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Возникновение персидской державы. Завоевательные походы Кира и Камбиза

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Ieienoa?noai aunoaai e n?aaeiaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?O

IIAIEAENEAss AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss NIOeEAEUeII-AOIAIEOA?IAss AEAAeAIEss

Enoi?e/aneee oaeoeueoao

?aoa?ao

Aicieeiiaaiea ia?neaeneie aea?aeaau. Caaiaaaoaeueiua iioiaeu Ee?a e
Eaiaeca.

nooaeaioa 1 eo?na

aeiaaiiai ioaeaeaiey

11 a?oiiu 2 iiaea?oiiu

Ee?thoeei E. A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

no. i?. e.e.i. Eo?i/eei I. A.

Naia?a 2009

Aaaaeaiea

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie aeaeaei ia ana ethaee ciatho e eioa?anothony
aeaaea enoi?eae naiae no?aiu. *oi oae ooo aiai?eoue ia enoi?ee Ae?aaiaai
Ie?a, a oai aieaa Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea? A iaaeaeo oai yoio ia?eiae i/aiue
aaaeai aeey iiieiaiey i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa. Oeeaeeecaoeee, aeeaoea a yoio ia?eiae, ieacaee aieueoia
aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeooth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ia?ney — yoi: 1) ia?aay ie?iaay aea?aeaaa, niaaeeieaoay a naaa
ianeieueei «ie?ia» iaeiia?aiaiii (Aaeiao, Aaaeeii, e ae?oaea); 2) ia?aia
e?oiiia iiiai eiioanneiiaeueiia aa?ioa?ieiia ainoaea?noai; 3)eiaiii a
Ia?nee ca?iaeeeanue ia?aay yoe/aneay ?aeeaey — ci?iano?eci, io aaoaae
eioi?ie iieaeoo iiiaea nia?aiaiiua eaeaieiaee (nioeeaeeci, o?enoeainoai,
naoaieinoai e i?iecaiaeiua io ieo).

Naiua ecaanoiua ia?eiaeu ianniaiio /eoaoaeth nouanoaiaaiey ia?neaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa — yoi a?aei-ia?neaeneea aieiu e caaiaaaiea Ia?nee
Aeaenaiae?ii Iaeaaeiineei. Ia?eiae aea aicieeiiaaiey e noaiiaeaiey yoiai
ainoaea?noaa ecaanoai eoaea eae iaiueoa. A aaaeue ii ia iaiaa aaaeai
aeey iiieiaiey anae ia?neaeneie enoi?ee.

ss aua?ae yoo oaio iioiio, /oi iia oi/aony eco/eoue ia?eiae
aicieeiiaaiey e noaiiaeaiey oaeiai aieueoiai e iiuiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a iieo/aiee aieaa iieiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aicieeiiaaiee ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa e
caaiaaaoaeueiuo iioiaeao Ee?a II e aai nuia Eaiaeca II, eioi?ua
caeiaeeee iniiao ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Aeey yoiai ?anniio?ei ?yae
caaea/:

1) Aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa (a?aiy i?eoiaea a E?ai, ia?aua oiiieiaiey,
ia?aua ieaiaiiua ia?aciaaiey, aiaoiyy eo iieeoeea, ana oea?e aei Ee?a
II), a oaeaea ia/aei i?aaeaiey Ee?a II e aai ainnoaiea i?ioea Ieaeee.

2)Caaiaaaoaeueiua iioiaeu Ee?a e eo cia/aiea aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa (a Eeaeeth, Aaaeeiieth, a Aaeo?eth, a Ne?eth,
i?ioea ei/aaieeia).

3)Caaiaaaoaeueiua iioiaeu Eaiaeca II (a Aaeiao e a Ioaeth)

4)Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai a ia?neaeneie eiia?ee ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey
Ee?a II e Eaiaeca II.

A yoii ?aoa?aoa aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu ia?eiaeu: aicieeiiaaiea ia?neaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa, iioiaeu Ee?a, iioiaeu Eaiaeca.

Aeaaa 1. Aicieeiiaaiea ia?neaeneiai ainoaea?noaa e aai ?acaeoea aei
i?aaeaiey Ee?a II ia/aei aai i?aaeaiey

1.1 I?e?iaeiua oneiaey, yoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiiaio ia?aciaaiey
ainoaea?noaa

Caiee, ianaeaiiua ae?aaieie ia?naie, eeoue i?eaeeceoaeueii niaiaaeatho n
a?aieoeaie nia?aiaiiiai E?aia. B aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe oaeeo a?aieoe
i?inoi ia nouanoaiaaei. Auee ia?eiaeu, eiaaea ia?neaeneea oea?e
yaeyeenue aeaaeueaie aieueoae /anoe ecaanoiiai oiaaea ie?a, a eiua
a?aiaia iniiaiua ai?iaea eiia?ee iaoiaeeeenue a Ianiiioaiee, e caiaaeo
io nianoaaiii Ia?nee, a neo/aeinue e oae, /oi any oa??eoi?ey oea?noaa
ieacuaaeanue iiaeaeaiiie iaaeaeo a?aaeaeiaaaoeie ianoiuie i?aaeoaeyie.

Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue oa??eoi?ee Ia?nee caieiaao aunieia canooeeaia
iaai?uea (1200 i), ia?ana/aiiia ai?iuie o?aaoaie n ioaeaeueiuie
aa?oeiaie, aeinoeaathueie 5500 i/ Ia caiaaea e naaa?a ?aniieiaeaiu
ai?iua ianneau Caa?in e Yeueao?n, eioi?ua ia?aieytho iaai?uea a aeaea
aoeau V, inoaaeyy aai ioe?uoui e ainoieo. Caiaaeiua e naaa?iua a?aieoeu
iaai?uey i?eaeeceoaeueii niaiaaeatho n iuiaoieie a?aieoeaie E?aia, ii ia
ainoiea iii auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu, caieiay /anoue oa??eoi?ee
nia?aiaiiiai Aoaaienoaia e Iaeenoaia Io ieaoi eciee?iaaiu o?e iaeanoe:
iiaa?aaeuea Eanieeneiai ii?y, iiaa?aaeuea Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa e
thai-caiaaeiua ?aaieiu, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie ainoi/iia i?iaeieaeaiea
Ianiiioaineie ieciaiiinoe.

Aa?iaeio a naiai anaie?ii ecaanoiii o?oaea ia?a/eneyao ana ia?neaeneea
ieaiaia. Ia ia?aia ianoi ii noaaeo ia?nia, iana?aaaeia, ia?aoeaa e
ianieaa, caoai eaeoo iai oeae ae, aea?oneae, aa?iaiee, aeae, ia?aeu e
ae?iieee. Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiuie e iiaouanoaaiiuie, ii neiaai
Aa?iaeioa, auee iana?aaaeu. Aeae, ia?aeu e ae?iieee auee ei/aaieeaie,
inoaeueiua — caieaaeaeueoeaie.

