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I??o???a ?iy?y «A?????» (?????) ??i?o e XVI a., e ???i ??uey??? ????a e
???? ????a Aeae.A??e. N????a y?? ?iy?y ????a?? ? ??y??e ?? ??a
(XIV—XVI). I??????? A??e, ???y n I???e, ?e???e a ?? ???e ??e: ?-???, ?i
?????? ?e a????? e ???i e ???oyi ??/??e; ?-???, ?????y?? n O???? A?????i
— I??e (?????? e ??e ??e ??a ????e e ???). N?th y?? ?????? A????ey ?????
?e ??y ???? ? «??????e ???e, ???u e ?????» (??iy?a ???) «e ?a? ???? e
??????» (????? e ???a ??iy?a ?????y e ??e ??e — A?????).

A E??e ? ??? ?y?y?ny ??? «A?????», ?i y? y?? ?????y, ?i ???oth?y ? ????
??u e ?????e. Ec E??e ???????y ???? ?????iy?ny ? ?? A??a. O????y A????ey
??y?o ?a?thu? ???i.

XII-XIV ?. — I??????n, ?e I??????? a E??e. I?????i ???e ????a Ae??i, ?y?
Ae??, ????y e ??? O???? A????i. ???? ???o I.A?aey? ??? I??????n ??? ????
?????? ?iy???i a??????? ????, ?e ?e n ?i ??e ??ey a y? ??y ???e ?a ?
???e ?y? ? ?i? ???? ???i, n A?ii, ?e y? ????i a ??a ???a ??y. I??????n,
? ??eth A?aey?a, ??? ?e ?????, ?i ???y? ???? e ?????th ?????.

XIV-XV ?. — ??? A?????, ?iy???ny ???a a ?????, a ?o? a ???????i ????a,
???????, a ????e, ???e I???e, A???i (?????), Ae????, A???? (????,
?????).

I??ae n XV a. (??oe) ? XVI a. (20-40-a ??) — A??? A????ea, ??????y a
?????i, ???i, ??????? ????? E. A??, I?i ??a I????, Ae. A??, I. Ia????,
E???i ? A??, ??ayey, I?????i e a ????? ??e ?ay? ??? ??????o ????.

XVI a. (n 1520 ? 1540 a. e n 1570 ? 1590 a.) — ???a A?????. Y? ??o
???????e ???? a E??e, ???????ny y?????? ????, ?????? ????? ???e. A XVI
a. ??n??o ??? ?????? ???????o ???a, ???? ????a a ???i o????? I?????i e
O???, a ????? — ??????? ?????e, ? ??? ???????i ?????o (E???i, A??e, *???
e ?.).

E??n ??uey??? A????ey ????o n ????i e ????i N???? A????ey (?????e) a
A???e, ? ??? O???, a I?a???o e A??e. O??i «?????y» (?o.— ???????) ????
??? ?????a ???? a Oe????? e C???e A??a, ?????? ??? ??????? ??i??a
e?????e ??? e ?ae?????o ath ?i???o ??y??. N???a A?????, ?e ?a???ey, ??o
?ith ?????th ?????eth. E?i? N???? A????ey ?????th?y a 20-30-a ?? XV a.,
a ?? N???a A?????, ?e ?a ?????, ????ny XVI a.

E??u ??? A????ey? I??o e??i a E??e ????? y? ?????

I??e, ?????e ??? A????ey ?e ??????e ??ae. I?ii ???ue, ?i ???o ???a e
????e ????, ?y??? ??o ????e, ?????????o i ?i, ?i ??ae ????ny ? ??e ?????
????, ?i???o, ????, a E?e? n XII a., a a I????? — n XV a. A E??e ????
????e ???? a ?? ??? ?y? ???? ?i ??a ???? ???e. I??a ??i ?? ???? ??a
???u, ?e ????y?? ???, ?i??o?th?e ???eth ??????i ?cy??a e ????a, ???a
??????? ????a, ???y?? E??e ?? ????i ?????i ??o A???i e C??? (???? n XIII
a., ??a ??ay ?????y ??? — ??? ?? «? ??ya a ??? — ??a ???i ???e e ?????e
?????e). I???i, ??i ??ue a ??, ? ???e ??, ?a ?? ??? ???: a E??e ????y
???? ????ue ? ??oth ?a??th ???? ????e ????, ?? ?i??? a ?????? ?iy? ???.

A ?i ????? ????nue ???? ?????? ????

