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Заканадауства Расійскай імперыі (канец XVIII-пачатак XX ст.)

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AAEA?ONEI AeCss?AEA!IU OIEAA?NIOYO

eaoaae?a a?noi?u? Aaea?on?

?YOA?AO

ia oyio:

«Caeaiaaeacnoaa ?anieneae iiia?ui (eaiaoe XVIII–ia/aoae XX no.)»

IEINE, 2008

1. Aaoeueiay oa?aeoa?unouea

O caeaiaaeacnoaa, yeia aecaeii/aea ia oy?uoi?ui Aaea?oni c ia?uyae ya
ciaoiaeaeaiiy c neeaaeca ?anieneae iiia?ui, oiicia iiaeia aucia/uoeue
ianooiiuy ia?uyaeu: 1) eaiaoe XVIII – 30-y aa. XIX no.; 2) 40-y aa. O?O
– ia/aoae XX no.; 3) 1905 – 1917 aa.; i?u ayoui o?yaa iaoeue ia caaca
anaaeiaanoei caeaiaaeac/uo ii?iac *aniaaaa c?aaea i aaeiinioeue nthaeu
caeaiaaeac/uy aeaeoiaiou, ye?y cciiee? ia i?aoeyao oaai aaeueii
ea?ioeaaa aae?yceo /ano (aa?anaiue – eano?u/iie 1917 a.), eaei ?aniy
noaea ?ynioaeieae, aea yo/y ia c’yceyeany naaaoeeae.

Aeey ia?oaaa ia?uyaeo oa?aeoy?ia aecaeianoeue ia oy?uoi?ui Aaea?oni ia
oieueei ii?iac i?aaa ?anieneae iiia?ui, aea i Noaoooa 1588 a.
Eaai?aaaiia ?anieneaaa c?aaea c ia?oae o?yoei XIX no. iaiiae iioa?ynaii
aecy?aeaau i iynoeiaae aiaey/aiae a?unoae?aoui auyaieany i c aaeiia
caeaiaaeacnoaa. Iaiaaioa c ayou /an aaeauaaaoeoea cia?aaeeaaaiia
iynoeiauo ia?iaouciuo aeoac. Ia?aeeaaeaaoeoea i ia?aauaeaaoeoea Noaooo
1588 a. c aeaiaciyth/uii yai naeiaauii ianoaiiaaii. «Auni/aeoa
ooaa?aeaeaiiia» iaeaaeyiia Eaiioyoa iiiino?ac (17.09.1828 a.)
i?aaeoaeaaeaeaaea «o/eiaiea ia?aaiaea Eeoianeiai Noaoooa ia ?onneee ycue
n aaei?onneiai ecaeaiey 1588 a.» i «iaia/aoaiea naai Noaoooa ia o?ao
ycueao: aaei?onneii, iieueneii e ?onneii». Iiaa/ c ayoui (o ?aieao
?aaiou iaae «Caiaeai caeiiac ?anieneae iiia?ui») ?acai?oaaaoeoea
?ani?aoeicea «Caiaeo iynoeiauo caeiiac Caoiaeiio aoaa?iyc». ?i c’yaicny
aiioiye, iaeaieueo cia/iae ninoyiaoucaoeuye iynoeiaaaa i?aaa, o yeii
niaeo/aeiny ?unu iynoeiaaaa i aaoeueia?anieneaaa i?aaa. I?aaeo «Caiaeo»
ia auc oaaaecaiu c aecayiia. Caaeooyiia iacnoaiiy 1830 – 1831 aa.
i?aaeaucia/uea ciaio iaeiouei ?anieneio oeaae «a i?eniaaeeiaiiuo
i?iaeioeeyo» i aaeiaio iynoeiauo caeaiaaeac/uo ii?iac 1832 – 1840 aa.
O?yaa iaoeue ia caaca, ooi aaeiaiaiu auei oieueei ouy ii?iu, yeiy aea
ayoaaa /ano caoaaaei naa? aecayiia (o aniiciui nyiaeiaaa i
a?aiaaecyineaaa i?aaa). Ooi ae aeaou/uoeue cia/iae /anoei ii?iac
aecy?aeaciaaa i?aaa, e?uiiiaeueiaaa i?aaa, oi yiu oaeou/ia aecaeii/aei c
iiiaioo ceeth/yiiy aniaiuo /anoae oy?uoi?ui Aaea?oni c neeaae ?anieneae
iiia?ui, oioeue caeaiaaeac/aaa aeoa, ye? a aaeiyiic aaeiaaaaeiuy ii?iu
Noaoooa 1588 a., auaeaaecaia ia auei.