?e/a?ae O?ae, aiaeeeneee enneaaeiaaoaeue yoiai aii?ina, n/eoae, /oi
i?iieeiiaaiea e?aineeo ieaiai a ?aeii Caa?inneeo ai? ia/aeinue,
aa?iyoii, oaea a X a. aei i. y., iaeiaei e?aineea eiaia nianoaaiiua
iiyaeythony a enoi/ieeao, aeaeeii, eeoue n 879 a., a i ieaeyiao aia?aua
aiai?eony a iienaiee iioiaea Naeiaiana-?a III ia ainoie a 834-a.

Iacaaeieai aei yoiai iu ano?a/aai iacaaiea Ia?noa, i?e/ai iaa oiiieiaiey
— no?aiu Ia?noa e ieaeyi — naycaiu, nei?aa anaai, n iaicia/aieai
oa??eoi?ee n inaaeeui ianaeaieai, a ia n ei/aauie ieaiaiaie.2

A ae?aaiaeoaa a?aiy Ia?neaea ioiineeanue e yeaineie eoeueoo?iie iaeanoe.
Caeanue, ia iiaa?aaeuea Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, eiaaea-oi noiye ae?aaiee
yeaineee ai?iae Eeyi.

Eiaaea caeanue aia?aua iiyaeeenue e?aioeu – iaecaanoii. No?aia
Ia?noiao(Ia?noao) oiiieiaaony eae e?aeiyy ec yeaineeo caiaeue oaea a
iaaeiene anne?eeneiai oea?y Oaiao-Aaeaaea V(823-810 aiaea aei i. y.) e a
iaaeiene Neiiaoa?eaa iiae 691 aiaeii aei i. y. a nayce n aeoaie i?e
Oaeoea, a oaeaea a ?yaea anne?eeneeo ienai oea?neiai a?oeaa, ioiinyueony
e niauoeyi 653-652 aiaeia aei i. y., aiciiaeii, e anoue Ia?neaea.

1.2 Yeiiiieea Ia?nee aei ainnoaiey 553-550 aiaeia aei i. y.

A 9-7 aa. aei i.y. iniiaiui caiyoeai ia?nia auei neioiaiaenoai:
?acaiaeeee iaaoe, ei?ia, aa?aethaeia e eioaaeae. A iaeaieaa
aeaaii?eyoiuo ?aeiiao i?ioeaaoaei caieaaeaeea: ii/aa ia?aaaouaaeanue n
iiiiuueth nioe, a ia aicaeaeaiiuo iieyo au?aueaaeenue y/iaiue e
ioaieoea. Aeey ecaioiaeaiey i?oaeee o?oaea e i?oaeey ia?nu oe?iei
eniieueciaaee aeaeaci, iaaeue e a?iico, cieioi e na?aa?i oiio?aaeyee
aeey oe?aoaiee.

A noi?iia io ianeieueeeo aeaaiuo aei?ia ii aeeeiiui e oceei ai?iui
aeieeiai auee ?aca?inaiu iinaeaiey ouny/ naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iauei.
Iie aaee iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai, a neeo eciee?iaaiiinoe io ninaaeae
iiiaea ec ieo inoaaaeenue a noi?iia io aiei e iaoanoaee e a oa/aiea
iiiaeo aaeia auiieiyee aaaeioth ienneth ii nio?aiaieth i?aainoaaiiinoe
eoeueoo?u, noieue oa?aeoa?iie aeey ae?aaiae enoi?ee Ia?nee.3

1.3 Nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey. Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea e aaeieieno?aoeaiia
ono?ienoai

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iniiau aoaiaieaeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
naycaiu n ?iaeiauie eee ieaiaiiuie i?aaiauie onoaiiaeaieyie,
nouanoaiaaaoeie aua a ia?eiae a?eeneie iauiinoe.

A ae?aaiai E?aia, ianiiiaiii, nio?aieeenue ia?aaeeoee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo o eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa i?aaenoaaeaiee ia eniuoaiee iaiai
eee eeyoaie; nouanoaiaaee oaeaea e ?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu eieoeeaoeee. A
E?aia, i/aaeaeii, eeyeenue Aoo?a Iacaeie, iiaeiaii oiio, eae eeyioony
aiaaie iianthaeo. Iu ciaai oaea i ooieoeee Ieo?u eae
aiaeanoaa-io?aieoaey aeiaiai?a o a?eeoeaa. Niaethaeaieth aeiaiai?a, aai
nayoinoe ioaaaeaii iiiai ianoa a ia?neaeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae aai enoi?ee.

Iu ?anniao?eaaee aei neo ii? aeaaiui ia?acii aeayoaeueiinoue aa?oiaiie
aaeieieno?aoeee, oianeaaeiaaaoae iiiaia io i?aaeoanoaaiieeia aea?aeaau
Aoaiaieaeia. (Aieueoa iiaiaaaaeaiee iiaeii ioiaoeoue a no?oeoo?a
oi?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiuie iaeanoyie: I?iaeioeee e aannaeueiua oea?noaa
nouanoaiaaee oaea a Anne?ee e a Ieaeee, ii i?e Aoaiaieaeao nenoaia
nao?aiee iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea. Iiaua nao?aiee o/eouaaee
iieeoe/aneea e yoie/aneea a?aieoeu i?aaeieo aeaaeaiee. Oeooe «oea?ue
oea?ae» i?eia?ae oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue aeaaiaea?y E?aio; anne?eeoeu aai
ia ciaee, ii a O?a?oo ii oaea oiio?aaeyeny.) N?aaee nao?aiia iu iaoiaeei
aoaiaieaeneeo i?eioeaa e ianoiuo aeaaeaoaeae. Aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey
nao?aiee ai iiiaii eiie?iaae oeaio?aeueioth aaeieieno?aoeeth. Nao?aiee
aeaeeeenue ia aieaa iaeeea aaeieieno?aoeaiua aaeeieoeu, ai aeaaa eo
noiyee ia?nu eee i?aaenoaaeoaee ianoiie ciaoe. A oeaeii, naaaeaiee i
i?iaeioeeaeueiii aaeieieno?aoeaiii aiia?aoa i/aiue iaiiiai; no?oeoo?a
aai, i/aaeaeii, ?acee/aeanue ii ioaeaeueiui nao?aieyi.

?aaiou, i?iaiaeeaoeany a i?iaeioeeyo e o?aaiaaaoea i?eaea/aiey aieueoiai
/enea ethaeae, iiea/eaaeenue, aa?iyoii, ca n/ao ianoiuo iaeiaia, a ia ec
oeaio?aeueiie eaciu, oiaaea eae. cieioi e na?aa?i aeieaeiu auee
iaiieiyoue oea?neea noiaeoee, Nthaea aea noaeaeenue e aeioiaeu io
iiianoee, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo naiiio oea?th, io ?oaeieeia e e??eaaoeeiiiuo
nii?oaeaiee, eioi?ua oaeaea .aeinoaaeyee ia?iiiua noiiu. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue cieioa ?anoiaeiaaeanue ia aieiu eee oea ia iiaea?ee, ?acaeaaaaiua
oea?ai. Ec a?a/aneeo enoi/ieeia ecaanoii, neieueei aeaiaa o?aoeeinue
Ia?neaeneei oea?ai e nao?aiaie ia iiaeeoi a?aeia.

