?ue, i?aaaea,
ianeieueei i?einoaiiaeeny; ca oi auno?i oaaee/eaaeenue ?anoiaeu ia
aaeoeeneee oeio, ia iino?ieee a iiaie noieeoea (eoaea i?aaeoaeuenoai a
1714 a. ieii/aoaeueii ia?aianei naith ?aceaeaioeeth), ia iai?iio thaeiie
a?aieoeu. I?eoiaeeeinue iiyoue ecuneeaaoue iiaua, naa?oathaeaeaoiua
?ano?nu.

Iacia/aoue iiaua i?yiua iaeiae auei ii/oe aaniieacii, oae eae e noa?ua
ieaoeeenue ana ooaea e ooaea, ii ia?a iaaaeiaiey ianaeaiey. Ia?a/aeaiea
iiiaou, eacaiiua iiiiiieee oaeaea ia iiaee aeaoue aieueoa oiai, /oi oaea
aeaee. Ia niaio aoaa?ineie nenoaia aicieeaao nai niaie aii?in i
ainnoaiiaeaiee oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee; oain noa?uo e iiauo iaeiaia:
“ieeaaeiuo”, “iianaaiaeiuo” e “cai?iniuo” aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eiinieeaeaoeee i?yiie iiaeaoe; aaconiaoiia acuneaiea iaeiaia ii
oeeoeaiui oeeo?ai 1678 a. i?eaiaeeo e aii?ino i iiaie ia?aiene e ia
eciaiaiee iiaeaoiie aaeeieoeu; iaeiiaoe, ceioiio?aaeaiea nenoaiie
eacaiiuo iiiiiieee auaeaeaaao aii?in i iieueca aeey ainoaea?noaa
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. ?aoi?ia anooiaao a naie o?aoee e
iineaaeiee oacen: aei 1710 a. iia naiaeeeanue e iaeiieaieth neo/aeiuo
?anii?yaeaiee, i?iaeeeoiaaiiuo iio?aaiinoueth ieioou; a 1708 – 1712
aiaeao auee naeaeaiu iiiuoee i?eaanoe yoe ?anii?yaeaiey a iaeioi?oth
/enoi aiaoithth, iaoaie/aneoth naycue; oaia?ue aicieeaao niciaoaeueiia,
nenoaiaoe/aneia no?aieaiea aicaeaeaiooue ia oai?aoe/aneeo iniiaaieyo
aiieia iiaoth ainoaea?noaaiioth iino?ieeo.

Aii?in, a eaeie noaiaie nai Iao? ee/ii o/anoaiaae a ?aoi?iao iineaaeiaai
ia?eiaea, inoaaony aei neo ii? aua nii?iui. A?oeaiia eco/aiea enoi?ee
Iao?a iaia?oaeeei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy oeaeoth ianno “aeiiioaiee” e
i?iaeoia, a eioi?uo ianoaeaeaeinue ii/oe ana niaea?aeaiea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee Iao?a. A yoeo aeieeaaeao, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo
?onneeie e iniaaiii eiino?aiiuie niaaoieeaie Iao?a, aeia?iaieueii eee ii
i?yiiio auciao i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iieiaeaiea aeae a ainoaea?noaa e
aaaeiaeoea ia?u, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aai oeo/oaiey, ?anniio?aiu i/aiue
ianoiyoaeueii, oioy e ia anaaaea ia iniiaaiee aeinoaoi/iiai ciaeiinoaa n
oneiaeyie ?onneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iao? nai /eoae iiiaea ec yoeo
i?iaeoia e a?ae ec ieo ana oi, /oi i?yii ioaa/aei eioa?aniaaaoei aai a
aeaiioth ieiooo aii?inai – iniaaiii aii?ino ia oaaee/aiee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e i ?ac?aaioea i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa ?innee.

Aeey ?aoaiey aieaa neiaeiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaea/, iai?eia? i oi?aiaie
iieeoeea, oeiainiaie e aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?ia, Iao? ia iaeaaeae
iaiaoiaeeiie iiaeaioiaeie; aai o/anoea ia?aie/eaaeinue caeanue
iinoaiiaeie aii?ina, aieueoae /anoueth ia iniiaaiee neiaaniuo niaaoia
eiai-eeai ec ie?oaeathueo, e au?aaioeie ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee
caeiia; any i?iiaaeooi/iay ?aaioa – niae?aiea iaoa?eaeia, ?ac?aaioea eo
e i?iaeoe?iaaiea niioaaonoaothueo ia? – aiceaaaeanue ia aieaa naaaeoueo
eeoe. A /anoiinoe, ii ioiioaieth e oi?aiaie iieeoeea, Iao? nai “ia ?ac
aeaeiaaeny, /oi ec anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae aeey iaai ie/aai iao
o?oaeiaa eiiia?oeee e /oi ii ieeiaaea ia iia ninoaaeoue naaa yniiai
iiiyoey ia yoii aeaea ai anae aai nayce” (Oiea?iaeo ).

Iaeiaei ainoaea?noaaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue canoaaeea aai eciaieoue
i?aaeiaa iai?aaeaiea ?onneie oi?aiaie iieeoeee – e aaaeioth ?ieue i?e
yoii nua?aee niaaou ciathueo ethaeae. Oaea a 1711 – 1713 aiaeao
i?aaeoaeuenoao aue i?aaenoaaeai ?yae i?iaeoia, a eioi?uo aeieacuaaeinue,
/oi iiiiiieecaoeey oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ?oeao eaciu a?aaeeo, a
eiioea eiioeia, naiiio oeneo e /oi aaeeinoaaiiue niinia oaaee/eoue
eacaiiua aeioiaeu io oi?aiaee – ainnoaiiaeaiea naiaiaeu
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ieiei 1715 a. niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoia
noaiiaeony oe?a; a ianoaeaeaiee aii?inia i?eieiatho o/anoea eiino?aioeu,
neiaanii e ienueiaiii aiooathuea oea?th e i?aaeoaeuenoao eaeae
aa?iiaeneiai ia?eaioeeecia – i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey no?aiu auaiaeiiai
oi?aiaiai aaeaina e i niiniaa aeinoeaiooue aai nenoaiaoe/aneei
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iaoeeiiaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaea, iooai
ioe?uoey oaa?ee e caaiaeia, caeeth/aiey oi?aiauo aeiaiai?ia e
o/?aaeaeaiey oi?aiauo eiinoeuenoa ca a?aieoeae.

?ac onaiea yoo oi/eo c?aiey, Iao? ni naiae iau/iie yia?aeae i?iaiaeeo aa
ai iiiaeanoaa ioaeaeueiuo ?anii?yaeaiee. Ii nicaeaao iiaue oi?aiaue ii?o
(Iaoa?ao?a) e ianeeuenoaaiii ia?aaiaeeo ooaea oi?aiaeth ec noa?iai
(A?oaiaaeuenea), ia/eiaao no?ieoue ia?aua eneonnoaaiiua aiaeyiua iooe
niiauaiey, /oiau naycaoue Iaoa?ao?a n oeaio?aeueiie ?inneae, oneeaiii
caaioeony i ?anoe?aiee aeoeaiie oi?aiaee n Ainoieii (iinea oiai eae ia
Caiaaea aai iiiuoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee ieacaeenue iaei oniaoiuie), aeaao
i?eaeeaaee ono?ieoaeyi iiauo caaiaeia, auienuaaao ec-ca a?aieoeu
ianoa?ia, eo/oea i?oaeey, eo/oea ii?iaeu neioa e o. ae. Iaiaa
aieiaoaeueii ii ioiineony e eaeaa oeiainiaie ?aoi?iu. Oioy e a yoii
ioiioaiee naiay aeeciue iieacuaaao iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaiaaaoae i?aeoeee, a ?yae i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoao i?iaeoia
ianoaeaeaao ?aciua aiciiaeiua ?aoi?iu, oai ia iaiaa Iao? eioa?anoaony
caeanue eeoue aii?inii i oii, eae aiceiaeeoue ia ianaeaiea niaea?aeaiea
iiaie, iinoiyiiie a?iee. Oaea i?e o/?aaeaeaiee aoaa?iee, iaeeaeay iinea
iieoaaneie iiaaaeu nei?iai ie?a Iao? i?eeacuaaao Naiaoo ?ann/eoaoue ai
/oi iaieaeaony niaea?aeaiea nieaeaoa e ioeoea?a, i?aaenoaaeyy naiiio
Naiaoo ?aoeoue, aeieaeai ee auoue iie?uo yoio ?anoiae n iiiiuueth
iiaeai?iiai iaeiaa, eae aue ?aiueoa, eee n iiiiuueth iiaeooiiai, eae
niaaoiaaee ?aciua “aeiiineoaee”.

Oaoie/aneay noi?iia aoaeouae iiaeaoiie ?aoi?iu ?ac?aaaouaaaony
i?aaeoaeuenoaii Iao?a, a caoai ii ni anae yia?aeae ianoaeaaao ia
nei?aeoai ieii/aiee iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aoi?iu iiaeooiie ia?aiene e ia
aiciiaeii nei?ie ?aaeecaoeee iiaiai iaeiaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeooiay
iiaeaoue oaaee/eaaao oeeo?o i?yiuo iaeiaia n 1,8 aei 4,6 ieeeeiiia,
ninoaaeyy aieaa iieiaeiu athaeaeaoiiai i?eoiaea (8 1/2 ieeeeiiia).
Aii?in ia aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?ia eioa?anoao Iao?a aua iaiueoa:
caeanue e naiay iuneue, e ?ac?aaioea aa, e i?eaaaeaiea a eniieiaiea
i?eiaaeeaaeeo niaaoieeai-eiino?aioeai (iniaaiii Aai?eoo Oeeo),
i?aaeeiaeeaoei Iao?o ainiieieoue iaaeinoaoie oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
a ?innee iin?aaenoaii aaaaeaiey oaaaeneeo eieeaaee (ni.). Ia aii?in, /oi
i?aeiouanoaaiii eioa?aniaaei Iao?a a aai ?aoi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
oaea Oiea?iaeo aeae ioaao aanueia aeeceee e enoeia: “ii iniaaiii e ni
anae ?aaiinoueth noa?aeny oeo/oeoue naie aiaiiua neeu”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
a naiai ienueia e nuio Iao? iiae/a?eeaaao iuneue, /oi aieineei aeaeii
“iu io oueiu e naaoo auoee, e (ian), eioi?uo ia ciaee a naaoa, iuia
ii/eoatho”. “Aieiu, caieiaaoea Iao?a anth aeeciue (i?iaeieaeaao
Oiea?iaeo), e caeeth/aaiua ii iiaiaeo yoeo aiei aeiaiai?u n eiino?aiiuie
aea?aeaaaie, canoaaeee aai ia?auaoue aieiaiea oaeaea e ia eiino?aiiua
aeaea, oioy ii iieaaaeny ooo aieueoae /anoueth ia naieo ieieno?ia e
ethaeioeaa…

Naiui aai ethaeiui e i?eyoiui caiyoeai auei ei?aaeano?iaiea e ae?oaea
aeaea, ioiinyueany e ii?aoiaenoao. Iii ?acaeaeaei aai eaaeaeue aeaiue, e
aio aeieaeiu auee onooiaoue aeaaea naiua aaaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua
aeaea… aioo?aiieo oeo/oaieyo a ainoaea?noaa – i noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
oicyenoaa, aeioiaeao e oi?aiaea – ii iaei eee aiana ia caaioeeny a
ia?aua o?eaeoeaoue eao naiaai oea?noaiaaiey, e auaae aeiaieai, anee
oieueei aai aaeie?aeoaenoai e aienei aeinoaoi/iui ia?acii niaaaeaeenue
aeaiueaaie, ae?iaaie, ?ae?ooaie, iao?inaie, i?iaeaioii e aioieoeeae”.
Oio/an iinea iieoaaneie iiaaaeu iiaeiyeny i?anoeae ?innee ca a?aieoeae.
Ec Iieoaau Iao? aaeao i?yii ia naeaeaiey n iieueneei e i?onneei
ei?ieyie; a na?aaeeia aeaeaa?y 1709 a. ii aica?auaaony a Iineao, ii a
na?aaeeia oaa?aey 1710 a. niiaa aa iieeaeaao. Iieiaeio eaoa aei acyoey
Auai?aa ii i?iaiaeeo ia acii?uea, inoaeueioth /anoue aiaea – a
Iaoa?ao?aa, caieiaynue aai iano?ieeie e a?a/iuie nithcaie ieaiyiieoeu
Aiiu Eiaiiiaiu n aa?oeiaii Eo?eyiaeneei e nuia Aeaenay n i?eioeannie
Aieueoaiathooaeueneie. 17 ai?aey 1711 a. Iao? auaoae ec Iaoa?ao?aa a
i?ooneee iioiae, caoai i?yii i?iaoae a Ea?enaaae aeey ea/aiey aiaeaie, e
a Oi?aao aeey i?enoonoaey i?e a?aea oea?aae/a Aeaenay. A Iaoa?ao?a ii
aa?ioeny eeoue e iiaiio aiaeo.

A ethia 1712 a. Iao? iiyoue iieeaeaao Iaoa?ao?a ii/oe ia aiae; ii aaeao
e ?onneei aieneai a Iiia?aieth, a ieoya?a ea/eony a Ea?enaaaea e
Oaieeoea, a iiya?a, iiauaaa a Ae?acaeaia e Aa?eeia, aica?auaaony e
aieneai a Iaeeaiao?a, a ia/aea neaaeothuaai 1713 a. iinauaao Aaiao?a e
?aiaenao?a, i?iacaeaao a oaa?aea /a?ac Aaiiiaa? e Aieueoaiathooaeue a
Aa?eei aeey naeaeaiey n iiaui ei?ieai O?eae?eoii-Aeeueaaeueiii, iioii
aica?auaaony a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. *a?ac ianyoe ii oaea a oeieyiaeneii
iioiaea e, aa?ioaoenue a na?aaeeia aaaonoa, i?iaeieaeaao aei eiioea
iiya?y i?aaei?eieiaoue ii?neea iiacaeee. A na?aaeeia yiaa?y 1714 a. Iao?
ia ianyoe oacaeaao a ?aaaeue e ?eao; 9 iay ii iiyoue ioi?aaeyaony e
oeioo, iaea?aeeaaao n iei iiaaaeo i?e Aaiaaoaea e aica?auaaony a
Iaoa?ao?a 9 naioya?y. A 1715 a. n ia/aea ethey aei eiioea aaaonoa Iao?
iaoiaeeony n oeioii ia Aaeoeeneii ii?a. A ia/aea 1716 a. Iao? iieeaeaao
?inneth ii/oe ia aeaa aiaea; 24 yiaa?y ii oacaeaao a Aeaioeea ia
naaaeueao ieaiyiieoeu Aeaoa?eiu Eaaiiaiu n aa?oeiaii Iaeeaiao?aneei;
ioooaea, /a?ac Ooaooei, aaeao a Ie?iiio aeey ea/aiey; a ethia
ioi?aaeyaony a ?inoie e aaea?iie yneaae?a, n eioi?ie a ethea iiyaeyaony
o Eiiaiaaaaia; a ieoya?a Iao? aaeao a Iaeeaiao?a, ioooaea a Aaaaeuenaa?a
aeey naeaeaiey n i?onneei ei?ieai, a iiya?a – a Aaiao?a, a aeaeaa?a – a
Ainoa?aeai, a eiioea ia?oa neaaeothuaai 1717 a. – ai O?aioeeth. A ethia
iu aeaeei aai a Nia, ia aiaeao, a na?aaeeia ethey – a Ainoa?aeaia, a
naioya?a – a Aa?eeia e Aeaioeeaa; 10 ieoya?y ii aica?auaaony a
Iaoa?ao?a. Neaaeothuea aeaa ianyoea Iao? aaaeao aeiaieueii ?aaoey?ioth
aeeciue, iinayuay oo?i ?aaioai a aaeie?aeoaenoaa e ?acuacaeay caoai ii
iaoa?ao?aneei iino?ieeai. 15 aeaeaa?y ii aaeao a Iineao, aeiaeeaeaaony
oai i?eaica nuia Aeaenay ec-ca a?aieoeu e 18 ia?oa 1718 a. auacaeaao
ia?aoii a Iaoa?ao?a. 30 ethiy oi?iieee, a i?enoonoaee Iao?a, Aeaenay
Iao?iae/a (ni.); a ia?auo /eneao ethey Iao? auaoae oaea e oeioo e iinea
aeaiiino?aoeee o Aeaiaeneeo ino?iaia, aaea aaeenue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u,
aica?aoeeny 3 naioya?y a Iaoa?ao?a, iinea /aai aua o?eaeaeu acaeee ia
acii?uea e ?ac a Oeennaeueao?a. A neaaeothuai 1719 a. Iao? auaoae 19
yiaa?y ia Ieiiaoeeea aiaeu, ioeoaea aa?ioeny 3 ia?oa. 1 iay ii auoae a
ii?a, e a Iaoa?ao?a aa?ioeny oieueei 30 aaaonoa. A 1720 a. Iao? i?iaue
ia?o ianyoe ia Ieiiaoeeeo aiaeao e ia caaiaeao: n 20 ethey aei 4 aaaonoa
ieaaae e oeieyiaeneei aa?aaai. A 1721 a. ii niaa?oee iiacaeeo ii?ai a
?eao e ?aaaeue (11 ia?oa – 19 ethiy).

A naioya?a e ieoya?a Iao? i?acaeiiaae Ieooaaeoneee ie? a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, a aeaeaa?a – a Iineaa. A 1722 a. 15 iay Iao? auaoae ec
Iineau a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, Eacaiue e Ano?aoaiue; 18 ethey ii ioi?aaeeny
ec Ano?aoaie a ia?neaeneee iioiae (aei Aea?aaioa), ec eioi?iai aa?ioeny
a Iineao oieueei 11 aeaeaa?y. Aica?aoeaoenue a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a 3 ia?oa
1723 a., Iao? oaea 30 ia?oa auaoae ia iiaoth oeieyiaeneoth a?aieoeo; a
iaa e ethia ii caieiaeny nia?yaeaieai oeioa e caoai ia ianyoe ioi?aaeeny
a ?aaaeue e ?iaa?aee, aaea no?iee iiaoth aaaaiue. A 1724 a. Iao? neeueii
no?aaeae io iacaei?iauey, ii iii ia canoaaeei aai ioeacaoueny io
i?eau/ae ei/aaie aeecie, /oi e onei?eei aai eii/eio. A oaa?aea ii aaeao
a o?aoee ?ac ia Ieiiaoeeea aiaeu; a eiioea ia?oa ioi?aaeyaony a Iineao
aeey ei?iiiaaiey eiia?ao?eoeu, ioooaea niaa?oaao iiacaeeo ia Ieeea?iau
aiaeu e 16 ethiy auacaeaao a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a; inaiueth acaeeo a
Oeennaeueao?a, ia Eaaeiaeneee eaiae e Ieiiaoeeea caaiaeu, caoai a
Iiaai?iae e a Noa?oth ?onno aeey iniio?a nieyiuo caaiaeia: oieueei
eiaaea inaiiyy iiaiaea ?aoeoaeueii iaoaao ieaaaoue ii Eeueiaith, Iao?
aica?auaaony (27 ieoya?y) a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. 28 ieoya?y ii aaeao n
iaaaea o ssaoaeeineiai ia iiaea?, neo/eaoeeny ia Aaneeueaaneii ino?iaa;
29-ai ioi?aaeyaony aiaeie a Nanoa?aae e, ano?aoea ii aei?iaa naaooth ia
iaeue oethieo, ii iiyn a aiaea iiiiaaao nieiaoue n iaa nieaeao.
Eeoi?aaeea e aea? iaoatho aio aoaoue aeaeueoa; ii ii/oao ia ianoa e 2
iiya?y aica?auaaony a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. 5-ai ii nai naay i?eaeaoaao ia
naaaeueao iaiaoeeiai aoei/ieea, 16-ai eacieo Iiina , 24-ai i?acaeioao
ia?o/aiea aei/a?e Aiiu n aa?oeiaii Aieooeineei. Oaanaeaiey
aiciaiiaeythony ii iiaiaeo auai?a iiaiai eiycy-iaiu, 3-ai e 4-ai yiaa?y
1725 a.

Noaoeeaay aeeciue eaeao naiei /a?aaeii aei eiioea yiaa?y, eiaaea,
iaeiiaoe, i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaiooue e a?a/ai, eioi?uo Iao? aei oiai
a?aiaie ia oioae neooaoue. Ii a?aiy ieacuaaaony i?iiouaiiui e aieaciue –
iaenoeaeeiie; 22 yiaa?y aicaeaeaatho aeoa?ue aicea eiiiaou aieueiiai e
i?e/auatho aai; 26-ai “aeey cae?aaey” aai auioneatho ec oth?ai
eieiaeieeia, a 28 yiaa?y, a /aoaa?oue oanoiai oo?a, Iao? oie?aao, ia
oniaa ?anii?yaeeoueny noaeueaie ainoaea?noaa. I?inoie ia?a/aiue anao
ia?aaeaeaeaiee Iao? ca iineaaeiea 15 eao aai aeecie aeaao oaea
ii/oanoaiaaoue, eae ?ani?aaeaeyeinue a?aiy Iao?a e aai aieiaiea iaaeaeo
caiyoeyie ?aciiai ?iaea. Iinea oeioa, a?iee e eiino?aiiie iieeoeee,
iaeaieueooth /anoue naiae yia?aee e naieo caaio Iao? iinayuae
Iaoa?ao?ao. Iaoa?ao?a – ee/iia aeaei Iao?a, inouanoaeaiiia ei aii?aee
i?aiyonoaeyi i?e?iaeu e nii?ioeaeaieth ie?oaeathueo.

N i?e?iaeie ai?ieenue e aeaee a yoie ai?ueaa aeanyoee ouny/ ?onneeo
?aai/eo, aucaaiiuo ia ionouiioth, canaeaiioth eii?iaeoeaie ie?aeio; n
nii?ioeaeaieai ie?oaeathueo ni?aaeeny nai Iao?, i?eeacaieyie e oa?icaie.
Noaeaeaiey nia?aiaiieeia Iao?a ia yoie aai caoaa iiaeii i?i/anoue o
Oiea?iaeoa. Iiaiey i ?aoi?ia Iao?a /?acau/aeii ?anoiaeeeenue oaea i?e
aai aeecie. Iaaieueoay eo/ea aeeaeaeoeo nio?oaeieeia aea?aeaeanue
iiaiey, eioi?ia aiineaaenoaee Eiiiiinia
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10000a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000oi?ioee?iaae neiaaie: “ii
Aia oaie, Aia oaie aue, ?inney”. Ia?iaeiay ianna, iai?ioea, aioiaa auea
niaeaneoueny n ooaa?aeaeaieai ?aneieueieeia, /oi Iao? aue aioeo?eno. Oa
e ae?oaea enoiaeeee ec oiai iauaai i?aaenoaaeaiey, /oi Iao? niaa?oee
?aaeeeaeueiue ia?aai?io e nicaeae iiaoth ?inneth, ia iioiaeoth ia
i?aaeithth. Iiaay a?iey, oeio, niioaiey n Aa?iiie, iaeiiaoe, aa?iiaeneay
aiaoiinoue e aa?iiaeneay oaoieea – ana yoi auee oaeou, a?inaaoeany a
aeaca; eo i?eciaaaee ana, ?anoiaeynue eeoue ei?aiiui ia?acii a eo
ioeaiea.

Oi, /oi iaeie n/eoaee iieaciui, ae?oaea i?eciaaaee a?aaeiui aeey ?onneeo
eioa?ania; /oi iaeie n/eoaee aaeeeie caneoaie ia?aae ioa/anoaii, a oii
ae?oaea aeaeaee eciaio ?iaeiui i?aaeaieyi; iaeiiaoe, aaea iaeie aeaeaee
iaiaoiaeeiue oaa aia?aae ii iooe i?ia?anna, ae?oaea i?eciaaaee i?inoia
ioeeiiaiea, aucaaiiia i?eoioueth aeaniioa. Iaa acaeyaea iiaee
i?eaiaeeoue oaeoe/aneea aeieacaoaeuenoaa a naith iieueco, oae eae a
?aoi?ia Iao?a ia?aiaoaiu auee iaa yeaiaioa – e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, e
neo/aeiinoe. Yeaiaio neo/aeiinoe aieueoa aunooiae ia?oaeo, iiea eco/aiea
enoi?ee Iao?a ia?aie/eaaeinue aiaoiae noi?iiie ?aoi?iu e ee/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aia?aciaaoaey. Iaienaiiay ii aai oeacai enoi?ey
?aoi?iu, aeieaeia auea eacaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ee/iui aeaeii Iao?a.

Ae?oaea ?acoeueoaou aeieaeii auei aeaoue eco/aiea oie aea ?aoi?iu a
nayce n aa i?aoeaaeaioaie, a oaeaea a nayce n oneiaeyie nia?aiaiiie ae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eco/aiea i?aoeaaeaioia Iao?ianeie ?aoi?iu iieacaei,
/oi ai anao iaeanoyo iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie – a ?acaeoee
o/?aaeaeaiee e nineiaee, a ?acaeoee ia?aciaaiey, a ianoaiiaea /anoiiai
auoa – caaeieai aei Iao?a iaia?oaeeaathony oa naiua oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ui
aeaao oi?aeanoai Iao?ianeay ?aoi?ia. ssaeyynue, oaeei ia?acii,
iiaeaioiaeaiiie anai i?ioeui ?acaeoeai ?innee e ninoaaeyy eiae/aneee
?acoeueoao yoiai ?acaeoey, ?aoi?ia Iao?a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, e i?e iai
aua ia iaoiaeeo aeinoaoi/iie ii/au a ?onneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a
iioiio e iinea Iao?a ai iiiaii iaaeieai inoaaony oi?iaeueiie e aeaeeiie.
Iiaia ieaouea e “annaiaeae” ia aaaeoo e onaiaieth aa?iiaeneeo
iauanoaaiiuo i?eau/ae e i?eee/ee; oi/ii oae aea iiaua, caeinoaiaaiiua ec
Oaaoeee o/?aaeaeaiey ia iie?athony ia niioaaonoaaiiia yeiiiie/aneia e
i?aaiaia ?acaeoea iannu. ?inney aoiaeeo a /enei aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa, ii
ia ia?aue ?ac oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ii/oe ia iieaaea naeaeaoueny
i?oaeeai a ?oeao aa?iiaeneie iieeoeee. Ec 42-o oeeoe?iuo
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oeie, ioe?uouo a 1716 – 1722 aiaeao, oieueei 8
aeiaeeaatho aei na?aaeeiu aaea; ec 2000 iaaa?aiaaiiuo, aieueoae /anoueth
neeie, o/aieeia, aeaenoaeoaeueii auo/eaathony e 1727 aiaeo oieueei 300
ia anth ?inneth.

Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, ianiio?y ia i?iaeo “Aeaaeaiee”, e iecoaa, ianiio?y
ia ana i?eeacaiey Iao?a, inoathony iaaeieai ia/oie. I i?eiyoee Iao?ii
eiia?aoi?neiai oeooea – ni. Eiia?aoi?; i naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo Iao?a –
Aeaenae Iao?iae/, Aeaoa?eia I Aeaenaaaia
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101112131415c5ff02030405060708090a0be9ff0c00000040092900aa00000000000000
10000a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000, Aaaeieey Oaaei?iaia; i
aieiao e eiino?aiiie iieeoeea – Naaa?iay aieia, Oo?aoeeea aieiu,
Ia?neaeneea aieiu; i oea?eiaiie iieeoeea Iao?a – Iao?ea?oanoai a ?innee,
Iiianou?neee i?eeac, Nayoaeoee Neiiae, Noaoai ssai?neee , Oaioai
I?ieiiiae/ ; i aioo?aiieo i?aia?aciaaieyo Iao?a – Aoaa?iee, Eieeaaee,
Ai?iaeiaua iaaeno?aou, Naiao, Niaao eaiae?aoneee, Aeaaeaiey Iaoe,
Ia/aeueiia ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea (XX, 753); i eieaao, ecaeaiiuo ii
i?eeacaieth Iao?a – ?onneay eeoa?aoo?a. N?. oaeaea ?inney (Enoi?ey e
Enoi?eia?aoey). Aeey aeia?aoee Iao?a Aaeeeiai ni. “Ioa/anoaaiiua
Caienee”, 1856, CIV: “Ianeieueei ?aaeeeo e iaeiecaanoiuo eiiycu/iuo
ni/eiaiee, ioiinyueony aei Iao?a Aaeeeiai e aai aaea” (no?. 345 – 395);
Minzloff “Pierre le Grand dans la litterature etrangere”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1873, no?. 691) e aai aea “Supplement”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1872, no?. 692 – 721); A.E. Iaaeia “THaeeae Iao?a
Aaeeeiai” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1881, no?. 230); A.O. Oio?ei “Iao? Aaeeeee a
?onneie eeoa?aoo?a” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1889, no?. 136, iooene ec
“AEo?iaea Ieienoa?noaa Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey”, 1889). Aaaeiaeoea
enoi/ieee e ni/eiaiey i Iao?a: “AEo?iae, eee Iiaeaiiay caienea Iao?a
Aaeeeiai n 1699 a. aei caeeth/aiey Ieooaaeoneiai ie?a” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
1770 – 1772 a.; ninoaaeaii eaaeiao-nae?aoa?ai Iao?a, Iaea?iaui,
iiiaie?aoii eni?aaeaii naiei ainoaea?ai e ecaeaii enoi?eeii Ua?aaoiaui);
E. Ee?eeeia “Oeaaoouaa ninoiyiea Ana?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, a eaeiaia
ia/ae, i?eaae e inoaaee iaec?a/aiiuie o?oaeaie Iao? Aaeeeee, ioaoe
ioa/anoaey” (I., 1831); Aieeeia “Aeayiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai, ioae?iai
i?aia?aciaaoaey ?innee, nia?aiiua ec aeinoiaa?iuo enoi/ieeia e
?aniieiaeaiiua ii aiaeai” (I., 1788 – 1789, 12 /anoae) e “Aeiiieiaiey e
aeayieyi Iao?a Aaeeeiai” (I., 1790 – 1797, 18 /anoae); aoi?ia ecaeaiea
o?oaeia Aieeeiaa, a eioi?ii “Aeiiieiaiey” ia?aia/aoaiu iinea
niioaaonoaothueo aiaeia “Aeayiee” e a eiioea i?eaaaeai Oeacaoaeue,
ecaeaii a 15 oiiao (I., 1837 – 1843). Aeaaiui ia?acii ia iaoa?eaea
Aieeeiaa iniiaaiu: “AEeciue Iao?a Aaeeeiai”, iienaiiay Aaeaiii (ia?aaiae
n iaiaoeeiai, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1812 – 1813) e “Enoi?ey Iao?a Aaeeeiai”
A. Aa?aiaia (ia?aaiae n iaiaoeeiai, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1833; 2-a ecaeaiea
1840 – 1841); “Nai?iee auienie ec a?oeaiuo aoiaa i Iao?a Aaeeeii” (I.,
1872; i?aeiouanoaaiii auienee ec aoiaa aeai?oeiauo e ae?. i?eeacia, a
oaeaea eaaeiaoa); “Ienueia e aoiaae Iao?a Aaeeeiai”, eaieoaeueiia
ecaeaiea, en/a?iuaathuaa iaoa?eae “ienai” e iiiauathuaa a i?eia/aieyo
ianno aeaiiuo (aei neo ii? auoei o?e /anoe, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1887 –
1893; aeiaaaeaii aei 1705 aiaea); “Aeieeaaeu e i?eaiai?u, ninoiyaoeany a
i?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoa a oea?noaiaaiea Iao?a Aaeeeiai”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1880 – 1892; iaieiaao 1711 – 1715 aiaeu; ae?aaioeaiiue
iaoa?eae aeey enoi?ee aaeieieno?aoeaiie e oeiainiaie ?aoi?iu,
ecaea/aiiue ec Iineianeiai a?oeaa Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee); “A?oea eiycy
O.A. Eo?aeeia” (naea Iaaeaaeaeeia), eieae 1 – 5 (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1890 –
1894).