I ia?ou, i ae?oai ia?uyae aa’yaeiicaaa aeaei/ianoeue, yeay iaeaieueo
au?acia auyaieany c ?anieneii caeaiaaeacnoaa c XVIII – XIX no., – i?aaa
auaeaiiy iiauo caeiiac iaeaaeaea oieueei oea?o. Ooi aeaou/ueany Naiaoa,
Niiiaea, eaeaaie (a ianey iiiinoy?noaac, Eaaiiaoa iiiino?ac) i iiouo
o?aaeaauo onoaiic, oi yiu iaei oieueei i?aaa cay?oaoeoea aea yai c
aeaeeaaeaii oei i?aiaiiaaii. Aucia/aeueiui auei i?aaa oea?a i c aaeiia
caeaiaaeac/ae iiioeuyouau. Ethaia «aieaauyceaiia» oea?a iaea oei iaaei
iaauoeue nieo caeiio. O ?aia caeiio ccaiaecieiny cna aeaeoiaiou, yeiy
auei iacia/aiu aaeaa?yiiai oea?a («Auoue ii naio», «I?eiyoue e
naaaeaieth» i a. ae.). Aaentheue auiieaa i aaeica?iay eieueeanoeue
aiaeac caeaiaaeac/uo aeoac, i oay (oa?aeoy?iay iaeia?o aeey oaaaeaeicio)
aeaei/ianoeue, ooi aae?iciioeue caeaiaaeac/u aeo aae aaeiiiino?aoeueiaaa
?ania?aaeaeyiiy aaeueii neeaaeaia (oei caiaoea iaiaa/uia). Oaio
ainoi?uei iaeeaei c aniiao ia?aaaaeia oaei i?uioeui: caeiiaii ei/uoeoea
oieueei oia «aieaauyceaiia» iaia?oa, yeia ciao/aia c «Iieiii nia?aiee
caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee» (INC).

sse yaaethoeuth ninoyiu caeaiaaeacnoaa iaae ocaecayiiai ia?oae ?anieneae
?yaaethoeui o?yaa ?acaeyaeaoeue ae?yneaiu o?yoei ia?uyae. Iaiioano 17
eano?u/iiea oieueei aeyeea?aaac ia/aoae eainouoooeueiaaa eaaeo i ia
aa?aioaaac yai ?yaeueiaaa cnoaeyaaiiy (o?yooea, aeyiooaou Aecy?aeaciae
aeoiu i?unyaaei «naiaaeca?aeoeo»). Aea ia/aeany yaaethoeuy aae
aanaethoucio aea eainouoooeueiae iaia?oii; i?uciath/u naii iniaaaiia
Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu, caiaoeicaath/u ca ?e iyciuy i?aau, Aniiciuy caeiiu
1906 a. on? ae iaiacaaaeia i?uciathoeue i iyciaa aaiaaeaaaiia i?aaic
iaia?oa. Oaeay noiy?y/ianoeue ciaeoea naa? caanaaeaiia c caeaiaaeacnoaa
ayoaaa ia?uyaeo. I?aaa Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu ia caeaiaoai?/anoeue
eaiiainaaaeany oui, ooi ca oea?ii caoicaaeany aieueo iiciaa i aieueo
cia/iaa ia cianoea i?aaa caeaia-aeac/ae iiioeuyouau. A?oueoe 8 Caiaeo
Aniiciuo caeiiac cacia/ac: «Aanoaea?o iiia?aoa?o iaeaaeuoeue ia/ui ia
cnio i?aaeiaoao caeaiaaeacnoaa. Oieueei ia yai ia/uio Aniiciuy
aecy?aeaciuy caeiiu iiaooeue iaeaaeaoeue ia?aaeyaeo c Aecy?aeaciui
Naaaoea i Aecy?aeaciae Aeoia». Aea oaai ae noai?aiu c ethoui 1905 a.
Naaao Iiiino?ac eioa?aeueia «caeiaeaac» Aeoio ae?iayciuii
caeiia-i?aaeoaii. Iaei ianoea auiaaeei, eaei c auaeyaeca caeiio
i?uiaeiny aaeii-iino?aoeueiuy ?ania?aaeaeyiii. Iai?ueeaae, III Aeoiae
auei i?uiyou caeiiu «Aa ioioneo c aecy?aeaciaaa eacia/yenoaa
aeaaeaoeiauo n?iaeeac ia anayoeaiia aeiia aaaiiaaa iiiinoy?noaa», «Aa
ia?aaeeo aoeyieaiiy i anayoeaiiy ianoea caeeth/yiiy i aiaeioneo ia ayouy
iao?yau iaaaoiaeiuo iaoy?uyeac» i a. ae.