*aeaiea iiiao nouanoaiaaea aei Aoaiaieaeia; i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi
ia?auie ia/aee auione iiiao a ainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa eeaeeeoeu.
Aieueoay /anoue cieioa e na?aa?a ?anieaaeyeanue e o?aieeanue a neeoeao
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aana, oae /oi eiee/anoai iiiao auei aeiaieueii
ia?aie/aiii, e iieueciaaeenue eie, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, aeey auieaou
aeaeiaaiey a?a/aneei iaaiieeai e oi?aiaee n a?aeaie e
n?aaeecaiiiii?neeie ai?iaeaie. Cieioi auei ?aaeeinoueth, iii eiieeinue a
oea?neie nie?iaeuieoea. Iiiaou, iaoiaeeaoeany a ia?auaiee, iau/ii
oeaieeenue ii aano, iiaeiaii neeoeai. Oieueei oea?ue oea?ae eiae i?aai
/aeaieoue cieiooth iiiaoo. Nao?aiu /aeaieee iaaeiua e na?aa?yiua iiiaou,
ii iineaaeiea iiaee auioneaoueny e iieeiaiaeoeaie — yoe iiiaou
i?aaeiacia/aeenue i?aaeaea anaai aeey aiaiiuo ioaeae.

1.4 Aiaoiyy iieeoeea

A na?aaeeia VII aa. aei i.y. aiaeaeai iana?aaaeia noae Aoaiai, eioi?ue
i?eeacae iacuaaoue naay oea?ai. Ii no?aieeny iauaaeeieoue ana
ia?neaeneea ieaiaia iiae naiae aeanoueth. Ieaeeeneia oea?noai,
?aniieaaaaoaany naaa?iaa, iiiaoaei aio a yoii. Oea?ue Ieaeee O?ai?o
iioae aieiie ia ia?nia. O iaai auea iiiai/eneaiiay, oi?ioi aii?oaeaiiay
e aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiay a?iey, iiyoiio ii auno?i iiae/eiee ?ac?iciaiiua
ia?neaeneea ieaiaia e iaeiaeee ia ieo aeaiue.

Iana?aaaeu e eo aiaeaeue Aoaiai ieacuaaee naiia neeueiia e
i?aaieciaaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea, ii ieaeeeneay a?iey a ?acoeueoaoa
ianeieueeeo iiaaae iiae/eieea e eo.

A eiioea VII aaea aei i.y. a Ieaeeth aoi?aeenue neeou. Ieaeeeneee oea?ue
Eeaena? ii/oe 30 eao aae n ieie ai?ueao. Ia?nu a ia?aua a yoio ia?eiae
?aoeee inaiaiaeeony io ieaeeeneiai aiaoa. Ianeieueei ia?neaeneeo ieaiai
iauaaeeieeenue iiae ia/aeii Oaenia, nuia Aoaiaia. Ii Eeaena?, eiaaea
ni?aaeeny ni neeoaie, ?acaee ainnoaaoeo ia?nia.

Iinea nia?oe Oaenia ia?neaeneeie ieaiaiaie oi?aaeye aai ieaaeoee a?ao
Ee?, iioii aai ieaiyiiee Eaiaec.4 O Aa?iaeioa, Enaiioiioa e Eoaney iu
iaoiaeei iiae?iaiua naaaeaiey i aeecie Ee?a II e i aai naycyo n
ieaeeeneei aeai?ii. E niaeaeaieth, aieueoay /anoue yoeo naaaeaiee iineo
eaaaiaea?iue oa?aeoa?. Iiiai enneaaeiaaiee iinayuaii oae iacuaaaiie
eaaaiaea i Ee?a; caeanue iao aiciiaeiinoe ianoaeaeaoue aa iiae?iaii.

Niaea?aeaiea eaaaiaeu, eae iia eceiaeaia o Aa?iaeioa (I, 107— 130),
oiiieiathuaai i nouanoaiaaiee e o?ao ae?oaeo, iaiaa aeinoiaa?iuo aa?nee
enoi?ee Ee?a (I, 95 e 214), naiaeeony a iniiaiii e neaaeothuaio. Anoeaao
i?enieeny ceiaauee nii, e ii ioaeae naith aei/ue a aeaiu ia?no Eaiaeco,
oae eae aiyeny auaeaoue aa ca ciaoiiai ieaeyieia, eioi?ue iia
iiiuoaoueny caaeaaeaoue o?iiii. Io yoiai a?aea ?iaeeeny Ee?, ii iiaue
nii aicaanoee Anoeaao, /oi Ee? iiaeao naa?aiooue aai, e iioiio ii
i?eeacae oaeoue’ ieaaeaioea. Anoeaa ii?o/ee yoi naeaeaoue naiaio
aeaaiiio niaaoieeo, ii Aa?iaa ioaeae iaeue/eea ianoooo, aeaia eioi?iai
oieueei /oi ?iaeeea ia?oaiai ?aaaiea. Ianooo e aai aeaia aianoi Ee?a
auaeaee o?oi ?aaaiea, oae /oi o Aa?iaaa ia auei iniiaaiee aeey
aaniieienoaa. AEaio ianoooa caaee Niaei, /oi, eae niiauaao Aa?iaeio,
icia/aei ii-ieaeeenee «niaaea», eai a?a/. aoii niioaaonoaoao a
eiaeeeneii c?a&a (I, 110). Yoa eaaaiaea ia?aeeeeaaony n oe?iei ecaanoiui
ieoii i ?iioea e ?aia, ?aaaiea, anei?ieaiiii aie/eoeae eee niaaeie (n?.
Aa?iaeio, I, 122). Eiaaea Ee?o eniieieeinue aeanyoue eao, Anoeaa
«iiiciae» aai, ii iaae ia nae ?ac eia/a enoieeiaaee niu, oae /oi Anoeaa
ia?anoae aiyoueny Ee?a e aeaaea ioi?aaee iaeue/eea e ianoiyuei aai
?iaeeoaeyi a Ia?aeaeo. Aeinoeaioa c?aeinoe, Ee? iiaeiye ainnoaiea.
I?ioea iaai auea iineaia eiaeeeneay a?iey ai aeaaa n Aa?iaaii, ii /anoue
aienea e nai Aa?iaa ia?aoee ia noi?iio Ee?a, a inoaeueiua aaaeaee.
Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy Anoeaa aue ?acaeo a n?aaeaiee e acyo a ieai. A
?anneaca i?eaiaeyony aua iiiaea iiae?iaiinoe, eceaaathony, a /anoiinoe,
i?e/eiu eciaiu Aa?iaaa. Iaeioi?ua eonee yoiai ?anneaca, eiiaaea n
aa?eaoeeyie, iiaoi?ythony, e o ae?oaeo, aieaa iicaeieo, aioe/iuo
aaoi?ia.