Iienaiey a?oeaia: naiaoneiai (I.E. Aa?aiiaa ), Neiiaeneiai (ia?aua iyoue
oiiia), ii?neiai ieienoa?noaa. Iieiia Nia?aiea Caeiiia ?inneeneie
Eiia?ee, oiia II – VII, e Iieiia Nia?aiea Iinoaiiaeaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee
ii Aaaeiinoao I?aaineaaiiai Eniiaaaeaiey ?inneeneie Eiia?ee, ia?aua
/aou?a oiia (n 1721 a.). I. Ono?yeia “Enoi?ey oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a
Aaeeeiai” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1859 – 1863); aeiaaaeaia aei eiioea 1706 a.;
ioaeaeueii eceiaeaii aeaei oea?aae/a Aeaenay); Nieiaueaa “Enoi?ey ?innee
n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai”, oiiu XIII – XVIII (III e IV a ecae. “Iauanoa.
Iieuecu”); A. Bruckner “Petr der Grosse” (A., 1879, a “Allgem.
Geschichte iu Einzeldarstellungen”, hgb. v. W. Onchen; ?onneee ia?aaiae,
n aieueoei eiee/anoaii eeethno?aoeee, ecaeai A. Noai?eiui); aai aea “Die
Europaisirung Russiads. T. I. Land und Volk” (1887); aai aea “Geschichtr
Russilands bis zum Eude d. 18 Jahrhunders. T. I. Ueberblick d.
Entwickelung bis zum Tode P. d. Gr.” (Aioa, 1896); iaa iineaaeiea
ni/eiaiey iinayuaiu, aeaaiui ia?acii, aii?ino i iiaeaioiaea ?aoi?iu
(ae?oaea ?aaiou A?eeia?a ni. iiae eiaiai aaoi?a); “Peter the Great,
emperor of Russia” (Eiiaeii, 1884); K. Waliszewski “Pierre le Grand,
l’education – l’homme – l’oeuvre” (I., 1897; oa?aeoa?enoeea ee/iinoe
Iao?a, n e?aoeei i/a?eii ?aoi?i, ii iiaaeoei enneaaeiaaieyi). Ni/eiaiey
ii ioaeaeueiui yiioai oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a: Iiaiaeei “Naiiaaeoeaoue
ia?auo eao a aeecie eiia?aoi?a Iao?a Aaeeeiai” (I., 1875); E.A. Caaaeei
“Aeaoneea aiaeu Iao?a Aaeeeiai”, a “Iiuoao eco/aiey ?onneeo ae?aaiinoae
e enoi?ee” (I., 1872, /anoue I); Ano?ia “Ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea
Iao?a Aaeeeiai” (“?onneee A?oea”, 1875); I.A. Aaiaaeoeiia “?onneea a
Aieeaiaeee. Aaeeeia iinieuenoai 1697 – 1698 aiaeia” (I., 1897).
Ni/eiaiey nia?aiaiieeia Iao?a – Neeueaano?a Iaaeaaaeaaa, AEaeyaoaeneiai
, E?aeoeia, Iaoaaaaa , Ia?oiaa , Iauieeia, Iaiethaaa , Iinioeiaa ,
Oienoiai, a oaeaea eiino?aioeaa: Aa?eaieueoea , Aaaa?a, Ai?aeiia ,
Ei?aa, Ia??e , Oiea?iaeoa, Ieaea?a, THey – oeacaiu iiae
niioaaonoaothueie eiaiaie. Aeiianaiey eiino?aiiuo iineia ec ?innee
iaia/aoaiu a “Nai?ieea Eiia?aoi?neiai ?onneiai Enoi?e/aneiai Iauanoaa”,
oiia 34, 40, 49, 52 (o?aioeocneeo), 39, 50, 61 (aiaeeeneeo), 3
(naeniineiai Eaoi?oa); e oea?noaiaaieth Iao?a ioiinyony oaeaea nieioue
oiia 11 (ienueia, oeacu e caiaoee Iao?a, ecae. A.O. Au/eiaui) e 25
(Aoiaae A.I. Oa?aiaoaaa ). Aeey ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii ?aoi?iu aaaeiaeoea
iiniaey: I.I. Aia?ianeee “I?ienoiaeaeaiea A?oeeoea aieineiai e
Ecia?aaeaiey i?ioeannia Iao?a Aaeeeiai ii Onoaao Aieineiio”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1881) e “Aiaiiia i?aai a ?innee i?e Iao?a Aaeeeii.
A?oeeoe Aieineee” (auionee I e II, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1882); I.I.
?icaiaaei “I/a?e aiaiii-noaeiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a ?innee aei eii/eiu Iao?a
Aaeeeiai” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1878); Ae.O. Ianeianeee “Caienee ii enoi?ee
aiaiiiai eneonnoaa a ?innee” (aui. 1, 1683 – 1760 aiaeu,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1891); Iocu?aaneee “?acaeoea iinoiyiiuo ?aaoey?iuo
a?iee e ninoiyiea aiaiiiai eneonnoaa a aae Ethaeiaeea XIV e Iao?a
Aaeeeiai”; N. Aeaaei “Enoi?ey ?onneiai oeioa. Ia?eiae Acianeee” (/anoue
I e i?eeiaeaiey, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1861); Aanaeaai “I/a?e ?onneie ii?neie
enoi?ee” (/anoue I, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1875; iiae ?aaeaeoeeae iaieo
iacaaiiuo aaoi?ia ecaeaaaeenue “Iaoa?eaeu aeey enoi?ee ?onneiai oeioa”,
oii I – XV); A. A?aaeianeee “Aunoay aaeieieno?aoeey ?innee XVIII aaea e
aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?u” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1866); N. Iao?ianeee “I Naiaoa a
oea?noaiaaiea Iao?a Aaeeeiai” (a “Iienaiee aeieoiaioia e aoiaa
Iineianeiai a?oeaa Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee”, ei. III, e ioaeaeueii); I.
I?i/ae-Ae?icaeianeee “Iaeanoiia oi?aaeaiea ?innee XVIII aaea aei
o/?aaeaeaiey i aoaa?ieyo 1775 a. *anoue I. Iaeanoiia oi?aaeaiea yiioe
ia?aiai o/?aaeaeaiey aoaa?iee, 1708 – 1719” (I., 1876; ec oiai aea
ecaeaiey, eae i?aaeuaeouaa); E. Aeeoyoei “Ono?ienoai e oi?aaeaiea
ai?iaeia ?innee Iao?a I. Aaaaeaiea, ai?iaea a ?innee a XVIII aaea”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1875); I. Ieetheia “Ainoaea?noaaiiia oicyenoai ?innee
a ia?aie /aoaa?oe XVIII aaea e ?aoi?ia Iao?a Aaeeeiai” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
1892, e “AEo?iae Ieienoa?noaa Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey”, 1890 – 1892); I.
Iaaeia-Neeueaaineee “I?iaeou ?aoi?i a caieneao nia?aiaiieeia Iao?a
Aaeeeiai.

Iiuo eco/aiey ?onneeo i?iaeoia e iaecaeaiiua eo oaenou”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1897); A. Oeeeiiia “I iaeacaiee ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao
Iao?a Aaeeeiai, a nayce n ?aoi?iie” (I., 1891); I. Eaae?ia “Aeooiaiue
?aaeaiaio a nayce n i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth Iao?a
Aaeeeiai” (I., 1889); TH.O. Naia?ei “Noaoai ssai?neee Oaioai I?ieiiiae/”
(a “Ni/eiaieyo”, o. V); E.A. *enoiae/ “Oaioai I?ieiiiae/ e aai a?aiy”
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1868); Iaea?neee “Iaoea e eeoa?aoo?a i?e Iao?a
Aaeeeii”. I. Ieetheia.

Ae?OAIA

Iao? I aaeeeee [30 iay (9 ethiy) 1672, Iineaa — 28 yiaa?y (8 oaa?aey)
1725, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a], ?inneeneee oea?ue n 1682 (i?aaee n 1689), ia?aue
?inneeneee eiia?aoi? (n 1721), ieaaeoee nui Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a io
aoi?iai a?aea n I. E. Ia?uoeeiie.

22 ia?oa 1677 aiaea Iao? I a 5 eao ia/ae iao/aoueny.

Ii noa?i?onneiio iau/ath Iao?a ia/aee o/eoue n iyoe eao. Ia ioe?uoea
eo?na i?eoee oea?ue e iao?ea?o, ioneoaeeee iieaaai n aiaeinayoeai,
ie?iieee nayoie aiaeie iiaiai nioaeay e, aeaaineiaea, iinaaeeee ca
acaoeo. Ieeeoa Cioia iieeiieeny naiaio o/aieeo a caieth e ia/ae eo?n
naiaai o/aiey, i?e/ai ooo aea iieo/ee e aiii?a?: iao?ea?o aeae aio noi
?oaeae (n eeoeii ouny/o ?oaeae ia iaoe aeaiueae), ainoaea?ue iiaeaeiaae
aio aeai?, i?iecaae aai ai aeai?yia, a oea?eoea-iaoue i?eneaea aeaa ia?u
aiaaoiai aa?oiaai e eniiaeiaai ieaouey e «aanue oai?», a eioi?ue ii
ooiaea ainoaea?y e iao?ea?oa Cioia ooo aea e ia?a?yaeeeny. E?aeoei
ioiaoee e aeaiue, eiaaea ia/aeinue iao/aiea Iao?a, – 12 ia?oa 1677 a.,
eiaaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, Iao?o ia eniieieeinue e iyoe eao.

Oea?aae/ o/eeny ioioii e aieei. Ia aeinoaa ii ethaee neooaoue ?aciua
?anneacu e ?anniao?eaaoue eieaeee n «eoiooaie», ea?oeieaie. Cioia neacae
ia yoii oea?eoea, e oa aaeaea aio auaeaoue «enoi?e/aneea eieae»,
?oeiiene n ?enoieaie ec aeai?oeiaie aeaeeioaee, e caeacaea aeeaiieniiai
aeaea ianoa?ai a I?oaeaeiie iaeaoa ianeieueei iiauo eeethno?aoeee.

Caiaoea, eiaaea Iao? ia/eiae ooiieyoueny eieaeiui /oaieai, Cioia a?ae o
iaai ec ?oe eieao e iieacuaae aio yoe ea?oeiee, nii?iaiaeaeay iaci? eo
iiyniaieyie. Eeth/aaneee A. ?onneay enoi?ey. Iieiue eo?n eaeoeee a 3 ei.
Ei.2. – I.: Iuneue, 1993, n. 458.

Iao? I i?iaae ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey (nicaeaiu NaiaoNaiao
(a ?innee) — I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee naiao, aunoee i?aai oi?aaeaiey,
i?aa?aoeaoeeny a 19 aaea a aunoee i?aai noaea e iaaeci?a. O/?aaeaeai
oeacii Iao?a I 22 oaa?aey 1711 aiaea. Ia?aiia/aeueii ooieoeeiie?iaae eae
a?aiaiiue eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai aeey oi?aaeaiey no?aiie a ionoonoaea
oea?y, caiaieaoee Aiy?neoth aeoio. ssaeyeny caeiiiniaauaoaeueiui
i?aaiii, noaeaaii-aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeeae. Inouanoaeye oaeaea iaaeci?
ca eieeaaeyie (e?iia eiino?aiiie)., eieeaaee, i?aaiu aunoaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey e iieeoe/aneiai nunea; oea?eiaue iiae/eiaia
ainoaea?noao; i?iaaaeaii aeaeaiea no?aiu ia aoaa?iee, iino?iaia iiaay
noieeoea — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a).

Iao? I eniieueciaae iiuo caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai a ?acaeoee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaee, eoeueoo?u. I?iaiaeee iieeoeeo ia?eaioeeecia
(nicaeaiea iaiooaeoo?, iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo, ai?iuo e ae?oaeo caaiaeia,
aa?oae, i?enoaiae, eaiaeia). ?oeiaiaeee iino?ieeie oeioa e nicaeaieai
?aaoey?iie a?iee.

Iao? I aicaeaaeye a?ieth a Acianeeo iioiaeao 1695-1696, Naaa?iie aieia
1700-1721, I?ooneii iioiaea 1711, Ia?neaeneii iioiaea 1722-1723;
eiiaiaeiaae aieneaie i?e acyoee Iioaao?aa (1702), a n?aaeaieyo i?e
aea?aaia Eaniie (1708) e iiae Iieoaaie (1709). Niinianoaiaae oi?i/aieth
yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey aeai?yinoaa.

Ii eieoeeaoeaa Iao?a I ioe?uou iiiaea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, Aeaaeaiey
iaoe, i?eiyoa a?aaeaeaineay acaoea. ?aoi?iu Iao?a I i?iaiaeeeenue
aeanoieeie n?aaenoaaie, iooai e?aeiaai iai?yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e
ethaeneeo nee (iiaeooiay iiaeaoue), /oi aeaeei ca niaie ainnoaiey
(No?aeaoeeia 1698, Ano?aoaineia 1705-1706, Aoeaaeineia 1707-1709),
aaniiuaaeii iiaeaaeyaoeany i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Aoaeo/e nicaeaoaeai
iiaouanoaaiiiai aaniethoenoneiai ainoaea?noaa, aeiaeeny i?eciaiey ca
?inneae aaoi?eoaoa aaeeeie aea?aeaau.

Aeaonoai, thiinoue, ia?aciaaiea Iao?a I

Eeoeaoenue a 1676 iooea, Iao? aei aeanyoe eao ainieouaaeny iiae
i?eniio?ii noa?oaai a?aoa oea?y Oaaei?a Aeaenaaae/a, eioi?ue aua?ae aeey
iaai a o/eoaey iiaeuey/aai Ieeeoo Cioiaa, iao/aaoaai iaeue/eea a?aiioa.
Eiaaea a 1682 Oaaei? oia?, i?anoie aeieaeai aue ianeaaeiaaoue Eaai
Aeaenaaae/, ii, iineieueeo ii ioee/aeny neaaui caei?iaueai, noi?iiieee
Ia?uoeeiuo i?iaicaeaneee oea?ai Iao?a. Iaeiaei Ieeineaaneea,
?iaenoaaiieee ia?aie aeaiu Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a, n yoei ia nie?eeenue e
ni?iaioee?iaaee no?aeaoeeee aoio, ai a?aiy eioi?iai aeanyoeeaoiee Iao?
noae naeaeaoaeai aeanoieie ?ani?aau iaae aeeceeie aio ethaeueie. Yoe
niauoey inoaaeee a iaiyoe iaeue/eea iaecaeaaeeiue neaae, io?aceaoenue e
ia aai ineoe/aneii caei?iauea, e ia ie?iaicc?aiee.

?acoeueoaoii aoioa aue iieeoe/aneee eiii?iienn: ia o?ii auee aicaaaeaiu
aianoa Eaai e Iao?, a i?aaeoaeueieoeae iacaaia eo noa?oay nano?a
oea?aaia Niouey Aeaenaaaia. N yoiai a?aiaie Iao? n iaoa?ueth aeeee a
iniiaiii a naeao I?aia?aaeaineii e Eciaeeiaa, iiyaeyynue a E?aiea eeoue
aeey o/anoey a ioeoeeaeueiuo oea?aiiieyo, a eo ioiioaiey n Nioueae
noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa a?aaeaeaaiuie. Ie naaoneiai, ie oea?eiaiiai
nenoaiaoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey aoaeouee oea?ue ia iieo/ee. Ii aue
i?aaeinoaaeai nai naaa e, iiaeaeaeiue e yia?ae/iue, iiiai a?aiaie
i?iaiaeee a ea?ao ni naa?noieeaie. Iicaeiaa aio auei iicaieaii nicaeaoue
nianoaaiiua «iioaoiua» iieee, n eioi?uie ii ?acua?uaae n?aaeaiey e
iaiaa?u e eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee noaee iniiaie ?onneie ?aaoey?iie a?iee.

A Eciaeeiaa Iao? iaia?oaeee noa?ue aiaeeeneee aioAio (aieeaiaeneia boot
— eiaeea, noaeii) — iauaa iacaaiea iaaieueoeo iioi?iuo, ia?oniuo eee
a?aaiuo noaeia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?acee/iuo ia?aaicie, ?uaieiaiiai,
ioioie/ueaai i?iiunea e ae?. (eioeiaineee aio, nianaoaeueiue aio, aio
aeanaioiue e o.i.)., eioi?ue ii aai i?eeaco io?aiiioe?iaaee e ii?iaiaaee
ia ?aea ssoca. Anei?a ii iiiae a Iaiaoeeoth neiaiaeo, aaea aia?aua
iiciaeiieeny n aa?iiaeneei auoii, eniuoae ia?aua na?aea/iua oaea/aiey e
caaae ae?ocae n?aaee aa?iiaeneeo eoioeia. Iinoaiaiii aie?oa Iao?a
neiaeeeanue eiiiaiey i?eyoaeae, n eioi?ie ii i?iaiaeee ana naiaiaeiia
a?aiy. A aaaonoa 1689, eiaaea aei iaai aeioae neoo i iiaeaioiaea Nioueae
iiaiai no?aeaoeeiai aoioa, ii aaaeae a O?ieoea-Na?aeaa iiianou?ue, eoaea
e iaio i?eauee ec Iineau aa?iua iieee e /anoue aeai?a. Niouey,
ii/oanoaiaaa, /oi neea ia noi?iia a?aoa, i?aaei?eiyea iiiuoeo
i?eie?aiey, ii auei iicaeii: iia auea iono?aiaia io aeanoe e caoi/aia a
Iiaiaeaae/ee iiianou?ue.

Ia/aei naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 17 a. ?inney ia?aaeeaaea aeoaieee e?ecen, naycaiiue n
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ionoaaaieai io ia?aaeiauo no?ai Aa?iiu. Iao? n
aai yia?aeae, iuoeeainoueth, eioa?anii ei anaio iiaiio ieacaeny
/aeiaaeii, niiniaiui ?aoeoue noiyaoea ia?aae no?aiie i?iaeaiu. Ii
iiia/aeo ii ia?aaeiaa?ee oi?aaeaiea no?aiie iaoa?e e aeyaea, E. E.
Ia?uoeeio. Oea?ue ii-i?aaeiaio iaei auaae a Iineaa, oioy a 1689 ii
ianoiyieth iaoa?e aeaieeny ia A. O. Eiiooeiie.

Iao?a i?eaeaeaee ii?neea caaaau, e ii iaaeieai oacaeae a
Ia?aneaaeue-Caeanneee e a A?oaiaaeuene, aaea o/anoaiaae a iino?ieea e
eniuoaiee ei?aaeae. Eeoue a 1695 ii ?aoee i?aaei?eiyoue ianoiyuee
aiaiiue iioiae ia oo?aoeeoth e?aiinoue Acia. Ia?aue Acianeee iioiae
caeii/eeny iaoaea/ae, iinea /aai a Ai?iiaaea aue niaoii iino?iai oeio, e
ai a?aiy aoi?iai iioiaea (1696) Acia aue acyo. Oiaaea aea aue iniiaai
Oaaai?ia. Yoi auea ia?aay iiaaaea iieiaeiai Iao?a, cia/eoaeueii
oe?aieaoay aai aaoi?eoao.

Anei?a iinea aica?auaiey a noieeoeo oea?ue ioi?aaeeny (1697) n Aaeeeei
iinieuenoaii ca a?aieoeo. Iao? iiauaae a Aieeaiaeee, Aiaeee, Naeniiee,
Aano?ee e Aaiaoeee, o/eeny ei?aaaeueiiio aeaeo, ?aaioay ia aa?oyo,
ciaeiieeny n oaoie/aneeie aeinoeaeaieyie oiaaeaoiae Aa?iiu, aa ia?acii
aeecie, iieeoe/aneei ono?ienoaii. Ai a?aiy aai caa?aie/iie iiacaeee auea
caeiaeaia iniiaa nithca ?innee, Iieueoe e Aeaiee i?ioea Oaaoeee.
Ecaanoea i iiaii no?aeaoeeii aoioa canoaaeei Iao?a aa?iooueny a ?inneth
(1698), aaea ii n iaiau/aeiie aeanoieinoueth ?ani?aaeeny n ainnoaaoeie
(No?aeaoeeia ainnoaiea 1698).

Ia?aua i?aia?aciaaiey Iao?a I

Ca a?aieoeae a iniiaiii neiaeeeanue iieeoe/aneay i?ia?aiia Iao?a. Aa
eiia/iie oeaeueth noaei nicaeaiea ?aaoey?iiai iieeoeaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa, iniiaaiiiai ia anaiauai aio neoaeaiee, ainoaea?noai
iiieiaeinue eae «iauaa aeaai». Nai oea?ue n/eoae naay ia?aui neoaie
ioa/anoaa, eioi?ue nianoaaiiui i?eia?ii aeieaeai aue o/eoue iiaeaeaiiuo.
Iao?aaeeoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea Iao?a, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?ac?ooaei aaeaie
neeaaeuaaaoeeny ia?ac ainoaea?y eae nae?aeueiie oeao?u, a n ae?oaie —
aucuaaei i?ioano o /anoe iauanoaa (i?aaeaea anaai o noa?iia?yaeoeaa,
eioi?uo Iao? aeanoiei i?aneaaeiaae), aeaeaaoae a oea?a aioeo?enoa.

?aoi?iu Iao?a I ia/aeenue n aaaaeaiey eiino?aiiiai ieaouey e i?eeaca
a?eoue ai?iaeu anai, e?iia e?anoueyi e aeooiaainoaa. Oae ecia/aeueii
?onneia iauanoai ieacaeinue ?acaeaeaiiui ia aeaa ia?aaiua /anoe: aeey
iaeiie (aeai?yinoai e aa?oooea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey) i?aaeiacia/aeanue
ianaaeaeaaiay naa?oo aa?iiaece?iaaiiay eoeueoo?a, ae?oaay nio?aiyea
o?aaeeoeeiiiue oeeaae aeecie.

A 1699 auea oaeaea inouanoaeaia ?aoi?ia eaeaiaea?y. A Ainoa?aeaia auea
nicaeaia oeiia?aoey aeey ecaeaiey naaoneeo eiea ia ?onneii ycuea,
iniiaai ia?aue ?onneee i?aeai — Nayoiai aiinoiea Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai.
No?aia ino?i ioaeaeaeanue a nianoaaiiuo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ao, e
oea?ue ?anii?yaeeeny ioi?aaeoue ia o/aao ca a?aieoeo thiioae ec ciaoiuo
naiaenoa. A 1701 aiaeo a Iineaa auea ioe?uoa Iaaeaaoeeay oeiea.
Ia/aeanue e ?aoi?ia ai?iaeneiai oi?aaeaiey. Iinea nia?oe a 1700
iao?ea?oa Aae?eaia iiaiai iao?ea?oa ecae?aoue ia noaee, e Iao? nicaeae
Iiianou?neee i?eeac aeey oi?aaeaiey oea?eiaiui oicyenoaii. Iicaeiaa
aianoi iao?ea?oa auei nicaeaii neiiaeaeueiia i?aaeaiea oea?eiaueth,
nio?aiyaoany aei 1917. Iaeiia?aiaiii n ia?auie i?aia?aciaaieyie
eioaineaii oea iiaeaioiaea e aieia ni Oaaoeeae, aeey /aai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aue iiaeienai ie?iue aeiaiai? n Oo?oeeae.

Iao? I aaae oae aea i?acaeiiaaiea Iiaiai aiaea ia ?one.

O?iee Naaa?iie aieiu

Aieia, aeaaiie oeaeueth eioi?ie auei cae?aieaiea ?innee ia Aaeoeea,
ia/aeanue n ii?aaeaiey ?onneie a?iee iiae Ia?aie a 1700. Iaeiaei yoio
o?ie iioae Iao?o ai?ie: ii iiiye, /oi i?e/eia ii?aaeaiey i?aaeaea anaai
a ionoaeinoe ?onneie a?iee, e n aua aieueoae yia?aeae i?eiyeny ca aa
ia?aaii?oaeaiea e nicaeaiea ?aaoey?iuo iieeia, nia?aa iooai nai?a
«aeaoi/iuo ethaeae», a n 1705 n iiiiuueth aaaaeaiey ?ae?ooneie
iiaeiiinoe. Ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo e i?oaeaeiuo
caaiaeia, iinoaaeyaoeo aeey a?iee aunieiea/anoaaiiua iooee e no?aeeiaia
i?oaeea. Iioiae oaaaeneeo aiene ai aeaaa n ei?ieai Ea?eii XII ia Iieueoo
iicaieee ?onneie a?iee iaea?aeaoue ia?aua iiaaaeu iaae i?ioeaieeii,
caoaaoeoue e iionoioeoue cia/eoaeueioth /anoue I?eaaeoeee. A 1703 a
onouea Iaau Iao? iniiaae Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a — iiaoth noieeoeo ?innee,
eioi?ay ii caiuneo oea?y aeieaeia auea noaoue ia?acoeiaui
ai?iaeii-«ia?aaeecii». A yoe aea aiaeu Aiy?neoth aeoio niaieea
ninoiyaoay ec /eaiia aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey oea?y Eiineeey ieieno?ia,
ia?yaeo n iineianeeie i?eeacaie a Iaoa?ao?aa nicaeaaaeenue iiaua
o/?aaeaeaiey. A 1708 no?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia aoaa?iee. A 1709 iinea
Iieoaaneiai n?aaeaiey ianooiee ia?aeii a aieia e oea?ue niia aieueoa
aieiaiey oaeaeyoue aioo?eiieeoe/aneei aeaeai.

?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey Iao?a I

A 1711, ioi?aaeyynue a I?ooneee iioiae, Iao? I iniiaae
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee naiao, eiaaoee ooieoeee aeaaiiai i?aaia
eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. N 1717 ia/aeinue
nicaeaiea eieeaaee — oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia io?aneaaiai oi?aaeaiey,
iniiaaiiuo i?eioeeieaeueii eia/a, /ai noa?iiineianeea i?eeacu. Iiaua
i?aaiu aeanoe — eniieieoaeueiua, oeiainiaua, noaeaaiua e eiio?ieueiua —
nicaeaaaeenue e ia ianoao. A 1720 aue ecaeai Aaia?aeueiue ?aaeaiaio —
aeaoaeueiay eino?oeoeey ii i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou iiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. A
1722 Iao? iiaeienae Oaaaeue i ?aiaao, ii?aaeaeeaooth ii?yaeie
i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiie e noaoneie neoaeau e aeaenoaiaaaooth aieioue aei
1917. Aua ?aiaa, a 1714, aue ecaeai Oeac i aaeeiiianeaaeee, o?aaiyaoee a
i?aaao aeaaeaeueoeaa iiianoee e aio/ei. Yoi eiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai aeai?yinoaa eae aaeeiiai iieiioeaiiiai
nineiaey. Ii ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey nioeeaeueiie noa?u eiaea
iiaeaoiay ?aoi?ia, ia/aoay a 1718. A ?innee auea aaaaeaia iiaeooiay
iiaeaoue n eeoe ioaeneiai iiea, aeey /aai i?iaiaeeeenue ?aaoey?iua
ia?aiene ianaeaiey («?aaecee aeoo»). A oiaea ?aoi?iu auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
nioeeaeueiay eaoaai?ey oieiiia e ooi/iai nioeeaeueiue noaoon iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey. A 1721, iinea ieii/aiey Naaa?iie aieiu
?inney auea i?iaicaeaoaia eiia?eae, a Naiao oaeinoiee Iao?a oeooeaie
«Aaeeeee» e «Ioaoe ioa/anoaa».

I?aia?aciaaiey a yeiiiieea

Iao? I io/aoeeai iiieiae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aiaeieaiey oaoie/aneie
ionoaeinoe ?innee e any/anee niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth ?onneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee, a oii /enea aiaoiae. Aai iie?iaeoaeuenoaii
iieueciaaeenue iiiaea eoioeu e i?iiuoeaiieee, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieaa
ecaanoiu Aeaieaeiau. Auei iino?iaii iiiai iiauo caaiaeia e oaa?ee,
aicieeee iiaua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaeiaei aa ?acaeoea a oneiaeyo
aiaiiiai a?aiaie i?eaaei e i?ei?eoaoiiio ?acaeoeth io?aneae oyaeaeie
eiaeono?ee, eioi?ua ii ieii/aiee aieiu nouanoaiaaoue aac iiaeaea?aeee
ainoaea?noaa oaea ia iiaee. Oaeoe/anee cae?aiiuaiiia iieiaeaiea
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, aunieea iaeiae, ianeeuenoaaiiia cae?uoea
A?oaiaaeueneiai ii?oa e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua ia?u ia
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee ?acaeoeth aiaoiae oi?aiaee. A oeaeii i?iaeieaeaaoayny
a oa/aiea 21 aiaea ecio?eoaeueiay aieia, o?aaiaaaoay e?oiiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, iieo/aaiuo a iniiaiii iooai /?acau/aeiuo iaeiaia,
i?eaaea e oaeoe/aneiio iaieuaieth ianaeaiey no?aiu, ianniaui iiaaaai
e?anoueyi, ?aci?aieth oi?aiaoeaa e i?iiuoeaiieeia.

I?aia?aciaaiey Iao?a I a iaeanoe eoeueoo?u

A?aiy Iao?a I — yoi a?aiy aeoeaiiai i?iieeiiaaiey a ?onneoth aeeciue
yeaiaioia naaoneie aa?iiaece?iaaiiie eoeueoo?u. Noaee iiyaeyoueny
naaoneea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, iniiaaia ia?aay ?onneay aacaoa. Oniao ii
neoaeaa Iao? iinoaaee aeey aeai?yi a caaeneiinoue io ia?aciaaiey.
Niaoeeaeueiui oeacii oea?y auee aaaaeaiu annaiaeae, i?aaenoaaeyaoea
iiaoth aeey ?innee oi?io iauaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Iniaia cia/aiea
eiaei no?ieoaeuenoai eaiaiiiai Iaoa?ao?aa, a eioi?ii i?eieiaee o/anoea
eiino?aiiua a?oeoaeoi?u e eioi?ia inouanoaeyeinue ii ?ac?aaioaiiiio
oea?ai ieaio. Ei nicaeaaaeanue iiaay ai?iaeneay n?aaea n iaciaeiiuie
i?aaeaea oi?iaie auoa, a?aiyi?ai?iaiaeaeaiey. Eciaieeinue aioo?aiiaa
oa?ainoai aeiiia, oeeaae aeecie, ninoaa ieoaiey e i?. Iinoaiaiii a
ia?aciaaiiie n?aaea neeaaeuaaeanue eiay nenoaia oeaiiinoae,
ie?iaini?eyoey, ynoaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee. A 1724 auea iniiaaia
Aeaaeaiey iaoe (ioe?ueanue a 1725).

Ee/iay aeeciue oea?y

Ii aica?auaiee ec Aaeeeiai iinieuenoaa Iao? I ieii/aoaeueii ii?aae n
iaethaeiie ia?aie aeaiie. Aiineaaenoaee ii nioaeny n ieaiiie eaouoeie
Ia?oie Neaa?iineie (aoaeouay eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia I), n eioi?ie
aai/aeny a 1712.

1 ia?oa 1712 aiaea Iao? I aeaieeny ia Ia?oa Naioeeiaia Ceaa?iineie,
i?eiyaoae i?aaineaaea e eiaiiaaaoaeny n oiai a?aiaie Aeaoa?eiie
Aeaenaaaiie.

Iaoue Ia?ou Neaa?iineie – e?anoueyiea, ?aii oia?ea. Ia ainieoaiea Ia?oo
Neaa?iineoth (oae aa caaee oiaaea) acye ianoi? Aethe. Nia/aea Ia?oa auea
iaaai/aia n ae?aaoiii, ii aeaiith aai iia ia noaea, oae eae aeaieoa
n?i/ii aucaaee a ?eao. Ii i?eoiaeo ?onneeo a Ia?eaiao?a iia auea acyoa a
ea/anoaa ieaiieoeu. Ii iaeioi?ui enoi/ieeai, Ia?oa auea aei/a?ueth
eeoeyiaeneiai aeai?yieia. Ii ae?oaei – o?iaeaieie Oaaoeee. Ia?aia
ooaa?aeaeaiea aieaa aeinoiaa?ii. Eiaaea iia iiiaea a ieai, aa acye e
naaa A.I. Oa?aiaoaa, a o iaai aa acye eee aui?inee A.Ae. Iaioeeia, o
iineaaeiaai – Iao? I. N 1703 aiaea iia noaea oaai?eoeie. Ca o?e aiaea
aei eo oea?eiaiiai a?aea, a 1709 aiaeo, o Iao?a I e Aeaoa?eiu ?iaeeeanue
aei/ue Aeecaaaoa. Eiy Aeaoa?eiu Ia?oa acyea, i?eiya i?aaineaaea, oioy
yoei aea eiaiai (Eaoa?eia O?oaa/aaa) iia caaeanue, eiaaea auea o A.Ae.
Iaioeeiaa». Eiceia TH. No?aieoeu i?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii ?inneeneei –
Eioea?-Iea, 1990, n.145.

Ia?oa Neaa?iineay ?iaeeea Iao?o I ianeieueeeo aeaoae, ec eioi?uo auaeeee
eeoue aei/a?e Aiia e Aeecaaaoa (aoaeouay eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa
Iao?iaia). Iao?, ii-aeaeeiiio, aue i/aiue i?eaycai e naiae aoi?ie aeaia
e a 1724 ei?iiiaae aa eiia?aoi?neie ei?iiie, iaia?aaaynue caaauaoue ae
i?anoie. Iaeiaei iacaaeieai aei nia?oe ii ociae ia eciaia aeaiu n A.
Iiinii. Ia neeaaeuaaeenue e ioiioaiey oea?y n nuiii io ia?aiai a?aea,
oea?aae/ai Aeaenaai Iao?iae/ai, eioi?ue iiaea i?e ia aei eiioea
auyniaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe a 1718. Nai Iao?
I oia? io aieacie ii/aenioneaoaeueiuo i?aaiia, ia inoaaea caaauaiey. O
eiia?aoi?a aue oeaeue aoeao aieaciae, ii aieaa ae?oaeo oai?ae aai
aeiieiaea o?aiey.

Eoiae iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i

Aaaeiaeoei ?acoeueoaoii i?aia?aciaaiee Iao?a auei i?aiaeieaiea e?ecena
o?aaeeoeeiiaeecia iooai iiaea?iecaoeee no?aiu. ?inney noaea iieiii?aaiie
o/anoieoeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee, i?iaiaeeaoae aeoeaioth aiaoithth
iieeoeeo. Cia/eoaeueii au?in aaoi?eoao ?innee a ie?a, a nai Iao? I noae
aeey iiiaeo ia?acoeii ainoaea?y-?aoi?iaoi?a. I?e Iao?a auee caeiaeaiu
iniiau ?onneie iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Oea?ue nicaeae oaeaea nenoaio
oi?aaeaiey e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aeaeaiey no?aiu,
nio?aiyaoothny a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie. Aianoa n oai, aeaaiui
eino?oiaioii i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i auei ianeeea. Iao?ianeea ?aoi?iu ia
oieueei ia ecaaaeee no?aio io neiaeeaoaeny ?aiaa nenoaiu nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee, aiieiuaiiie a e?aiinoie/anoaa, ii, iaiai?io, eiina?ae?iaaee e
oe?aieee aai einoeooou. A yoii caeeth/aeinue aeaaiia i?ioeai?a/ea
iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i, i?aaeiinueee aoaeouaai iiaiai e?ecena.