Iycia/iuy ciaiu auei cianaiu c 1906 a. i c i?aoeyaeo?o eai/aoeiaaaa
caoeay?aeaeyiiy caeaiaaeac/uo aeoac. I?aaa eai/aoeiaaaa caoeay?aeaeyiiy
caoaaaeany ca oea?ii, aea iao?aaaaaeany iaiy?yaeiya aaeaa?yiia caeiiac
Aecy?aeaciae aeoiae i Aecy?aeaciui naaaoai. Ayoaa aaeueii aaiaaeaaaiaa
i?aaa aaayo/ac a?oueoe 86 Caiaeo Aniiciuo aecy?aeaciuo caeiiac, ca ye?i
?oic a?oueoe 87, ooi aeaioneac i?uiyoeoea caeiiac iaian?yaeia oea?ii o
«iaaecau/aeiuo aanoaaiiao» i c ia?uyae i?uiuiaiiy ianyaeaeyiiyc
Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu.

Ia/uiath/u c naeaaiea 1917 a. caeiiu auaeaaaeiny *aniaui o?aaeai.
Cau/aeia yiu iaaeiinaaeiny iiiino?ai-noa?oui?e. Oae, Ianoaiiaa aae 1
aa?aniy aa aaayo/yiii ?anii ?ynioaeieae auea iaaeiinaia A. Ea?aineii.

2. Ouiu i aiaeu caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac eaioea XVIII – ia/aoeo XX no.

Eeanioieaoeuy iaoy?uyeac caeaiaaeacnoaa ayoaaa /ano, ye i iaiy?yae-iyaa,
aaeueii neeaaeaiay. ssiu auaeaaaeiny ye iaiioanou, oeacu, ianoaiiau,
iaeaaeyiii, iino?oeoeui, onoaau, caeiiu i a. ae. I?u ayoui iacaa ia
cacn?aeu aaeiaayaeaea cianoo aeaeoiaioa i yai i?ucia/yiith. *anai ia
aaeiieueeaauo c’yaao i aaeiiniiao i?uiaeiny ?iciaouiiauy caeaiaaeac/uy
aeaeoiaiou.

Aaeiie c naiuo ?aniacnthaeaeaiuo oi?iac caeaiaaeacnoaa eaioea XVIII –
ia/aoeo XX no. auei iaiioanou. ssiu auaeaaaeiny c noayci c aaaeiaeouii
iaaecayii c iaeiou/iui aeuoeoei e?aiiu: aaayo/yiiai noaio aaeiu oei
ii?o, ocuoiaeaeaiiai ia o?ii iiaaaa iaia?oa (iai?ueeaae, iaiioano
Aeyenaiae?a III aae 29 e?anaaiea 1881 a.); aaayo/yiiai aaaeiaeouo
naoeuyeueia-yeaiaii/iuo oei iaeiou/iuo ia?acoaa?yiiyc (Iaiioano 19
ethoaaa 1861 a., Iaiioano 17 eano?u/iiea 1905 a.). Iaiioanou
ae?oeaaaeiny ianaaui aeey oaai /ano ou?aaeii, io ioaeieaaaei c aacaoao,
aaayo/aei ianaeueiioeoao ianey c?a/unouo aiaaneoaeyiiyc o naai?ao i
oey?eaao. I?ucia/aiuy oaeii /uiai aeey ou?ieae acaeuoi?ui, iaiioanou
oa?aeoa?ucothoeoea ioaeioeunou/ianoeth, iieiaiiai auyaioeue
naeiaea?-ianoeue iaia?oa c ia?iaeai i a. ae. Iai?ueeaae, Iaiioano 17
eano?u/iiea 1905 a. («Aa oaeaneaiaeaiii aecy?aeaciaaa ia?aaeeo»)
ia/uiacny oae: «Nioou i oaaeyaaiii c noaeioeao i c iiiaio iynoeiaanoeyo
iiia?ui iaoae ayeieii i oeyaeeii aeaeai ia?aiaciythoeue ny?oea iaoa.
O/anoea ?anieneaaa aanoaea?a iaia?ucia caycaia na o/anoeai ia?iaeiui i
niooae ia?iaeiu – yai niooae». Iaiioanou ia?aaaaeia aeyeea?aaaei iycioth
iaeyth, aaayo/aei iycioth iaaecath i oaio /anai niaeo/aeiny c iiouii
aeaeoiaioaii caeaiaaeac/aaa oa?aeoa?o, yeiy ciyo/aei eaie?yoiuy i?aaaauy
ii?iu (Iaiioano 19 ethoaaa 1861 a. i «Iaeaaeyiii…», Iaiioano 17
eano?u/iiea 1905 a. i Aniiciuy aecy?aeaciuy caeiiu 1906 a. i a. ae.).
Aeey aieueoaaa yiaoeuyiaeueiaaa ccaecayiiy ia ia?iaeiuy iicu iaiinaiia
aniaiuo iaiioanoac aea?o/aeany aeooiciui aniaai. Oae, Iaiioano 19
ethoaaa iaiinaiu iio?aiaeioai Oiea?yoai (Ae?acaeiaui).