A eiioea eiioeia Ee? iaiineo ii?aaeaiea ieaeyiai e caoaaouaaao Yeaaoaio.
*ai iiaeii iauynieoue noieue neeueiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aa?neyie Eoaney e
Aa?iaeioa? I?iua anaai n/eoaoue, /oi Eoanee iaia?aiii io?eoeae oea?neia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea Ee?a. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi Enaiioiio a naiae «Ee?iiaaeee»
?aoeoaeueii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi Ee? Noa?oee aue nuiii Eaiaeca, oea?y
ia?nia, e Iaeaeaiu, aei/a?e Anoeaaa. Iao, aeaeeii, iniiaaiee
niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi Ee? aeaenoaeoaeueii i?ienoiaeee ec oea?neiai
?iaea Aoaiaieaeia e /oi ii iiaeiye ainnoaiea e n iiiiuueth naieo ieaeyi
iaian ii?aaeaiea eiaeeeneiio oea?th. A enoi/ieeao eiathony
naeaeaoaeuenoaa, oeacuaathuea ia aeanoieinoue Anoeaaa e aai
iaiiioey?iinoue n?aaee naieo iiaeaeaiiuo.

1.5 Eoeueoo?a

Ee? II iino?iee ai?iae ia ianoa Iana?aaae e ?oeiu ae?aaiaai ai?iaea
aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu ei a?aiaie iniiaaoaey Aoaiaieaeneie aea?aeaau.
?acaaeeiu Iana?aaae iaoiaeyony a 43 ei ii i?yiie (naiieaoii) e naaa?o io
Ia?naiiey; anee aeiae?aoueny ii aei?iaa, oi yoi ?annoiyiea oaeaaeaaaony.
Ai?iae eaaeeo ia aunioa ieiei 1800 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y (oa aea ioiaoea o
Oaiaaeaia), oae /oi a ea/anoaa ceiiae ?aceaeaioeee ii aue
iaeioaeiaai.Yoe iaaeiene e?aoee e o?aaiaioa?iu, ii aucuaatho aieueoie
eioa?an. A iaeiie ec ieo, nio?aieaoaeny a o?ao aa?neyo —
ae?aaiaia?neaeneie, yeaineie e aeeaaeneie e ninoaaeaiiie a iau/iie aeey
oea?neeo iaaeienae oi?ia, aiai?eony: «ss — Ee?, oea?ue, Aoaiaieae». Yoa
iaaeienue iiaoi?yaony, ii iaiueoae ia?a, iyoue ?ac ia iyoe eieiiiao
aeai?oea a Iana?aaaeao. Iia yaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiui
a?aoiaioii aeey oao enneaaeiaaoaeae, eioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi
ae?aaiaia?neaeneia neiaiaia ienueii oiio?aaeyeinue aua aei Aea?ey.
Iaeiaei iaee/ea noiaeiuo oi?ioe n eiaiai Aea?ey a iaaeienyo ia ae?yo,
ioiinyueony, ianiiiaiii, ei a?aiaie iinea Aea?ey, ineaaeyao
oaaaeeoaeueiinoue yoiai a?aoiaioa. Aanueia noaiaea?oiue oei
aoaiaieaeneeo e?aoeeo iaaeienae oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi ae?aaiaia?neaeneay
eeeiiienue eiaea aanueia ia?aie/aiiia i?eiaiaiea, iia oiio?aaeyeanue
aeaaiui ia?acii i?e Aea?ee e, aiciiaeii, auea ecia?aoaia a aai
i?aaeaiea. Aeieacaii, /oi ae?oaay iaaeienue n eiaiai Ee?a ec Iana?aaae
auea auna/aia i?e Aea?ee — ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaia?oaeaiiua
iaaeaaii iiaua o?aaiaiou iaaeiene, a oaeaea yaii aieaa iicaeiyy aeaoa
nii?oaeaiey caeaiey, a eioi?ii auea iaeaeaia iaaeienue. Ionthaea
neaaeoao, /oi iiiaea iino?ieee a Iana?aaaeao auee aicaaaeaiu oaea i?e
Aea?ee, a ia i?e Ee?a.

A aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe aue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai eoeueo aaeeeie
aiaeie-iaoa?e, neiaiea aeaoi?iaeaeaiey e ieiaei?iaeey. A Yeaia aa
iacuaaee Ee?eneoa, e ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?oyineiai ia?eiaea aa
ecia?aaeaiey ioeeaaeenue ia eo?enoaineeo a?iiciauo ecaeaeeyo e
auiieiyeenue a aeaea noaooyoie ec oa??aeiou, einoe, neiiiaie einoe e
iaoaeeia.

AEeoaee E?aineiai iaai?uey iieeiiyeenue e iiiaei aiaeanoaai Ianiiioaiee.
Iinea oiai eae ia?aay aieia a?eaa i?ioea /a?ac E?ai, caeanue iiyaeeenue
oaeea eiaeie?aineea aiaeanoaa, eae Ieo?a, Aa?oia, Eiae?a e Ianaouey. Ai
anao aa?iaaieyo iai?aiaiii i?enoonoaiaaea ia?a aiaeanoa – aiaeiy,
ieeoeaoai?yaoay Nieioea e Caieth, e aa noi?oa, ieeoeaoai?yaoee Eoio e
i?e?iaeiua noeoee. Ianoiua aiae iineee eiaia ieaiai e ia?iaeia, eioi?ua
ei iieeiiyeenue. A Yeaia auee naie aiaeanoaa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aiaeiy
Oaea e aa noi?oa Eioooeiae. Aoaiaieaeneee ia?eiae iciaiaiiaaeny
?aoeoaeueiui iiai?ioii io iieeoaecia e aieaa oieaa?naeueiie nenoaia,
io?aaeathuae aa/ioth ai?ueao iaaeaeo aeia?ii e ceii. Naiay ?aiiyy ec
iaaeienae yoiai ia?eiaea – iaoaeee/aneay aeiua/ea, ecaioiaeaiiay aei 590
aei i.y., – niaea?aeeo eiy aiaa Aao?aiacaeu (Aoo?aiacaeu). Einaaiiui
ia?acii iaaeienue iiaeao yaeyoueny io?aaeaieai ?aoi?iu iacaeaecia
(eoeueoa Aao?aiacaeu), inouanoaeaiiie i?i?ieii Ca?aoooo?ie, eee
Ci?iano?ii, i /ai iiaanoaoaony a Aaoao, ae?aaieo nayuaiiuo aeiiao.