IAO? I AAEEEEE (noaouey I. I. Ieetheiaa ec «Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneiai neiaa?y
A?ieaaoca e Ao?iia», 1890 – 1907)

Iao? I Aeaenaaae/ Aaeeeee — ia?aue eiia?aoi? ana?inneeneee, ?iaeeeny 30
iay 1672 aiaea, io aoi?iai a?aea oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a n Iaoaeueae
Ee?eeeiaiie Ia?uoeeiie, ainieoaiieoeae aiy?eia A. N. Iaoaaaaa.

Aii?aee eaaaiaea?iui ?anneacai E?aeoeia, iao/aiea iaeieaoiaai Iao?a oei
aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii. I?aaeaiea canoaaeyao o?aoeaoiaai ?aaaiea
?aii?oiaaoue iooeo, a /eia iieeiaieea; a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeaoo n
iieiaeiie eao ii aua ia aue ioiyo io a?oaee. Iu ia ciaai, eiaaea
ia/aeinue iao/aiea aai a?aiioa I. I. Cioiaui, ii ecaanoii, /oi a 1683 a.
Iao? aua ia eii/ee o/eoueny acaoea.

Aei eiioea aeecie Iao? i?iaeieaeae eaii?e?iaaoue a?aiiaoeeo e
i?oia?aoeth. A aeaonoaa ii ciaeiieony n «yeca?oeeoeeyie nieaeaoneiai
no?iy» e ia?aieiaao eneonnoai aeoue a aa?aaai; yoei e ia?aie/eaathony
aai aiaiiua iiciaiey aei aiaiiuo oi?aaeiaiee a n. Ai?iaueaaa (1683).
Inaiueth yoiai aiaea Iao? aua ea?aao a aea?aayiiuo eiiae. Ana yoi ia
auoiaeeei ec oaaeiia oiaaeaoieo iau/iuo «iioao» oea?neie naiuee.
Ioeeiiaiey ia/eiathony eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iieeoe/aneea ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aua?anuaatho Iao?a ec eieae. Ni nia?oueth oea?y Oaaei?a Aeaenaaae/a,
aeooay ai?ueaa Ieeineaaneeo e Ia?uoeeiuo ia?aoiaeeo a ioe?uoia
noieeiiaaiea. 27 ai?aey oieia, nia?aaoayny ia?aae e?aniui e?ueueoeii
E?aieaaneiai aeai?oea, aue?eeioea oea?ai Iao?a, iaieaey aai noa?oaai
a?aoa Eiaiia; 15 iay, ia oii aea e?ueueoea, Iao? noiye ia?aae ae?oaie
oieiie, na?ineaoae Iaoaaaaa e Aeieai?oeiai ia no?aeaoeeea eiiuey.
Eaaaiaea ecia?aaeaao Iao?a niieieiui a yoio aeaiue aoioa; aa?iyoiaa, /oi
aia/aoeaiea auei neeueiia e /oi ionthaea aaaeoo ia/aei e ecaanoiay
ia?aiinoue Iao?a e aai iaiaaenoue e no?aeueoeai. *a?ac iaaeaeth iinea
ia/aea aoioa (23 iay) iiaaaeeoaee iio?aaiaaee io i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oiau
oea?yie auee iacia/aiu iaa a?aoa; aua iaaeaeth nionoy (29-ai), ii iiaiio
o?aaiaaieth no?aeueoeia, ca iieiaeinoueth oea?ae i?aaeaiea a?o/aii auei
oea?aaia Niouea.

Ia?oey Iao?a iono?aiaia auea io anyeiai o/anoey a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeaeao; Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia ai ana a?aiy ?aaaionoaa Niouee i?eacaeaea a
Iineao eeoue ia ianeieueei ceiieo ianyoeaa, i?iaiaey inoaeueiia a?aiy a
iiaeiineiaiii naea I?aia?aaeaineii. Ieiei iieiaeiai aeai?a
a?oiie?iaaeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ciaoiuo oaieeee, ia ?aoaaoeony
naycaoue naith noaeueao n a?aiaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii Niouee.
I?aaeinoaaeaiiue naiiio naaa, Iao? ioo/eeny ia?aiineoue eaeea-eeai
noaniaiey, ioeacuaaoue naaa a eniieiaiee eaeiai au oi ie auei aeaeaiey.
Oea?eoea Iaoaeuey, aeaiueia «oia iaeiai», ii au?aaeaieth aa
?iaenoaaiieea ei. Eo?aeeia, caaioeeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio, eneeth/eoaeueii i
oece/aneie noi?iia ainieoaiey naiaai nuia.

N naiiai ia/aea iu aeaeei Iao?a ie?oaeaiiui «iieiaeuie ?aayoaie, ia?iaeo
i?inoiai» e «iieiaeuie ethaeueie ia?auo aeiiia»; ia?aua, a eiioea
eiioeia, acyee aa?o, a «ciaoiua ia?niiu» auee ioaeaeaiu. Aanueia
aa?iyoii /oi e i?inoua, e ciaoiua i?eyoaee aeaoneeo ea? Iao?a iaeeiaeiai
caneoaeeaaee eee/eo «ici?ieeia», aeaiioth ei Nioueae. A 1683—1685 a. ec
i?eyoaeae e aeia?iaieueoeaa i?aaiecothony aeaa iieea, iinaeaiiua a naeao
I?aia?aaeaineii e ninaaeiai Naiaiianeii. Iaei iiiaeo a Iao?a ?acaeaaaony
eioa?an e oaoie/aneie noi?iia aiaiiiai aeaea, canoaaeaoee aai eneaoue
iiauo o/eoaeae e iiauo iiciaiee. «Aeey iaoaiaoeee, oi?oeoeeaoeee,
oiea?iiai ianoa?noaa e iaiae a?oeoeoeeaeueiuo» yaeyaony i?e Iao?a
o/eoaeue-eiino?aiaoe, O?aioe Oeiia?iai. Nio?aieaoeany (io 1688 a.?)
o/aaiua oao?aaee Iao?a naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ianoie/eauo aai oneeeyo
onaieoue i?eeeaaeioth noi?iio a?eoiaoe/aneie, ano?iiiie/aneie e
a?oeeea?eeneie i?aioae?inoe; oa aea oao?aaee iieacuaatho, /oi iniiaaiey
anae yoie i?aioae?inoe oae e inoaeenue aeey Iao?a 1 oaeiie. Caoi
oiea?iia eneonnoai e ie?ioaoieea anaaaea auee ethaeiuie caiyoeyie Iao?a.

Aaeeinoaaiiui e?oiiui, e iaoaea/iui, aiaoaoaeuenoaii iaoa?e a ee/ioth
aeeciue thiioe auea aeaieoueaa aai ia A. O. Eiiooeiie, 27 yiaa?y 1689
a., ?aiueoa aeinoeaeaiey Iao?ii 17 eao. Yoi auea, ai?i/ai, nei?aa
iieeoe/aneay, /ai iaaeaaiae/aneay ia?a. Niouey aeaieea oea?y Eiaiia
oiaea oio/an ii aeinoeaeaiee 17-oe eao; ii o iaai ?iaeaeaeenue oieueei
aei/a?e. Naiue auai? iaaanou aeey Iao?a aue i?iaeoeoii ia?oeeiie
ai?ueau: ciaoiua i?eaa?aeaioeu aai iaoa?e i?aaeeaaaee iaaanoo
eiyaeaneiai ?iaea, ii iiaaaeeee Ia?uoeeiu, n Oeo. No?aoiaaui ai aeaaa, e
aua?aia auea aei/ue iaeeiiiianoiiai aeai?yieia. Aneaae ca iae
iioyioeenue ei aeai?o iiiai/eneaiiua ?iaenoaaiieee («aieaa 30 ia?nii»,
aiai?eo Eo?aeei). Oaeay ianna iiauo eneaoaeae iano, ia ciaaoeo, i?eoii,
«ia?auaiey aeai?iaiai», aucaaea i?ioea Eiiooeiuo iauaa ?acae?aaeaiea i?e
aeai?a; oea?eoea Iaoaeuey nei?i «iaaanoeo naith aiciaiaaeaeaea e aeaeaea
aieueoa aeaeaoue n ioaeai aa a ianiaeanee, iaaeaee a ethaae» (Eo?aeei).
Yoei, oaeaea eae e ianoiaenoaii oa?aeoa?ia, iauyniyaony, /oi «ec?yaeiay
ethaiaue» Iao?a e aeaia «i?iaeieaeeeanue ?acaa oieii aiae», a caoai Iao?
noae i?aaeii/eoaoue naiaeiie aeecie — iioiaeioth, a iieeiaie ecaa
I?aia?aaeaineiai iieea.

Iiaia caiyoea noaeino?iaiea — ioaeaeei aai aua aeaeueoa; n ssocu Iao?
ia?anaeeeny ni naieie ei?aaeyie ia Ia?ayneaaneia ica?i, e aanaei
i?iaiaeee oai a?aiy aeaaea ceiie. O/anoea Iao?a a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeaeao ia?aie/eaaeinue, ai a?aiy ?aaaionoaa Niouee, i?enoonoaeai i?e
oi?aeanoaaiiuo oea?aiiieyo. Ii ia?a oiai, eae Iao? iiae?anoae e ?anoe?ye
naie aiaiiua caaaau, Niouey ia/eiaea ana aieaa o?aaiaeeoueny ca naith
aeanoue e noaea i?eieiaoue ia?u aeey aa nio?aiaiey. A ii/ue ia 8 aaaonoa
1689 a. Iao? aue ?acaoaeai a I?aia?aaeaineii no?aeueoeaie, i?eianoeie
aanoue i aeaenoaeoaeueiie eee iieiie iianiinoe ni noi?iiu E?aiey. Iao?
aaaeae e O?ieoea; aai i?eaa?aeaioeu ?anii?yaeeeenue nicaaoue aeai?yineia
iiie/aiea, iio?aaiaaee e naaa ia/aeueieeia e aeaiooaoia io iineianeeo
aiene e o/eieee ei?ioeoth ?ani?aao n aeaaiuie i?eaa?aeaioeaie Niouee.
Niouey auea iinaeaia a iiianou?a, Eiaii i?aaee eeoue iiieiaeueii;
oaeoe/anee aeanoue ia?aoea e ia?oee Iao?a. Ia ia?auo ii?ao, iaeiaei,
«oea?neia aaee/anoai inoaaee naia i?aaeaiea iaoa?e naiae, a nai
i?ai?iaiaeaeae a?aiy naia a caaaaao yeca?oeeoeee aiaiiuo».

I?aaeaiea oea?eoeu Iaoaeuee i?aaenoaaeyeinue nia?aiaiieeai yiioie
?aaeoeee i?ioea ?aoi?iaoeeiiiuo no?aieaiee Niouee. Iao? ainiieueciaaeny
ia?aiaiie naiaai iieiaeaiey oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aei
a?aiaeeiciuo ?acia?ia naie oaanaeaiey. Oae, iaiaa?u iiauo iieeia
eii/eeenue a 1694 a. Eiaeooianeeie iioiaeaie, a eioi?uo «oea?ue Oaaei?
Ieaoao?neee (?iiiaeaiianeee) ?acaee «oea?y Eaaia Naiaiianeiai»
(Aooo?eeia), inoaaea ia iiea iioaoiie aeoau 24 ianoiyueo oaeouo e 50
?aiaiuo. ?anoe?aiea ii?neeo caaaa iiaoaeeei Iao?a aeaaaeaeu niaa?oeoue
iooaoanoaea ia Aaeia ii?a, i?e/ai ii iiaeaa?aaeny na?ueaciie iianiinoe
ai a?aiy iiacaeee ia Nieiaaoeeea ino?iaa. Ca yoe aiaeu oeaio?ii
?acaoeueiie aeecie Iao?a noaiiaeony aeii iiaiai aai ethaeioea, Eaoi?oa,
a Iaiaoeeie neiaiaea. «Ooo ia/aeinue aeaaionoai, iueyinoai oae aaeeeia,
/oi iaaiciiaeii iienaoue, /oi ii o?e aeie, caia?oenue a oii aeiia,
auaaee iueyiu e /oi iiiaei neo/aeinue iooiai e oie?aoue» (Eo?aeei).

A aeiia Eaoi?oa Iao? «ia/ae n aeaiaie eiicaineeie iaoiaeeoueny e aio?
ia/ae ia?aue auoue e iaeiie aei/a?e eoia/aneie». «N i?aeoeee», ia aaeao
Eaoi?oa, Iao? «iao/eeny oaioeaaaoue ii-iieuenee»; nui aeaoneiai
eiienna?a Aooaiaio o/ee aai oaooiaaieth e aa?oiaie acaea, aieeaiaeaoe
Aeieon — i?aeoeea aieeaiaeneiai ycuea; ai a?aiy iiacaeee a A?oaiaaeuene
Iao? ia?aiaeaeny a iao?inneee aieeaiaeneee einothi. Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei
onaiaieai aa?iiaeneie aiaoiinoe oei auno?ia ?ac?ooaiea noa?iai
i?eaeai?iiai yoeeaoa; auoiaeeee ec oiio?aaeaiey oi?aeanoaaiiua auoiaeu a
niai?ioth oea?eiaue, ioaee/iua aoaeeaioeee e ae?oaea «aeai?iaua
oea?aiiiee». «?oaaoaeuenoaa ciaoiui ia?niiai» io oea?neeo ethaeioeaa e
i?eaeai?iuo oooia, oaeaea eae e o/?aaeaeaiea «anaoooaeoaai e
anaiueyiaeoaai niai?a», aa?oo naia ia/aei a oie aea yiioa. A 1694 a.
oia?ea iaoue Iao?a. Oioy oaia?ue Iao? «nai iiioaeaeai aue anooieoue a
oi?aaeaiea, iaeiaei ae o?oaea oiai ia oioae iiianoe e inoaaee ana naiaai
ainoaea?noaa i?aaeaiea — ieieno?ai naiei» (Eo?aeei). Aio auei o?oaeii
ioeacaoueny io oie naiaiaeu, e eioi?ie aai i?eo/eee aiaeu iaaieueiiai
oaeaeaiey io aeae; e aiineaaenoaee ii ia ethaee naycuaaoue naay
ioeoeeaeueiuie iaycaiiinoyie, ii?o/ay eo ae?oaei eeoeai (iai?.
«eiycth-eana?th ?iiiaeaiianeiio, ia?aae eioi?ui Iao? ea?aao ?ieue
aa?iiiiaeaeaiiiai), a nai inoaaaynue ia aoi?ii ieaia. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
iaoeia a ia?aua aiaeu nianoaaiiiai i?aaeaiey Iao?a i?iaeieaeaao eaeoe
naiei oiaeii; ii aiaoeaaaony a yoio oiae eeoue oiaaea e iinoieueeo,
eiaaea e iineieueeo yoi ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aai aiaiii-ii?neeo
caaaa.

I/aiue nei?i, iaeiaei aea, «ieaaeai/aneia ea?aiea» a nieaeaou e ei?aaee
i?eaiaeeo Iao?a e na?ueaciui cao?oaeiaieyi, aeey ono?aiaiey eioi?uo
ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiui nouanoaaiii iio?aaiaeeoue noa?ue
ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie. «Oooeee iiae Eiaeooiaui, a oaia?ue iiae Acia
ea?aoue aaeai» — oae niiauaao Iao? O. I. Ai?aeneio, a ia/aea 1695 a. ia
Acianeii iioiaea. Oaea a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo, iiciaeiieaoenue n
iaoaeianoaaie Aaeiai ii?y, Iao? ia/ae aeoiaoue i ia?aianaiee naieo
ii?neeo caiyoee ia eaeia-ieaoaeue ae?oaia ii?a. Ii eieaaaeny iaaeaeo
Aaeoeeneei e Eanieeneei; oiae ?onneie aeeieiiaoee iiaoaeee aai
i?aaeii/anoue aieio n Oo?oeeae e E?uiii, e oaeiie oeaeueth iioiaea
iacia/ai aue Acia — ia?aue oaa e auoiaeo a *a?iia ii?a.

Oooeeaue oii nei?i en/acaao; ienueia Iao?a noaiiayony eaeiie/iaa, ii
ia?a oiai, eae iaia?oaeeaaaony iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue aienea e aaia?aeia e
na?ueaciuie aeaenoaeyi. Iaoaea/a ia?aiai iioiaea canoaaeyao Iao?a
naeaeaoue iiaua oneeey. Oeioeeey, iino?iaiiay ia Ai?iiaaea, ieacuaaaony,
iaeiaei, iaei i?eaiaeiie aeey aiaiiuo aeaenoaee; auienaiiua Iao?ii
eiino?aiiua eiaeaia?u iiacaeuaatho; Acia naeaaony a 1696 a. «ia
aeiaiai?, a ia aiaiiui i?iiuneii». Iao? ooiii i?acaeioao iiaaaeo, ii
oi?ioi /oanoaoao iacia/eoaeueiinoue oniaoa e iaaeinoaoi/iinoue nee aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey ai?ueau. Ii i?aaeeaaaao aiy?ai noaaoeoue «oi?ooio ca
aeanu» e ecuneaoue n?aaenoaa aeey iino?ieee oeioa, /oiau i?iaeieaeaoue
aieio n «iaaa?iuie» ia ii?a.

Aiy?a aiceiaeeee iino?ieeo ei?aaeae ia «eoiiainoaa» naaoneeo e aeooiaiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, eiaaoeo ia iaiueoa 100 aeai?ia; inoaeueiia ianaeaiea
aeieaeii auei iiiiaaoue aeaiueaaie. Iino?iaiiua «eoiiainoaaie» ei?aaee
ieacaeenue iicaeiaa ieeoaea ia aiaeiuie, e aanue yoio ia?aue oeio,
noieaoee ianaeaieth ieiei 900 oun. oiaaeaoieo ?oaeae, ia iia auoue
oiio?aaeai ie aeey eaeeo i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
ono?ienoaii «eoiiainoa» e a aeaeo oie aea oeaee, o. a. aieiu n Oo?oeeae,
?aoaii auei nia?yaeeoue iinieuenoai ca a?aieoeo, aeey cae?aieaiey nithca
i?ioea «iaaa?iuo». «Aiiaa?aee?» a ia/aea acianeiai iioiaea e «eaieoai» a
eiioea, Iao? oaia?ue i?eiueaao e iinieuenoao a ea/anoaa «aieiioa?a Iao?a
Ieoaeeiaa», n oeaeueth aeeaeaeoaai eco/aiey ei?aaeano?iaiey.

9 ia?oa 1697 a. iinieuenoai aeaeioeinue ec Iineau, n iaia?aieai
iinaoeoue Aaio, ei?ieae aiaeeeneiai e aeaoneiai, iaio, aieeaiaeneea
ooaou, eo?oth?noa a?aiaeaiao?aneiai e Aaiaoeeth. Ia?aua caa?aie/iue
aia/aoeaiey Iao?a auee, ii aai au?aaeaieth, «iaei i?eyoiu»: ?eaeneee
eiiaiaeaio Aeaeueaa?a neeoeii aoeaaeueii iiiye eieiaieoi oea?y e ia
iicaieee aio iniio?aoue oe?aieaiey: iicaeiaa Iao? naeaeae ec yoiai
eioeeaeaioa casus belli. Iuoiay ano?a/a a Ieoaaa e ae?oaeanoaaiiue i?eai
eo?oth?noa a?aiaeaiao?aneiai a Eaieanaa?aa iii?aaeee aeaei. Ec
Eieueaa?aa Iao? iiaoae aia?aae, ii?ai, ia Ethaae e Aaiao?a, no?aiynue
nei?aa aeinoeaiooue naiae oeaee — aoi?inoaiaiiie aieeaiaeneie aa?oe a
Naa?aeaia, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiie aio iaeiei ec iineianeeo ciaeiioeaa.

Caeanue Iao? i?iaue 8 aeiae, oaeeaeyy ianaeaiea iaeaiueeiai ai?iaeea
naiei yeno?aaaaaioiui iiaaaeaieai. Iinieuenoai i?eauei a Ainoa?aeai a
n?aaeeia aaaonoa e inoaeinue oai aei n?aaeeiu iay 1698 a., oioy
ia?aaiai?u auee eii/aiu oaea a iiya?a 1697 a. A yiaa?a 1698 a. Iao?
iiaoae a Aiaeeth aeey ?anoe?aiey naieo ii?neeo iiciaiee e inoaaaeny oai
o?e n iieiaeiie ianyoea, ?aaioay i?aeiouanoaaiii ia aa?oe a Aeaiooi?aea.
Aeaaiay oeaeue iinieuenoaa ia auea aeinoeaiooa, oae eae ooaou
?aoeoaeueii ioeacaeenue iiiiaaoue ?innee a aieia n Oo?oeeae; ca oi Iao?
oiio?aaee a?aiy i?aauaaiey a Aieeaiaeee e a Aiaeee aeey i?eia?aoaiey
iiauo ciaiee, a iinieuenoai caieiaeinue caeoieaie i?oaeey e
anaaiciiaeiuo ei?aaaeueiuo i?eiania; iaeiii ii?yeia, ?aianeaiieeia e o.
i.

Ia aa?iiaeneeo iaaethaeaoaeae Iao? i?iecaae aia/aoeaiea
ethaiciaoaeueiiai aeeea?y, caeioa?aniaaiiiai i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aianeaie,
i?eeeaaeiuie ciaieyie e anaaiciiaeiuie aeeeiaeieaie e iaaeinoaoi/ii
?acaeoiai, /oiau eioa?aniaaoueny nouanoaaiiuie /a?oaie aa?iiaeneie
iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie. Aai ecia?aaeatho /aeiaaeii e?aeia
aniueue/eaui e ia?aiui, auno?i iaiythuei iano?iaiea e ieaiu e ia
oiathuei aeaaeaoue niaie a ieioou aiaaa, iniaaiii iiae aeeyieai aeia.

Ia?aoiue iooue iinieuenoaa eaaeae /a?ac Aaio. Iao? eniuoae caeanue
iiaoth aeeieiiaoe/aneoth iaoaea/o, oae eae Aa?iia aioiaeeanue e aieia ca
eniaineia ianeaaenoai e oeiiioaea i i?eie?aiee Aano?ee n Oo?oeeae, a ia
i aieia iaaeaeo ieie. Noaniaiiue a naieo i?eau/eao no?iaei yoeeaoii
aaineiai aeai?a, ia iaoiaey e iiauo i?eiaiie aeey ethaiciaoaeueiinoe,
Iao? niaoee iieeiooue Aaio aeey Aaiaoeee, aaea iaaeayeny eco/eoue
no?iaiea aaea?.

Ecaanoea i no?aeaoeeii aoioa aucaaei aai a ?inneth; ii aei?iaa ii oniae
eeoue iiaeaeaoueny n iieueneei ei?ieai Aaaonoii (a i. ?aaa), e caeanue;
n?aaee o?aoaeiaaiiai iai?a?uaiiai aanaeuey, iaeueeioea ia?aay eaeay
caiaieoue iaoaeaaoeeny ieai nithca i?ioea oo?ie ae?oaei ieaiii,
i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai, acaiai oneieuecioaoaai ec ?oe *a?iiai ii?y, auei au
Aaeoeeneia. I?aaeaea anaai i?aaenoiyei iieii/eoue n no?aeueoeaie e ni
noa?ui ii?yaeeii aiiaua. I?yii n aei?iae, ia iiaeaeaaoenue n naiueae,
Iao? i?iaoae e Aiia Iiin, iioii ia naie I?aia?aaeaineee aeai?. Ia
neaaeothuaa oo?i, 26 aaaonoa 1698 a., ii nianoaaiii?o/ii ia/ae no?e/ue
ai?iaeu o ia?auo naiiaieeia ainoaea?noaa. No?aeueoeu auee oaea ?acaeou
Oaeiui iiae Aine?anaineei iiianou?ai e ca/eiueee aoioa iaeacaiu. Iao?
aiciaiiaee neaaenoaea i aoioa, noa?aynue iouneaoue neaaeu aeeyiey ia
no?aeueoeia oea?aaiu Niouee. Iaeaey aeieacaoaeuenoaa nei?aa acaeiiuo
neiiaoee, /ai ii?aaeaeaiiuo ieaiia e aeaenoaee, Iao? oai ia iaiaa
canoaaee iino?e/ueny Nioueth e aa nano?o Ia?oo. Yoei aea iiiaioii ii
ainiieueciaaeny, /oiau ianeeuenoaaiii iino?e/ue naith aeaio, ia
iaaeiyaoothny ie a eaeie i?eeiniiaaiiinoe e aoioo.

A?ao oea?y, Eiaii, oia? aua a 1696 a.; ieeaeea nayce ni noa?ui ia
naea?aeeaatho aieueoa Iao?a, e ii i?aaeaaony n naieie iiauie
ethaeioeaie, n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeaaaony ia ia?aia ianoi Iaioeeia,
eaeie-oi iai?a?uaiie aaeoaiaeee, ea?oeio eioi?ie ?enoao Ei?a. Ie?u e
iiiieee niaiythony eaciyie, a eioi?uo oea?ue nai ea?aao eiiaaea ?ieue
iaea/a; n eiioea naioya?y ii eiiaoe ieoya?y 1698 a. auei eaciaii aieaa
ouny/e no?aeueoeia. A oaa?aea 1699 a. iiyoue eacieee no?aeueoeia
nioiyie. Iineianeia no?aeaoeeia aienei i?ae?aoeei naia nouanoaiaaiea.

Oeac 20 aeae. 1699 a. i iiaii eaoin/eneaiee oi?iaeueii i?iaae /a?oo
iaaeaeo noa?ui e iiaui a?aiaiai. 11 iiya?y 1699 a. aue caeeth/ai iaaeaeo
Iao?ii e Aaaonoii oaeiue aeiaiai?, eioi?ui Iao? iaycuaaeny anooieoue a
Eia?eth e Ea?aeeth oio/an ii caeeth/aiee ie?a n Oo?oeeae, ia iicaea
ai?aey 1700 a.; Eeoeyiaeeth e Ynoeyiaeeth, niaeanii ieaio Iaoeoey,
Aaaono i?aaeinoaaeye naaa. Ie? n Oo?oeeae oaeaeinue caeeth/eoue eeoue a
aaaonoa. Yoei i?iiaaeooeii a?aiaie Iao? ainiieueciaaeny aeey nicaeaiey
iiaie a?iee, oae eae «ii ?aniouaiee no?aeueoeia ieeaeie iaoiou cea
ainoaea?noai ia eiaei». 17 iiya?y 1699 a. aue iauyaeai iaai? iiauo 27
iieeia, ?acaeaeaiiuo ia 3 aeeaecee, ai aeaaa eioi?uo noaee eiiaiaee?u
iieeia I?aia?aaeaineiai, Eaoi?oianeiai e Aoou?neiai. Ia?aua aeaa
aeeaecee (Aieiaeia e Aaeaea) auee aiieia noi?ie?iaaiu e na?aaeeia ethiy
1700 a.; aianoa n iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie aieneaie, anaai aei 40 oun., iie
auee aeaeioou a oaaaeneea i?aaeaeu, ia ae?oaie aeaiue ii iaia?iaeiaaiee
ie?a n Oo?oeeae (19 aaaonoa). E iaoaeiaieuenoaeth nithcieeia, Iao?
iai?aaee naie aienea e Ia?aa, acya eioi?oth ii iia oa?iaeaoue Eeoeyiaeee
e Ynoeyiaeee. Oieueei e eiioeo naioya?y aienea nia?aeenue o Ia?au;
oieueei a eiioea ieoya?y aue ioe?uo iaiiue ii ai?iaeo. Ea?e XII oniae ca
yoi a?aiy iieii/eoue n Aeaieae e iaiaeeaeaiii aeey Iao?a aunaaeeeny a
Ynoeyiaeee.

Ii/ueth n 17 ia 18 iiya?y ?onneea ociaee, /oi Ea?e XII i?eaeeaeaaony e
Ia?aa. Iao? oaoae ec eaaa?y, inoaaea eiiaiaeiaaiea i?eioeo aea E?oa,
iaciaeiiiio n nieaeaoaie e iaecaanoiiio ei — e ainueieouny/iay a?iey
Ea?ea XII, onoaeay e aieiaeiay, ?acaeea aac anyeiai o?oaea
ni?ieaouny/iia aienei Iao?a. Iaaeaaeaeu, aicaoaeaeaiiua a Iao?a
iooaoanoaeai ii Aa?iia, niaiythony ?aci/a?iaaieai. Ea?e XII ia n/eoaao
ioaeiui i?aneaaeiaaoue aeaeaa oaeiai neaaiai i?ioeaieea e ia?auaaony
i?ioea Iieueoe. Nai Iao? oa?aeoa?ecoao naia aia/aoeaiea neiaaie: «oiaaea
iaaiey eaiinoue ioiaiaea e ei o?oaeiethaeth e eneonnoao aeaiue e ii/ue
i?eioaeeea». Aeaenoaeoaeueii, n yoiai iiiaioa Iao? i?aia?aaeaaony.
Iio?aaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe inoaaony i?aaeiyy, ii iia iaoiaeeo naaa
eiia, eo/oaa i?eeiaeaiea; ana iiiuneu Iao?a ono?aieaiu oaia?ue ia oi,
/oiau iaeieaoue niia?ieea e oe?aieoueny ia Aaeoeeneii ii?a.

Ca ainaiue eao ii iaae?aao ieiei 200000 nieaeao e, ia niio?y ia iioa?e
io aieiu e io aiaiiuo ii?yaeeia, aeiaiaeeo /eneaiiinoue a?iee n 40 aei
100 oun. Noieiinoue yoie a?iee iaoiaeeony aio a 1709 a. ii/oe aaeaia
aei?iaea, /ai a 1701 a.: 1810000 ?. aianoi 982000. Ca ia?aua 6 eao aieiu
oiea/aii auei, naa?o oiai; noaneaeee ei?ieth iieueneiio ieiei iieooi?a
ieeeeiia. Anee i?eaaaeoue nthaea ?anoiaeu ia oeio, ia a?oeeea?eth, ia
niaea?aeaiea aeeieiiaoia, oi iauee ?anoiae, aucaaiiue aieiie, ieaaeaony
2,3 ieee. a 1701 a., 2,7 ieee. a 1706 a. e 3,2 ieeae. a 1710 a. Oaea
ia?aay ec yoeo oeeo? auea neeoeii aaeeea a n?aaiaiee n oaie n?aaenoaaie,
eioi?ua aei Iao?a aeinoaaeyeenue ainoaea?noao ianaeaieai (ieiei 11/2
ieee.).

Iaaei auei eneaoue aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieeia aeioiaea. Ia ia?aia a?aiy
Iao? iaei caaioeony ia yoii e i?inoi aa?ao aeey naieo oeaeae ec noa?uo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee — ia oieueei eo naiaiaeiua inoaoee, ii
aeaaea e oa eo noiiu, eioi?ua ?anoiaeiaaeenue i?aaeaea ia ae?oaia
iacia/aiea; yoei ?anno?aeaaaony i?aaeeueiue oiae ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaoeiu. E ana-oaee e?oiiua noaouee iiauo ?anoiaeia ia iiaee iie?uaaoueny
noa?uie n?aaenoaaie, e Iao? aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo i?eioaeaeai aue
nicaeaoue iniaue ainoaea?noaaiiue iaeia. A?iey niaea?aeaeanue ec aeaaiuo
aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa — oaiiaeaiiuo e eaaaoeeeo iioeei, nai? eioi?uo
ia?aaeai aue a iiaia oeaio?aeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea, ?aoooo. Aeey
niaea?aeaiey iiaie eaaaea?ee, iaa?aiiie a 1701 a., iiiaaeiaeeinue
iacia/eoue iiaue iaeia («ae?aaoineea aeaiueae»); oi/ii oaeaea — e ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea oeioa («ei?aaaeueiua»). Iioii nthaea i?eniaaeeiyaony
iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea ?aai/eo aeey iino?ieee Iaoa?ao?aa, «?ae?ooiua»,
«iiaeaiaeiua»; a eiaaea ana yoe iaeiae noaiiayony oaea i?eau/iuie e
neeaathony a iauoth noiio iinoiyiiuo («ieeaaeiuo»), e iei
i?eniaaeeiythony iiaua yeno?aiiua nai?u («cai?iniua», «iaieeaaeiua»). E
yoeo i?yiuo iaeiaia, iaeiaei, nei?i ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii, oai aieaa,
/oi niae?aeenue iie aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii e cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
inoaaaeanue a iaaeieiea. ?yaeii n ieie i?eaeoiuaaeenue, iiyoiio, ae?oaea
enoi/ieee aeioiaea.

Naiay ?aiiyy auaeoiea yoiai ?iaea — aaaaeaiiay ii niaaoo Eo?aaoiaa
aa?aiaay aoiaaa — ia aeaea iaeeaeaaoeony io aa aa?uoae. Oai aieueoaa
cia/aiea eiaea ii?/a iiiaou. Ia?a/aeaiea na?aa?yiie iiiaou a iiiaoo
iecoaai aeinoieinoaa, ii i?aaeiae iiieiaeueiie oeaiu, aeaea ii 946 oun.
a ia?aua 3 aiaea (1701—03), ii 313 oun. — a neaaeothuea o?e; ionthaea
auee auiea/aiu eiino?aiiua noaneaeee. Iaeiaei, nei?i aanue iaoaee aue
ia?aaeaeai a iiaoth iiiaoo, a noieiinoue aa a ia?auaiee oiaea ia
iieiaeio; oaeei ia?acii, iieueca io ii?/e iiiaou auea a?aiaiiay e
nii?iaiaeaeaeanue ia?iiiui a?aaeii, ?iiyy noieiinoue anao aiiaua
iinooieaiee eaciu (aianoa n oiaaeeii noieiinoe iiiaou).