Ae?oaoth, yo/y aieueo oiaoeieoth a?oio caeaiaaeac/uo aeoac neeaaeaei
ceacu. O eaioeu XVIII – XIX no. oeacu iaaecyeyeiny ia o?u eaoyai?ui: a)
iiyiiuy; a) aaaao/aiuy c Naiaoa; a) naiaoeeiy. Iiyiiuy ceacu c’yceyeiny
?ania?aaeaeyiiyii, caaaaeaii iiia?aoa?a, yeiy iaei?icaaeiny Naiaoo aeey
aueaiaiiy. Oeac, aaaao/aiu c Naiaoa, auc oaenaia ?ania?aaeaeyiiai
iiia?aoa?a, ia aniiaa yeiaa Naiao neeaaeac oyeno oeaca, i?ucia/aiaaa
aeey aaia?iaeaaaiiy. Naiaoeei ceac – ayoa ianoaiiaa ia aaoeueiui oei
eaie?yoiui iuoaiii, aoi?ieaiui o oi?ia ceaca aae iiy Naiaoa. Ianey 1906
a. oeacu aae iiy oea?a noaei aniiciae oi?iae oae caaiaaa iacaaeoineaaa
caeaiaaeacnoaa.

O eaioeu XVIII – XIX no. ayeieay a?oia ceacac auea caycaia c
?aniacnthaeaeaaiiai aaoeueiaaa caeaiaaeacnoaa ia aeaeo/aiuy aea
?anieneae iiia?ui oy?uoi?ui. Aniaiuy c ?o i?aaeaucia/aei ciaiu c ouo oei
iiouo iaei?oieao iaeiouei ?anieneio oeaae. Aaeiui c oaeio noac oeac aa
oayaecaiii iiaaioa?ic aeey nyeyi Oe?aiiu i Aaea?oni c 1847 a. C 1906 a.
oeac c’yceycny oie oi?iae caeaiaaeac/aaa aeoa, yeay aucia/aea oy?iiiu
auaa?ac i ia?aaeae ?aaiou Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu.

Iaeaaeyiii cyceyei naaie eiiieaen ocaaiacaycaiuo caeaiaaeac/uo
aeaeoiaioac. Oae, iiaaa naoeuyeueia-yeaiaii/iaa noaiiaio/a nyeyinoaa ia
?yoi?ia 1861 a. auei aucia/aia c 17 aeaeoiaioao, eiaeiu c yeio
i?unay/acny yeie-iaaoaecue a?oia nyeyinoaa oei iynoeiaanoei: «Iaeaaeyiia
aa aueoia nyeyiaii, yeiy aueoei c i?uaiiiae caeaaeianoei», «Iynoeiauy
iaeaaeyiii aa iacyiaeueiui oia?aaeeaaaiii nyeyi, ianaeaiuo ia
iaiao/uoeeio caieyo o aoaa?iyo aaeiea?oneio, ?anieneio i aaea?oneio» i
iio. I?ueeaaeai ayoae ?aciaaiaeianoei caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac iiaooeue
auoeue oaenaia «Iaeaaeyiii aa aoaa?ineio i iaayoiauo caineio onoaiiaao»
(1864 a., ia oy?uoi?uth Aaea?oni ia ?aniacnthaeaeaae?ny), «Iaeaaeyiia aa
auaa?ao o Aecy?aeacioth aeoio (1906 a.)». Iacao «Iaeaaeyiia» iac i
caeaiaaeac/u aeaeoiaio, yei aucia/ac ia?aaeae auaa?ac aa Onoaiic/u noiae
(1917 a.).

Caeii, ye aniaiay ?aciaaiaeianoeue caeaiaaeac/uo aeoac, nono?aeacny
ia?aciaeueia ?yaeea. Iyciaa cia/yiia ayoae eaoyai?ui auei iaaeaaecaia
oieueei c ia/aoeai aecaeianoei Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu. Caiae Aniiciuo
aecy?aeaciuo caeiiac aucia/ac i?aoeyaeo?o caoeay?aeaeyiiy iiauo caeiiac
i ni?aaaaac aeaoeue oeoia/yiia ?aciaaeaaaiiy io c oeacaii i caaaaeaii
oea?a. Oeacu iaaei i?uiaoeue oieueei c ia?aiuieao iaiiae ianyaeaeyiiyi?
Aecy?aeaciae aeoiu, a caaaaeu iaaei auaeaaaoeoea oea?ii oieueei c
aaeiaaaaeianoei c caeiiaii. I?u ayoui aeaneaae/uei iaaiiiu
?aciyaeicaaoeue «Aniiciuy aecy?aeaciuy caeiiu», caoeaa?aeaeaiuy 23
e?anaaiea 1906 a. Iieaeaai II i Caiae Aniiciuo aecy?aeaciuo caeiiac, yei
c’yceyaoeoea /anoeae oiia 1 «Caiaeo caeiiac ?anieneae iiia?ui» auaeaiiy
1906 a. Ia?ou c aeaeoiaioac – ayoa aeo i?aaaoai?/anoei ?anieneaaa
iaia?oa, o oie /an ye ae?oai – auiie ninoyiaoucaoeui aecath/aaa
caeaiaaeacnoaa ciaciaaaaeaiuii ia oia aecy?aeaciuii i?aaiaii.