Ee/iinoue Ca?aoooo?u i?iaeieaeaao ieoouaaoue oaeia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ii
?iaeeeny ie. 660 aei i.y., ii, aiciiaeii, cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, a iiaeao
auoue, e iiiai iicaea. Aia Aao?aiacaea ieeoeaoai?ye aeia?ia ia/aei,
enoeio e naao, ii-aeaeeiiio, a i?ioeaiaan A?eiaio (Aia?a-Iaiueth),
ieeoeaoai?aieth ceiai ia/aea, oioy naii iiiyoea Aia?a-Iaiueth iiaei
iiyaeoueny e iicaeiaa. Ee/iinoue Ca?aoooo?u i?iaeieaeaao ieoouaaoue
oaeia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ii ?iaeeeny ie. 660 aei i.y., ii, aiciiaeii,
cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, a iiaeao auoue, e iiiai iicaea. Aia Aao?aiacaea
ieeoeaoai?ye aeia?ia ia/aei, enoeio e naao, ii-aeaeeiiio, a i?ioeaiaan
A?eiaio (Aia?a-Iaiueth), ieeoeaoai?aieth ceiai ia/aea, oioy naii iiiyoea
Aia?a-Iaiueth iiaei iiyaeoueny e iicaeiaa. A iaaeienyo Aea?ey
oiiieiaaony Aao?aiacaea, a ?aeueao ia aai iiaeea ecia?aaeaao iieeiiaiea
yoiio aiaeanoao o aea?oaaiiiai iaiy. Eaoiiene aeatho iniiaaiea
iieaaaoue, /oi Aea?ee e Ena?en aa?eee a aannia?oea. Iieeiiaiea
nayuaiiiio iaith i?ienoiaeeei eae aioo?e o?aiia, oae e ia ioe?uouo
ianoao. Iaae, ia?aiia/aeueii /eaiu iaeiiai ec ieaeeeneeo eeaiia,
i?aa?aoeeenue a ianeaaenoaaiiuo ae?aoeia. Iie iaaece?aee ca o?aiaie,
caaioeeenue ia oe?aieaiee aa?u, eniieiyy ii?aaeaeaiiua ?eooaeu.
Ii/eoaeanue yoe/aneay aeieo?eia, iniiaaiiay ia aeia?uo iiiuneao, aeia?uo
neiaao e aeia?uo aeaeao. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai Aoaiaieaeneiai ia?eiaea
i?aaeoaee aanueia oa?ieii ioiineeenue e ianoiui aiaeanoaai.

Iiieii eieinnaeueiiai eiee/anoaa i?aaeiaoia ec ea?aieee eneeth/eoaeueii
aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey eco/aiey Ae?aaiaai E?aia eiatho ecaeaeey,
auiieiaiiua ec oaeeo aeieaiaa/iuo iaoa?eaeia, eae a?iica, na?aa?i e
cieioi. Ia?iiiia /enei o.i. eo?enoaineeo a?iic auei iaia?oaeaii a
Eo?enoaia, a ai?ao Caa?ina, ai a?aiy iaeaaaeueiuo ?aneiiie iiaee
iieoei/aauo ieaiai. Yoe ia eiathuea aiaeiaia ia?acoeu aeeth/aee i?oaeea,
eiineoth na?oth, oe?aoaiey, a oaeaea i?aaeiaou n ecia?aaeaieyie noeai ec
?aeeaeiciie aeecie eee ia?yaeiaiai iacia/aiey. Aei neo ii? o/aiua ia
i?eoee e aaeeiiio iiaieth ioiineoaeueii oiai, eai e eiaaea iie auee
ecaioiaeaiu. A /anoiinoe, auei auaeaeiooi i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi iie
nicaeaaaeenue n 15 a. aei i.y. ii 7 a. aei i.y., aa?iyoiaa anaai –
eanneoaie eee neeoi-eeiia?eeneeie ieaiaiaie. A?iiciaua ecaeaeey
i?iaeieaeatho iaoiaeeoue a i?iaeioeee Aca?aaeaeaeai ia naaa?i-caiaaea
E?aia. Ii noeeth iie nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io eo?enoaineeo a?iic,
oioy, ii-aeaeeiiio, e oa e ae?oaea ioiinyony e iaeiiio e oiio aea
ia?eiaeo. A?iiciaua ecaeaeey ec Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai E?aia noiaeiu n
iiaaeoeie iaoiaeeaie, naeaeaiiuie a oii aea ?aaeiia; iai?eia?, iioiaee
ae?oa ia ae?oaa iaoiaeee neo/aeii iaia?oaeaiiiai eeaaea a Ceaea e
caia/aoaeueiue cieioie eoaie, iaeaeaiiue ai a?aiy ?aneiiie a
Oanaieo-Oaia. Yoe i?aaeiaou ioiinyony e 9-7 aa. aei i.y., a eo
noeeeciaaiiii i?iaiaioa e ecia?aaeaiee aiaeanoa i?iniao?eaaaony
anne?eeneia e neeoneia aeeyiea.

Ae?aaiaeoay ienueiaiiinoue E?aia i?aaenoaaeaia iiea aua ia
?anoeo?iaaiiuie iaaeienyie ia i?ioiyeaineii ycuea, ia eioi?ii aiai?eee a
Nocao ie. 3000 aei i.y. Ai?acaei aieaa ?acaeoua ienueiaiiua ycuee
Ianiiioaiee auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeenue a E?aia, e a Nocao e ia E?aineii
iaai?uea iiiai aaeia ianaeaiea iieueciaaeinue aeeaaeneei ycueii

I?eoaaeoea ia E?aineia iaai?uea a?ee i?eianee n niaie eiaeiaa?iiaeneea
ycuee, ioee/iua io naieoneeo ycueia Ianiiioaiee. A Aoaiaieaeneee ia?eiae
oea?neea iaaeiene, auna/aiiua ia neaeao, i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
ia?aeeaeueiua eieiiee ia ae?aaiaia?neaeneii, yeaineii e aaaeeiineii
ycueao.

A?oeoaeoo?iuo iaiyoieeia aeiaoaiaieaeneiai ia?eiaea ia nio?aieeinue,
oioy ia ?aeueaoao a aeai?oeao Anne?ee ecia?aaeaiu ai?iaea ia E?aineii
iaai?uea. Aanueia aa?iyoii, /oi aua aeieaia a?aiy e i?e Aoaiaieaeao
ianaeaiea iaai?uey aaei iieoei/aaie ia?ac aeecie e aeey ?aaeiia auee
oeie/iu aea?aayiiua iino?ieee.

A eoiaa iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia?nu n iiaaaeie Ee?a iaae Anoeaaii ia
i?inoi inaiaiaeeeenue ec iiae eiicaiiiai aeaaeu/anoaa, ii e noaee
iaeaaeaoue aeanoueth ia oieueei ?aeeaeiciie, ii e naaoneie.

Aeaaa 2. Caaiaaaoaeueiua iioiaeu Ee?a

2.1 Caaiaaaiea Eeaeee

Caaeaaeaa Ieaeeeneei oea?noaii, i?e/ai iaeioi?ua iaeanoe i?eoeinue
iiae/eieoue aiaiiie neeie, Ee? noae i?iaeieaeaoue iieeoeeo caaiaaaiee,
ia/aooth Eeaena?ii. Ii Eeaena? aeaenoaiaae oieueei a ieaeeeneeo
eioa?anao, (Ee? aea i?e i?iaaaeaiee naiae iieeoeee iie?aeny ia oieueei
ia ia?nia e ieaeyi, ii e ia ecaanoiua a?oiiu ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna
ia?aaeiauo no?ai Ainoiea, a /anoiinoe Aaaeeiiee, Oeieeee e o. ae.).