Iiaie ia?ie aeey iiauoaiey eacaiiuo aeioiaeia auea ia?aia?i/ea, a 1704
a., noa?uo ia?i/iuo noaoae e ioaea/a ia ia?ie iiauo; ana aeaaeaeue/aneea
?uaiua eiaee, aeiiaoiea aaie, iaeueieoeu, iinoiyeua aeai?u iaeiaeaiu
auee ia?ieii, e iauay oeeo?a eacaiiuo iinooieaiee ii yoie noaouea
iiaeiyeanue e 1708 a. n 300 aei 670 oun. aaeaaiaeii. Aeaeaa, eacia acyea
a naie ?oee i?iaeaaeo niee, i?eianooth ae aei 300 oun. aaeaaiaeiiai
aeioiaea, oaaaea (yoi i?aaei?eyoea ieacaeinue iaoaea/iui) e ?yaea
ae?oaeo nu?uo i?iaeoeoia, aeaaaaoeo aei 100 oun. aaeaaiaeii. Ana yoe
/anoiua ia?ii?eyoey oaeiaeaoai?yee aeaaiie caaea/a — ia?aaeeoue
eae-ieaoaeue o?oaeiia a?aiy.

Nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aoi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee Iao? ia iia a yoe
aiaeu oaeaeeoue ie ieioou aieiaiey, oae eae i?eaioiaeaiea n?aaenoa
ai?ueau caieiaei ana aai a?aiy e o?aaiaaei aai i?enoonoaey ai anao
eiioeao ainoaea?noaa. A noa?oth noieeoeo Iao? noae i?eacaeaoue oieueei
ia nayoee; caeanue aiciaiiaeyeanue iau/iay ?acaoeueiay aeeciue, ii
aianoa n oai ianoaeaeaeenue e ?aoaeenue iaeaieaa iaioeiaeiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea. Iieoaaneay iiaaaea aeaea Iao?a aia?aua iinea
ia?aneiai ii?aaeaiey aiciiaeiinoue acaeioiooue naiaiaeii.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acia?aoueny a ianna ioaeaeueiuo ?anii?yaeaiee ia?auo
aiaeia aieiu; noaiiaeeanue ana ianoiyoaeueiaa; e ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa
ianaeaiey, e ?ano?nu eaciu neeueii ineoaeaee, a aia?aaee i?aaeaeaeaeinue
aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Ec yoiai iieiaeaiey Iao?
iaoae i?eau/iue oaea aeey iaai enoiae: anee n?aaenoa ia oaaoaei ia ana,
iie aeieaeiu auee auoue oiio?aaeaiu ia naiia aeaaiia, o. a. ia aiaiiia
aeaei. Neaaeoy yoiio i?aaeeo, Iao? e ?aiueoa oi?iuae oeiainiaia
oi?aaeaiea no?aiith, ia?aaeaaay nai?u n ioaeaeueiuo ianoiinoae i?yii a
?oee aaia?aeia, ia eo ?anoiaeu, e ieioy oeaio?aeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey,
eoaea aeaiueae aeieaeiu auee iinooiaoue ii noa?iio ii?yaeeo.

Anaai oaeiaiaa auei i?eiaieoue yoio niinia a iiaicaaiaaaiiie no?aia — a
Eiaa?iaieaiaeee, ioaeaiiie a «aoaa?iaoeeth» Iaioeeiao. Oio aea niinia
aue ?ani?ino?aiai ia Eeaa e Niieaine — aeey i?eaaaeaiey eo a
iai?iieoaeueiia iieiaeaiea i?ioea iaoanoaey Ea?ea XII, ia Eacaiue — aeey
onie?aiey aieiaiee, ia Ai?iiaae e Acia — aeey iino?ieee oeioa. Iao?
oieueei noiie?oao yoe /anoe/iua ?anii?yaeaiey, eiaaea i?eeacuaaao (18
aeae. 1707 a.) «?inienaoue ai?iaea /anoueie, e?iia oao, eioi?ua a 100 a.
io Iineau, — e Eeaao, Niieaineo, Aciao, Eacaie, A?oaiaaeueneiio». Iinea
iieoaaneie iiaaaeu yoa iayniay iuneue i iiaii
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oeiainiaii ono?ienoaa ?innee iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea. I?eienea ai?iaeia e oeaio?aeueiui ioieoai, aeey aceiaiey n ieo
anyeeo nai?ia, i?aaeiieaaaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia auyniaiea, eoi e /oi
aeieaeai ieaoeoue a eaaeaeii ai?iaea. Aeey i?eaaaeaiey a ecaanoiinoue
ieaoaeueueeia iacia/aia auea iianaianoiay ia?aienue; aeey i?eaaaeaiey a
ecaanoiinoue ieaoaaeae aaeaii auei nia?aoue naaaeaiey ec i?aaeieo
oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. ?acoeueoaou yoeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ?aaio
iaia?oaeeee, /oi ainoaea?noai ia?aaeeaaao na?ueaciue e?ecen. Ia?aienue
1710 a. iieacaea, /oi, aneaaenoaea aani?a?uaiuo iaai?ia e iiaaaia io
iiaeaoae, ieaoaaeiia ianaeaiea ainoaea?noaa neeueii oiaiueoeeinue:
aianoi 791 oun. aeai?ia, /eneeaoeony aei ia?aiene 1678 a., iiaay
ia?aienue ian/eoaea oieueei 637 oun.; ia anai naaa?a ?innee, ianoai aei
Iao?a aeaaioth /anoue oeiainiaie oyainoe, oaueue aeinoeaaea aeaaea 40 %.

A aeaeo oaeiai iaiaeeaeaiiiai oaeoa i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeeinue
eaii?e?iaaoue oeeo?u iiaie ia?aiene, ca eneeth/aieai iano, aaea iie
iieacuaaee i?eaueue ianaeaiey (ia THA e a Neae?e); ii anai inoaeueiui
ianoiinoyi ?aoaii auei aceiaoue iiaeaoe niia?acii n noa?uie, oeeoeaiuie
oeeo?aie ieaoaeueueeia. E i?e yoii oneiaee, iaeiaei, ieacuaaeinue, /oi
ieaoaaee ia iie?uaatho ?anoiaeia: ia?auo ieacuaaeinue 3 iei. 134 oun.,
iineaaeieo — 3 iei. 834 oun. ?oa. Ieiei 200 oun. iiaei auoue iie?uoi ec
nieyiiai aeioiaea; inoaeueiua iieieeeeiia ninoaaeyee iinoiyiiue
aeaoeoeeo. Ai a?aiy ?iaeaeanoaaineeo nuacaeia aaia?aeia Iao?a a 1709 e
1710 a. ai?iaea ?innee auee ieii/aoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo 8
aoaa?iaoi?aie; eaaeaeue a naiae «aoaa?iee» niae?ae ana iiaeaoe e
iai?aaeye eo, i?aaeaea anaai, ia niaea?aeaiea a?iee, oeioa, a?oeeea?ee e
aeeieiiaoee. Yoe «/aou?a ianoa» iiaeiuaee aanue eiinoaoe?iaaiiue aeioiae
ainoaea?noaa; eae aoaeoo iie?uaaoue «aoaa?iee» ae?oaea ?anoiaeu, e
i?aaeaea anaai naie, ianoiua — yoio aii?in inoaaaeny ioe?uoui. Aeaoeoeeo
aue ono?aiai i?inoi nie?auaieai ia niioaaonoaaiioth noiio
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Oae eae niaea?aeaiea a?iee auei aeaaiie
oeaeueth i?e aaaaeaiee «aoaa?iee», oi aeaeueiaeoee oaa yoiai iiaiai
ono?ienoaa ninoiye a oii, /oi ia eaaeaeoth aoaa?ieth aiceiaeaii auei
niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieeia.

Aeey iinoiyiiuo niioaiee n ieie aoaa?iee iacia/eee e iieeai naieo
«eiienna?ia». Naiui nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii oaeiai ono?ienoaa,
aaaaeaiiiai a aeaenoaea n 1712 a., auei oi, /oi iii oaeoe/anee
oi?acaeiyei noa?ua oeaio?aeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, ii ia caiaiyei eo
ieeaeeie ae?oaeie. Aoaa?iee iaiin?aaenoaaiii niineeenue n a?ieae e n
aunoeie aiaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie; ii iaae ieie ia auei ieeaeiai aunoaai
i?enoonoaaiiiai ianoa, eioi?ia au iiaei eiio?iee?iaaoue e niaeaoaoue eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea. Iio?aaiinoue a oaeii oeaio?aeueiii o/?aaeaeaiey
ii/oanoaiaaeanue oaea a 1711 a., eiaaea Iao? I aeieaeai aue iieeiooue
?inneth aeey i?ooneiai iioiaea. «Aeey ioeo/ae naieo» Iao? nicaeae naiao.
Aoaa?iee aeieaeiu auee iacia/eoue a naiao naieo eiienna?ia, «aeey ni?ina
e i?eieiaiey oeacia». Ii ana yoi ia ii?aaeaeyei n oi/iinoueth acaeiiiai
ioiioaiey naiaoa e aoaa?iee. Ana iiiuoee naiaoa i?aaieciaaoue iaae
aoaa?ieyie oaeie aea eiio?ieue, eaeie iaae i?eeacaie eiaea o/?aaeaeaiiay
a 1701 a. «Aeeaeiyy eaioeaey?ey»; eii/eeenue niaa?oaiiie iaoaea/ae.
Aacioaaonoaaiiinoue aoaa?iaoi?ia yaeyeanue iaiaoiaeeiui iineaaenoaeai
oiai, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai naii iinoiyiii ia?ooaei onoaiiaeaiiua a 1710—12
aa. ii?yaeee aoaa?ineiai oicyenoaa, a?aei o aoaa?iaoi?a aeaiueae ia ia
oa oeaee, ia eioi?ua ii aeieaeai aue ieaoeoue eo ii athaeaeaoo,
naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaeinue iaee/iuie aoaa?ineeie noiiaie e o?aaiaaei io
aoaa?iaoi?ia ana iiauo e iiauo «i?eai?ia», o. a. oaaee/aiey aeioiaea,
oioy au oeaiie oaiaoaiey ianaeaiey.

Iniiaiay i?e/eia anao yoeo ia?ooaiee caaaaeaiiiai ii?yaeea auea oa, /oi
athaeaeao 1710 a. oeene?iaae oeeo?u iaiaoiaeeiuo ?anoiaeia, a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea iie i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe e ia oiauaeenue aieaa a
?aieao athaeaeaoa. ?ino a?iee oaia?ue, i?aaaea, ianeieueei
i?einoaiiaeeny; caoi auno?i oaaee/eaaeenue ?anoiaeu ia aaeoeeneee oeio,
ia iino?ieee a iiaie noieeoea (eoaea i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1714 a.
ieii/aoaeueii ia?aianei naith ?aceaeaioeeth), ia iai?iio thaeiie
a?aieoeu. I?eoiaeeeinue iiyoue ecuneeaaoue iiaua, naa?oathaeaeaoiua
?ano?nu. Iacia/aoue iiaua i?yiua iaeiae auei ii/oe aaniieacii, oae eae e
noa?ua ieaoeeenue ana ooaea e ooaea, ii ia?a iaaaeiaiey ianaeaiey.
Ia?a/aeaiea iiiaou, eacaiiua iiiiiieee oaeaea ia iiaee aeaoue aieueoa
oiai, /oi oaea aeaee. Ia niaio aoaa?ineie nenoaia aicieeaao nai niaith
aii?in i ainnoaiiaeaiee oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee; oain noa?uo e iiauo
iaeiaia, «ieeaaeiuo», «iianaaiaeiuo» e «cai?iniuo», aucuaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiinieeaeaoeee i?yiie iiaeaoe; aaconiaoiia acuneaiea
iaeiaia ii oeeoeaiui oeeo?ai 1678 a. i?eaiaeeo e aii?ino i iiaie
ia?aiene e ia eciaiaiee iiaeaoiie aaeeieoeu; iaeiiaoe, ceioiio?aaeaiea
nenoaiie eacaiiuo iiiiiieee auaeaeaaao aii?in i iieueca aeey
ainoaea?noaa naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

?aoi?ia anooiaao a naie o?aoee e iineaaeiee oacen: aei 1710 a. iia
naiaeeeanue e iaeiieaieth neo/aeiuo ?anii?yaeaiee, i?iaeeeoiaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoueth ieioou; a 1708—1712 aa. auee naeaeaiu iiiuoee i?eaanoe
yoe ?anii?yaeaiey a iaeioi?oth /enoi aiaoithth, iaoaie/aneoth naycue;
oaia?ue aicieeaao niciaoaeueiia, nenoaiaoe/aneia no?aieaiea
aicaeaeaiooue ia oai?aoe/aneeo iniiaaieyo aiieia iiaoth
ainoaea?noaaiioth iino?ieeo. Aii?in, a eaeie noaiaie nai Iao? I ee/ii
o/anoaiaae a ?aoi?iao iineaaeiaai ia?eiaea, inoaaony aei neo ii? aua
nii?iui. A?oeaiia eco/aiea enoi?ee Iao?a I iaia?oaeeei a iineaaeiaa
a?aiy oeaeoth ianno «aeiiioaiee» e i?iaeoia, a eioi?uo ianoaeaeaeinue
ii/oe ana niaea?aeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee Iao?a. A yoeo
aeieeaaeao, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ?onneeie e iniaaiii eiino?aiiuie niaaoieeaie
Iao? I, aeia?iaieueii eee ii i?yiiio auciao i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iieiaeaiea
aeae a ainoaea?noaa e aaaeiaeoea ia?u, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aai oeo/oaiey,
?anniio?aiu i/aiue ianoiyoaeueii, oioy e ia anaaaea ia iniiaaiee
aeinoaoi/iiai ciaeiinoaa n oneiaeyie ?onneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iao? I
nai /eoae iiiaea ec yoeo i?iaeoia e a?ae ec ieo ana oi, /oi i?yii
ioaa/aei eioa?aniaaaoei aai a aeaiioth ieiooo aii?inai — iniaaiii
aii?ino ia oaaee/aiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e i ?ac?aaioea
i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa ?innee. Aeey ?aoaiey aieaa neiaeiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
caaea/, iai?. i oi?aiaie iieeoeea, oeiainiaie e aaeieieno?aoeaiie
?aoi?ia, Iao? I ia iaeaaeae iaiaoiaeeiie iiaeaioiaeie; aai o/anoea
ia?aie/eaaeinue caeanue iinoaiiaeie aii?ina, aieueoath /anoueth ia
iniiaaiee neiaaniuo niaaoia eiai-eeai ec ie?oaeathueo, e au?aaioeie
ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee caeiia; any i?iiaaeooi/iay ?aaioa — niae?aiea
iaoa?eaeia, ?ac?aaioea eo e i?iaeoe?iaaiea niioaaonoaothueo ia? —
aiceaaaeanue ia aieaa naaaeoueo eeoe. A /anoiinoe, ii ioiioaieth e
oi?aiaie iieeoeea, Iao? I nai «ia ?ac aeaeiaaeny, /oi ec anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae aeey iaai ie/aai iao o?oaeiaa eiiia?oeee e /oi ii
ieeiaaea ia iia ninoaaeoue naaa yniiai iiiyoey ia yoii aeaea ai anae aai
nayce» (Oiea?iaeo).

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue canoaaeea aai eciaieoue
i?aaeiaa iai?aaeaiea ?onneie oi?aiaie iieeoeee — e aaaeioth ?ieue i?e
yoii nua?aee niaaou ciathueo ethaeae. Oaea a 1711—1713 aa.
i?aaeoaeuenoao aue i?aaenoaaeai ?yae i?iaeoia, a eioi?uo aeieacuaaeinue,
/oi iiiiiieecaoeey oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ?oeao eaciu a?aaeeo, a
eiioea eiioeia, naiiio oeneo e /oi aaeeinoaaiiue niinia oaaee/eoue
eacaiiua aeioiaeu io oi?aiaee — ainnoaiiaeaiea naiaiaeu
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ieiei 1715 a. niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoia
noaiiaeony oe?a; a ianoaeaeaiee aii?inia i?eieiatho o/anoea eiino?aioeu,
neiaanii e ienueiaiii aiooathuea oea?th e i?aaeoaeuenoao eaeae
aa?iiaeneiai ia?eaioeeecia — i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey no?aiu auaiaeiiai
oi?aiaiai aaeaina e i niiniaa aeinoeaiooue aai nenoaiaoe/aneei
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iaoeeiiaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaea, iooai
ioe?uoey oaa?ee e caaiaeia, caeeth/aiey oi?aiauo aeiaiai?ia e
o/?aaeaeaiey oi?aiauo eiinoeuenoa ca a?aieoeae.

?ac onaiea yoo oi/eo c?aiey, Iao? I n naiae iau/iie yia?aeae i?iaiaeeo
aa ai iiiaeanoaa ioaeaeueiuo ?anii?yaeaiee. Ii nicaeaao iiaue oi?aiaue
ii?o (Iaoa?ao?a) e ianeeuenoaaiii ia?aaiaeeo ooaea oi?aiaeth ec noa?iai
(A?oaiaaeuene), ia/eiaao no?ieoue ia?aua eneonnoaaiiua aiaeyiua iooe
niiauaiey, /oiau naycaoue Iaoa?ao?a n oeaio?aeueiie ?inneae, oneeaiii
caaioeony i ?anoe?aiee aeoeaiie oi?aiaee n Ainoieii (iinea oiai eae ia
Caiaaea aai iiiuoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee ieacaeenue iaeioniaoiuie), aeaao
i?eaeeaaee ono?ieoaeyi iiauo caaiaeia, auienuaaao ec-ca a?aieoeu
ianoa?ia, eo/oea i?oaeey, eo/oea ii?iaeu neioa e o. ae.

Iaiaa aieiaoaeueii Iao? I ioiineony e eaeaa oeiainiaie ?aoi?iu. Oioy e a
yoii ioiioaiee naiay aeeciue iieacuaaao iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaiaaaoae i?aeoeee, a ?yae i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoao i?iaeoia
ianoaeaeaao ?aciua aiciiaeiua ?aoi?iu, oai ia iaiaa ii eioa?anoaony
caeanue eeoue aii?inii i oii, eae ?aceiaeeoue ia ianaeaiea niaea?aeaiea
iiaie, iinoiyiiie a?iee. Oaea i?e o/?aaeaeaiee aoaa?iee, iaeeaeay, iinea
iieoaaneie iiaaaeu, nei?iai ie?a, Iao? I i?aaeiieaaae ?ani?aaeaeeoue
iieee iaaeaeo aoaa?ieyie, ii ia?acoeo oaaaeneie nenoaiu. Yoa iuneue
niiaa anieuaaao a 1715 a.; Iao? I i?eeacuaaao naiaoo ?ann/eoaoue, ai /oi
iaieaeaony niaea?aeaiea nieaeaoa e ioeoea?a, i?aaeinoaaeyy naiiio naiaoo
?aoeoue, aeieaeai ee auoue iie?uo yoio ?anoiae n iiiiuueth iiaeai?iiai
iaeiaa, eae auei ?aiueoa, eee n iiiiuueth iiaeooiiai, eae niaaoiaaee
?aciua «aeiiineoaee».

Oaoie/aneay noi?iia aoaeouae iiaeaoiie ?aoi?iu ?ac?aaaouaaaony
i?aaeoaeuenoaii Iao?a, a caoai ii ni anae yia?aeae ianoaeaaao ia
nei?aeoai ieii/aiee iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aoi?iu iiaeooiie ia?aiene e ia
aiciiaeii nei?ie ?aaeecaoeee iiaiai iaeiaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeooiay
iiaeaoue oaaee/eaaao oeeo?o i?yiuo iaeiaia n 1,8 aei 4,6 ieeeeiiia,
ninoaaeyy aieaa iieiaeiu athaeaeaoiiai i?eoiaea (81/2 ieeeeiiia). Aii?in
ia aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aoi?ia eioa?anoao Iao?a I aua iaiueoa: caeanue e
naiay iuneue, e ?ac?aaioea aa, e i?eaaaeaiea a eniieiaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo
niaaoieeai-eiino?aioeai (iniaaiii Aai?eoo Oeeo), i?aaeeiaeeaoei Iao?o
ainiieieoue iaaeinoaoie oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a ?innee iin?aaenoaii
aaaaeaiey oaaaeneeo eieeaaee. Ia aii?in, /oi i?aeiouanoaaiii
eioa?aniaaei Iao?a a aai ?aoi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oaea Oiea?iaeo
aeae ioaao aanueia aeeceee e enoeia: «ii iniaaiii e ni anae ?aaiinoueth
noa?aeny oeo/oeoue naie aiaiiua neeu».

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a naiai ienueia e nuio Iao? I iiae/a?eeaaao iuneue, /oi
aieineei aeaeii «iu io oueiu e naaoo auoee, e (ian), eioi?uo ia ciaee a
naaoa, iuia ii/eoatho». «Aieiu, caieiaaoea Iao?a I anth aeeciue
(i?iaeieaeaao Oiea?iaeo), e caeeth/aaiua ii iiaiaeo yoeo aiei aeiaiai?u
n eiino?aiiuie aea?aeaaaie canoaaeyee aai ia?auaoue aieiaiea oaeaea e ia
eiino?aiiua aeaea, oioy ii iieaaaeny ooo aieueoath /anoueth ia naieo
ieieno?ia e ethaeioeaa… Naiei aai ethaeiui e i?eyoiui caiyoeai auei
ei?aaeano?iaiea e ae?. aeaea, ioiinyueany e ii?aoiaenoao. Iii ?acaeaeaei
aai eaaeaeue aeaiue, e aio aeieaeiu auee onooiaoue aeaaea naiua aaaeiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea… I aioo?aiieo oeo/oaieyo a ainoaea?noaa —
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, oicyenoaa, aeioiaeao e oi?aiaea — Iao? I iaei eee
aiana ia caaioeeny a ia?aua o?eaeoeaoue eao naiaai oea?noaiaaiey, e
auaae aeiaieai, anee oieueei aai aaeie?aeoaenoai e aienei aeinoaoi/iui
ia?acii niaaaeaeenue aeaiueaaie, ae?iaaie, ?ae?ooaie, iao?inaie,
i?iaeaioii e aiioieoeeae».

Oio/an iinea iieoaaneie iiaaaeu iiaeiyeny i?anoeae ?innee ca a?aieoeae.
Ec Iieoaau Iao? I eaeao i?yii ia naeaeaiey n iieueneei e i?onneei
ei?ieyie; a na?aaeeia aeaeaa?y 1709 a. ii aica?auaaony a Iineao, ii a
na?aaeeia oaa?aey 1710 a. niiaa aa iieeaeaao. Iieiaeio eaoa aei acyoey
Auai?aa ii i?iaiaeeo ia acii?uea, inoaeueioth /anoue aiaea — a
Iaoa?ao?aa, caieiaynue aai iano?ieeie e a?a/iuie nithcaie ieaiyiieoeu
Aiiu Eiaiiiaiu n aa?oeiaii Eo?eyiaeneei e nuia Aeaenay n i?eioeannie
Aieueoaiathooaeueneie.

17 yiaa?y 1711 a. Iao? I auaoae ec Iaoa?ao?aa a i?ooneee iioiae, caoai
i?yii i?iaoae a Ea?enaaae, aeey ea/aiuey aiaeaie, e a Oi?aao, aeey
i?enoonoaey i?e a?aea oea?aae/a Aeaenay. A Iaoa?ao?a ii aa?ioeny eeoue e
iiaiio aiaeo. A ethia 1712 a. Iao? iiyoue iieeaeaao Iaoa?ao?a ii/oe ia
aiae; ii aaeao e ?onneei aieneai a Iiia?aieth, a ieoya?a ea/eony a
Ea?enaaaea e Oaieeoea, a iiya?a, iiauaaa a Ae?acaeaia e Aa?eeia,
aica?auaaony e aieneai a Iaeeaiao?a, a ia/aea neaaeothuaai 1713 a.
iinauaao Aaiao?a e ?aiaenao?a, i?iacaeaao a oaa?aea /a?ac Aaiiiaa? e
Aieueoaiathooaeue a Aa?eei, aeey naeaeaiey n iiaui ei?ieai
O?eae?eoii-Aeeueaaeueiii, iioii aica?auaaony a N.-Iaoa?ao?a.

*a?ac ianyoe ii oaea a oeieyiaeneii iioiaea e, aa?ioaoenue a n?aaeeia
aaaonoa, i?iaeieaeaao aei eiioea iiya?y i?aaei?eieiaoue ii?neea
iiacaeee. A na?aaeeia yiaa?y 1714 a. Iao? I ia ianyoe oacaeaao a ?aaaeue
e ?eao; 9 iay ii iiyoue ioi?aaeyaony e oeioo, iaea?aeeaaao n iei iiaaaeo
i?e Aaiaaoaea e aica?auaaony a Iaoa?ao?a 9 naioya?y. A 1715 a. n ia/aea
ethey aei eiioea aaaonoa Iao? I iaoiaeeony n oeioii ia Aaeoeeneii ii?a.
A ia/aea 1716 a. ii iieeaeaao ?inneth ii/oe ia aeaa aiaea; 24 yiaa?y ii
oacaeaao a Aeaioeea, ia naaaeueao ieaiyiieoeu Aeaoa?eiu Eaaiiaiu n
aa?oeiaii iaeeaiao?aneei; ioooaea, /a?ac Ooaooei, aaeao a Ie?iiio aeey
ea/aiuey; a ethia ioi?aaeyaony a ?inoie e aaea?iie yneaae?a, n eioi?ith
a ethea iiyaeyaony o Eiiaiaaaaia; a ieoya?a Iao? I aaeao a Iaeeaiao?a;
ioooaea a Aaaaeuenaa?a, aeey naeaeaiey n i?onneei ei?ieai, a iiya?a — a
Aaiao?a, a aeaeaa?a — a Ainoa?aeai, a eiioea ia?oa neaaeothuaai 1717 a.
— ai O?aioeeth. A ethia iu aeaeei aai a Nia, ia aiaeao, a na?aaeeia iiey
— a Ainoa?aeaia, a naioya?a — a Aa?eeia e Aeaioeeaa; 10 ieoya?y ii
aica?auaaony a Iaoa?ao?a.

Neaaeothuea aeaa ianyoea Iao? I aaaeao aeiaieueii ?aaoey?ioth aeeciue,
iinayuay oo?i ?aaioai a aaeie?aeoaenoaa e ?acuacaeay caoai ii
iaoa?ao?aneei iino?ieeai. 15 aeaeaa?y ii aaeao a Iineao, aeiaeeaeaaony
oai i?eaica nuia Aeaenay ec-ca a?aieoeu e 18 ia?oa 1718 a. auacaeaao
ia?aoii a Iaoa?ao?a. 30 ethiy oi?iieee, a i?enoonoaee Iao?a, Aeaenay
Iao?iae/a; a ia?auo /eneao ethey Iao? I auaoae oaea e oeioo e, iinea
aeaiiino?aoeee o Aeaiaeneeo ino?iaia, aaea aaeenue ie?iua ia?aaiai?u,
aica?aoeeny 3 naioya?y a Iaoa?ao?a, iinea /aai aua o?eaeaeu acaeee ia
acii?uea e ?ac a Oeennaeueao?a.

A neaaeothuai 1719 a. Iao? I auaoae 19 yiaa?y ia Ieiiaoeeea aiaeu,
ioeoaea aa?ioeny 3 ia?oa. 1 iay ii auoae a ii?a, e a Iaoa?ao?a aa?ioeny
oieueei 30 aaaonoa. A 1720 a. Iao? I i?iaue ia?o ianyoe ia Ieiiaoeeeo
aiaeao e ia caaiaeao: n 20 ethey aei 4 aaaonoa ieaaae e oeieyiaeneei
aa?aaai. A 1721 a. ii niaa?oee iiacaeeo ii?ai a ?eao e ?aaaeue (11 ia?oa
— 19 ethiy). A naioya?a e ieoya?a Iao? i?acaeiiaae Ieooaaeneee ie? a
N.-Iaoa?ao?aa, a aeaeaa?a — a Iineaa. A 1722 a. 15 iay auaoae ec Iineau
a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, Eacaiue e Ano?aoaiue; 18 ethey ii ioi?aaeeny ec
Ano?aoaie a ia?neaeneee iioiae (aei Aea?aaioa), ec eioi?iai aa?ioeny a
Iineao oieueei 11 aeaeaa?y. Aica?aoeaoenue a N.-Iaoa?ao?a 3 ia?oa 1723
a., Iao? I oaea 30 ia?oa auaoae ia iiaoth oeieyiaeneoth a?aieoeo; a iaa
e ethia ii caieiaeny nia?yaeaieai oeioa e caoai ia ianyoe ioi?aaeeny a
?aaaeue e ?iaa?aee, aaea no?iee iiaoth aaaaiue.

A 1724 a. Iao? I neeueii no?aaeae io iacaei?iauey, ii iii ia canoaaeei
aai ioeacaoueny io i?eau/ae ei/aaie aeecie, /oi e onei?eei aai eii/eio.
A oaa?aea ii aaeao a o?aoee ?ac ia Ieiiaoeeea aiaeu; a eiioea ia?oa
ioi?aaeyaony a Iineao aeey ei?iiiaaiey eiia?ao?eoeu, ioooaea niaa?oaao
iiacaeeo ia Ieeea?iau aiaeu e 16 ethiy auacaeaao a N.-Iaoa?ao?a;
inaiueth acaeeo a Oeennaeueao?a, ia Eaaeiaeneee eaiae e Ieiiaoeeea
caaiaeu, caoai a Iiaai?iae e a Noa?oth ?ono aeey iniio?a nieyiuo
caaiaeia: oieueei eiaaea inaiiyy iiaiaea ?aoeoaeueii iaoaao ieaaaoue ii
Eeueiaith, Iao? I aica?auaaony (27 ieoya?y) a N.-Iaoa?ao?a. 28 ieoya?y
ii aaeao n iaaaea o ssaoaeeineiai ia iiaea?, neo/eaoeeny ia
Aaneeueaaneii ino?iaa; 29-ai ioi?aaeyaony aiaeie a Nanoa?aae e, ano?aoea
ii aei?iaa naaooth ia iaeue oethieo, ii iiyn a aiaea iiiiaaao nieiaoue n
aa nieaeao. Eeoi?aaeea e aea? iaoatho aio aoaoue aeaeueoa; ii ii/oao ia
ianoa e 2 iiya?y aica?auaaony a N.-Iaoa?ao?a. 5-ai ii nai naay
i?eaeaoaao ia naaaeueao iaiaoeeiai aoei/ieea, 16-ai eacieo Iiina, 24-ai
i?acaeioao ia?o/aiea aei/a?e Aiiu n aa?oeiaii Aieooeineei. Oaanaeaiey
aiciaiiaeythony ii iiaiaeo auai?a iiaiai eiycy-iaiu, 3-ai e 4-ai yiaa?y
1725 a.

Noaoeeaay aeeciue eaeao naiei /a?aaeii aei eiioea yiaa?y, eiaaea,
iaeiiaoe, i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaiooue e a?a/ai, eioi?uo Iao? I aei oiai
a?aiaie ia oioae neooaoue. Ii a?aiy ieacuaaaony i?iiouaiiui e aieaciue —
iaenoeaeeiie; 22 yiaa?y aicaeaeaatho aeoa?ue aicea eiiiaou aieueiiai e
i?e/auatho aai, 26-ai «aeey cae?aaey» aai auioneatho ec oth?ai
eieiaeieeia, a 28 yiaa?y, a /aoaa?oue oanoiai oo?a, Iao? I oie?aao, ia
oniaa ?anii?yaeeoueny noaeueaie ainoaea?noaa.

I?inoie ia?a/aiue anao ia?aaeaeaeaiee Iao?a I ca iineaaeiea 15 eao aai
aeecie aeaao oaea ii/oanoaiaaoue, eae ?ani?aaeaeyeinue a?aiy Iao?a e aai
aieiaiea iaaeaeo caiyoeyie ?aciiai ?iaea. Iinea oeioa, a?iee e
eiino?aiiie iieeoeee, iaeaieueooth /anoue naiae yia?aee e naieo caaio
Iao? I iinayuae Iaoa?ao?ao. Iaoa?ao?a — ee/iia aeaei Iao?a,
inouanoaeaiiia ei aii?aee i?aiyonoaeyi i?e?iaeu e nii?ioeaeaieth
ie?oaeathueo. N i?e?iaeie ai?ieenue e aeaee a yoie ai?ueaa aeanyoee
ouny/ ?onneeo ?aai/eo, aucaaiiuo ia ionouiioth, canaeaiioth eii?iaeoeaie
ie?aeio; n nii?ioeaeaieai ie?oaeathueo ni?aaeeny nai Iao? I,
i?eeacaieyie e oa?icaie.