Ye?????e ??? ???a ?e ?y?i n ????i ???e e ????, ?????i a ???o ???? e
?y??e? ???e ?y ???? ? ?????? ?i????a e ?????a. Ec ?????i ?? ??ae ??ey?:

• ???a ?????????i ??????. A ???a ? ???y??, ???? ?????a ?cy??i e ??????
?????? ?? ? ??? ??????, ????? e ??????, ? e ??y?i, ???, ??????, ????y?
?????? ??? ?????e ?th ?ith ???oth ???ue, ?????? ?a ??a e ??a n?????
???????e. Ae?a ??a ?????? ???y??a ???, ?e ???a ??a ?e ?????a, ?????ue a
??? ??? ???iy???? ?iy?y?. Y? ?e ???????? y?i ?????y ?????????, ?????e ?y
I??i ???e;

• ????i???? ????e y???? ? ???? ??i. Oi, ?i ???y?i ?????i ?i???e a ?????i
?cy??a, ????i ???e ? ??a. A?? n ??? ??? ??????y ?e ?????? ? ???oth
ye???o;

• ?a ????yth??y ??????a ???? ??a a ???. A ??? ?????? e ????, ?e ???i,
???? ?????? e ?????a, ???e ? ? y? ????oth ??o. I??????a «????» ????y i??
???a? e ?????y? ???????i ?a???????ue a ????y ?cy?a e ???? ????a.

An?ae ? y??????e ????y? ????????? e ????y ????ay ??a. A ?????o ???o ???
???o ???? ?y?ya?y ????? ??y ?y ??????y ?????ay ??i??? — ??iy?? ???e, ?
?ath?e ??????e e ???e ?i??e ??? ??a.

I?? ???? ????? ???e a ???o ???y?y eth? ????o ????e, ????? ???th??y ??a?,
?????, ?????e e ???th?a ???? ?y ?c? ????y ??i ?iy?yi,— ??????u (?????y
??????y). Iiy??? y?e ??? ??i ???? ???, ?i ???y?ea ?? ?????? ????a
ath??u, ?????a ??? ??e ????? ??????, ??e??? ????e ??i ??c??a e ??????
???? ??????? ????.

N?????? ????e ?????? ?e ????e ????o. E? ?a ?????, ???a ???? ? ??? ????e
??a?i, ? ??c ??e ? ??????i ????y ? ??? ??e ????o ???a. Ai-???, y? ??
???ay ????ay ???, ??iy?i ???yth?yny ? ?? ?????y a ?a ??????o ath???.
Ai-?i?o, ? ????a ?????? ???i ???i a ???i-??????? ??a, ? ?? i???o ???? e
??? ??ae??i ????a. O????i, ?i ?????ay ??ue ??e??a, ???? a N???e e N???
E??e, a ??a ? O???e, ?a ??a ?????? ??????? e ??? ????o ????e ?????th
????i i?????a (?i??i ?th?? ???e ??ae ????ey).

N??? ????, ?i ????ay ??a ???, ??? y?o ?? ????i ??e?th??y ????? ??i,
?eth?? a ?ay e ??, ??????ea ?????o ??: ???? ????, ?????ny a ???, e ??ue
???i??, ???y ????ey? ?ith ?y????ue ??e ???i (??a ????? ??? ?????? e
??????a). Y? ????? ?? ?a ??a e ??a ???????ue ? ????th ????.

I?????a ????y a ??????i ??? ??aeyo ????a a ?????? ???? e ??????
??eth?yo. Y?????e ???? ??ae ??e ????? n?a??y ?????ny ?-?ae ????? ?????e.
A ????? ?????? ??a?e ??? ??? ???y?y ?a ???ue?? ??a, ???tho ????eth
????????y ????i ??? ? ????? ??? e a ???ath?o ?????yo. A???? ??i ? ???
???ey? ????th ???o, ???i ? ?-?ae ?????? th????e, ? e ???????y? ??ae
????? ???a. C???? ?a?uey?i, ??? ? ??ae??e ???e ?????? ?? (?ae e ?? ??),
????ae ???o ???? ????? ????: «????e ??? ??? ?????.

I??a ??? ??iy? ?????o a i? ???? ?e ?????? ? ??a, ???ay, ??i ???i, ??th
??ae?oth ?????????ue. Ai??, ???oe, ??????e ?e ??u ???????? ?????e. Y? ??
???i???? ????, ???i-?????a ????? (?? e ???e), ?????y ?????? e ???
??????i ??????ey — ????a ???.

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