Aaaeiuii ?aciaaiaeianoeyii caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac c’yceyeiny
iino?oeoeui, ianoaceaiii i iaeacu. Ny?iae caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac
XVIII – ia?oae iaeiau XIX no. iiaeia iacaaoeue aea?aaaeueiuy a?aiaou
(«Aea?aaaeueiay a?aiaoa aeaa?ainoao», «Aea?aaaeueiay a?aiaoa aa?aaeai»).
O eaioeu XIX – ia/aoeo XX no. ?aniacnthaeaeaathoeoea oaeiy aeaeoiaiou
caeaiaaeac/aaa oa?aeoa?o, ye «Auni/aeoa iaeia?aiiua iiaiey
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa», «Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea».

Naiaanaaeiaae oi?iae aeaeoiaioac caeaiaaeacnoaa XIX no. c’yceyeiny
cnoaau (aa oeyico?u, aaaiiuy, noaeiauy i iio.). O oy?aao auiaaeeac onoac
iia aunooiaoeue ye eaaeuoieaoeueiu aeo, yei aa’yaeiicaac oeyeoth a?oio
caeiiaiaeaaeyiiyc (iai?ueeaae, Onoac aa i?aiuneiaanoei). Onoac auc i
oi?iae i?uaaoiuo caeaiaaeac/uo aeoac (oae, onoac eiaeiaaa aeoeuyia?iaaa
oaaa?unoaa caoeay?aeaeacny oea?ii i aunooiac ye niaoeuyeueiaa
caeiiaiaeaaeyiia).

?acaeaaeaeaiuy auoye oi?iu ia aoiieiaathoeue onio oiaoeieio
?aciaaiaeianoeae caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac, iaeieueei aea io aaeiinieiny
i ?yaeaiaiou, i ?yne?uiou, «auni/aeoa iaeia?aiiua» Aniauy aeo?iaeu
Naaaoa iiiino?ac, /aniauy i?aaieu i a. ae.

3. Ioaeieaoeui aeaeoiaioac caeaiaaeacnoaa ?anieneae iiia?ui

Caay?oath/ay noaaeuy oa?ii?aaaiiy caeaiaaeac/aaa aeaeoiaioa – yai
aioaeieaaaiia. Aeey oaai eaa caeii aueiiaacny, ?i iaaiiai auoeue
aaia?iaeaaaiu. Aaeiae ia cna aeaeoiaiou eaioea XVIII – ia/aoeo XX no.
iaaeeyaae? ioaeieaoeui, aniaiuy c io aeaaiaecieiny aea aaaeaia oieueei
aoceaaa eiea ania. Ia?aaaaeia ayoa – caeiiaiaeaaeyiii, caycaiuy c
aa?aoeueaie noi?aoeue ?yaaethoeueiaaa ?ooo (caeii aae 19 iay 1871 a. i
iio.). Oaio, ayeieaa cia/yiia iathoeue «Iniaua aeo?iaeu» ianyaeaeyiiyc
Eaiioyoa iiiino?ac (i i?aoaeieu ianyaeaeyiiyc, ia aniiaa yeio yiu
neeaaeaeiny). Iiiaiy c cacia/aiuo o «aeo?iaeao» ?aoyiiyc ia iaaeeyaae?
aioaeieaaaiith. sse i?ueeaae iiaeia i?uaanoei *aniauy i?aaieu aa yc?yyo
1882 a., caiaeia c yeiii yc?yyi «?unu anaeanoei» caaa?aiyeany nyeioeoea
ia-ca iaaeaii aa?aaeic i iynoy/ae, a?aiaeaaaoeue, i?uiaoeue o caeeaae
ia?ooiioth ia?ianoeue, iaauaaoeue cyieth, a oaenaia aaiaeeyaaoeue aiiii
o iyaecaeth i nayoi/iuy aeii.

O aioaeieaaaiii caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac aaaeiay ooieoeuy iaeaaeaea
Naiaoo. Naiao aaia?iaeaaac caeiiu, i oieueei ianey ayoaaa yiu cnooiaei c
nieo. C 1808 a. aaia?iaeaaaiia iiauo caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac
aaeauaaeany c «Naiaoeeio aaaeaianoeyo». Iaiaaioa i?u Naiaoea c 1863 a.
aaeuoeoeyceyaoeoea ia?uyaeu/iaa auaeaiia caeiiac («Nia?aiea
ocaeiiaiee…»).