Noaeaeaiey nia?aiaiieeia Iao?a I ia yoie aai caoaa iiaeii i?i/anoue o
Oiea?iaeoa. Iiaiey i ?aoi?ia Iao?a I /?acau/aeii ?anoiaeeeenue oaea i?e
aai aeecie. Iaaieueoay eo/ea aeeaeaeoeo nio?oaeieeia aea?aeaeanue
iiaiey, eioi?ia aiineaaenoaee Ieoaee Eiiiiinia oi?ioee?iaae neiaaie: «ii
Aia oaie, Aia oaie aue, ?inney». Ia?iaeiay ianna, iai?ioea, aioiaa auea
niaeaneoueny n ooaa?aeaeaieai ?aneieueieeia, /oi Iao? I aue aioeo?eno.
Oa e ae?oaea enoiaeeee ec oiai iauaai i?aaenoaaeaiey, /oi Iao? niaa?oee,
?aaeeeaeueiue ia?aai?io e nicaeae iiaoth ?inneth, ia iioiaeoth ia
i?aaeithth. Iiaay a?iey, oeio, niioaiey n Aa?iiie, iaeiiaoe, aa?iiaeneay
aiaoiinoue e aa?iiaeneay oaoieea — ana yoi auee oaeou, a?inaaoeany a
aeaca; eo i?eciaaaee ana, ?anoiaeynue eeoue ei?aiiui ia?acii a eo
ioeaiea.

Oi, /oi iaeie n/eoaee iieaciui, ae?oaea i?eciaaaee a?aaeiui aeey ?onneeo
eioa?ania; /oi iaeie n/eoaee aaeeeie caneoaie ia?aae ioa/anoaii, a oii
ae?oaea aeaeaee eciaio ?iaeiui i?aaeaieyi; iaeiiaoe, aaea iaeie aeaeaee
iaiaoiaeeiue oaa aia?aae ii iooe i?ia?anna, ae?oaea i?eciaaaee i?inoia
ioeeiiaiea, aucaaiiia i?eoioueth aeaniioa.

Iaa acaeyaea iiaee i?eaiaeeoue oaeoe/aneea aeieacaoaeuenoaa a naith
iieueco, oae eae a ?aoi?ia Iao?a I ia?aiaoaiu auee iaa yeaiaioa — e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, e neo/aeiinoe. Yeaiaio neo/aeiinoe aieueoa aunooiae
ia?oaeo, iiea eco/aiea enoi?ee Iao?a ia?aie/eaaeinue aiaoiae noi?iiie
?aoi?iu e ee/iie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aia?aciaaoaey. Iaienaiiay ii aai
oeacai enoi?ey ?aoi?iu aeieaeia auea eacaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ee/iui
aeaeii Iao?a. Ae?oaea ?acoeueoaou aeieaeii auei aeaoue eco/aiea oie aea
?aoi?iu?aoi?iu (o?aioeocneia reforme, io eaoeineiai reformo —
i?aia?aciauaath) — i?aia?aciaaiea, eciaiaiea, ia?aono?ienoai eaeie-eeai
noi?iiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie (ii?yaeeia, einoeoooia, o/?aaeaeaiee), ia
oie/oiaeathuaa iniia nouanoaothuae nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u. N oi?iaeueiie
oi/ee c?aiey, iiae ?aoi?iaie iiae?acoiaaaaony iiaiaaaaeaiea ethaiai
niaea?aeaiey. Iaeiaei a iieeoe/aneie i?aeoeea e iieeoe/aneie oai?ee
?aoi?iaie iau/ii iacuaatho aieaa eee iaiaa i?ia?anneaiia i?aia?aciaaiea,
ecaanoiue oaa e eo/oaio a nayce n aa i?aoeaaeaioaie, a oaeaea a nayce n
oneiaeyie nia?aiaiiie ae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eco/aiea i?aoeaaeaioia
Iao?ianeie ?aoi?iu iieacaei, /oi ai anao iaeanoyo iauanoaaiiie e
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie — a ?acaeoee o/?aaeaeaiee e nineiaee, a ?acaeoee
ia?aciaaiey, a ianoaiiaea /anoiiai auoa — caaeieai aei Iao?a I
iaia?oaeeaathony oa naiua oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ui aeaao oi?aeanoai
Iao?ianeay ?aoi?ia. ssaeyynue, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeaioiaeaiiie anai
i?ioeui ?acaeoeai ?innee e ninoaaeyy eiae/aneee ?acoeueoao yoiai
?acaeoey, ?aoi?ia Iao? I, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, e i?e iai aua ia iaoiaeeo
aeinoaoi/iie ii/au a ?onneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a iioiio e iinea Iao?a
ai iiiaii iaaeieai inoaaony oi?iaeueiie e aeaeeiie.

Iiaia ieaouea e «annaiaeae» ia aaaeoo e onaiaieth aa?iiaeneeo
iauanoaaiiuo i?eau/ae e i?eee/ee; oi/ii oaeaea iiaua, caeinoaiaaiiua ec
Oaaoeee o/?aaeaeaiey ia iie?athony ia niioaaonoaaiiia yeiiiie/aneia e
i?aaiaia ?acaeoea iannu. ?inney aoiaeeo a /enei aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa, ii
ia ia?aue ?ac oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ii/oe ia iieaaea naeaeaoueny
i?oaeeai a ?oeao aa?iiaeneie iieeoeee. Ec 42-o oeeoe?iuo
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oeie, ioe?uouo a 1716—22 aa., oieueei 8 aeiaeeaatho aei
na?aaeeiu aaea; ec 2000 iaaa?aiaaiiuo, aieueoath /anoueth neeie,
o/aieeia, aeaenoaeoaeueii auo/eaathony e 1727 aiaeo oieueei 300 ia anth
?inneth. Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, ianiio?y ia i?iaeo «Aeaaeaiee», e iecoaa,
ianiio?y ia ana i?eeacaiey Iao?a I, inoathony iaaeieai ia/oie. A. A.
Eaiaineee, Yioeeeeiiaaeey Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee

11 ia?oa 1714 aiaea eiia?aoi? Iao? I ecaeae oeac ia o/aaa aeaoae aeai?yi
e i?eeac/eeia

Ii oeacai 20 yiaa?y e 28 oaa?aey 1714 aiaea aeaoe aeai?yi e i?eeaciiai
/eia, aeueyeia e iiaeuey/eo, aeieaeiu iao/aoueny oeeoe?e, o.a.
a?eoiaoeea, e iaeioi?ie /anoe aaiiao?ee, e iieaaaeny «oo?ao oaeie, /oi
ia aieueii aoaeao aeaieoueny, iiea naai auo/eony», aaia/iuo iaiyoae ia
aeaaaee aac ienueiaiiiai oaeinoiaa?aiey i auo/ea io o/eoaey. Aeey yoiai
i?aaeienaii auei ai anao aoaa?ieyo i?e a?oea?aeneeo aeiiao e a ciaoiuo
iiianou?yo caaanoe oeieu, a o/eoaeyie iinueaoue ooaea o/aieeia
caaaaeaiiuo a Iineaa ieiei 1703 a iaoaiaoe/aneeo oeie, oiaaeaoieo
?aaeueiuo aeiiacee; o/eoaeth iacia/aeinue aeaeiaaiuey 300 ?oaeae a aiae
ia iaoe aeaiueae.

Oeacu 1714 a aaiaeeee niaa?oaiii iiaue oaeo a enoi?eth ?onneiai
i?inaauaiey, iaycaoaeueiia iao/aiea ie?yi. Aeaei caaeoiaii auei a e?aeia
ne?iiiuo ?acia?ao. Ia eaaeaeoth aoaa?ieth iacia/aii auei anaai ii aeaa
o/eoaey ec o/aieeia iaoaiaoe/aneeo oeie, auo/eaoeo aaia?aoeth e
aaiiao?eth. Oeeoe?ue, ia/aeueiay aaiiao?ey e eie-eaeea naaaeaiey ii
caeiio Aiaeeth, iiiauaaoeany a oiaaeaoieo aoeaa?yo, – aio e aanue ninoaa
ia/aeueiiai iao/aiey, i?eciaiiue aeinoaoi/iui aeey oeaeae neoaeau;
?anoe?aiea aai iioei au a oua?a neoaeaa. I?aaeienaiioth i?ia?aiio aeaoe
aeieaeiu auee i?ieoe a aic?anoa io 10 aei 15 eao, eiaaea iaycaoaeueii
eii/aeinue o/aiea, iioiio /oi ia/eiaeanue neoaeaa.

O/aieeia iaae?aee ioianthaeo, eae ioioieeia a oiaaeaoiea iieee, eeoue au
oeiiieaeoiaaoue caaaaeaiea. A iineianeoth eiaeaia?ioth oeieo iaaa?aiaaee
23 o/aieea. Iao? I iio?aaiaae aeiaanoe eiiieaeo aei 100 e aeaaea aei 150
/aeiaae, oieueei n oneiaeai, /oiau aeaa o?aoe auee ec aeai?yineeo
aeaoae. O/aaiia ia/aeuenoai ia niiaei eniieieoue i?aaeienaiey; iiaue
na?aeeoue oeac – iaa?aoue iaaeinoathueo 77 o/aieeia ec anyeeo /eiia
ethaeae, a ec oea?aaeai?oeiauo aeaoae, ec noiee/iiai aeai?yinoaa, ca eai
ia iaiueoa 50 e?anoueyineeo aeai?ia, – i?eioaeeoaeueii.

Aua yanoaaiiaa aunooiaao oaeie oa?aeoa? oiaaeaoiae oeieu a ninoaaa e
i?ia?aiia ii?neie aeaaeaiee. A yoii ii ieaio i?aeiouanoaaiii aeai?yineii
e niaoeeaeueii oaoie/aneii caaaaeaiee ec 252 o/aieeia auei oieueei 172
ec oeyoaonoaa, inoaeueiua – ?acii/eioeu. A aunoeo eeannao
i?aiiaeaaaeenue aieueoay ano?iiiiey, ieineay e e?oaeay iaaeaaoeey, a a
iecoeo iao/aeenue acaoeai 25 ?acii/eioeaa, /anineiaai 2 ec oeyoaonoaa e
25 ?acii/eioeaa, inaeou?yi 1 ec oeyoaonoaa e 10 ?acii/eioeaa, ienueio 8
?acii/eioeaa.

Oeieueiia iao/aiea ianoaaeaii auei iiiai/eneaiiuie cao?oaeiaieyie.
O/eoue e o/eoueny e oiaaea oaea auei oyaeaei, oioy oeiea aua ia auea
noaniaia onoaaaie e iaaeci?ii, a caiyoue aieiie oea?ue anae aeooie
?aaeae i oeiea. Iaaeinoaaaei iaiaoiaeeiuo o/aaiuo iiniaee, eee iie auee
i/aiue aei?iae. Eacaiiay oeiia?aoey, Ia/aoiue aeai? a Iineaa,
ecaeaaaaoee o/aaieee, a 1711 a eoiee o nianoaaiiiai ni?aaueea,
ei??aeoi?a, ea?iaeeaeiia Aa?iaia iiiaaeiaeaoeeny «aeey oeieueiuo aeae»
eoaeueyineee eaeneeii ca 17 1/2 ?oaeae ia iaoe aeaiueae. Eiaeaia?iay
oeiea a 1714 a iio?aaiaaea o Ia/aoiiai aeai?a 30 aaiiao?ee e 83 eieae
neionia. Ia/aoiue aeai? ioionoee aaiiao?ee ii 8 ?oaeae yecaiiey? ia iaoe
aeaiueae, a i neionao ioienae, /oi eo o iaai nianai iao.

Oeiea, i?aa?auaaoay ainieoaiea thiioanoaa a ae?anne?iaeo caa?ae, iiaea
oieueei iooaeeeaaoue io naay e iiiiaea au?aaioaoue n?aaee naieo
ieoiioeaa naiaia?acioth oi?io i?ioeaiaeaenoaey – iiaaa, i?eieoeaiue, aua
ia oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue niinia ai?ueau oeiey?ia ni naiae oeieie.
Oeieueiua iiaaae aianoa n ?ae?ooneeie noaee o?iie/aneei iaaeoaii
?onneiai ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey e ?onneie ainoaea?noaaiiie iai?iiu. Yoi
oeieueiia aeaca?oe?noai, oiaaeaoiyy oi?ia o/aaiie caaanoiaee, noaiao
aeey ian aiieia iiiyoiui yaeaieai, ia ia?anoaaay auoue ia/aeueiui, anee
e o?oaeii aiia?aceiiio ycueo, ia eaeii i?aiiaeaaaee auienaiiua eiicaiiua
o/eoaey, e iaoeethaeei e i?eoii o?oaeii aeiauaaaiui o/aaieeai, e i?eaiai
oiaaeaoiae iaaeaaiaee, aiana ia aeaeaaoae i?aaeoueny o/aueiny, i?eaaaei
acaeyae i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia oeieueiia o/aiuea ia eae ia i?aanoaaiioth
iio?aaiinoue iauanoaa, a eae ia iaoo?aeueioth iiaeiiinoue iieiaeaaee,
iiaeaioiaeyaooth aa e iaycaoaeueiie neoaeaa. Eiaaea oeiea
?anniao?eaaeanue, eae i?aaeaeaa?ea eaca?iu eee eaioeaey?ee, oi e
iieiaeaaeue i?eo/aeanue niio?aoue ia oeieo, eae ia oth?ueio eee eaoi?ao,
n eioi?ie aaaeaoue anaaaea i?eyoii.

A 1722 a Naiao ioaeeeiaae ai anaia?iaeiia naaaeaiea auni/aeoee oeac…
Yoio oeac aai aaee/anoaa eiia?aoi?a e naiiaea?aeoea ana?inneeneiai
iauyaeye anaia?iaeii, /oi ec iineianeie iaaeaaoeeie oeieu, caaenaaoae io
Iaoa?ao?aneie ii?neie aeaaeaiee, aaaeaei 127 oeieueieeia, io /aai
i?iecioea oo?aoa aeaiaaeiie noiiu aeaaeaie/aneie, iioiio /oi iiua
oeieueieee – noeiaiaeeaou, «aeea iiiaea eaoa e caa?aa aeaeiaaiuea,
aaaeaee». Oeac aeaeeeaoii i?eaeaoae aaaeaoeia yaeoueny a oeieo a
oeacaiiua n?iee iiae oa?icie oo?aoa aeey oeyoaoneeo aeaoae e aieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiiai «iaeacaiey» aeey ieaeieo /eiia. E oeaco i?eeiaeai aue e
nienie aaaeaoeia, eae ia?nii, caneoaeeaathueo aieiaiey anae eiia?ee,
eioi?ay iiiaauaeanue, /oi ec oeyoaonoaa aaaeaee 33 o/aieea, e iaaeaeo
ieie eiycue A. Aycaineee; inoaeueiua auee aeaoe ?aeoa?ia, aaa?aeaeneeo
nieaeao, ?acii/eioeaa aei 12 /aeiaae ec aiy?neeo oieiiia; oae
?aciinineiaai aue ninoaa oiaaeaoiae oeieu.

Aeaei eaaeeeinue ieioi: aeaoae a iiaua oeieu ia aunueaee; eo iaae?aee
ianeeueii, aea?aeaee a oth?ueiao e ca ea?aoeii; a 6 eao iaei aaea
ono?ieeenue yoe oeieu; iinaaeneea ethaee ioi?ineee o Naiaoa naieo aeaoae
io oeeoe?iie iaoee, /oiau ia ioaeaeaoue eo io iooeianeeo aeae; ec 47
iineaiiuo a aoaa?iee o/eoaeae ainaiiaaeoeaoue ia iaoee o/aieeia e
ai?ioeeenue iacaae; a ?ycaineoth oeieo, ioe?uooth oieueei a 1722 a.,
iaa?aee 96 o/aieeia, ii ec ieo 59 aaaeaei. Ayoneee aiaaiaea *aaaeaaa,
aeaeaaoee ioe?uoue a naiae i?iaeioeee oeeoe?ioth oeieo, ano?aoee
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu aia?oeaeueiuo aeanoae e aeooiaainoaa. *oiau
iaa?aoue o/aieeia, ii ?acineae ii oacaeo nieaeao aiaaiaeneie
eaioeaey?ee, eioi?ua oaaoaee anao aiaeiuo aeey oeieu e aeinoaaeyee a
Ayoeo. Aeaei, iaeiaei, ia oaeaeinue

Ae?OAIA

I?o? I, iniiaaoaeue iaeiie ec iiaouanoaaiiaeoeo aea?aeaa ie?a —
?inneeneie eiia?ee — ?iaeeeny 30 iay 1672 a. A oea?neie naiuea ii aue
/aou?iaaeoeaoui ?aaaieii. I?o?a ia aioiaeee a ianeaaeieee i?anoiea, e ii
yoie i?e/eia ii ia iieo/ee iniaiai ia?aciaaiey. Iinea nia?oe aacaeaoiiai
oea?y Oaaei?a Aeaenaaae/a (noa?oaai nuia Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a io ia?aiai
a?aea n Ia?eae Ieineaaneie) a 1682 a. a ?acoeueoaoa eiii?iienna iaaeaeo
eeaiaie Ieeineaaneeo e Ia?uoeeiuo auee aicaaaeaiu ia ?inneeneee i?anoie
n?aco aeaa oea?y — I?o? I e aai naiaeiue a?ao Eaai V (nui Ia?ee
Ieeineaaneie). I?aaeoaeueieoeae i?e thiuo oea?yo (I?o?o eniieieeinue10
eao, a Eaaio — 16) aeieaeia auea noaoue oea?eoea Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia. Ii
no?aeueoeeia aienei ioeacaeinue i?enyaaoue I?o?o. Ia aeacao
aeanyoeeaueiaai I?o?a no?aeueoeu iiaeiyee ia ieee ieiei 45 aeeceeo aio
ethaeae. ?aaaiooae i?e I?o?a e Eaaia noaea aeanoiethaeaay e ouaneaaiay
oea?aaia Niouey Aeaenaaaia (nano?a I?o?a ii iooeo).

Iinea nia?oe Oaaei?a Aeaenaaae/a ianeaaeieeaie inoaeenue aeaa aai a?aoa:
Eaai io Ia?ee Ieeineaaneie — aieueiie, iieoneaiie, neaaioiiue e I?o? io
Iaoaeuee Ia?uoeeiie — caei?iaue, aea?iaeoue. Aicieeee aeaa noi?iiu,
ai?thueany ca oea?neee i?anoie. Eaai aue noa?oa, ii aeey iaai
o?aaiaaeanue iinoiyiiay iiaea. Oaeay iiaea iaoeanue a eeoea aai nano?u
Niouee. Aeaei iiaei aeieoe aei aaeeeiai nii?a, oae eae Ia?uoeeiu oiaea
ia iie/aee.

Aia/aea iao?ea?o i?iaicaeanee e aeaaineiaee ia oea?noai I?o?a, ca
eioi?iai a neeo iaeieaonoaa aeieaeia auea i?aaeoue iaoue Iaoaeuey
Ia?uoeeia. No?aeueoeu, iiaeno?aeaaiua Nioueae e aa noi?iiieeaie,
iiaeiyeenue ia aoio i?ioea Ia?uoeeiuo. Ieeineaaneea noaee
?ani?ino?aiyoue neoo, /oi Ia?uoeeiu oaeooeee Eaaia, i?ecuaaee
no?aeueoeia eaeoe a E?aieue. No?aeueoeai auaaee Eaaia e I?o?a, aeeauo e
caei?iauo, ii ana-oaee iiiaea Ia?uoeeiu a oio aeaiue auee oaeou.

Niouey auaeaeioeanue ia ia?aue ieai e ieeoi ae ia iia iiiaoaoue. Iia
niaoeea oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana i?inueau no?aeueoeia e ia aeaea oaea
oi?aaeyea ainoaea?noaii. Oiaaea no?aeueoeu i?aaeeiaeeee i?iaicaeaneoue
oea?yie Eaaia e I?o?a aianoa, i?e/ai Eaaia — ia?aui, I?o?a — aoi?ui.

Oei a?aiy. Aeaey, eae /aoiao Eaai e iaae?aao neeo I?o?, a 1689 aiaeo
Niouey i?eiyea ?aoaiea noaoue naiiaea?aeeoeae anay ?one. Aiiaue iia
iuoaeanue iaeoe iii?o a no?aeueoeao, canoaaeoue eo i?enyaiooue naaa.
Iaeiaei ia yoio ?ac ia ana no?aeueoeu iiaa?eee Niouea. Ni noi?iiieeaie
Niouee I?o? aeanoiei ?ani?aaeeny, a nano?o caeeth/ee a Iiaiaeaae/ee
iiianou?ue, aaea iia i?iaaea ieiei 15 eao e oia?ea a 1704 aiaeo.

Ainoaea?noaii ii-i?aaeiaio i?aaeee aeaa ainoaea?y, ii Eaai nai ia?aaeae
anth iieiioo aeanoe I?o?o, eeoue oi?iaeueii caieiay ianoi ia o?iia.

I?e i?aaeoaueieoea Niouea I?o? aeee a naea I?aia?aaeaineii. Caeanue ec
naieo ?iaanieeia I?o? noi?ie?iaae «iioaoiua iieee» — aoaeouoth
eiia?aoi?neoth aaa?aeeth. A oa aea aiaeu oea?aae/ iiciaeiieeny n nuiii
i?eaeai?iiai eiithoa Aeaenaiae?ii Iaioeeiaui, eioi?ue a iineaaenoaee
noaiao «i?aaie ?oeie» eiia?aoi?a.

A 1689 a. Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia canoaaeea nuia aeaieoueny ia aiy?neie
aei/a?e Aaaeieee Eiiooeiie. *a?ac aiae o ieo ?iaeeeny nui Aeaenae. A oii
aea aiaeo iono?aiaia io aeanoe oea?aaia Niouey. Aeaaioth ?ieue a
ieceiaeaiee i?aaeoaeueieoeu nua?aei aeeaeaeoaa ie?oaeaiea iiaeueiie
oea?eoeu Iaoaeuee Ee?eeeiaiu. A oa/aiee 5 eao, aei naiae nia?oe, iia
auea oaeoe/aneie i?aaeoaeueieoeae ainoaea?noaa.

A 1695 a. iinea aaca?aiaiiie eii/eiu iaoa?e (Iaoaeuea Ee?eeeiaia oae
ni?ie ia?aue aiae) I?o? oaeoe/anee noae naiiaea?aeoeai, oioy aai a?ao
Eaai V nio?aiye oi?iaeueiua ooieoeee «ia?aiai oea?y». Eaai V oia? a 1696
a. — I?o? noae naiiaea?aeoeai ia oieueei oaeoe/anee, ii e th?eaee/anee.

I?o? I i?iaae ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey (nicaeaiu Naiao,
eieeaaee, «Oaaaeue i ?aiaao», i?aaiu aunoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey
e iieeoe/aneiai nunea; oea?eiaue iiae/eiaia ainoaea?noao; i?iaaaeaii
aeaeaiea no?aiu ia aoaa?iee, iino?iaia iiaay noieeoea — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
yae?ii eioi?iai noaea I?o?iiaaeianeay e?aiinoue).

Eniieueciaae iiuo caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai a ?acaeoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
oi?aiaee, eoeueoo?u. I?iaiaeee iieeoeeo ia?eaioeeecia (nicaeaiea
iaiooaeoo?, iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo, ai?iuo e ae?oaeo caaiaeia, aa?oae,
i?enoaiae, eaiaeia). Aicaeaaeye a?ieth a Acianeeo iioiaeao 1695—1696
aiaeia, Naaa?iie aieia 1700—1721 aiaeia, I?ooneii iioiaea 1711 a.,
Ia?neaeneii iioiaea 1722—1723 aiaeia e ae?.; eiiaiaeiaae aieneaie i?e
acyoee Iioaao?aa (1702 a.), a n?aaeaieyo i?e ae. Eaniay (1708 a.) e iiae
Iieoaaie (1709 a.).

?oeiaiaeee iino?ieeie oeioa e nicaeaieai ?aaoey?iie a?iee. Niinianoaiaae
oi?i/aieth yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey aeai?yinoaa. Ii
eieoeeaoeaa I?o?a I ioe?uou iiiaea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, Aeaaeaiey iaoe,
i?eiyoa a?aaeaeaineay acaoea e o. ae. ?aoi?iu I?o?a I i?iaiaeeeenue
aeanoieeie n?aaenoaaie, iooai e?aeiaai iai?yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e
ethaeneeo nee, oaiaoaiey ia?iaeiuo iann (iiaeooiay iiaeaoue e ae?.), /oi
aeaeei ca niaie ainnoaiey (No?aeaoeeia 1698 a., Ano?aoaineia 1705-06 a,
Aoeaaeineia 1707-09 a e ae?.), aaniiuaaeii iiaeaaeyaoeany
i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

Aoaeo/e nicaeaoaeai iiaouanoaaiiiai aaniethoenoneiai ainoaea?noaa, I?o?
I aeiaeeny i?eciaiey ca ?inneae no?aiaie Cai. Aa?iiu aaoi?eoaoa aaeeeie
aea?aeaau.

A 1695 a. ninoiyeny ia?aue iioiae I?o?a i?ioea oo?ie ia Acia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii a Ai?iiaaea ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai oeioa. Aeey
iinoeaeaiey iaoe e eneonnoaa ei?aaeano?iaiey, a oaeaea a iieneao
nithcieeia a ai?ueaa ca auoiae e *a?iiio ii?th oea?ue ioi?aaeeny a
Caiaaeioth Aa?iio. Ca a?aiy iooaoanoaey ii iinaoee Eeoeyiaeeth,
iieueneoth Eo?aeyiaeeth, I?onneth, Aaiiaa?, Aieeaiaeeth. A Ainoa?aeaia
I?o? aeee /aou?a ianyoea. Iiauaaei iinieuenoai e a Aiaeee, aaea oea?ue
eco/ae iiaaeoea iaaeaaoeeiiiua i?eai?u. Ia ia?aoiii iooe oea?ue iinaoee
Aa?iaieth, Aano?eth e *aoeth.

Aaeeeia iinieuenoai I?o?a I auei i?a?aaii no?aeaoeeei aoioii 1698 a.
?ani?aaa iaae aoioiaueeaie auea aeanoieie. Aa?ioaoeeny ec-ca a?aieoeu
I?o? nai ?oaee no?aeueoeai aieiau. Anaai eacieee 1000 /aeiaae, ai?acaei
aieueoa ethaeae auei eneaea/aii iuoeaie. Iinea eno?aaeaiey no?aeueoeia
I?o? i?enooiee e nicaeaieth iiaie oaea ?aaoey?iie a?iee.

19 aaaonoa 1700 a. I?o? I iauyaee aieio Oaaoeee. Ia/aeanue ai?ueaa
?innee ca auoiae e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th (Naaa?iay aieia). Oaaoeey a oa
a?aiaia auea iiaouanoaaiiaeoei ainoaea?noaii Aa?iiu. Aa ee?ieue Ea?e XII
eiae ?aiooaoeeth aaee/aeoaai iieeiaiaeoea. A iiya?a 1700 a. i?iecioei
n?aaeaiea iiae Ia?aie. ?onneea aienea iioa?iaee nie?ooeoaeueiia
ii?aaeaiea. I?o? I aaeaa niia nianoenue aaanoaii. Ii Ea?e XII niaa?oee
no?aoaae/aneoth ioeaeo — ii n/ae ?inneth ?aca?iieaiiie e ioi?aaeeny
aiaaaoue a Neeaceth. I?o? I iieo/ee iaiaoiaeeioth ia?aaeuoeo. Ii noiae
naeaeaoue aeieaeiua auaiaeu e ia?aneiai ii?aaeaiey e noae aioiaeoueny e
aeeeoaeueiie e oii?iie ai?ueaa.

Oaea a neaaeothuai aiaeo ?onneea aienea caiyee ianeieueei ai?iaeia a
I?eaaeoeea, a oii /enea e Ia?eaiao?a. Caeanue i?e aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea
Oa?aiaoueaaa iauyaeeanue oaniaaeoeaoeeaoiyy Ia?oa Neaa?iineay — aoaeouay
aeaia I?o?a I (eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia I). Naia i?aaineaaiia eiy iia
iieo/eea io eiaie aa e?anoiie iaoa?e, naiaeiie nano?u I?o?a I Aeaoa?eiu
Aeaenaaaiu.

A 1703 a. a onouea Iaau aue iniiaai ai?iae Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, noaaoee
iiaie noieeoeae ?innee e iacaaiiue a /anoue ?onneiai nayoiai,
ieo?iiieeoa I?o?a, iaaaniiai iie?iaeoaey oea?y.

Aieia ni oaaaeaie i?iaeieaeaeanue n ia?aiaiiui oniaoii aei 1707 a.,
eiaaea ia/aeinue ainnoaiea ecio/aiiiai oyaioaie i?aia?aciaaiee e aieiu
ia?iaea. Aicaeaaee ainnoaiea eacaoeeee aoaiai Eiiae?aoee Aoeaaei. Iii,
eae e iaaeoanoaothuea noeoeeiua ia?iaeiua aunooieaiey, caeii/eeinue
ii?aaeaieai ainnoaaoeo. N?aco aea iinea iiaeaaeaiey ainnoaiey I?o? I
i?iaae aaeieieno?aoeaioth ?aoi?io — no?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia aoaa?iee,
a ai aeaaa eo iinoaaeaiu aoaa?iaoi?u, i?ecaaiiua ia oieueei
inouanoaeyoue oi?aaeaiea ia ianoao, ii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
«enei?aiyoue ia ei?ith any/aneoth e?aiieo».

A 1709 a. Ea?e XII aiciaia?eeny iieii/eoue n ?inneae. Ianooiaoue ii
i?aaeii/ae n thaa, iineieueeo anooiee a oaeiue naiai? n oe?aeineei
aaoiaiii Iacaiie. 27 ethiy 1709 a. iiae ?inneeneie e?aiinoueth Iieoaaa
ninoiyeinue ?aoathuaa n?aaeaiea. ?aca?ii a?iee Ea?ea XII aue ianoieueei
nie?ooathuei, /oi Oaaoeey oaea ia niiaea io iaai ii?aaeoueny. Nai
ei?ieue aue ?aiai, ii, a?inea naie aienea, oniae aaaeaoue a Oo?oeeth. Ia
neaaeothuee aiae e ?innee auea i?eniaaeeiaia cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
I?eaaeoeee, aeeth/ay ?eao, ?aaaeue (Oaeeei), Auai?a.

Oo?oeey ia iiaeaeaea ie?eoueny n ?inoii iiaouanoaa ?innee. A eiioea 1710
a., iiaeno?aeaaiue Ea?eii XII e Iacaiie, oo?aoeeee noeoai iauyaee aieio
I?o?o I aieio. 9 ethiy ia ?aea I?oo ?onneea aienea auee ie?oaeaiu
i?aainoiaeyuae oo?aoeeie a?ieae. O I?o?a I inoaeny aaeeinoaaiiue auoiae
— eaieooee?iaaoue. Iieiaeaiea nianea Aeaoa?eia I. Ii aa i?inueaa ana
i?eaeai?iua aeaiu nia?aee eiaaoeany o ieo ae?aaioeaiiinoe, e Aeaoa?eia
oaeii ia?aneaea eo a aea? aaeeeiio aece?th, aicaeaaeyaoaio oo?aoeeea
aienea. Aece?ue i?eiye iiaea?ie. ?onneay a?iey auoea ec ie?oaeaiey, ii
?inney ii ie?iiio aeiaiai?o oa?yea Acia.

Oai a?aiaiai aieia ni Oaaoeeae ia?aoea ia ii?a. A 1714 a. ?onneee oeio
iaea?aeae iiaaaeo o iuna Aaiaoo. Aoi?ia ii?neia n?aaeaiea i?iecioei o
ino?iaa A?aiaai (1720 a.), aaea ?onneee oeio aua ?ac aeieacae naia
iieiia i?aainoiaenoai. 10 naioya?y 1721 a. a iaeaiueeii oeineii ai?iaeea
Ieooaaeo aue iiaeienai ie?iue aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio Oaaoeey ioaeaaaea
?innee Eeoeyiaeeth, Ynoeyiaeeth, Eiaa?iaieaiaeeth, /anoue Ea?aeee,
ino?iaa Ycaeue e Aeiai. Oeieyiaeey ia?aoiaeeea iiae th?enaeeeoeeth
Oaaoeee.

Ii aica?auaiee I?o?a I ec Ieooaaeoa a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa oea?y
i?iaicaeaneee «Iooeii Ioa/anoaa, I?o?ii Aaeeeei, Eiia?aoi?ii
?inneeneei». N yoiai aeiy ?inney noaea eiia?eae, a ?onneea oea?e —
eiia?aoi?aie. Noi?oao I?o?a I Aeaoa?eio I (a?ae n ia?aie aeaiie aue
?anoi?aioo a 1712 a.) ei?iiiaaee eiia?ao?eoeae a 1724 a.

A 1722 a. aue ecaeai «Oeac i ianeaaeee i?anoiea». Ioiuia ianeaaeieea
iacia/ae ii naiae aiea eiia?aoi?, e noaiaiue ?iaenoaa oaea ia eiaea
ieeaeiai cia/aiey. Yoi auei naycaii n niauoeyie 1716—1718 a.a. Noa?oee
nui I?o?a I Aeaenae ia niaeaoaeny n aioo?aiiae iieeoeeie iooea. Iiia/aeo
ioaoe iuoaeny aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iaai oaiai?aie, caoai i?ea?icee
caoi/eoue a iiianou?ue. A 1716 a. Aeaenae aaaeae a Aa?iio, ca /oi I?o? I
iauyaee aai eciaiieeii. A 1718 a. I?o? I aeiaeeny aica?auaiey nuia e
canoaaee aai io?a/ueny io i?aa ia i?anoie e auaeaoue niiauieeia.
Aa?oiaiue noae ec aaia?aeeoaoa, naiaoi?ia e Neiiaea i?eaiai?ee Aeaenay
I?o?iae/a e nia?oiie eacie. Ii iaeiie ec aa?nee ii aue caaeooai
i?eaeeaeaiiuie I?o?a I a I?o?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe.