I?iaeieaeaieai iieeoeee Eeaena?a auea e ia?aay aieia n Eeaeeae.
Eeaeeeneia ainoaea?noai, ecaeaaia nouanoaiaaaoaa a aeieeia Aa?ia, a
caiaaeiie /anoe Iaeie Acee, nua?aei, aa?iyoii, aieueooth ?ieue a
iecaa?aeaiee aeaaeu/anoaa o?eaeeoeaa, a caoai eeiia?eeoeaa a Iaeie Acee.
A nayce n iaoanoaeai eeiia?eeoeaa a na?aaeeia VII a. aei i. y., i?e Aeaa
(anne?. Aoaao, aa?. Aia), iecaa?aioaoai oea?y Eaiaeaaea e iniiaaaoai
iiaoth aeeianoeth Ia?iiaaeia, Eeaeeae auee onoaiiaeaiu ioiioaiey n
Anne?eae e iaeaaeaia naycue n Ainoieii e Aaeioii. Oea?e ec ?iaea
Ia?iiaaeia, caaiaaaa Ea?eth e Ieneaeeth ia thaa, Ieneth e Iaoeaaiieth ia
naaa?a e O?eaeth ia ainoiea, ?anoe?eee naie aeaaeaiey aei Aaeena. Eeaeey
naeaeaeanue iin?aaeieeii a oi?aiaea iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e Ainoieii,
iaania/eaay aieaa aaciianiue oi?aiaue iooue, /ai iau/iue ii?neie. Iia
caaycaea ioiioaiey n a?a/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie ia oieueei a naiie Iaeie
Acee, ii e a Aa?iia: eeaeeeneea oea?e auee e ia?auie oeeyeeeiaie e
i?aoaiaeiaaee ia ?ieue a?aeo?ia a a?a/aneeo aeaeao. Ia oi?aiaea n
Caiaeii e Ainoieii Eeaeey /?acau/aeii ?acaiaaoaea: aiaaonoai E?aca,
iineaaeiaai eeaeeeneiai oea?y, aioei a iiaiai?eo. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a
Eeaeee ?aiueoa, /ai ai anao ae?oaeo no?aiao, ia/aee /aeaieoue iiiaoo.

Eeaeeeneee oea?ue E?ac, ainiieueciaaaoenue iaaeaieai ieaeeeneie
aea?aeaau, niae?aeny auei ?anoe?eoue naie aeaaeaiey, ii a yoi a?aiy
i?ioea iaai aunooiee Ee?. Iinea n?aaeaiey, ia ?aoeaoaai enoiaea
eaiiaiee, Ee? inaaeee E?aca a aai noieeoea Na?aeao e anei?a acye ai?iae.
Anoue aeaa aa?nee aeaeueiaeoae noaeueau E?aca: aeeaaeneie o?iieee
(aiai?eo i oii, /oi E?ac aue oaeo) e Aa?iaeioa, ooaa?aeaeathuaai, /oi
Ee? iaio?eny n E?acii ieeinoeai.

Ee?, ooaa?aeea a Eeaeee Ia?neaeneia ainiiaenoai, aica?aoeeny a Yeaaoaiu,
/oiau aioiaeoueny e aieia n Aaeo?eae, Aaaeeiieae, naeaie e Aaeioii.
Iaeiaei n?aco aea iinea aai ooiaea a Na?aeao aniuoioei ainnoaiea, oae
/oi Ee?o i?eoeinue ioi?aaeoue aua iaeio a?ieth i?ioea iianoaioeaa.
Niaeanii Aa?iaeioo, iieeiaiaeoeai, iiei?eaoei eiieeneea ai?iaea, aue oio
aea ieaeyiei Aa?iaa, eioi?ue i?aaeae Anoeaaa e ia?aoae ia noi?iio Ee?a.
Iioiiee yoiai Aa?iaaa inoaeenue a Aiaoieee. Caaiaaaiea eiieeneeo
ai?iaeia e i?aa?auaiea eo a aoaiaieaeneoth nao?aieth Na?aeu iao/eei
ia?nia ?acaeaeyoue a?aeia e aeanoaiaaoue iaae ieie, a oaeaea iieacaei
ia?nai aeaenoaaiiinoue iiaeeoia.

Ia?neaeneay aea?aeaaa oianeaaeiaaea io Eeaeee a? oi?aiaua iooe, eioa?anu
a A?aoeee, nayce n a?a/aneie oi?aiaeae e acaeiiioiioaiey n eiieeneeie
ai?iaeaie – /anoe/ii ae?oaeaneea, /anoueth a?aaeaeaaiua. Ia?neaeneay
aea?aeaaa «iaa?ioeanue eeoeii» e ii?th. Yoi iaaeieai ii?aaeaeeei oiae
?acaeoey a? enoi?ee.

2.2 Caaiaaaiea Aaaeeiiee

Iauaeoii neaaeothuaai ec ecaanoiuo iai iioiaeia Ee?a aue Aaaeeii,
eioi?iio a?iceea iianiinoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n thaa, a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aoiaea i?aaeieo nithcieeia ia noi?iio Ee?a.

A Aaaeeiiee aeeyoaeueiua oi?aiai-?inoiaue/aneea e ae?a/aneea e?oae auee
iaaeiaieueiu oea?ai Iaao-ia’eaeii, a a aiaiiii ioiioaiee Aaaeeiiey auea
a yoio iiiaio e?aeia neaaa. I?aaaea, iai?iieoaeueiua nii?oaeaiey,
aicaaaeaiiua Iaaooiaeiiini?ii II aie?oa Aaaeeiia, auee oaeiau, /oi anee
au aaaeeiineay a?iey ieacaea na?ueaciia nii?ioeaeaiea, oi iia iiaea au,
auoue iiaeao, auaea?aeaoue iaoene ia?nia. Ii eae ?ac nii?ioeaeaiea auei
ieacaii niaa?oaiii ie/oiaeiia.