Oaiaoea, ayaeiiu ianooiiuy aniiciuy ioaeieaoeui caeiiac ?anieneae
iiia?ui:

1) «Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee» (INC),

2) «Naiae caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee» (NC) i

3) «Nia?aiea ocaeiiaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ecaeaaaaiuo i?e
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoa» (NO e ?I) (o aeaeaeoui aoaecai oaeuaaoeue
aaea?oneiy iacau ayouo ioaeieaoeue, ae?aiy nea?a/yiiyc).

1. «Iiciu cai? caeiiac…» (INC) neeaaeaaoeoea c o?io auaeaiiyc. Ia?oaa
auei iaae?uooaaaia I. I. Nia?aineii i ceeth/aea caeiiu c 1649 a. ia 3
niaaeiy 1825 a. ssii ?uooaaaeany ye aniiaa aeey neeaaeaiiy Caiaeo
aecath/uo caeiiac i c yai iieioeiny ceeth/uoeue ona aeou ca acia/aiu
ia?uyae, i?uciaiuy caeiiaii, o o. e. oaei aaeiaiaiuy aea ayoaaa /ano
(1830 a.). Ayoaa auaeaiia i n?iiy canoaaoeoea iaeaieueo iiciae
ioaeieaoeuye caeaiaaeac/uo aeaeoiaioac c 1649 a. ia 1825 a. Aaeiae o
auaeaiii oy?aa aeaeoiaioac caeaiaaeacnoaa ia auc ciao/aiu. Aaeiu c io ia
auei ayaeiiu I. I. Nia?aineaio, ae?oaiy ?i ei/uc ia aa?ouii caaai,
o?yoeiy aaeeiaeaac c-ca iaeiou/iuo ia?eaaaiiyc. Aiaeaai/iuy iaaeaoiiu
oa?aeoy?iu aeey iiyiiiaa i i?aaeiaoiaaa iaeacaeueiieac, yeiy
noi?aaaaeaeathoeue ayoaa auaeaiia. Ia?oaa auaeaiia «Iiciaaa cai?o
caeiiac…» neeaea 40 oaiic, a ?acai c iaeacaeueiieaii i aeaaeaoeiauii
oaiaii – 45 (41 – o?aiaeaai/iu iaeacaeueiie, 42 – aeoaaioia-i?aaeiaoiu
iaeacaeueiie, 43–44 – ooaou aaaiiuo, aaaiia-ia?neio i a?aiaaecyineio
/uiic, 45 – eiiaa oa?uoac). Ae?aiy oaai, auaeaiia iaea iaeaeueei oaiic
«aeaaeaoeac» – eiiaa /a?oeyaeic i iaethieac, aa?au aa?aaeic i a. ae.

Ae?oaia auaeaiia ceeth/aea caeiiu c 12 niaaeiy 1825 a. ia 28 ethoaaa
1881 a., a o?yoeya – c naeaaiea 1881 a. ia 31 niaaeiy 1914 a. (aiioii
oii aueoac o 1917 a.). O aae?iciaiia aae ia?oaaa, yiu auaeaaaeiny ye
o?aiaeaai/iuy caiaeu ayao/aaa caeaiaaeacnoaa. Ae?oaia auaeaiia
aaeuoeoeyceyeany ooiaiae c 1830 aea 1884 a., a o?yoeya – c 1885 ia 1917
a. (i?u ayoui aiioiya auaeaiia INC ye iacaaa?oaiaa ia iaea aaoeueiuo
iaeacaeueiieac, aea aea cnio oaiic i?ueeaaecaiu iaaaaeaauy
aeoaaioia-i?aaeiaoiuy iaeacaeueiiei). Aeey cnio auaeaiiyc oa?aeoy?ia
oia, ooi oy?aa aeaeoiaioac ooo aioaeieaaaiu c iaiueeaii, c caaaeiceaii,
yeiy ia aaeiaayaeathoeue io cianoo, aniaiuy aeaeoiaiou, ye oaei
aaecia/aeany, oaiaoea canoaeiny ia-ca iaaeaii ioaeieaoeui.

?acai c oui o INC ?noeue oeacaiii ia iaoiaeaeaiia aeaeoiaioac, yeiy
iiaooeue auoeue auea?unoaiu aeey iiooeo io e?uiioe («iiaiea»
Aecy?aeaciaaa naaaoa), AEo?iaeu Eaaiiaoa iiiino?ac i a. ae.