A ethea 1722 a. eiia?aoi? ioi?aaeeny a Ia?neaeneee iioiae, iineaaeithth
aeey iaai aieio. Yoio iioiae ia i?eian ieeaeeo ?acoeueoaoia: Aa?iia
i?eioaeeea I?o?a I inoaiiaeoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey.

A oii aea aiaeo aue ecaeai «Oaaaeue i ?aiaao anao aieineeo, noaoneeo e
i?eaeai?iuo neoaeaaiuo /eiia». Ioiuia ?iaeiaia aeai?yinoai iiaeii auei
iieo/eoue «ca aanii?i/ioth neoaeao eiia?aoi?o e ainoaea?noao».

Oaea ia o?aoee aeaiue, eiaaea oea??i Aeaenaai Ieoaeeiae/ai auei aaeaii n
oea?aae/a niyoue «ia?o», auynieeinue, /oi ieaaeaiaoe aeiaieueii e?oiiue
— 11 aa?oeia (48,9 ni) a aeeeio e 3 aa?oea (13,3 ni) a oe?eio.

Au? ?aa?ieii I?o? ii?aaeae ethaeae e?anioie e aeeainoueth naiaai eeoea e
oeao?u. Ec-ca naiaai aunieiai ?inoa — 200,7 ni (6 oooia 7 aetheiia) — ii
auaeaaaeny a oieia ia oeaeoth aieiao. Ie?oaeathueo ioaaee i/aiue
neeueiua noaei?iaeiua iiae??aeaaiey eeoea, iniaaiii a ieioou aiaaa e
aeooaaiiai aieiaiey. Yoe eiiaoeueneaiua aeaeaeaiey nia?aiaiieee
i?eienuaaee aeaoneiio iio?ynaieth ai a?aiy no?aeaoeeeo aoioia eee
iiiuoea io?aaeaiey oea?aaiie Nioueae.

Ai a?aiy aeceoa a Aa?iio I?o? I ioaae ooii/aiiuo a?enoie?aoia a?oaiaaoie
iaia?ie iauaiey e i?inoioie i?aaia. Aaiiiaa?neay eo?oth?noeia Nioey
ienaea i Iao?a oae:

«Oea?ue aunie ?inoii, o iaai i?ae?aniua /a?ou eeoea e aeaai?iaeiay
inaiea; ii iaeaaeaao aieueoie aeeainoueth oia, ioaaou o iaai auno?u e
aa?iu. Ii i?e anao aeinoieinoaao, eioi?uie iaea?eea aai i?e?iaea,
aeaeaoaeueii auei au, /oiau a i?i auei iiiaiueoa a?oainoe. Yoi
ainoaea?ue i/aiue oi?ioee e aianoa i/aiue aeo?iie… Anee au ii iieo/ee
eo/oaa ainieoaiea, oi ec iaai auoae au /aeiaae niaa?oaiiue, iioiio /oi o
iaai iiiai aeinoieinoa e iaiaueiiaaiiue oi.» [1]

Iicaeiaa, oaea a 1717 aiaeo, ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey Iao?a a Ia?eaea,
aa?oeia Nai-Neiii, oae caienae nai? aia/aoeaiea i Iao?a:

«Ii aue i/aiue aunie ?inoii, oi?ioi neiaeai, aeiaieueii ooaeiuaa, n
e?oaeiaaoui eeoeii, aunieei eaii, i?ae?aniuie a?iayie; iin o iaai
aeiaieueii ei?ioie, ii ia neeoeii, e e eiioeo ianeieueei oieno; aoau
aeiaieueii e?oiiua, oeaao eeoea e?aniiaaoue e nioaeue, i?ae?aniua /??iua
aeaca, aieueoea, aeeaua, i?iieoeaoaeueiua, e?aneaie oi?iu; acaeyae
aaee/anoaaiiue e i?eaaoeeaue, eiaaea ii iaaethaeaao ca niaie e
naea?aeeaaaony, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa no?iaue e aeeeee, n noaei?iaaie ia
eeoea, eioi?ua iiaoi?ythony ia /anoi, ii eneaaeatho e aeaca e an? eeoei,
ioaay anao i?enoonoaothueo. Noaei?iaa aeeeeanue iaueiiaaiii iaeii
iaiiaaiea, e oiaaea acaeyae aai aeaeaeny no?aiiui, eae au ?anoa?yiiui,
iioii an? nae/an aea i?eieiaei iau/iue aeae. Any ia?oaeiinoue aai
aueacuaaea oi, ?aciuoeaiea e aaee/ea e ia eeoaia auea i?aeanoe.» [1]

A ia?aue ?ac I?o? aeaieeny a 17 eao ii ianoiyieth iaoa?e ia Aaaeieee
Eiiooeiie a 1689 aiaeo. Nionoy aiae o ieo ?iaeeeny oea?aae/ Aeaenae,
eioi?ue ainieouaaeny i?e iaoa?e a iiiyoeyo, /oaeaeuo ?aoi?iaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a. Inoaeueiua aeaoe Iao?a e Aaaeieee oia?ee anei?a
iinea ?iaeaeaiey. A 1698 aiaeo Aaaeieey Eiiooeia ieacaeanue caiaoaia a
no?aeaoeeii aoioa, oeaeueth eioi?iai auei aicaaaeaiea ia oea?noai a?
nuia, e auea nineaia a iiianou?ue.

Aeaenae Iao?iae/, ioeoeeaeueiue ianeaaeiee ?inneeneiai i?anoiea,
inoaeaeae i?aia?aciaaiey naiaai iooea, a a eiioea eiioeia aaaeae a Aaio
iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoai ?iaenoaaiieea naiae aeaiu, eiia?aoi?a Ea?ea VI,
aaea eneae iiaeaea?aeee a iecaa?aeaiee Iao?a I. A 1717 aiaeo
aacaieueiiai oea?aae/a oaiai?eee aa?iooueny aeiiie, aaea ii aue acyo
iiae no?aaeo. 24 ethiy (5 ethey) 1718 aiaea Aa?oiaiue noae, ninoiyaoee
ec 127 /aeiaae, auian nia?oiue i?eaiai? Aeaenath, i?eciaa aai aeiiaiui a
ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia.

26 ethiy (7 ethey) 1718 aiaea oea?aae/, ia aeiaeaeaaoenue i?eaaaeaiey
i?eaiai?a a eniieiaiea, oia? a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe. Enoeiiay
i?e/eia nia?oe oea?aae/a Aeaenay aei neo ii? aeinoiaa?ii ia onoaiiaeaia.

Io a?aea n i?eioeannie Oa?eiooie A?aoioaaeaneie oea?aae/ Aeaenae inoaaee
nuia Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a (1715—1730), noaaoaai a 1727 aiaeo eiia?aoi?ii
Iao?ii II, e aei/ue Iaoaeueth Aeaenaaaio (1714—1728).

A 1703 aiaeo I?o? I ano?aoee 19-eaoithth Eaoa?eio, a aeaae/anoaa Ia?oo
Neaa?iineoth, caoaa/aiioth ?onneeie aieneaie eae aiaiiay aeiau/a i?e
acyoee oaaaeneie e?aiinoe Ia?eaiao?a. I?o? caa?ae auaooth neoaeaieo ec
i?eaaeoeeneeo e?anoueyi o Aeaenaiae?a Iaioeeiaa e naeaeae a? naiae
ethaiaieoeae. A 1704 Eaoa?eia ?iaeaao ia?aaioea, iacaaiiiai Iao?ii, a
neaaeothuai aiaeo Iaaea (anei?a iaa oia?ee). Au? aei caeiiiiai
caioaeanoaa ca Iao?ii Eaoa?eia ?iaeeea aei/a?ae Aiio (1708) e Aeecaaaoo
(1709). Aeecaaaoa iicaea noaea eiia?ao?eoeae (i?aaeea a 1741—1762), a
i?yiua iioiiee Aiiu i?aaeee ?inneae iinea nia?oe Aeecaaaou, n 1762 ii
1917.

Eaoa?eia iaeia iiaea niaeaaeaoue n oea??i a aai i?eiaaeeao aiaaa, oiaea
eaneie e oa?iaeeaui aieiaieai oniieieoue i?enooiu noaei?iaeiie aieiaiie
aiee Iao?a. Caoe aieina Eaoa?eiu oniieaeaae Iao?a; iioii iia:

«naaeaea aai e a?aea, eaneay, ca aieiao, eioi?oth neaaea ii/anuaaea. Yoi
i?iecaiaeeei ia iaai iaae/aneia aeaenoaea, ii canuiae a ianeieueei
ieioo. *oia ia ia?ooaoue aai nia, iia aea?aeaea aai aieiao ia naiae
a?oaee, neaey iaiiaeaeaeii a i?iaeieaeaiea aeaoo eee o?ao /ania. Iinea
oiai ii i?inuiaeny niaa?oaiii naaaeei e aiae?ui.»[2]

Naiuey Iao?a I a 1717: I?o? I, Aeaoa?eia, noa?oee nui Aeaenae Iao?iae/
io ia?aie aeaiu, ieaaeoee aeaooeaoiee nui I?o? e aei/a?e Aiia e
Aeecaaaoa. Yiaeue ia iaaeiie ieanoeiea.

Ioeoeeaeueiia aai/aiea Iao?a I n Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaaaiie ninoiyeinue 19
oaa?aey 1712, anei?a iinea aica?auaiey ec I?ooneiai iioiaea. A 1724 I?o?
ei?iiiaae Aeaoa?eio eae eiia?ao?eoeo e nii?aaeoaeueieoeo. Aeaoa?eia
Aeaenaaaia ?iaeeea ioaeo 11 aeaoae, ii aieueoeinoai ec ieo oia?ei a
aeaonoaa, e?iia Aiiu e Aeecaaaou.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a a yiaa?a 1725 aiaea Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia i?e
iiaeaea?aeea neoaeeaie ciaoe e aaa?aeaeneeo iieeia noaea ia?aie i?aayuae
?inneeneie eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie I, ii i?aaeea iaaeieai e neii/aeanue
a 1727 aiaeo, inaiaiaeea i?anoie aeey oea?aae/a Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a.
Ia?aay aeaia Iao?a Aaeeeiai, Aaaeieey Eiiooeia, ia?aaeeea naith
n/anoeeaoth niia?ieoeo e oia?ea a 1731 aiaeo, oniaa oaeaeaoue
oea?noaiaaiea naiaai aioea Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai anoae aii?in i
i?anoieiianeaaeee: eoi caei?o o?ii iinea nia?oe eiia?aoi?a. Iauyaeaiiue
i?e io?a/aiee Aeaenay Iao?iae/a ianeaaeieeii i?anoiea oea?aae/ I?o?
Iao?iae/ (1715—1719, nui io Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu) neii/aeny a aeaonoaa.
I?yiui ianeaaeieeii noaiiaeeny nui oea?aae/a Aeaenay e i?eioeannu
Oa?eioou, I?o? Aeaenaaae/. Iaeiaei, anee neaaeiaaoue iau/ath e iauyaeoue
ianeaaeieeii nuia iiaeueiiai Aeaenay, oi aicaoaeaeaeenue iaaeaaeaeu
i?ioeaieeia ?aoi?i aa?iooue noa?ua ii?yaeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu
aicieeaee iianaiey o ni?aoieeia Iao?a, eioi?ua aieiniaaee ca eaciue
Aeaenay.

5 (16) oaa?aey 1722 aiaea I?o? ecaeae Oeac i i?anoieiianeaaeee (ioiai?i
Iaaeii I nionoy 75 eao), a eioi?ii ioiaiye ae?aaiee iau/ae ia?aaeaaaoue
i?anoie i?yiui iioiieai ii ioaeneie eeiee, ii aeiioneae iacia/aiea
ianeaaeieeii ethaiai aeinoieiiai /aeiaaea ii aiea iiia?oa. Oaeno yoiai
aaaeiaeoaai oeaca iainiiauaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiiie ia?u:

… /aai aeey aeaai?acnoaeeee nae onoaau o/eieoue, aeaau nia auei anaaaea
au aie? i?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai ainoaea?y, eiio iiue oi/aou, oiio e
ii?aae?eeoue iane?aenoai, e ii?aae?eaiiiio, aeaey eaeia iaiio?aanoai,
iaee ioi?ieou, aeaau ae?oe e iioiiee ia aiaee au oaeoth ceinoue, eaeu
auoa ienaii, ei?y nith ocaeo ia naa?. [1]

Oeac aue ianoieueei iaiau/ai aeey ?onneiai iauanoaa, /oi i?eoeinue aai
?acuyniyoue e o?aaiaaoue niaeaney io iiaeaeaiiuo iiae i?enyaie.
?aneieueieee aiciouaeenue: «Acye ca naay oaaaeeo, e oa oea?eoea aeaoae
ia ?iaeeo, e ii naeaeae oeac, /oia ca i?aaeaoaeouaai ainoaea?y e?ano
oeaeiaaoue, e e?ano oeaeotho ca oaaaea. Iaeiieiia/ii noaiao
oea?noaiaaoue oaaae»[3].

I?o? Aeaenaaae/ aue ioiaeaeioo io i?anoiea, ii aii?in i
i?anoieiianeaaeee inoaaaeny ioe?uoui. Iiiaea iieaaaee, /oi i?anoie
caei?o eee Aiia, eee Aeecaaaoa, aei/a?e Iao?a io a?aea n Aeaoa?eiie
Aeaenaaaiie. Ii a 1724 aiaeo Aiia ioeacaeanue io eaeeo-eeai i?eoycaiee
ia ?inneeneee i?anoie iinea oiai, eae ia?o/eeanue n aa?oeiaii
Aieooeineei Ea?eii-O?eae?eoii. Anee au i?anoie caiyea ieaaeoay aei/ue
Aeecaaaoa, eioi?ie auei 15 eao (a 1724), oi aianoi ia? i?aaee au aa?oeia
Aieooeineee, eioi?ue ia/oae n iiiiuueth ?innee aa?iooue caiee,
caai?aaiiua aeao/aiaie.

Ia ono?aeaaee Iao?a e aai ieaiyiieoeu, aei/a?e noa?oaai a?aoa Eaaia:
Aiia Eo?eyiaeneay, Aeaoa?eia Iaeeaiao?aneay e I?aneiauey Eiaiiiaia.

Inoaaaeny oieueei iaeei eaiaeeaeao — aeaia Iao?a, eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia
Aeaenaaaia. Iao?o ioaeai aue /aeiaae, eioi?ue au i?iaeieaeee ia/aoia ei
aeaei, aai i?aia?aciaaiey. 7 iay 1724 I?o? ei?iiiaae Aeaoa?eio
eiia?ao?eoeae e nii?aaeoaeueieoeae, ii nionoy ei?ioeia a?aiy caiiaeic?ee
a noi?oaeaneie eciaia (aeaei Iiina). Oeac 1722 aiaea ia?ooee i?eau/iue
oeeaae i?anoieiianeaaeey, ianeaaeieea aea I?o? ia?aae nia?oueth
iacia/eoue ia oniae.

Iioiinoai Iao?a I

aiae ?iaeaeaieyaiae nia?oei?eia/aieyn Aaaeieeae EiiooeiieAeaenae
Iao?iae/, (oea?aae/)18 oaa?aey 1690.26 ethiy 1718.Aue aeaiao 1711 ia
i?eioeanna Nioee-Oa?eiooa A?aoioaaea-Aieueoaiaeooaeueneie, nano?a
Aeecaaaou, noi?oae eiia?aoi?a Ea?ea VI.

Aeaoe — Iaoaeuey (1714—28) e I?o? (1715—30), aiineaaenoaee eiia?aoi?
I?o? II.Aeaenaiae? Iao?iae/, oea?aae/13 ieoya?y 1691.14 iay 1692.oia?
anei?a iinea ?iaeaeaiey.N Aeaoa?eiieAiia Iao?iaia7 oaa?aey 1708.15 iay
1728.A 1725 auoea caioae ca Ea?ea-O?eae?eoa, aa?oeiaa
Oeacaea-Aieueooaei-Aiooi?ineiai, oaoaea a Eeeue, aaea ?iaeeea nuia Ea?ea
Iaoa?a Oeue?eoa (aiineaaenoaee ?inneeneee eiia?aoi? I?o? III).; eiaee
iioiinoaiAeecaaaoa Iao?iaia29 aeaeaa?y 1709.5 yiaa?y 1762.Auaeaia a 1742
aiaeo ca Aeaenay A?eai?ueaaa/a, A?aoa ?acoiianeiai; aac iioiinoaa A 1744
caeeth/eea oaeiue n A. A. ?acoiianeei, io eioi?iai, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai
nia?aiaiieeia, ?iaeeea ianeieueeeo aeaoae.Iaoaeey Iao?iaia, oea?aaia20
ia?oa 1713.27 iay 1715. Ia?aa?eoa Iao?iaia, oea?aaia19 naioya?y 1714.7
ethiy 1715. Iao? Iao?iae/, oea?aae/15 iiya?y 1715.19 ai?eey 1719. Iaaae
Iao?iae/, oea?aae/13 yiaa?y 1717.14 oaa?aey 1717. Iaoaeey Iao?iaia,,
oea?aaia31 aaaonoa 1718.15 ia?oa 1725.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey I?o? neeueii aieae
(i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, eaiaiiay aieaciue ii/ae). Eaoii 1724 aiaea aai
aieaciue oneeeeanue, a naioya?a ii ii/oanoaiaae naay eaa/a, ii /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?enooiu oneeeeenue. A ieoya?a I?o? ioi?aaeeny
iniao?eaaoue Eaaeiaeneee eaiae, aii?aee niaaoai naiaai eaea-iaaeeea
Aethiaio?inoa. N Ieiioea I?o? i?iaoae a Noa?oth ?onno e a iiya?a aiaeie
iiaoae a Iaoa?ao?a. O Eaoou aio i?eoeinue, noiy ii iiyn a aiaea,
nianaoue naaoee ia iaeue aio n nieaeaoaie. I?eiaaeee aieacie oneeeeenue,
ii I?o?, ia ia?auay ia ieo aieiaiey, i?iaeieaeae caieiaoueny
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie. 17 yiaa?y 1725 aiaeo aio i?eoeinue oae ooaei,
/oi ii ?anii?yaeeeny iinoaaeoue a ninaaeiae ni naiae niaeueiae eiiiaoie
iioiaeioth oea?eiaue, a 22 yiaa?y eniiaaaeaeny. Neeu ia/aee inoaaeyoue
aieueiiai, ii oaea ia e?e/ae, eae i?aaeaea, io aeanoieie aiee, ii
oieueei noiiae.

27 yiaa?y (7 oaa?aey) auee i?iuaiu ana inoaeae?iiua ia nia?oue eee
eaoi?ao (eneeth/ay oaeeoe e oee/?iiuo a iaiaeiie?aoiii ?acaia). A oio
aea aeaiue a enoiaea aoi?iai /ana I?o? iio?aaiaae aoiaae, ia/ae auei
ienaoue, ii ia?i auiaei ec aai ?oe, ec iaienaiiiai niiaee ?acia?aoue
oieueei aeaa neiaa: «Ioaeaeoa an?…». Oea?ue aaeae iicaaoue oiaaea aei/ue
Aiio Iao?iaio, /oiau iia ienaea iiae aai aeeeoiaeo, ii eiaaea iia
i?eoea, I?o? oaea aiae a caauoue?.

Eiaaea noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi eiia?aoi? oie?aao, aiciee aii?in, eoi caei?o
ianoi Iao?a. Naiao, Neiiae e aaia?aeeoao — ana o/?aaeaeaiey, ia eiaaoea
oi?iaeueiiai i?aaa ?anii?yaeaoueny noaeueaie i?anoiea, au? aei nia?oe
Iao?a nia?aeenue a ii/ue n 27 ia 28 yiaa?y 1725, /oiau ?aoeoue aii?in i
i?aaiieea Iao?a Aaeeeiai. A cae canaaeaiee i?iieeee aaa?aeaeneea
ioeoea?u, ia ieiuaaeue auoee aeaa aaa?aeaeneeo iieea, e iiae aa?aaaiiue
aie aiene, auaaaeaiiuo ia?oeae Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu e Iaioeeiaa, Naiao
i?eiye aaeeiiaeaniia ?aoaiea e 4-i /anai oo?a 28 yiaa?y. ?aoaieai Naiaoa
o?ii ianeaaeiaaea aeaia Iao?a, Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia, noaaoay 28 yiaa?y
(8 oaa?aey) 1725 aiaea ia?aie ?inneeneie eiia?ao?eoeae iiae eiaiai
Aeaoa?eia I.

A ia/aea oanoiai /ana oo?a 28 yiaa?y (8 oaa?aey) 1725 aiaea I?o? Aaeeeee
neii/aeny. Iioi?iiai ii aue a niai?a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.

A /anoue Iao?a Aaeeeiai aicaaaeaiu iaiyoieee a ?aciuo ai?iaeao ?innee.
Naiui ia?aui e iaeaieaa ecaanoiui yaeyaony Iaaeiue anaaeiee a
Iaoa?ao?aa, aai ecaioiaeaiea e aicaaaeaiea caiyei aieaa 10 eao.
Neoeueioo?a Iao?a ?aaiou A. E. ?ano?aeee auea nicaeaia ?aiaa Iaaeiiai
anaaeieea, ii onoaiiaeaia ia?aae Ieoaeeianeei caieii iicaeiaa. Naiue
aieueoie ii ?acia?o onoaiiaeai a 1997 aiaeo a Iineaa ia Iineaa-?aea,
neoeueioi? C. Oea?aoaee.

I?o? I a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a

· Oienoie A. I., «I?o? Ia?aue» — iaeaieaa ecaanoiue ?iiai i aeecie Iao?a
I, ecaeaiiue a 1945 aiaeo.

· A. N. Iooeei i?ieca?e aeoaieia eco/aiea aeecie Iao?a[4], e naeaeae
Iao?a Aaeeeiai aa?iai naieo iiyi «Iieoaaa» e «Iaaeiue anaaeiee», a
oaeaea ?iiaia «A?ai Iao?a Aaeeeiai».

· Ia?aaeeianeee Ae. N., «I?o? e Aeaenae» — ?iiai.

· A?oeiaiae?eo Eaiieae. «Ianeieueei ?anneacia i Iao?a Aaeeeii»

· E. I. Naieaia. «Oea?ue — ?aaioiee e o/eoaeue».

· E. I. Naieaia. «Eae aiaaae Iao? Aaeeeee ni oaaaeaie».

E?eoeea e ioeaiea Iao?a I

I. I. Ea?aicei, i?eciaaay yoiai ainoaea?y Aaeeeei, no?iai e?eoeeoao
Iao?a ca /?acia?iia oaea/aiea eiino?aiiui, no?aieaiea naeaeaoue ?inneth
Aieeaiaeeae. ?aceia eciaiaiea «noa?iai» auoa e iaoeeiiaeueiuo
o?aaeeoeee, i?aaei?eiyoia eiia?aoi?ii, ii iiaieth enoi?eea, aeaeaei ia
anaaaea ii?aaaeaii. A ?acoeueoaoa ?onneea ia?aciaaiiua ethaee «noaee
a?aaeaeaiaie ie?a, ii ia?anoaee auoue, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, a?aaeaeaiaie
?innee».

Aieueoa? ienae iaiaeiie?aoii i Iao?a. E eiioeo 1759 a. auionoee ia?aue
oii, a a ai?aea 1763 a. auoae aoi?ie oii «Enoi?ee ?inneeneie eiia?ee i?e
Iao?a Aaeeeii». Aeaaiie oeaiiinoueth iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i Aieueoa?
ii?aaeaeyao i?ia?ann, eioi?iai ?onneea aeiaeeenue ca 50 eao, ae?oaea
iaoeee ia iiaoo yoiai aeinoeaiooue e ca 500. Iao? I, aai ?aoi?iu, eo
cia/aiea noaee iauaeoii nii?a Aieueoa?a e ?onni.

Ea?e Ia?en: Iao? Aaeeeee ni/aoae iieeoe/aneia eneonnoai iiiaieueneiai
?aaa n ai?aeuie no?aieaieyie iiiaieueneiai aeanoaeeia, eioi?iio
*eiaenoai caaauae inouanoaeoue naie ieai caaiaaaiey ie?a.[5]

Ecaanoiue enoi?ee N. I. Nieiaue?a a naieo eieaao iieacae i?aaie/iinoue e
enoi?e/aneoth iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue ?aoi?i: «Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeaeaiey ia
iiaue iooue auea iniciaia; iaycaiiinoe i?e yoii ii?aaeaeeeenue: ia?iae
iiaeiyeny e nia?aeny a aei?iao; ii eiai-oi aeaeaee; aeaeaee aiaeaey;
aiaeaeue yaeeny». Enoi?ee n/eoae, /oi aeaaioth naith caaea/o eiia?aoi?
oniao?eaae ai aioo?aiiai i?aia?aciaaiee ?innee, a Naaa?iay aieia ni
Oaaoeeae auea eeoue n?aaenoaii e yoiio i?aia?aciaaieth.

I. I. Ieetheia, a naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo ?acaeaaao iuneue, /oi ?aoi?iu
i?iaiaeeeenue Iao?ii niiioaiii, io neo/ay e neo/ath, iiae aeaaeaieai
eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, aac eaeie-eeai eiaeee e ieaia, auee
«?aoi?iaie aac ?aoi?iaoi?a». Oaeaea ii oiiieiaao i oii, /oi oieueei
«oeaiie ?aci?aiey no?aiu, ?inney aicaaaeaia auea a ?aia aa?iiaeneie
aea?aeaau». Ii iiaieth Ieetheiaa, a ia?eiae i?aaeaiey Iao?a, ianaeaiea
?innee a a?aieoeao 1695 a. nie?aoeeinue a neeo aani?anoaiiuo aiei.

Ae?oaia

I?o? ?iaeeeny a ii/ue ia 30 iay (9 ethiy) 1672 aiaea a Oa?aiiii aeai?oea
E?aiey (a 7235 aiaeo ii i?eiyoiio oiaaea eaoien/eneaieth «io nioai?aiey
ie?a»).

Ioaoe — oea?ue Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ — eiae iiiai/eneaiiia iioiinoai: I?o?
aue 12-i ?aa?ieii, ii ia?aui io aoi?ie aeaiu, oea?eoeu Iaoaeuee
Ia?uoeeiie. 29 ethiy a aeaiue Nayouo Iao?a e Iaaea oea?aae/ aue e?au?i a
*oaeiaii iiianou?a (ii ae?oaei aeaiiui a o?aia A?eai?ey Iaieana?eeneiai,
a Aea?aeoeao, i?ioiiiiii Aiae?aai Naaeiiaui) e ia?a/?i Iao?ii.

Iiaua aiae n oea?eoeae, ii aue ioaeai ia ainieoaiea iyiueeai. Ia 4-i
aiaeo aeecie Iao?a, a 1676 aiaeo, oia? oea?ue Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/.
Iiaeoiii oea?aae/a noae aai naiaeiue a?ao, e??noiue ioaoe e iiaue oea?ue
O?aei? Aeaenaaae/. Aeueye I. I. Cioia o/ee Iao?a a?aiioa n 1676 ii 1680
aiaeu.

Nia?oue oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a e aioea?aiea aai noa?oaai nuia O?aei?a
(io oea?eoeu Ia?ee Eeueeie/iu, a aeaae/anoaa Ieeineaaneie) ioiaeaeioee
oea?eoeo Iaoaeueth Ee?eeeiaio e a? ?iaeith, Ia?uoeeiuo, ia caaeiee ieai.
Oea?eoea Iaoaeuey auioaeaeaia auea ioi?aaeoueny a naei I?aia?aaeaineia
iiae Iineaie.

No?aeaoeeee aoio 1682 aiaea

27 ai?aey (7 iay) 1682 aiaea iinea 6 eao iyaeiai i?aaeaiey neii/aeny
eeaa?aeueiue e aieaciaiiue oea?ue O?aei? Aeaenaaae/. Anoae aii?in, eiio
ianeaaeiaaoue i?anoie: noa?oaio aieaciaiiiio e neaaioiiiio Eaaio
niaeanii iau/ath eee iaeieaoiaio Iao?o. Ca?o/eaoenue iiaeaea?aeeie
iao?ea?oa Eiaeeia, Ia?uoeeiu e eo noi?iiieee 27 ai?aey (7 iay) 1682
aiaea aicaaee ia i?anoie Iao?a. Oaeoe/anee e aeanoe i?eo?e eeai
Ia?uoeeiuo e aucaaiiue ec nnueee A?oaiii Iaoaaaa, iauyaeaiiue «aaeeeei
iiaeoiii». Noi?iiieeai Eaaia Aeaenaaae/a auei cao?oaeieoaeueii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eo i?aoaiaeaioa, eioi?ue ia iia oea?noaiaaoue ec-ca
e?aeia neaaiai caei?iauey. I?aaiecaoi?u oaeoe/anee aeai?oeiaiai
ia?aai?ioa iauyaeee aa?neth i nianoaaiii?o/iie ia?aaea/a «neeiao?a»
oie?athuei Oaiaei?ii Aeaenaaae/ai naiaio ieaaeoaio a?aoo Iao?o, ii
aeinoiaa?iuo naeaeaoaeuenoa oiio i?aaeuyaeaii ia auei.

Iyoaae no?aeueoeia a 1682. No?aeueoeu auaieaeeaatho ec aeai?oea Eaaia
Ia?uoeeia. Iiea I?o? I ooaoaao iaoue, oea?aaia Niouey iaaethaeaao n
oaeiaeaoai?aieai. Ea?oeia A. E. Ei?cooeia, 1882

Ieeineaaneea, ?iaenoaaiieee oea?aae/a Eaaia e oea?aaiu Niouee ii eo
iaoa?e, oniio?aee a i?iaicaeaoaiee Iao?a oea??i ouaieaiea naieo
eioa?ania. No?aeueoeu, eioi?uo a Iineaa auei aieaa 20 ouny/, oaea aeaaii
i?iyaeyee iaaeiaieuenoai e naiai?aaea; e, aeaeeii, iiaeno?aeaaiua
Ieeineaaneeie, 15 (25) iay 1682 aiaea aunooieee ioe?uoi: n e?eeaie, /oi
Ia?uoeeiu caaeooeee oea?aae/a Eaaia, aeaeioeenue e E?aieth. Iaoaeuey
Ee?eeeiaia, iaaeaynue oniieieoue aoioiaueeia, aianoa n iao?ea?oii e
aiy?aie auaaea Iao?a n a?aoii ia E?aniia e?ueueoei. Iaeiaei ainnoaiea ia
caeii/eeinue. A ia?aua /anu auee oaeou aiy?a A?oaiii Iaoaaaa e Ieoaee
Aeieai?oeee, iioii e ae?oaea noi?iiieee oea?eoeu Iaoaeuee, a oii /enea
aeaa a? a?aoa Ia?uoeeiu.

26 iay auai?iua io no?aeaoeeeo iieeia yaeeenue ai aeai?aoe e
iio?aaiaaee, /oiau noa?oee Eaai i?eciaaaeny ia?aui oea??i, a ieaaeoee
I?o? — aoi?ui. Iianaynue iiaoi?aiey iia?iia, aiy?a niaeaneeenue, e
iao?ea?o Eiaeei oio/an aea niaa?oee a Oniaineii niai?a oi?aeanoaaiiue
iieaaai i cae?aaee aeaoo ia?a/?iiuo oea?ae; a 25 ethiy aai/ae eo ia
oea?noai.

29 iay no?aeueoeu ianoiyee, /oiau oea?aaia Niouey Aeaenaaaia i?eiyea ia
naay oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii ii i?e/eia iaeieaonoaa a? a?aoueaa.
Oea?eoea Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia aeieaeia auea aianoa n nuiii — aoi?ui
oea??i — oaeaeeoueny io aeai?a a iiaeiineiaiue aeai?aoe a naea
I?aia?aaeaineii. A I?oaeaeiie iaeaoa E?aiey nio?aieeny aeaooianoiue o?ii
aeey thiuo oea?ae n iaeaiueeei ieioa/eii a nieiea, /a?ac eioi?ia
oea?aaia Niouey e i?eaeeae?iiua iiaeneacuaaee ei, eae aanoe naay e /oi
aiai?eoue ai a?aiy aeai?oeiauo oea?aiiiee.

I?aia?aaeaineia e iioaoiua iieee

Nieaeao auai?iiai nieaeaoneiai iieea Ai?aeiia, eee Aoou?neiai iieea

An? naiaiaeiia a?aiy I?o? i?iaiaeee aaeaee io aeai?oea — a n?eao
Ai?iaue?aa e I?aia?aaeaineii. N eaaeaeui aiaeii o iaai oaaee/eaaeny
eioa?an e aiaiiiio aeaeo. I?o? iaeae e aii?oaeee nai? «iioaoiia» aienei,
ninoiyaoaa ec naa?noieeia ii iaeue/eoaneei ea?ai. A 1685 aiaeo aai
«iioaoiua», iaeaoua a eiino?aiiua eaooaiu, iiae aa?aaaiiue aie iieeiaui
no?iai oee /a?ac Iineao ec I?aia?aaeaineiai a naei Ai?iaue?ai. Nai I?o?
neoaeee aa?aaaiueeii[2].