A oaiioca (ethia — ethea) 538 a. aei i. y. aienea Ee?a iiae ia/aeuenoaii
Aia?ey iaianee ii?aaeaiea aaaeeiiyiai i?e Iiena ca Oea?ii. 14 oaiioca
(12 ethey) Aia?eth aac aiy naeaeny ai?iae Neiia?, a 16 oaiioca (14
ethey)— Aaaeeii. Ne?ey, Oeieeey e Ianiiioaiey oaeaea aac o?oaea auee
caoaa/aiu ia?naie, /anoueth, iiaeao auoue, aua ?aiueoa Aaaeeiia. Iiaaaea
Ee?a auea iaea?aeaea aeaaiaea?y i?yiiio iiniaie/anoao ainiiaenoaiaaaoeo
a Aaaeeiia ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa — ae?a/anoaa, oi?aiaoeaa e ?inoiaueeia.
Oi?aiai-?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneea e?oae Aaaeeiia— e?oiiaeoaai oeaio?a
oiaaeaoiae oi?aiaee—ioaeaeaeenue a nicaeaiee aaeeeie aea?aeaau, eioi?ay
iauaaeeiyea au iniiaiua no?aiu ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, iaania/eea au
aioo?aiiee ie?, oaeiaiua iooe e ioe?uea ?uiee, ia eioi?uo
ainiiaenoaiaaee au aaaeeiiyia. ?acaeaeaiea noa?u aeeyiey ia naaa?a
Ianiiioaiee iaaeaeo Ieaeeae (a iicaea Ia?neae) e Aaaeeiieae,
ianiiniaiinoue aaaeeiineiai oea?y iaania/eoue ainiiaenoai a Ne?ee,
Iaeanoeia e Naaa?iie Ianiiioaiee e iaiiioey?iay e aeeeoaeueiay aieia,
eioi?oth ii aae a Oeaio?aeueiie A?aaee, — ana yoi ia niioaaonoaiaaei
eioa?anai ainiiaenoaiaaaoeo e?oaia Aaaeeiia. Aeaaeu/anoai Ee?a, noeeaoaa
ioe?uoea iooae ia Ainoie e a Iaeoth Aceth, ii-aeaeeiiio, eacaeinue ei
aieaa aeaeaoaeueiui.

I?aaeaea anaai Ee? ainnoaiiaee ?yae o?aiia.. Ii aa?ioe ecia?aaeaiey
aiaeanoa, oaacaiiua ec aaaeeiineeo ai?iaeia io/anoe iineaaeiei
aaaeeiineei oea?ai Iaao-ia’eaeii, io/anoe ?aiaa. Ii i?eeacae oaeaea
aiiaue iono?ieoue ?ac?ooaiiue Iaaooiaeiiini?ii Ea?onaeeineee o?ai e
?ac?aoee aa?iooueny ia ?iaeeio eoaeaeneei ecaiaiieeai. Yoei ii iaaeayeny
iaania/eoue iaaeaaeiue oi?iino a caaeoiaiiie ei ai?ueaa n Aaeioii.
Ea?onaeei aue i?aa?auai a naiioi?aaeythueeny o?aiiaue ai?iae, eaeea oaea
?aiaa nouanoaiaaee e a Aaaeeiiee (Aaaeeii, Neiia?, Ieiio?, O?oe).
Nii?aaeoaeai Ee?a a Aaaeeiiee aue iaeioi?ia a?aiy aai nui Eaiaen. Ee?
i?eiye aaaeeiineea oea?neea oeooeu. Yoei ii eae au iaauae i?iaeieaeaoue
i?iaaaeeiineoth iieeoeeo. E?iia oiai, ii i?eiye oeooe «oea?y no?ai» e
«oea?y oea?ae», /oi i/aiue oi?ioi oa?aeoa?ecoao nouiinoue nicaeaiiie ei
aea?aeaau.

Iinea caoaaoa Aaaeeiiee ana caiaaeiua no?aiu aei a?aieoe Aaeioa
aeia?iaieueii iiae/eieeenue Ee?o. Oi?aiaua a?oiiu Oeieeee, eae e
aaaeeiineea e iaeiaceeneea eoioeu, auee caeioa?aniaaiu a nicaeaiee
aieueoiai ainoaea?noaa n aaciianiuie aei?iaaie, aaea any iin?aaeie/aneay
oi?aiaey iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e Ainoieii auea au nin?aaeioi/aia a eo ?oeao.
Ee? iauaaeeiee Aaaeeiieth e ana caiaaeiua no?aiu a iaeio nao?aieth,
eioi?ay iieo/eea iacaaiea «Aaaeeii e Ca?a/uea». Ia?aui iaianoieeii yoie
ia?iiiie nao?aiee, aiciiaeii, aue Aoaa?o, iieeiaiaeaoe Ee?a, eioi?ue aei
caoaaoa Aaaeeiiee yaeyeny nao?aiii Ieaeee. Anei?a iinea caoaaoa
Aaaeeiiee ii oia?. Nao?aiii Aaaeeiiee e Ca?a/uey a oa/aiea aeanyoe
neaaeothueo eao, io 4 a. Ee?a aei 5 a. Eaiaeca (535/34—525/24), aue
e?aiaoe, eioi?iai caaee Aia?eai. Ii ae?oaie aa?nee, Aia?ee e Oaaa?o aue
iaeiei e oai aea eeoeii, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaee ia/eiay n
aicieeiiaaiey nia?oe a 525/524 Ee?, ianiiiaiii, aioiaeeny caoaaoeoue e
Aaeiao. Iaeiaei ii ?aoee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaaciianeoue naaa?i-ainoi/iua
a?aieoeu naiaai ainoaea?noaa io aoi?aeaiey ei/aauo neeoneeo ieaiai
N?aaeiae Acee. Ioi?aaeyynue ia Ainoie, Ee? iacia/ee a 530 a. aei i. y.
naiaai noa?oaai nuia Eaiaeca oea?ai Aaaeeiiee, nio?aiea ca niaie oeooe
oea?y no?ai.

2.3 Caaiaaaiea Aaeo?ee. Iineaaeiee iioiae Ee?a

Anee iiei?aiea Aaaeeiiee aiaeaeei Ee?a a n?aaeecaiiiii?neoth iieeoeeo e
iinoaaeei ia?aae iei caaea/o caaiaaaiey Aaeioa — iinoiyiiiai niia?ieea
ia?aaeiaaceaoneeo aea?aeaa, oi aeey ainiiaenoaa iaae E?aiii aio
‘iaiaoiaeeii auei aea?aeaoue a naieo ?oeao Aaeo?eth.

Aaeo?eeoeu auee neeueiie ia?iaeiinoueth eee, aa?iaa, a?oiiie ieaiai.
Aaou, aa?iyoii, oa?aeoa?ecotho no?ie eo iauanoaa a ia/aea I ouny/aeaoey
aei i. y.