2. «Caiae caeiiac…» (NC) oeeth/ac oieueei aecath/uy caeiiaiaeaaeyiii. O
aae?iciaiia aae INC, aeca aeaeoiaiou auaeaaaeiny c o?aiaeaai/iae
ianeyaeicianoei, o «Caiaeca caeiiac…» (i?ucia/aiui aeey i?aeou/iuo
iao?ya) auc i?uiyou oyiaou/iu i?uioeui (aaeiaaaaeia c yeii i aaeauaacny
yai iaaecae ia oaiu, a aiioiio – ia /anoei). «Caiae caeiiac…» auaeaaacny
o?u ?acu: o 1832, 1842 i 1857 aa. O ianooiiuy aaaeu ia?aauaeaaaeiny
oieueei aniaiuy oaiu i /anoei oaiic; o i?aiaaeeo iaiiae iii – i?aoeya
oaiic i /anoae (/a?aiauy i caiaeiuy). *a?aiauy ceeth/aei caeiiu, ye?y
aueoe? c /ano auaeaiiy iaiy?yaeiyaa i?aoeyao, a caiaeiuy – ona caeiiu c
/ano aiioiyaa auaeaiiy caiaeo oei iyciaaa yai oiia. Ianey auaeaiiy
caiaeiaaa i?aoeyao oei ia?aauaeaiiy aaeiaaaaeiaaa oiia (/anoei) /a?aiau
i?aoeya naa? cia/yiia aoaeyc, iaeieueei ciano yai ayoui auaeaiiai
iaaeuiacny. O?yaa cacaaaeuoeue, ooi c 1892 a. NC – aaeciiay ae?oeaaaiay
e?uiioea, yeay ciyo/aa caanoei aa onio (ae?aiy Niiiaea) auoyeouo
oeyio?aeueiuo onoaiiaao.

3. «Cai? ocaeaiaiiyc i ?ania?aaeaeyiiyc o?aaea…» (NO e ?I) oeeth/aa
caeaiaaeac/uy aeaeoiaiou i ouy ?ania?aaeaeyiii oeyio?aeueiuo onoaiic,
yeiy iaei aaoeueiaa cia/yiia ca ia?uyae c 1863 a. aea cay?aeyiiy
naiaaecy?aeacy (?i auoiaecic i i?u *aniaui o?aaeca). Aeaeoiaiou
?aciao/aiu c o?aiaeaai/iae ianeyaeicianoei i caaynia/aiu ouii ae
aeaiaiiaeiuii yeaiaioaii, ooi i INC (o?aiaeaai/iu i aeoaaioia-i?aaeiaoiu
iaeacaeueiiei). Ona caoeaa?aeaeaiuy caeaiaaeac/uy aeaeo-iaiou, yeiy
i?ucia/aeiny aeey ioaeieaoeui, ciyo/aeiny ia noa?iieao «Cai?a
ccaeaiaiiyc…». Aea oaai ae, iaeieueei INC ciyo/aa caeiiu ia 1914 a.,
iaiaaioa ia?uyaeu/iaa auaeaiia ciyo/aa caanoei aa ia?acoaa?yiiyo o
ninoyia auoyeoaaa oeyio?aeueiaaa ci?aceaiiy, a aiioiiy auei aaeueii
inoioiuy. O o?aiaeiaii ayoaaa auaeaiiy auea anaaeiaanoeue: caeiiu
ioaeieaaaeiny ia c ia?aaeeo io caoeay?aeaeyiiy oea?ii, a ia ia?u
ianooieaiiy o Naiao. «Cai? ocaeaiaiiyc…» – auaeaiia ia?uyaeu/iaa,
auoiaeciea iaayeieiii cai?iieaii. Oy?iiiu auaeaiiy ia auei aeaeeaaeia
iacia/aiu. Ia?oaia/aoeiaa auaeaiia auoiaeciea aeaa ?acu c ouaecaiue, a
ianey – /anoeae. C 1902 a. «Cai? ocaeaiaiiyc…» ia/ac auaeaaaoeoea ia
aeaoo aaeaecaeao. O ae?oaii ciyo/aeiny caeaiaaeac/uy aeaeoiaiou
i?uaaoiaaa oa?aeoa?o. Ia?aaaaeioth /anoeo neeaaeaei cnoaau aeoeuyia?iuo
eaiiaiie, yeiy (ooi caei aaecia/aeany) caoeay?aeaeaeiny oea?ii. Aea?y/u,
onoaau, caoeaa?aeaeaiuy aea 1826 a., ae?oeaaaeiny c «Naiaoneeo
aaaeiiinoyo», 1826 – 1836 aa. oaaeoei c aaeiaaaaeiuy io o?aiaeiaii
ia?ouy 11 oaiic ae?oaiaa auaeaiiy INC.