A 1686 aiaeo 14-eaoiee I?o? caa?e i?e naieo «iioaoiuo» a?oeeea?eth.
Iaiano?aeueiue ianoa? O?aei? Ciiia? iieacuaae oea?th a?aiaoiia e
iaiano?aeueiia aeaei. Ec Iooea?neiai i?eeaca auee aeinoaaeaiu 16 iooae.
Aeey oi?aaeaiey oyae?euie i?oaeeyie oea?ue acye ec Eiithoaiiiai i?eeaca
ioi/eo e aiaiiiio aeaeo ac?ineuo neoaeeoaeae, eioi?uo iaeaee a ioiaee?u
eiicaiiiai iie?iy e ii?aaeaeeee iioaoiuie iooea?yie. Ia?aui iaaeae
eiicaiiue ioiaee? Na?aae Aooainoia. Aiineaaenoaee I?o? caeacae a?iiciaue
athno yoiai ia?aiai ?onneiai nieaeaoa, eae ii iacuaae Aooainoiaa.
Iioaoiue iiee noae iacuaaoueny I?aia?aaeaineei, ii ianoo naiaai
?aneaa?oe?iaaiey — naeo I?aia?aaeaineia iiae Iineaie.

Ienueii Iao?a I e iaoa?e Iaoaeuea Ee?eeeiaia

A I?aia?aaeaineii, i?ioea aeai?oea, ia aa?aao ssocu aue iino?iai
«iioaoiue ai?iaeie». I?e iino?ieea e?aiinoe I?o? nai aeayoaeueii
?aaioae, iiiiaae ?oaeoue a?aaia, onoaiaaeeaaoue iooee. Caeanue aea
?aneaa?oe?iauaaeny nicaeaiiue Iao?ii «Anaoooaeoee, Anaiueyiaeoee e
Noiana?iaeiaeoee Niai?» — ia?iaeey ia I?aaineaaioth Oea?eiaue. Naia
e?aiinoue auea iacaaia I?aoao?aii, aa?iyoii, ii eiaie ciaiaieoie a oi
a?aiy aano?eeneie e?aiinoe I?anao?a (iuia A?aoeneaaa — noieeoea
Neiaaeee), i eioi?ie ii neuoae io eaieoaia Ciiia?a. Oiaaea aea, a 1686
aiaeo, iiyaeeenue iiae I?aoao?aii ia ssoca ia?aua iioaoiua noaea —
aieueoie oiye e no?oa n eiaeeaie. A yoe aiaeu I?o? caeioa?aniaaeny anaie
iaoeaie, eioi?ua auee naycaiu n aiaiiui aeaeii. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
aieeaiaeoea Oeiia?iaia ii eco/ae a?eoiaoeeo, aaiiao?eth, aiaiiua iaoee.

I?iaoeeaaynue iaeiaaeaeu n Oeiia?iaiii ii naeo Eciaeeiai, I?o? cao?e ia
Eueiyiie aeai?, a aiaa?a eioi?iai iao?e aiaeeeneee aioee. A 1688 aiaeo
ii ii?o/ee aieeaiaeoeo Ea?ooaio A?aiaeoo io?aiiioe?iaaoue, aii?oaeeoue e
inianoeoue yoio aio, a caoai nionoeoue ia ssoco. Iaeiaei ssoca e
I?inyiie i?oae ieacaeenue oaniuie aeey ei?aaey, iiyoiio I?o? ioi?aaeeny
a Ia?aneaaeue-Caeanneee, e Ieauaaao ica?o, aaea caeiaeee ia?aoth aa?oue
aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa noaeia. «Iioaoiuo» oaea auei aeaa iieea: e
I?aia?aaeaineiio i?eaaaeeny Nai?iianeee, ?aniieiaeeaoeeny a naea
Nai?iianeia. I?aoao?a oaea niaa?oaiii iioiaeee ia ianoiyuoth e?aiinoue.
Aeey eiiaiaeiaaiey iieeaie e eco/aiey aiaiiie iaoee ioaeiu auee ethaee
ciathuea e iiuoiua. Ii n?aaee ?onneeo i?eaeai?iuo oaeeo ia auei. Oae
I?o? iiyaeeny a Iaiaoeeie neiaiaea.

Ia?aue a?ae Iao?a

Iaiaoeeay neiaiaea auea aeeaeaeoae «ninaaeeie» naea I?aia?aaeaineia, e
I?o? oaea aeaaii i?eniao?eaaeny e a? ethaiiuoiie aeecie. An? aieueoaa e
aieueoaa eiee/anoai eiino?aioeaa i?e aeai?a oea?y Iao?a, eae iai?eia?,
O?aioe Oeiia?iai e Ea?ooai A?aiaeo, auee auoiaeoeaie ec Iaiaoeeie
neiaiaeu. An? yoi iacaiaoii i?eaaei e oiio, /oi oea?ue noae /anoui
ainoai a neiaiaea, aaea nei?i ieacaeny aieueoei iieeiiieeii
iai?eioaeaeaiiie eiicaiiie aeecie. I?o? caeo?ee iaiaoeeoth o?oaeo, noae
iinauaoue iaiaoeeea aa/a?eiee n oaioeaie e auieaeie, iiciaeiieeny n
Iao?eeii Ai?aeiiii, O?aioeai sseiaeaae/ai Eaoi?oii — aoaeoueie
niiaeaeaeieeaie Iao?a, caa?e ?iiai n Aiiie Iiin. I?ioea yoiai no?iai
aunooiaea iaoue Iao?a. *oiau ia?acoieoue 17-eaoiaai nuia, Iaoaeuey
Ee?eeeiaia ?aoeea aeaieoue aai ia Aaaeieee Eiiooeiie, aei/a?e
ieieueie/aai.

I?o? ia i?ioeai?a/ee iaoa?e, e 27 yiaa?y 1689 aiaea auea nua?aia
naaaeueaa «ieaaeoaai» oea?y. Iaeiaei iaiaa /ai /a?ac ianyoe I?o? iieeioe
aeaio e oaoae ia ianeieueei aeiae ia Ieauaaai ica?i. Io yoiai a?aea I?o?
eiae aeaoo nuiiaae: noa?oee, Aeaenae, aue ianeaaeieeii o?iia aei 1718
aiaea, ieaaeoee, Aeaenaiae?, oia? a ieaaeai/anoaa.

Aioea?aiea Iao?a I

Aeoeaiinoue Iao?a neeueii o?aaiaeeea oea?aaio Nioueth, iiieiaaooth, /oi
n ianooieaieai niaa?oaiiieaoey naiaeiiai a?aoa ae i?eae?ony ?annoaoueny
n aeanoueth. Iaeii a?aiy noi?iiieeaie oea?aaiu auiaoeaaeny ieai
ei?iiiaaiey, ii Iao?ea?o Eiaeei aue eaoaai?e/anee i?ioea.

Iioiaeu ia e?uineeo oaoa?, inouanoae?iiua a 1687 e 1689 aiaeao oaai?eoii
oea?aaiu A. A. Aieeoeuiui, auee iaeioniaoiu, ii i?aiiaeiineeenue eae
e?oiiua e uaae?i aiciaa?aaeaeaaiua iiaaaeu, /oi aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai
iiiaeo.

8 ethey 1689, a i?acaeiee Eacaineie eeiiu Aiaiiaoa?e, i?iecio?e ia?aue
ioaee/iue eiioeeeo iaaeaeo aicioaeaaoei Iao?ii e I?aaeoaeueieoeath. A
oio aeaiue, ii iau/ath, niaa?oaeny e?anoiue oiae ec E?aiey a Eacaineee
niai?. Ii ieii/aiee iaaaeie I?o? iiaeio?e e nano?a e iauyaee, /oiau iia
ia niaea eaeoe aianoa n ioae/eiaie a i?ioeannee. Niouey i?eiyea aucia:
acyea a ?oee ia?ac I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu e iioea ca e?anoaie e
oi?oaayie. Ia iiaeaioiaeaiiue e oaeiio enoiaeo aeaea, I?o? iieeioe oiae.

7 aaaonoa 1689 aiaeo iaiaeeaeaiii aeey anao i?iecioei ?aoathuaa niauoea.
A yoio aeaiue oea?aaia Niouey aaeaea ia/aeueieeo no?aeueoeia O?aei?o
Oaeeiaeoiio nia?yaeeoue iiaieueoa naieo ethaeae a E?aieue, aoaeoi au
aeey nii?iaiaeaeaiey a Aeiineie iiianou?ue ia aiaiiieuea. Aianoa n oai
?ani?ino?aieeny neoo i ienueia n ecaanoeai, /oi oea?ue I?o? ii/ueth
?aoee caiyoue naieie «iioaoiuie» E?aieue, oaeoue oea?aaio, a?aoa oea?y
Eaaia e caoaaoeoue aeanoue. Oaeeiaeoue nia?ae no?aeaoeeea iieee, /oiau
eaeoe «aaeeeei nia?aieai» ia I?aia?aaeaineia e iiaeoue anao noi?iiieeia
Iao?a ca eo iaia?aiea oaeoue oea?aaio Nioueth. Oiaaea aea iineaee o?ieo
aa?oiauo iaaethaeaoue, /oi aeaeaaony a I?aia?aaeaineii n caaeaieai n?aco
niiaueoue, anee oea?ue I?o? eoaea-eeai auaaeao iaeei eee n iieeaie.

Noi?iiieee Iao?a n?aaee no?aeueoeia iineaee aeaoo aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia a
I?aia?aaeaineia. Iinea aeiianaiey I?o? n iaaieueoie naeoie a o?aaiaa
iineaeae a O?ieoea-Na?aeaa iiianou?ue. Neaaenoaeai ia?aaeeouo oaeania
no?aeaoeeeo aunooieaiee auea aieaciue Iao?a: i?e neeueiii aieiaiee o
iaai ia/eiaeenue eiiaoeueneaiua aeaeaeaiey eeoea. 8 aaaonoa a iiianou?ue
i?eauee iaa oea?eoeu, Iaoaeuey e Aaaeieey, aneaae ca ieie i?eoee
«iioaoiua» iieee n a?oeeea?eae. 16 aaaonoa io Iao?a i?eoea a?aiioa,
/oiau io anao iieeia auee i?eneaiu a O?ieoea-Na?aeaa iiianou?ue
ia/aeueieee e ii 10 /aeiaae ?yaeiauo. Oea?aaia Niouey iano?iai cai?aoeea
eniieiyoue yoi iiaaeaiea iiae no?aoii nia?oiie eacie, a oea?th Iao?o
ioi?aaeee a?aiioo n ecaauaieai, /oi ieeae iaeuecy eniieieoue aai
i?inueao.

27 aaaonoa i?eoea iiaay a?aiioa oea?y Iao?a — eaeoe anai iieeai e
O?ieoea. Aieueoay /anoue aiene iiaeiiaaeinue caeiiiiio oea?th, e
oea?aaia Niouea i?eoeinue i?eciaoue ii?aaeaiea. Iia naia ioi?aaeeanue a
O?ieoeeee iiianou?ue, ii a naea Aicaeaeaeaineia a? ano?aoeee iineaiieee
Iao?a n i?eeacii aa?iooueny a Iineao. Anei?a Niouey auea caeeth/aia a
Iiaiaeaae/ee iiianou?ue iiae no?iaee i?eniio?.

7 ieoya?y aue noaa/ai e iioii eaci?i O?aei? Oaeeiaeoue. Noa?oee a?ao,
oea?ue Eaai (eee Eiaii), ano?aoee Iao?a a Oniaineii niai?a e oaeoe/anee
ioaeae aio anth aeanoue. N 1689 aiaea ii ia i?eieiae o/anoey a
i?aaeaiee, oioy aei naiie nia?oe 29 yiaa?y (8 oaa?aey) 1696 aiaea
i?iaeieaeae auoue nioea??i. Iaei o/anoaiaae a i?aaeaiee iiia/aeo e nai
I?o?, i?aaeinoaaea iieiiii/ey ?iaeo Ia?uoeeiuo.

Ia/aei yeniainee ?innee. 1690—1699

I?ei?eoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a I a ia?aua aiaeu aaeeiiaeanoey auei
i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu n E?uiii. N XVI aaea Iineianeay ?onue aaea ai?ueao n
e?uineeie e iiaaeneeie oaoa?aie ca iaeaaeaiea iaoe?iuie i?ea?aaeiuie
caieyie *??iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae. A oiaea yoie ai?ueau ?inney
noieeioeanue n Iniaineie eiia?eae, iie?iaeoaeuenoaothuae oaoa?ai. Iaeiei
ec iii?iuo aiaiiuo ioieoia ia yoeo caieyo auea oo?aoeeay e?aiinoue Acia,
?aniieiaeaiiay i?e aiaaeaiee ?aee Aeii a Acianeia ii?a.

Ia?aue Acianeee iioiae, ia/aaoeeny aaniie 1695 aiaea, ieii/eeny
iaoaea/ii a naioya?a oiai aea aiaea ec-ca ionoonoaey oeioa e
iaaioiaiinoe ?onneie a?iee aeaenoaiaaoue a ioaeaeaiee io aac niaaaeaiey.
Iaeiaei oaea ceiie 1695—96 aiaeao aiaea ia/aeanue iiaeaioiaea e iiaiio
iioiaeo. A Ai?iiaaea ?acaa?ioeinue no?ieoaeuenoai a?aaiie ?onneie
oeioeeee. Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy auea iino?iaia oeioeeey ec ?aciuo noaeia ai
aeaaa n 36-iooa/iui ei?aaeai «Aiinoie I?o?». A iaa 1696 aiaea
40-ouny/iay ?onneay a?iey iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aeenneiona Oaeia
aiiaue inaaeeea Acia, oieueei ia yoio ?ac ?onneay oeioeeey aeiee?iaaea
e?aiinoue n ii?y. I?o? I i?eieiae o/anoea a inaaea a caaiee eaieoaia ia
aaea?a. Ia aeiaeeaeaynue ooo?ia, 19 ethey 1696 aiaea e?aiinoue
naeaeanue. Oae aue ioe?uo ia?aue auoiae ?innee a thaeiua ii?y.

?acoeueoaoii Acianeeo iioiaeia noae caoaao e?aiinoe Acia, ia/aei
no?ieoaeuenoaa ii?oa Oaaai?ia, aiciiaeiinoue iaiaaeaiey ia iieoino?ia
E?ui n ii?y, /oi cia/eoaeueii iaaciianeei thaeiua a?aieoeu ?innee.
Iaeiaei iieo/eoue auoiae e *??iiio ii?th /a?ac Ea?/aineee i?ieea Iao?o
ia oaeaeinue: ii inoaeny iiae eiio?ieai Iniaineie eiia?ee. Nee aeey
aieiu n Oo?oeeae, eae e iieiioeaiiiai ii?neiai oeioa o ?innee, iiea ia
auei.

Aeey oeiaine?iaaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa oeioa aaiaeyony iiaua aeaeu iiaeaoae:
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu auee iauaaeeiaiu a oae iacuaaaiua eoiiainoaa ii 10
oun. aeai?ia, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo ia naie aeaiueae aeieaeii auei
iino?ieoue ei?aaeue. A yoi a?aiy i?iyaeythony ia?aua i?eciaee
iaaeiaieuenoaa aeayoaeueiinoueth Iao?a. Aue ?ane?uo caaiai? Oeeeea?a,
iuoaaoaainy i?aaieciaaoue no?aeaoeeia ainnoaiea. Eaoii 1699 aiaea ia?aue
aieueoie ?onneee ei?aaeue «E?aiinoue» (46-iooa/iue) ioa?c ?onneiai iinea
a Eiinoaioeiiiieue aeey ia?aaiai?ia i ie?a. Naii nouanoaiaaiea oaeiai
ei?aaey neeiieei noeoaia e caeeth/aieth ie?a a ethea 1700 aiaea, eioi?ue
inoaaee ca ?inneae e?aiinoue Acia.

I?e no?ieoaeuenoaa oeioa e ?ai?aaiecaoeee a?iee I?o? aue auioaeaeai
iie?aoueny ia eiino?aiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Caaa?oea Acianeea iioiaeu, ii
?aoaao ioi?aaeoue ia iao/aiea ca a?aieoeo iieiaeuo aeai?yi, a anei?a e
nai ioi?aaeyaony a ia?aia iooaoanoaea ii Aa?iia.

Aaeeeia iinieuenoai

A ia?oa 1697 aiaea a Caiaaeioth Aa?iio /a?ac Eeoeyiaeeth auei ioi?aaeaii
Aaeeeia iinieuenoai, iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?iai auei iaeoe nithcieeia
i?ioea Iniaineie eiia?ee. Aaeeeeie iieiiii/iuie iineaie auee iacia/aiu
aaia?ae-aaeie?ae O. ss. Eaoi?o, aaia?ae O. A. Aieiaei, ia/aeueiee
Iinieueneiai i?eeaca I. A. Aicieoeui. Anaai a iinieuenoai aioei aei 250
/aeiaae, n?aaee eioi?uo iiae eiaiai o?yaeieea I?aia?aaeaineiai iieea
Iao?a Ieoaeeiaa iaoiaeeeny nai oea?ue I?o? I. Aia?aua ?onneee oea?ue
i?aaei?eiye iooaoanoaea ca i?aaeaeu naiaai ainoaea?noaa.

I?o? iinaoee ?eao, E?ieanaa?a, A?aiaeaiao?a, Aieeaiaeeth, Aiaeeth,
Aano?eth, aue iaia/ai aeceo a Aaiaoeeth e e iaia ?eineiio.

Iinieuenoai caaa?aiaaei a ?inneth ianeieueei nioai niaoeeaeenoia ii
ei?aaaeueiiio aeaeo, caeoieei aiaiiia e i?i/aa iai?oaeiaaiea.

E?iia ia?aaiai?ia, I?o? iiiai a?aiaie iinayoee eco/aieth
ei?aaeano?iaiey, aiaiiiai aeaea e ae?oaeo iaoe. I?o? ii?aaioae ieioieeii
ia aa?oyo Ino-Eiaeneie eiiiaiee, i?e o/anoee oea?y aue iino?iai ei?aaeue
«I?o? e Iaaae». A Aiaeee iinaoee eeoaeiue caaiae, a?naiae, ia?eaiaio,
Ienoi?aeneee oieaa?neoao, A?eiae/neoth iana?aaoi?eth e Iiiaoiue aeai?,
niio?eoaeai eioi?iai a oi a?aiy aue Enaae Iuethoii.

Aaeeeia iinieuenoai aeaaiie oeaee ia aeinoeaei: eiaeeoeeth i?ioea
Iniaineie eiia?ee nicaeaoue ia oaeaeinue ec-ca iiaeaioiaee ?yaea
aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa e Aieia ca eniaineia ianeaaenoai (1701—14 aiaeu).
Iaeiaei aeaaiaea?y yoie aieia neiaeeeenue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
ai?ueau ?innee ca Aaeoeeo. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iecioea ia?ai?eaioaoeey
aiaoiae iieeoeee ?innee n thaeiiai iai?aaeaiey ia naaa?iia.

Aica?auaiea. Ia?aeiiiua aeey ?innee 1698—1700 aiaeu

Iieiaeie I?o? a no?aeaoeeii eaooaia. O?aaiaio ec ea?oeiu Oo?i
no?aeaoeeie eacie. A. E. No?eeia, 1881

A ethea 1698 aiaea Aaeeeia iinieuenoai auei i?a?aaii ecaanoeai i iiaii
no?aeaoeeii iyoaaea a Iineaa, eioi?ue aue iiaeaaeai au? aei i?eauoey
Iao?a. Ii i?eauoee oea?y a Iineao (25 aaaonoa) ia/aeny ?icune e
aeiciaiea, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai yaeeanue aaeeiia?aiaiiay eaciue ieiei
800 no?aeueoeia (e?iia eaci?iiuo i?e iiaeaaeaiee aoioa), a aiineaaenoaee
au? ianeieueeeo ouny/ aieioue aei aaniu 1699 aiaea.

Oea?aaia Niouey auea iino?eaeaia a iiiaoeie iiae eiaiai Nonaiiu e
ioi?aaeaia a Iiaiaeaae/ee iiianou?ue, aaea i?iaaea inoaoie naiae aeecie.
Oa aea o/anoue iinoeaea e iaethaeioth aeaio Iao?a — Aaaeieeth Eiiooeio,
eioi?oth ianeeueii ioi?aaeee a Nocaeaeueneee iiianou?ue aeaaea aii?aee
aiea aeooiaainoaa.

Ca 15 ianyoeaa i?aauaaiey a Aa?iia Iao? iiiaia iiaeaeae e iiiaiio
iao/eeny. Iinea aica?auaiey oea?y ia/aeanue aai i?aia?aciaaoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay aia/aea ia eciaiaiea aiaoieo i?eciaeia,
ioee/athueo noa?ineaayineee oeeaae aeecie io caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai. N?aco
aea, i?e ia?aie ano?a/a, eeoeeenue ai?iae i?eaeeae?iiua aiy?a. A
neaaeothuai 1699 aiaeo I?o? i?yii ia ie?o iiaeieoeaie ia?acae
o?aaeeoeeiiioth ?onneoth aeieaiiieoth iaeaaeaeo naiiaieeia. Iiaue 7208-e
aiae ii ?onnei-aecaioeeneiio eaeaiaea?th («io nioai?aiey ie?a») noae
1700-i aiaeii ii theeaineiio eaeaiaea?th. I?o? aea aa?e e i?acaeiiaaiea
1 yiaa?y Iiaiai Aiaea, a ia a aeaiue inaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey, eae
i?acaeiiaaeinue ?aiueoa. A aai niaoeeaeueiii oeaca auei caienaii[3]:

«Iiaeeeo a ?innee n/eoatho Iiaue aiae ii-?aciiio, n naai /enea
ia?anoaoue aeo?eoue aieiau ethaeyi e n/eoaoue Iiaue aiae iianaianoii n
ia?aiai yiaa?y. A a ciae aeia?iai ia/eiaiey e aanaeuey iicae?aaeoue
ae?oa ae?oaa n Iiaui aiaeii, aeaeay a aeaeao aeaaiiieo/ey e a naiuea
aeaaiaeainoaey. A /anoue Iiaiai aiaea o/eiyoue oe?aoaiey ec aeae, aeaoae
caaaaeyoue, ia naieao eaoaoue n ai?. A ac?ineui ethaeyi iueyinoaa e
ii?aeiaiy ia o/eiyoue – ia oi ae?oaeo aeiae oaaoaao».

Naaa?iay aieia ni Oaaoeeae (1700—1721)

Iinea aica?auaiey ec Aaeeeiai iinieuenoaa oea?ue ia/ae aioiaeoueny e
aieia ni Oaaoeeae ca auoiae e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th. A 1699 aiaeo aue
nicaeai Naaa?iue nithc i?ioea oaaaeneiai ei?iey Ea?ea XII, a eioi?ue
iiieii ?innee aioee Aeaiey, Naeniiey e ?a/ue Iiniieeoay ai aeaaa n
naeniineei eo?oth?noii e iieueneei ei?ieai Aaaonoii II. Aeaeaeouae neeie
nithca auei no?aieaiea Aaaonoa II ioia?aoue o Oaaoeee Eeoeyiaeeth, ca
iiiiuue ii iaauae ?innee aica?ao caiaeue, i?aaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo
?onneei (Eiaa?iaieaiaeee e Ea?aeee).

Aeey anooieaiey a aieio ?innee iaiaoiaeeii auei caeeth/eoue ie? n
Iniaineie eiia?eae. Iinea aeinoeaeaiey ia?aie?ey n oo?aoeeei noeoaiii
n?ieii ia 30 eao ?inney 19 aaaonoa 1700 aiaea iauyaeea aieio Oaaoeee
iiae i?aaeeiaii ioiuaiey ca iaeaeo, ieacaiioth oea?th Iao?o a ?eaa[4].

Ieai Ea?ea XII caeeth/aeny a oii, /oiau iiiaeeii/ea ?acaeoue i?ioeaieeia
n iiiiuueth ?yaea auno?uo aeanaioiuo iia?aoeee. A nei?ii a?aiaie iinea
aiiaa?aee?iaee Eiiaiaaaaia Aeaiey 8 aaaonoa 1700 aiaea auoea ec aieiu,
au? aei anooieaiey a ia? ?innee. Iaoaea/ii caeii/eeenue iiiuoee Aaaonoa
II caoaaoeoue ?eao.

Ii?aaeaieai ?onneie a?iee caeii/eeanue iiiuoea caoaaoeoue e?aiinoue
Ia?ao. 30 iiya?y 1700 (ii iia. noeeth) Ea?e XII n 8500 nieaeaoaie
aoaeiaae eaaa?ue ?onneeo aiene e iieiinoueth ?aca?iiee 35-ouny/ioth
iaie?aiooth ?onneoth a?ieth. Nai I?o? I oaoae io aiene a Iiaai?iae ca 2
aeiy aei oiai. Iin/eoaa, /oi ?inney aeinoaoi/ii ineaaeaia, Ea?e XII oo?e
a Eeaiieth, /oiau iai?aaeoue ana neeu i?ioea iniiaiiai, eae aio
eacaeinue, i?ioeaieea — Aaaonoa II.

Iaeiaei I?o?, ianei?i ?ai?aaieciaaa a?ieth ii aa?iiaeneiio ia?acoeo,
aiciaiiaee aiaaua aeaenoaey. Oaea a 1702 aiaeo (11 (22) ieoya?y) ?inney
caoaaoeea e?aiinoue Iioaao?a (ia?aeiaiiaaia a Oeennaeueao?a), a aaniie
1703 aiaea — e?aiinoue Ieaioaioe a onouea Iaau. Caeanue 16 iay 1703
aiaea ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, a ia ino?iaa Eioeei
?acianoeeanue aaca ?onneiai oeioa — e?aiinoue E?iioeio (aiineaaenoaee
E?iiooaaeo). Auoiae e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th aue i?iaeo. A 1704 aiaeo auee
acyou Ia?aa, Aea?io, ?inney i?i/ii cae?aieeanue a Ainoi/iie I?eaaeoeea.
Ia i?aaeeiaeaiea caeeth/eoue ie? I?o? I iieo/ee ioeac.

Iinea ieceiaeaiey Aaaonoa II a 1706 e caiaiu aai iieueneei ei?ie?i
Noaieneaaii Eaueineei Ea?e XII ia/ae ?ieiaie aeey iaai iioiae ia
?inneth. Caoaaoea Ieine e Iiaee?a, ei?ieue ia ?aoeeny eaeoe ia Niieaine.
Ca?o/eaoenue iiaeaea?aeeie oe?aeineiai aaoiaia Eaaia Iacaiu, Ea?e
aeaeioe aienea ia tha ec i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo niia?aaeaiee e n iaia?aieai
oneeeoue a?ieth noi?iiieeaie Iacaiu. 28 naioya?y 1708 aiaea o aea?aaie
Eaniie oaaaeneee ei?ion Eaaaiaaoioa, oaaeoee ia niaaeeiaiea n a?ieae
Ea?ea XII ec Eeoeyiaeee, aue ?acaeo ?onneie a?ieae iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
Iaioeeiaa. Oaaaeneay a?iey eeoeeanue iiaee?aieaiey e iaica n aiaiiuie
i?eianaie. Iicaeiaa I?o? ioia/ae aiaeiaueio yoie aeoau eae iiai?ioiue
iiiaio a Naaa?iie aieia.

A Iieoaaneie aeoaa 27 ethiy 1709 aiaea a?iey Ea?ea XII auea iaaieiao
?aca?iieaia, oaaaeneee ei?ieue n ai?noeie nieaeao aaaeae a oo?aoeeea
aeaaeaiey.

A 1710 aiaeo a aieio aiaoaeanue Oo?oeey. Iinea ii?aaeaiey a I?ooneii
iioiaea 1711 aiaea ?inney aa?ioea Acia Oo?oeee e ?ac?ooeea Oaaai?ia, ii
ca n/?o yoiai oaeaeinue caeeth/eoue i/a?aaeiia ia?aie?ea n oo?eaie.

I?o? niiaa nin?aaeioi/eeny ia aieia n oaaaeaie, a 1713 aiaeo oaaaeu
iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea a Iiia?aiee e eeoeeenue anao aeaaeaiee a
eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iia. Iaeiaei aeaaiaea?y ainiiaenoao Oaaoeee ia ii?a
Naaa?iay aieia caoyioeanue. Aaeoeeneee oeio oieueei nicaeaaaeny ?inneae,
ii noiae iaea?aeaoue ia?aoth iiaaaeo a Aaiaooneii n?aaeaiee eaoii 1714
aiaea. A 1716 I?o? aicaeaaee iauaaeei?iiue oeio ec ?innee, Aiaeee,
Aeaiee e Aieeaiaeee, ii ec-ca ?aciiaeanee a noaia nithcieeia ia
oaeaeinue i?aaieciaaoue iaiaaeaiea ia Oaaoeeth.

Ii ia?a oe?aieaiey Aaeoeeneiai oeioa ?innee Oaaoeey ii/oanoaiaaea
iianiinoue aoi?aeaiey ia naie caiee. A 1718 aiaeo ia/aeenue ie?iua
ia?aaiai?u, i?a?aaiiua aiacaiiie aeaaeueth Ea?ea XII. Oaaaeneay ei?ieaaa
Oeue?eea Yeaiii?a aiciaiiaeea aieio, iaaeaynue ia iiiiuue Aiaeee.
?aci?eoaeueiua aeanaiou ?onneeo a 1720 ia oaaaeneia iiaa?aaeuea
iiaeoieeioee Oaaoeeth e aiciaiiaeaieth ia?aaiai?ia. 30 aaaonoa (10
naioya?y) 1721 aiaea[5] iaaeaeo ?inneae e Oaaoeeae aue caeeth/ai
Ieooaaeoneee ie?, caaa?oeaoee 21-eaoithth aieio. ?inney iieo/eea auoiae
a Aaeoeeneia ii?a, i?eniaaeeieea oa??eoi?eth Eia?ee, /anoue Ea?aeee,
Ynoeyiaeeth e Eeoeyiaeeth. ?inney noaea aaeeeie aa?iiaeneie aea?aeaaie,
a iciaiaiiaaiea /aai 22 ieoya?y (2 iiya?y) 1721 aiaea I?o? ii i?ioaieth
naiaoi?ia i?eiye oeooe Iooea Ioa/anoaa, Eiia?aoi?a Ana?inneeneiai, Iao?a
Aaeeeiai:

… iiiuneeee iu, n i?eeeaaeo ae?aaieo, iniaeeai ae ?eineiai e
a?a/aneiai ia?iaeia, aea?ciiaaiea aini?eyoue, a aeaiue oi?aeanoaa e
iauyaeaiey caeeth/aiiiai iiuie a. a. o?oaeaie anae ?innee oieue neaaiiai
e aeaaiiieo/iiai ie?a, ii i?i/eoaiee o?aeoaoa iiiai a oea?eae, ii iaoai
anaiiaeaeaiiaeoai aeaaiaea?aiee ca enoaaeaoaenoaiaaiea iiiai ie?a,
i?eianoue naia i?ioaiea e aai ioaee/ii, aeaau ecaieee i?eiyoue io ian,
yei io aa?iuo naieo iiaeaeaiiuo, ai aeaaiaea?aiea oeooe Iooea
Ioa/anoaey, Eiia?aoi?a Ana?inneeneiai, Iao?a Aaeeeiai, eae iaueiiaaiii
io ?eineiai Naiaoa ca ciaoiua aeaea eiia?aoi?ia eo oaeea oeooeu ioaee/ii
ei a aea? i?eiioaiu e ia noaooao aeey iaiyoe a aa/iua ?iaeu iiaeienaiu.

— I?ioaiea naiaoi?ia oea?th Iao?o I. 22 ieoya?y 1721 aiaea

—?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia 1710—1713

Iinea ii?aaeaiey a Iieoaaneie aeoaa oaaaeneee ei?ieue Ea?e XII oe?ueny
ai aeaaeaieyo Iniaineie eiia?ee, ai?iaea Aaiaea?u. I?o? I caeeth/ee
aeiaiai? n Oo?oeeae i auaeai?aiee Ea?ea XII n oo?aoeeie oa??eoi?ee,
iaeiaei caoai oaaaeneiio ei?ieth iicaieeee inoaoueny e nicaeaaaoue
oa?ico thaeiie a?aieoea ?innee i?e iiiiue /anoe oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa e
e?uineeo oaoa?. Aeiaeaaynue aunueee Ea?ea XII, I?o? I noae oa?iaeaoue
aieiie Oo?oeee, ii a ioaao 20 iiya?y 1710 aiaea noeoai nai iauyaee aieio
?innee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiie i?e/eiie aieiu yaeeenue caoaao ?onneeie
aieneaie Aciaa a 1696 aiaeo e iiyaeaiea ?onneiai oeioa a Acianeii ii?a.

Aieia ni noi?iiu Oo?oeee ia?aie/eeanue ceiiei iaaaaii e?uineeo oaoa?,
aannaeia Iniaineie eiia?ee, ia Oe?aeio. ?inney iiaaea aieio ia 3 o?iioa:
aienea niaa?oeee iioiaeu i?ioea oaoa? ia E?ui e ia Eoaaiue, nai I?o? I,
iie?aynue ia iiiiuue i?aaeoaeae Aaeaoee e Iieaeaaee, ?aoee niaa?oeoue
aeoaieee iioiae aei Aeoiay, aaea iaaeayeny iiaeiyoue ia ai?ueao n
oo?eaie o?enoeaineeo aannaeia Iooiiaineie eiia?ee.