Oaeii /uiai, aioaeieaaaia aaeica?iay eieueeanoeue caeaiaaeac/uo
aeaeoiaioac, a?uaioaaaoeoea c yeie aaeueii neeaaeaia. Oieueei «Iiciu
cai? caeiiac…» neeaaea-aoeoea na 133 oaiic. Anaaeiauy oeyaeeanoei
nono?aeaa aeaneaae/ue, yei caeiaaoeoea iuoaiiyii ainoi?ui Aaea?oni. O
iyciae nooiaii ni?anoeioeue ayooth i?aaeaio aeaiaiaaaa iaaoioeueiaa
auaeaiia «O?iiieiae/aneee oeacaoaeue oeacia e i?aae-oaeuenoaaiiuo
?anii?yaeaiee ii aoaa?ieyi Caiaaeiie ?innee, Aaei?onnee e Iaei?innee ca
240 eao, n 1652 ii 1892» (neeaae. N. O. ?oaiiooyei, Aieueia, 1894). ssii
ciyo/aa c o?aiaeaai/iui ia?aaeeo aeaeoiaiou, yeiy aeaou/aoeoea caoiaeiye
/anoei ?anieneae iiia?ui c oeacaiiai ?aciyo/yiiy io o INC. O?yaa iaoeue
ia caaca, ooi c auaeaiii aaenooii/athoeue aeaeoiaiou aeuieaiaou/iaaa
oa?aeoa?o, ocaeaiaiii ia aaaiiui aaaeainoaa, caeiiu aa yc?yyo
(auaeaaecaiuy caei Aa?oaaeneii) i a. ae. O iaeacaeueiieao ia?aaaaeia
i?uaaaecaiu oieueei caaaeicei i ea?ioeiy eaiaioa?ui aea aeaeoiaioac.
Oieueei aaaeiaeouy c caeiiac (ia iiaeyae neeaaeaeueiiea) i?uaaaecaiu
iicianoeth oei /anoeiaa. Oaio auea?unoaiia aaecia-/aiaaa auaeaiiy ia
aucaaeya aeaneaae/uea aae iiooeo oei caeaeeaaeiaiiy aeaeoiaioa c INC (a
i?u iaa/uianoei i iaaaoiaeianoei – o ?oeaiina i aeaiaiiaeiuo iaoy?uyeao
aea yai).

C auaeaiiyc iaaaeoaaa /ano o?yaa iacaaoeue ioaeieaoeuth «?inneeneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai X – XX aa.», yeia oaenaia ciyo/aa oieueei aaaeiaeouy
(ia iiaeyae neeaaeaeueiieac) aeaeoiaiou. Aiioii, aecaayou, oii oeeth/aa
caeaiaaeacnoaa ?anii yiioi ao?aeoacia-aeyiae?aou/iuo ?yaaethoeue (1905 –
1917 aa.).

EIOA?AOO?A

· Eaaea/ieeia E.E. Iioiaeiua caienee ?onneiai ioeoea?a. I., 1820
(ia?aauaeaaecaia c 1836 a.).

· Ae.: AEaeaiia I.I. Iooaaua caienee ii ?innee a aeaaaeoeaoe aeaoo
aoaa?iyo. Nia., 1843; Uoeei I.N. Caiaoee i Aaei?onnee // AEo?iae
ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. 1846. ? 4; Oeoeeia I.I. Caiaoee e
ainiiieiaieyi ?onneie iooaoanoaaiieoeu ii ?innee a 1845 aiaeo. Nia.,
1848; Caoa?ia E.Ae. Iooaaua caienee ?onneiai ooaeiaeieea… Nia., 1854;
Iaoeeaae/ Ae. Iooaaua caiaoee. Eeaa, 1856 i iio. Iaae?aayciae ae.:
Aei?ioeaae/ A. Eae ioe?uaaee Aaei?onneth // Iaiai. 20066. ? 10.

· Iaae?aayciae ae.: Oaaae A. C aecaeaa?unoaii i?ac Aaea?onue //
Aaea?onue. 2005. ? 2.

· Iai?ueeaae, oniai?iu A.ss.?icaia aue? auaeaaecaiu oieueei c 1907 a.
Ae.: ?icai A. A. Caienee aeaeaa?enoa. Nia., 1907, a oaenaia
ooiaeaiaioaeueiaa auaeaiia: Ainnoaiea aeaeaa?enoia (Iaoa?eaeu e
aeieoiaiou). O.1 – 12. I.; E., 1925 – 1969.

· Ae.: AEe?eaae/ E.N. Caienee aaia?aea Eaaia Noaiaiiae/a AEe?eaae/a //
?onneay noa?eia. 1890. O.67. Aaaono. N. 234 – 235; *aaiaeueei A. Ec
ainiiieiaiee ia oiee a Aaei?onnee a ia/aea XIX aaea // ?onneee a?oea.
1903. *.3. ? 12. N. 537 – 544;

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