6 (17) ia?oa 1711 aiaea I?o? I auaoae e aieneai ec Iineau n aa?iie
iiae?oaie Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaaaiie, eioi?oth iiaaeae n/eoaoue naiae aeaiie
e oea?eoeae (au? aei ioeoeeaeueiiai aai/aiey, i?iecioaaeoaai a 1712).
A?iey ia?aoea a?aieoeo Iieaeaaee a ethia 1711, ii oaea 20 ethey 1711
aiaea 190 ouny/ oo?ie e e?uineeo oaoa? i?eaeaee 38 ouny/ioth ?onneoth
a?ieth e i?aaiio aa?aao ?aee I?oo, iieiinoueth ie?oaeea a?. A eacaeinue
au aacauoiaeiie neooaoeee Iao?o oaeaeinue caeeth/eoue n aaeeeei aece?ai
I?ooneee ie?iue aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio a?iey e nai oea?ue ecaaaeaee
ieaiaiey, ii acaiai ?inney ioaeaea Acia Oo?oeee e iioa?yea auoiae e
Acianeiio ii?th.

N aaaonoa 1711 aiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee ia aaeinue, oioy a i?ioeanna
niaeaniaaiey ieii/aoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a Oo?oeey ianeieueei ?ac oa?iaeaea
aiciaiiaeoue aieio. Oieueei a ethia 1713 aue caeeth/?i
Aiae?eaiiiieueneee ie?iue aeiaiai?, eioi?ue a oeaeii iiaeoaa?aeee
oneiaey I?ooneiai niaeaoaiey. ?inney iieo/eea aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaeieaeaoue Naaa?ioth aieio aac 2-ai o?iioa, oioy e iioa?yea
caaiaaaiey Acianeeo iioiaeia.

Aeaeaeaiea ?innee ia ainoie

Yeniainey ?innee ia ainoie i?e Iao?a I ia i?ae?auaeanue. A 1714 aiaeo
yeniaaeeoeey Aooaieueoea e thao io E?ouoa iniiaaea Iine,
Onoue-Eaiaiiai?ne, Naieiaeaoeine e ae?oaea e?aiinoe. A 1716—17 aiaeao a
N?aaeithth Aceth aue ioi?aaeai io?yae Aaeiae/a-*a?eanneiai n oeaeueth
neeiieoue oeaeineiai oaia e iiaeaeainoao e ?acaaaeaoue iooue a Eiaeeth.
Iaeiaei ?onneee io?yae aue oie/oiaeai oaiii. A i?aaeaiea Iao?a I auea
i?eniaaeeiaia e ?innee Eai/aoea. Iao? caieaie?iaae yeniaaeeoeeth /a?ac
Oeoee Ieaai a Aia?eeo (niae?aynue iniiaaoue oai ?onneea eieiiee), ii
inouanoaeoue caaeoiaiiia ia oniae.

Eanieeneee iioiae 1722—1723

Iaeaieaa e?oiiui aiaoiaiieeoe/aneei ia?ii?eyoeai Iao?a iinea Naaa?iie
aieiu aue Eanieeneee (eee Ia?neaeneee) iioiae a 1722—1724 aiaeao.
Oneiaey aeey iioiaea nicaeaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa ia?neaeneeo
iaaeaeioniaeoe e oaeoe/aneiai ?aniaaea iaeiaaea iiuiiai ainoaea?noaa.

18 ethiy 1722, iinea ia?auaiey ca iiiiuueth nuia ia?neaeneiai oaoa
Oioian-ie?cu, ec Ano?aoaie ii Eanieth ioieue 22-ouny/iue ?onneee io?yae.
A aaaonoa naeaeny Aea?aaio, iinea /aai ?onneea ec-ca i?iaeai n
i?iaeaioii aa?ioeenue a Ano?aoaiue. A neaaeothuai 1723 aue caai?aai
caiaaeiue aa?aa Eanieeneiai ii?y n e?aiinoyie Aaeo, ?aooii, Ano?aaaaeii.
Aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea auei inoaiiaeaii oa?icie anooieaiey a aieio
Iniaineie eiia?ee, eioi?ay caoaaouaaea caiaaeiia e oeaio?aeueiia
Caeaaeacuea.

12 naioya?y 1723 aiaea aue caeeth/?i Iaoa?ao?aneee aeiaiai? n Ia?neae,
ii eioi?iio a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee aeeth/aeinue caiaaeiia e thaeiia
iiaa?aaeuea Eaniey n ai?iaeaie Aea?aaio e Aaeo e i?iaeioeeyie Aeeyi,
Iacaiaea?ai e Ano?aaaae. ?inney e Ia?ney oaeaea caeeth/eee
iai?iieoaeueiue nithc i?ioea Oo?oeee, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, ieacaeny
iaaeaenoaothuei.

Ii Noaiaoeueneiio (Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiio) aeiaiai?o io 12 ethiy 1724
aiaea Oo?oeey i?eciaaaea ana i?eia?aoaiey ?innee a caiaaeiie /anoe
Eanieeneiai ii?y e ioeacuaaeanue io aeaeueiaeoeo i?eoycaiee ia Ia?neth.
Noue a?aieoe iaaeaeo ?inneae, Oo?oeeae e Ia?neae aue onoaiiaeai ia ianoa
neeyiey ?ae A?aen e Eo?a. A Ia?nee niooa i?iaeieaeaeanue, e Oo?oeey
inii?eea iieiaeaiey Noaiaoeueneiai aeiaiai?a i?aaeaea, /ai a?aieoea auea
oi/ii onoaiiaeaia.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi anei?a iinea nia?oe Iao?a yoe aeaaeaiey auee
iioa?yiu a nayce n aunieeie iioa?yie aa?ieciiia io aieaciae, e, ia
acaeyae oea?eoeu Aiiu Eiaiiiaiu, aania?niaeoeaiinoueth ?aaeiia.

?inneeneay eiia?ey i?e Iao?a I

Iinea iiaaaeu a Naaa?iie aieia e caeeth/aiey Ieooaaeoneiai ie?a a
naioya?a 1721 aiaea Naiao e Neiiae ?aoeee i?aiiaeianoe Iao?o oeooe
eiia?aoi?a ana?inneeneiai ni neaaeothuae oi?ioee?iaeie: «eae iaueiiaaiii
io ?eineiai naiaoa ca ciaoiua aeaea eiia?aoi?ia eo oaeea oeooeu ioaee/ii
ei a aea? i?eiioaiu e ia noaoooao aeey iaiyoe a aa/iua ?iaeu
iiaeienuaaiu.»[6]

22 ieoya?y (2 iiya?y) 1721 aiaea I?o? I i?eiye oeooe, ia i?inoi
ii/?oiue, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i iiaie ?iee ?innee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeaeao. I?onney e Aieeaiaeey iaiaaeeaiii i?eciaee iiaue oeooe ?onneiai
oea?y, Oaaoeey a 1723, Oo?oeey a 1739, Aiaeey e Aano?ey a 1742, O?aioeey
e Eniaiey a 1745 e, iaeiiaoe, Iieueoa a 1764 aiaeo. [6]

Nae?aoa?ue i?onneiai iinieuenoaa a ?innee a 1717—33 aa., E.-A.
Oieea?iaeo, ii i?inueaa Aieueoa?a, ?aaioaaoaai iaae enoi?eae
oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a, iaienae ainiiieiaiey i ?innee i?e Iao?a. Oieea?iaeo
iiiuoaeny ioeaieoue /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?inneeneie eiia?ee e eiioeo
oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a I. Ii aai naaaeaieyi eiee/anoai eeoe iiaeaoiiai
nineiaey ninoaaeyei 5 ieeeeiiia 198 ouny/ /aeiaae, ioeoaea /enei
e?anoueyi e ai?iaeai, aeeth/ay eeoe aeaineiai iiea, ioeaieaaeinue
i?eia?ii a 10 iei. Iiiai aeoo auei ooaaii iiiaueeaie, iiaoi?iay ?aaecey
oaaee/eea /enei iiaeaoiuo aeoo aei ii/oe 6 iei /aeiaae. ?onneeo aeai?yi
n naiaenoaaie n/eoaeinue aei 500 oun.; /eiiaieeia aei 200 oun. e
aeooiaiuo eeoe n naiueyie aei 300 oun. aeoo.[7]

AEeoaee iiei?aiiuo iaeanoae, ia ninoiyuea iiae iiaieiaiith iiaeaoueth,
ninoaaeyee ii ioeaiea io 500 aei 600 oun. aeoo. Eacaeia n naiaenoaaie ia
Oe?aeia, ia Aeiio e sseea e a iia?aie/iuo ai?iaeao n/eoaeinue io 700 aei
800 oun. aeoo. *eneaiiinoue neae?neeo ia?iaeia auea iaecaanoia, ii
Oieea?iaeo iieiaeee a? aei ieeeeiia /aeiaae.

Oaeei ia?acii, ianaeaiea ?inneeneie eiia?ee ninoaaeyei aei 15 ieeeeiiia
iiaeaeaiiuo e onooiaei a Aa?iia ii /eneaiiinoe oieueei O?aioeee (ie. 20
iei).

?aoi?iu Iao?a I

Anth ainoaea?noaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue Iao?a oneiaii iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue
ia aeaa ia?eiaea: 1695—1715 aiaeu e 1715—1725.

Iniaaiiinoueth ia?aiai yoaia auee niaoea e ia anaaaea i?iaeoiaiiue
oa?aeoa?, /oi iauyniyeinue aaaeaieai Naaa?iie aieiu. ?aoi?iu auee
iaoeaeaiu i?aaeaea anaai ia nai? n?aaenoa aeey aaaeaiey Naaa?iie aieiu,
i?iaiaeeeenue ianeeuenoaaiiui iaoiaeii e /anoi ia i?eaiaeeee e
aeaeaaiiio ?acoeueoaoo. E?iia ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoi?i ia ia?aii yoaia
i?iaiaeeeenue iaoe?iua ?aoi?iu eciaiaiey eoeueoo?iiai oeeaaea aeecie. A
1704 aiaeo Iao?ii auea i?iaaaeaia aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?ie iniiaiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae noaea ia aeaiueaa, a eiiaeea. Iia
ioiuia noaea ?aaiyoueny ia 1/2 aeaiueae, a 2 aeaiueaai, a neiai yoi
aia?aua iiyaeeinue ia iiiaoao. Oiaaea aea aue ioiaiai e ia?aciaiiue
?oaeue, auaoee n XV aaea oneiaiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae,
eniieueciaaaoaeny a ea/anoaa yoaeiia i?e iaiaiiuo iia?aoeeyo[1].

Ai aoi?ii ia?eiaea ?aoi?iu auee aieaa ieaiiia?iuie e iai?aaeaiiuie ia
aioo?aiiaa iaono?ienoai ainoaea?noaa.

A oeaeii ?aoi?iu Iao?a auee iai?aaeaiu ia oe?aieaiea ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaa e i?eiauaiea i?aayuaai neiy e aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a n
iaeiia?aiaiiui oneeaieai aaniethoiie iiia?oee. E eiioeo i?aaeaiey Iao?a
Aaeeeiai auea nicaeaia iiuiay ?inneeneay eiia?ey, ai aeaaa eioi?ie
iaoiaeeeny eiia?aoi?, iaeaaeaaoee aaniethoiie aeanoueth. A oiaea ?aoi?i
auei i?aiaeieaii oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia ionoaaaiea ?innee io aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa, caai?aai auoiae e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th, i?iaaaeaiu
i?aia?aciaaiey ai anao noa?ao aeecie ?inneeneiai iauanoaa. A oi aea
a?aiy, ia?iaeiua neeu auee e?aeia enoiuaiu, ?ac?inny ath?ie?aoe/aneee
aiia?ao, auee nicaeaiu i?aaeiinueee (Oeac i i?anoieiianeaaeee) aeey
e?ecena aa?oiaiie aeanoe, i?eaaaeoea e yiioa «aeai?oeiauo ia?aai?ioia».

Aiaoiee iaeee Iao?a

Oaea ia o?aoee aeaiue, eiaaea oea??i Aeaenaai Ieoaeeiae/ai auei aaeaii n
oea?aae/a niyoue «ia?o», auynieeinue, /oi ieaaeaiaoe aeiaieueii e?oiiue
— 11 aa?oeia (48,9 ni) a aeeeio e 3 aa?oea (13,3 ni) a oe?eio[enoi/iee
ia oeacai 52 aeiy].

Au? ?aa?ieii I?o? ii?aaeae ethaeae e?anioie e aeeainoueth naiaai eeoea e
oeao?u. Ec-ca naiaai aunieiai ?inoa — 200 ni (6 oooia 7 aetheiia) — ii
auaeaaaeny a oieia ia oeaeoth aieiao. A oi aea a?aiy i?e oaeii aieueoii
?inoa, ii iinee iaoaue 38 ?acia?a.

Ie?oaeathueo ioaaee i/aiue neeueiua noaei?iaeiua iiae??aeaaiey eeoea,
iniaaiii a ieioou aiaaa e aeooaaiiai aieiaiey. Yoe eiiaoeueneaiua
aeaeaeaiey nia?aiaiieee i?eienuaaee aeaoneiio iio?ynaieth ai a?aiy
no?aeaoeeeo aoioia eee iiiuoea io?aaeaiey oea?aaiie Nioueae.

Ai a?aiy aeceoa a Aa?iio I?o? I ioaae ooii/aiiuo a?enoie?aoia a?oaiaaoie
iaia?ie iauaiey e i?inoioie i?aaia. Aaiiiaa?neay eo?oth?noeia Nioey
ienaea i Iao?a oae:

«Oea?ue aunie ?inoii, o iaai i?ae?aniua /a?ou eeoea e aeaai?iaeiay
inaiea; ii iaeaaeaao aieueoie aeeainoueth oia, ioaaou o iaai auno?u e
aa?iu. Ii i?e anao aeinoieinoaao, eioi?uie iaea?eea aai i?e?iaea,
aeaeaoaeueii auei au, /oiau a i?i auei iiiaiueoa a?oainoe. Yoi
ainoaea?ue i/aiue oi?ioee e aianoa i/aiue aeo?iie… Anee au ii iieo/ee
eo/oaa ainieoaiea, oi ec iaai auoae au /aeiaae niaa?oaiiue, iioiio /oi o
iaai iiiai aeinoieinoa e iaiaueiiaaiiue oi.» [8]

Iicaeiaa, oaea a 1717 aiaeo, ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey Iao?a a Ia?eaea,
aa?oeia Nai-Neiii, oae caienae nai? aia/aoeaiea i Iao?a:

«Ii aue i/aiue aunie ?inoii, oi?ioi neiaeai, aeiaieueii ooaeiuaa, n
e?oaeiaaoui eeoeii, aunieei eaii, i?ae?aniuie a?iayie; iin o iaai
aeiaieueii ei?ioie, ii ia neeoeii, e e eiioeo ianeieueei oieno; aoau
aeiaieueii e?oiiua, oeaao eeoea e?aniiaaoue e nioaeue, i?ae?aniua /??iua
aeaca, aieueoea, aeeaua, i?iieoeaoaeueiua, e?aneaie oi?iu; acaeyae
aaee/anoaaiiue e i?eaaoeeaue, eiaaea ii iaaethaeaao ca niaie e
naea?aeeaaaony, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa no?iaue e aeeeee, n noaei?iaaie ia
eeoea, eioi?ua iiaoi?ythony ia /anoi, ii eneaaeatho e aeaca e an? eeoei,
ioaay anao i?enoonoaothueo. Noaei?iaa aeeeeanue iaueiiaaiii iaeii
iaiiaaiea, e oiaaea acaeyae aai aeaeaeny no?aiiui, eae au ?anoa?yiiui,
iioii an? nae/an aea i?eieiaei iau/iue aeae. Any ia?oaeiinoue aai
aueacuaaea oi, ?aciuoeaiea e aaee/ea e ia eeoaia auea i?aeanoe.» [8]

Naiuey Iao?a I

A ia?aue ?ac I?o? aeaieeny a 17 eao ii ianoiyieth iaoa?e ia Aaaeieee
Eiiooeiie a 1689 aiaeo. Nionoy aiae o ieo ?iaeeeny oea?aae/ Aeaenae,
eioi?ue ainieouaaeny i?e iaoa?e a iiiyoeyo, /oaeaeuo ?aoi?iaoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a. Inoaeueiua aeaoe Iao?a e Aaaeieee oia?ee anei?a
iinea ?iaeaeaiey. A 1698 aiaeo Aaaeieey Eiiooeia ieacaeanue caiaoaia a
no?aeaoeeii aoioa, oeaeueth eioi?iai auei aicaaaeaiea ia oea?noai a?
nuia, e auea nineaia a iiianou?ue.

Aeaenae Iao?iae/, ioeoeeaeueiue ianeaaeiee ?inneeneiai i?anoiea,
inoaeaeae i?aia?aciaaiey naiaai iooea, a a eiioea eiioeia aaaeae a Aaio
iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoai ?iaenoaaiieea naiae aeaiu (Oa?eioou
A?aoioaaeaneie) eiia?aoi?a Ea?ea VI, aaea eneae iiaeaea?aeee a
iecaa?aeaiee Iao?a I. A 1717 aiaeo aacaieueiiai oea?aae/a oaiai?eee
aa?iooueny aeiiie, aaea ii aue acyo iiae no?aaeo. 24 ethiy (5 ethey)
1718 aiaea Aa?oiaiue noae, ninoiyaoee ec 127 /aeiaae, auian nia?oiue
i?eaiai? Aeaenath, i?eciaa aai aeiiaiui a ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia.

26 ethiy (7 ethey) 1718 aiaea oea?aae/, ia aeiaeaeaaoenue i?eaaaeaiey
i?eaiai?a a eniieiaiea, oia? a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe. Enoeiiay
i?e/eia nia?oe oea?aae/a Aeaenay aei neo ii? aeinoiaa?ii ia onoaiiaeaia.

Io a?aea n i?eioeannie Oa?eiooie A?aoioaaeaneie oea?aae/ Aeaenae inoaaee
nuia Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a (1715—1730), noaaoaai a 1727 aiaeo eiia?aoi?ii
Iao?ii II, e aei/ue Iaoaeueth Aeaenaaaio (1714—1728).

A 1703 aiaeo I?o? I ano?aoee 19-eaoithth Eaoa?eio, a aeaae/anoaa Ia?oo
Neaa?iineoth, caoaa/aiioth ?onneeie aieneaie eae aiaiioth aeiau/o i?e
acyoee oaaaeneie e?aiinoe Ia?eaiao?a. I?o? caa?ae auaooth neoaeaieo ec
i?eaaeoeeneeo e?anoueyi o Aeaenaiae?a Iaioeeiaa e naeaeae a? naiae
ethaiaieoeae. A 1704 Eaoa?eia ?iaeaao ia?aaioea, iacaaiiiai Iao?ii, a
neaaeothuai aiaeo Iaaea (anei?a iaa oia?ee). Au? aei caeiiiiai
caioaeanoaa ca Iao?ii Eaoa?eia ?iaeeea aei/a?ae Aiio (1708) e Aeecaaaoo
(1709). Aeecaaaoa iicaea noaea eiia?ao?eoeae (i?aaeea a 1741—1762), a
i?yiua iioiiee Aiiu i?aaeee ?inneae iinea nia?oe Aeecaaaou, n 1762 ii
1917.

Eaoa?eia iaeia iiaea niaeaaeaoue n oea??i a aai i?eiaaeeao aiaaa, oiaea
eaneie e oa?iaeeaui aieiaieai oniieieoue i?enooiu noaei?iaeiie aieiaiie
aiee Iao?a. Caoe aieina Eaoa?eiu oniieaeaae Iao?a; iioii iia:

«naaeaea aai e a?aea, eaneay, ca aieiao, eioi?oth neaaea ii/anuaaea. Yoi
i?iecaiaeeei ia iaai iaae/aneia aeaenoaea, ii canuiae a ianeieueei
ieioo. *oia ia ia?ooaoue aai nia, iia aea?aeaea aai aieiao ia naiae
a?oaee, neaey iaiiaeaeaeii a i?iaeieaeaiea aeaoo eee o?ao /ania. Iinea
oiai ii i?inuiaeny niaa?oaiii naaaeei e aiae?ui.»[9]

Ioeoeeaeueiia aai/aiea Iao?a I n Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaaaiie ninoiyeinue 19
oaa?aey 1712, anei?a iinea aica?auaiey ec I?ooneiai iioiaea. A 1724 I?o?
ei?iiiaae Aeaoa?eio eae eiia?ao?eoeo e nii?aaeoaeueieoeo. Aeaoa?eia
Aeaenaaaia ?iaeeea ioaeo 11 aeaoae, ii aieueoeinoai ec ieo oia?ei a
aeaonoaa, e?iia Aiiu e Aeecaaaou.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a a yiaa?a 1725 aiaea Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia i?e
iiaeaea?aeea neoaeeaie ciaoe e aaa?aeaeneeo iieeia noaea ia?aie i?aayuae
?inneeneie eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie I, ii i?aaeea iaaeieai e neii/aeanue
a 1727 aiaeo, inaiaiaeea i?anoie aeey oea?aae/a Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a.
Ia?aay aeaia Iao?a Aaeeeiai, Aaaeieey Eiiooeia, ia?aaeeea naith
n/anoeeaoth niia?ieoeo e oia?ea a 1731 aiaeo, oniaa oaeaeaoue
oea?noaiaaiea naiaai aioea Iao?a Aeaenaaae/a.

I?anoieiianeaaeea

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai anoae aii?in i
i?anoieiianeaaeee: eoi caei?o o?ii iinea nia?oe eiia?aoi?a. Iauyaeaiiue
i?e io?a/aiee Aeaenay Iao?iae/a ianeaaeieeii i?anoiea oea?aae/ I?o?
Iao?iae/ (1715—1719, nui io Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu) neii/aeny a aeaonoaa.
I?yiui ianeaaeieeii noaiiaeeny nui oea?aae/a Aeaenay e i?eioeannu
Oa?eioou, I?o? Aeaenaaae/. Iaeiaei, anee neaaeiaaoue iau/ath e iauyaeoue
ianeaaeieeii nuia iiaeueiiai Aeaenay, oi aicaoaeaeaeenue iaaeaaeaeu
i?ioeaieeia ?aoi?i aa?iooue noa?ua ii?yaeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu
aicieeaee iianaiey o ni?aoieeia Iao?a, eioi?ua aieiniaaee ca eaciue
Aeaenay.

5 (16) oaa?aey 1722 aiaea I?o? ecaeae Oeac i i?anoieiianeaaeee (ioiai?i
Iaaeii I nionoy 75 eao), a eioi?ii ioiaiye ae?aaiee iau/ae ia?aaeaaaoue
i?anoie i?yiui iioiieai ii ioaeneie eeiee, ii aeiioneae iacia/aiea
ianeaaeieeii ethaiai aeinoieiiai /aeiaaea ii aiea iiia?oa. Oaeno yoiai
aaaeiaeoaai oeaca iainiiauaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiiie ia?u:

… /aai aeey aeaai?acnoaeeee nae onoaau o/eieoue, aeaau n?a auei anaaaea
au aie? i?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai ainoaea?y, eiio iiue oi/aou, oiio e
ii?aae?eeoue iane?aenoai, e ii?aae?eaiiiio, aeaey eaeia iaiio?aanoai,
iaee ioi?ieou, aeaau ae?oe e iioiiee ia aiaee au oaeoth ceinoue, eaeu
auoa ienaii, ei?y n?th ocaeo ia naa?. [8]

Oeac aue ianoieueei iaiau/ai aeey ?onneiai iauanoaa, /oi i?eoeinue aai
?acuyniyoue e o?aaiaaoue niaeaney io iiaeaeaiiuo iiae i?enyaie.
?aneieueieee aiciouaeenue: «Acye ca naay oaaaeeo, e oa oea?eoea aeaoae
ia ?iaeeo, e ii naeaeae oeac, /oia ca i?aaeaoaeouaai ainoaea?y e?ano
oeaeiaaoue, e e?ano oeaeotho ca oaaaea. Iaeiieiia/ii noaiao
oea?noaiaaoue oaaae»[10].

I?o? Aeaenaaae/ aue ioiaeaeioo io i?anoiea, ii aii?in i
i?anoieiianeaaeee inoaaaeny ioe?uoui. Iiiaea iieaaaee, /oi i?anoie
caei?o eee Aiia, eee Aeecaaaoa, aei/a?e Iao?a io a?aea n Aeaoa?eiie
Aeaenaaaiie. Ii a 1724 aiaeo Aiia ioeacaeanue io eaeeo-eeai i?eoycaiee
ia ?inneeneee i?anoie iinea oiai, eae ia?o/eeanue n aa?oeiaii
Aieooeineei Ea?eii-O?eae?eoii. Anee au i?anoie caiyea ieaaeoay aei/ue
Aeecaaaoa, eioi?ie auei 15 eao (a 1724), oi aianoi ia? i?aaee au aa?oeia
Aieooeineee, eioi?ue ia/oae n iiiiuueth ?innee aa?iooue caiee,
caai?aaiiua aeao/aiaie.

Ia ono?aeaaee Iao?a e aai ieaiyiieoeu, aei/a?e noa?oaai a?aoa Eaaia:
Aiia Eo?eyiaeneay, Aeaoa?eia Iaeeaiao?aneay e I?aneiauey Eiaiiiaia.

Inoaaaeny oieueei iaeei eaiaeeaeao — aeaia Iao?a, eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia
Aeaenaaaia. Iao?o ioaeai aue /aeiaae, eioi?ue au i?iaeieaeee ia/aoia ei
aeaei, aai i?aia?aciaaiey. 7 iay 1724 I?o? ei?iiiaae Aeaoa?eio
eiia?ao?eoeae e nii?aaeoaeueieoeae, ii nionoy ei?ioeia a?aiy caiiaeic?ee
a noi?oaeaneie eciaia (aeaei Iiina). Oeac 1722 aiaea ia?ooee i?eau/iue
oeeaae i?anoieiianeaaeey, ianeaaeieea aea I?o? ia?aae nia?oueth
iacia/eoue ia oniae.

A aieueoeinoaa eiea ii enoi?ee, a oii /enea e a iaeioi?uo iiioey?iuo
eioa?iao-?ano?nao, oiiieiathony, eae i?aaeei, iaiueoaa eiee/anoai aeaoae
Iao?a I. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iie aeinoeaee aic?anoa c?aeinoe e
inoaaeee ii?aaeaeaiiue neaae a enoi?ee, a ioee/ea io inoaeueiuo aeaoae,
eioi?ua oia?ee a ?aiiai aeaonoaa. Ii ae?oaei enoi/ieeai, o Iao?a I auei
14 ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo e oiiieiaaiuo ia aaiaaeiae/aneii
aea?aaa aeeianoee ?iiaiiauo aeaoae [11].

Nia?oue Iao?a

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey I?o? neeueii aieae
(i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, eaiaiiay aieaciue ii/ae, o?aiey). Eaoii 1724 aiaea
aai aieaciue oneeeeanue, a naioya?a ii ii/oanoaiaae naay eaa/a, ii /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?enooiu oneeeeenue. A ieoya?a I?o? ioi?aaeeny
iniao?eaaoue Eaaeiaeneee eaiae, aii?aee niaaoai naiaai eaea-iaaeeea
Aethiaio?inoa. N Ieiioea I?o? i?iaoae a Noa?oth ?onno e a iiya?a aiaeie
iiaoae a Iaoa?ao?a. O Eaoou aio i?eoeinue, noiy ii iiyn a aiaea,
nianaoue naaoee ia iaeue aio n nieaeaoaie. I?eiaaeee aieacie oneeeeenue,
ii I?o?, ia ia?auay ia ieo aieiaiey, i?iaeieaeae caieiaoueny
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie. 17 yiaa?y 1725 aiaea aio i?eoeinue oae ooaei,
/oi ii ?anii?yaeeeny iinoaaeoue a ninaaeiae ni naiae niaeueiae eiiiaoie
iioiaeioth oea?eiaue, a 22 yiaa?y eniiaaaeaeny. Neeu ia/aee inoaaeyoue
aieueiiai, ii oaea ia e?e/ae, eae i?aaeaea, io aeanoieie aiee, ii
oieueei noiiae.

27 yiaa?y (7 oaa?aey) auee aiienoe?iaaiu ana inoaeae?iiua ia nia?oue eee
eaoi?ao (eneeth/ay oaeeoe e oee/?iiuo a iaiaeiie?aoiii ?acaia). A oio
aea aeaiue a enoiaea aoi?iai /ana I?o? iio?aaiaae aoiaae, ia/ae auei
ienaoue, ii ia?i auiaei ec aai ?oe, ec iaienaiiiai niiaee ?acia?aoue
oieueei aeaa neiaa: «Ioaeaeoa an?…». Oea?ue aaeae iicaaoue oiaaea aei/ue
Aiio Iao?iaio, /oiau iia ienaea iiae aai aeeeoiaeo, ii eiaaea iia
i?eoea, I?o? oaea aiae a caauoue?. ?anneac i neiaao Iao?a «Ioaeaeoa
an?…» e i?eeaca iicaaoue Aiio ecaanoai oieueei ii caieneai aieooeineiai
oaeiiai niaaoieea A. O. Aannaae/a; ii iiaieth I. E. Iaaeaiei e A. I.
Eiceiaa, ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaiaeaioeeiciue auiunae n oeaeueth
iaiaeiooue ia i?aaa Aiiu Iao?iaiu, aeaiu aieooeineiai aa?oeiaa Ea?ea
O?eae?eoa, ia ?inneeneee i?anoie[12].

Eiaaea noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi eiia?aoi? oie?aao, aiciee aii?in, eoi caei?o
ianoi Iao?a. Naiao, Neiiae e aaia?aeeoao — ana o/?aaeaeaiey, ia eiaaoea
oi?iaeueiiai i?aaa ?anii?yaeaoueny noaeueaie i?anoiea, au? aei nia?oe
Iao?a nia?aeenue a ii/ue n 27 ia 28 yiaa?y 1725, /oiau ?aoeoue aii?in i
i?aaiieea Iao?a Aaeeeiai. A cae canaaeaiee i?iieeee aaa?aeaeneea
ioeoea?u, ia ieiuaaeue auoee aeaa aaa?aeaeneeo iieea, e iiae aa?aaaiiue
aie aiene, auaaaeaiiuo ia?oeae Aeaoa?eiu Aeaenaaaiu e Iaioeeiaa, Naiao
i?eiye aaeeiiaeaniia ?aoaiea e 4-i /anai oo?a 28 yiaa?y. ?aoaieai Naiaoa
o?ii ianeaaeiaaea aeaia Iao?a, Aeaoa?eia Aeaenaaaia, noaaoay 28 yiaa?y
(8 oaa?aey) 1725 aiaea ia?aie ?inneeneie eiia?ao?eoeae iiae eiaiai
Aeaoa?eia I.

A ia/aea oanoiai /ana oo?a 28 yiaa?y (8 oaa?aey) 1725 aiaea I?o? Aaeeeee
neii/aeny. Iioi?iiai ii aue a niai?a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.

Ciaiaieoue i?eaeai?iue eeiiiienaoe Neiii Ooaeia iaienae ia eeia?eniie
aeinea ia?ac AEeaiia/aeueiie O?ieoeu e aiinoiea Iao?a. Iinea nia?oe
Iao?a I yoa eeiia auea onoaiiaeaia iaae eiia?aoi?neei iaaea?iaeai[13].

Iaiyoue i Iao?a I

A /anoue Iao?a Aaeeeiai aicaaaeaiu iaiyoieee a ?aciuo ai?iaeao ?innee e
Aa?iiu. Naiui ia?aui e iaeaieaa ecaanoiui yaeyaony Iaaeiue anaaeiee a
Iaoa?ao?aa, nicaeaiiue neoeueioi?ii Youeaiii Ii?enii Oaeueeiia. Aai
ecaioiaeaiea e aicaaaeaiea caiyei aieaa 10 eao. Neoeueioo?a Iao?a ?aaiou
A. E. ?ano?aeee auea nicaeaia ?aiaa Iaaeiiai anaaeieea, ii onoaiiaeaia
ia?aae Ieoaeeianeei caieii iicaeiaa.

A 1912 aiaeo ai a?aiy i?acaeiiaaiey 200-eaoey iniiaaiey Ooeueneiai
I?oaeaeiiai caaiaea ia aai oa??eoi?ee aue ioe?uo iaiyoiee Iao?o, eae
iniiaaoaeth caaiaea. Aiineaaenoaee iaiyoiee aue onoaiiaeai ia?aae
caaiaeneie i?ioiaeiie.

Naiue aieueoie ii ?acia?o onoaiiaeai a 1997 aiaeo a Iineaa ia
Iineaa-?aea, neoeueioi? Co?aa Oea?aoaee.

A 2007 aiaeo onoaiiaeai iaiyoiee a Ano?aoaie ia iaaa?aaeiie Aieae, a a
2008 aiaeo a Ni/e.

20 iay 2009 aiaea a «Iineianeii Ai?iaeneii Aeaoneii Ii?neii oeaio?a ei.
Iao?a Aaeeeiai» onoaiiaeai athno Iao?a I a ?aieao i?iaeoa «Aeeay
?inneeneie neaau».

N eiaiai Iao?a naycaiu e ?acee/iua i?e?iaeiua iauaeou. Oae aei eiioea OO
aaea ia Eaiaiiii ino?iaa a Iaoa?ao?aa nio?aiyeny aeoa, ii i?aaeaieth
iinaaeaiiue ee/ii Iao?ii. Ia ianoa aai iineaaeiaai iiaeaeaa o Eaoou
oiaea iaoiaeeeanue ninia n iaiyoiie iaaeienueth. Oaia?ue ia a? ianoa
aunaaeaia iiaay.[14]

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