A?a/aneea aaoi?u, eae auei oeacaei auoa, oiiieiatho i nouanoaiaaaoai a
ae?aaiinoe «Aaeo?eeneii oea?noaa». Noaey ii a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui, a
VII—VI aa. aei i. y. caieaaeaeea, ia aaca inaiaiey oaoieee aeaeaca,
auoiaeeo caeanue ca ‘I?aaeaeu iaeaiueeeo i?aaeai?iuo iacenia:
nicaeathony e ia/eiatho ?acaeaaoueny caieaaeaeue/aneea iacenu a
aannaeiao aieueoeo n?aaeiaaceaoneeo ?ae. Aicieeatho i?aaeiinueee aeey
nicaeaiey eeanniaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Iiiai/eneaiiay ?aianeaiiay ea?aieea
oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aia?aua aicieeatho e?oiiua
iinaeaiey ai?iaeneiai oeia: Ia?a-eaiaea (Naia?eaiae) a Niaaeeaia,
ai?iaeeua Ayo?iEaea (Ia?a) a Ia?aeaia, Aaeo?u (Aaeo), ai?iaeeua Eaea-e
Ie? (Eiaa-aeeai) a Aaeo?ee. Aa?iyoii, a Aaeo?ee VII—VI aa. aei i. y.
oaea neeaaeuaaeinue eeanniaia iauanoai e aicieeaee iaaieueoea
ainoaea?noaa; ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe iiaee inouanoaeyoue aaaaiiieth iaae
inoaeueiuie. Aiciiaeii, /oi caeanue, eae e a Ieaeee, i?iaeieaeaea aua
nouanoaiaaoue eiioaaea?aoeey ieaiai, niea/eaaaoay ieaiaia e iaeeea
?aiiaainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaiey Aaeo?ee a aeie aieiu. Aiciiaeii,
iaeiaei, /oi neiaeeeinue oaea e ainoaea?noaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea Aaeo?ee y
i?eiueaaoeo e iae iaeanoae.

Aaeo?ey n/eoaeanue a ae?aaiinoe iaeiie ec ieiaei?iaeiaeoeo no?ai
Ainoiea. Neaaeeanue iia, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, eiiaaiaenoaii. Aaaeiaeoei aa
iinaeaieai auee «Ceaoieiiiua Aaeo?u» (nia?. Aaeo a Naaa?iii
Aoaaienoaia); a ae?aaiinoe eo noaaeee a iaeei ?yae n oaeeie aaaeiuie
ai?iaeaie, eae Aaaeeii, Nocu, Yeaaoaiu, Ia?naiieue, Na?aeu e ae?oaea.
E?iia Aaeo?, caeanue auei aua iiiaeanoai oe?aieaiiuo iinaeaiee;
iaeioi?ua ec ieo oaia?ue iaeaeaiu a?oaieiaaie. A aeieeia Iena
(Aio-Aea?uee e Aaooa) nouanoaiaaei caieaaeaeea, iniiaaiiia «a
eneonnoaaiiii i?ioaiee. Ii naiaio ?acaeoeth e neea Aaeo?ey, aa?iyoii,
iaei ioee/aeanue io Ieaeee e Ia?neaeu. Ia caiaaea Aoaiaieaeneie
aea?aeaau aa nouanoaiaaiea caaenaei noieueei aea io iieiaeaiey a
Aaaeeiiee, Oeieeee e o. ae., neieueei io neeu ia?neaeneiai aienea. A
i?aaeaeao aea E?aia ainiiaenoai Aoaiaieaeia ?aoaeinue ai?ueaie i?eia?ii
?aaiuo ii neea iauanoa: ieaeeeneiai, ia?neaeneiai e aaeo?eeneiai.
Iiyoiio-oi iiei?aiea Aaeo?ee e auei iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeey Ee?a
caaea/, eae i oii aiai?eo Aa?iaeio.

Noiaeiui n iieiaeaieai a Aaeo?ee auei e iieiaeaiea a Oi?acia ia ieaeiai
oa/aiee Iena. ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae iieaaaao, /oi e caeanue neiaeeeinue
iaoe?iia ?aiiaainoaea?noaaiiia eee ieaiaiiia iauaaeeiaiea, ioaaoeaoaa e
ninaaeiea iaeanoe (Niaae, aeieeio Oaaeae’aia-Aa?e?oaea?).

Ii niiauaieth Eoaney — aaoi?a yaii i?iieaeeeneie i?eaioaoeee—
ia?aiia/aeueii Ee? ia niia iiei?eoue Aaeo?eth. Eeoue ociaa, /oi Anoeaa
i?eciae Ee?a naiei caeiiiui ianeaaeieeii, aaeo?eeoeu aeia?iaieueii
iiae/eieeenue ia?nai. Enaiioiio a naiae iaeiaeinoiaa?iie «Ee?iiaaeee»
oiiieiaao i nouanoaiaaiee a yoi a?aiy aaeo?eeneiai oea?y. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu. Aa?iaeio iacuaaao Aaaeeii, Aaeo?eth, Aaeiao, a oaeaea e naeia
aaaeiaeoeie i?ioeaieeaie Ee?a iinea iiei?aiey Eeaeee. Aiciiaeii, /oi
iiae/eiaiea Ee?o iiaouanoaaiiiai (ii oneiaeyi Ainoi/iiai E?aia e
N?aaeiae Acee) Aaeo?eeneiai oea?noaa iinea iaaeaiey Anoeaaa auei
oi?iaeueiui, a oaeoe/anee iii i?iaeieaeaei inoaaaoueny iianiui ninaaeii
ia?nia. Iu ie/aai ia ciaai i caaiaaaiee Ee?ii Aaeo?ee, a oaeaea
Niaaeeaiu (ca Ienii) e Oi?acia. Iaeiaei i?e aai i?aaiieea yoe iaeanoe
aoiaeeee a Aoaiaieaeneoth aea?aeaao. Ii oaea?aeaoue yoe iaeanoe iiaeii
auei oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee au oaeaeinue iaania/eoue eo
aaciianiinoue io n?aaeiaaceaoneeo ei/aaieeia: naeia, iannaaaoia e o. ae.
Caueoa inaaeeiai ianaeaiey io ei/aaieeia auea oaeei aea. Iaiaoiaeeiui
oneiaeai aeey aeaaiiieo/ey Aaeo?ee, Niaaeeaiu e Oi?acia, eae e caaioa ia
i?ioaiee. Iiyoiio, eae i?aaeeueii ioia/aao Aa?iaeio, iiei?aiea
ei/aaieeia auei aua iaeiie ianouiie caaea/ae, noiyuae ia?aae Ee?ii.

Caeanue, a N?aaeiae Acee, Ee? e iae a aith n ei/aaieeaie — n eaeeie
eiaiii, oi/ii iaecaanoii: a?a/aneea aaoi?u iacuaatho ?aciua ieaiaia.
Oae, Aa?inn iacuaaao aeaaa— ia?oyineia ieaiy, aeeaoaa a nia?aiaiiie
Oo?eiaiee, Eoanee —aea?aeeia, aeeaoeo, ii No?aaiio, «?yaeii n
Ae?eaieae», ii-aeaeeiiio, e naaa?o io iaa, o. a. a Oo?eiaiee, ieiei
nia?aiaiiiai E?aniiaiaenea. Ai?i/ai, nai Eoanee iiiauaao aea?aeeia ia
a?aieoea Eiaeee. Yoi aiciiaeii, oae eae e ae?oaea ei/aaua ieaiaia,
iai?eia? aeae, ia?aeu, naaa?oee, ano?a/aeenue a naiuo ?acee/iuo ianoao
N?aaeiae Acee e E?aia.

Aa?iaeio aea iacuaaao iineaaeieo a?aaia Ee?a iannaaaoaie, iiiauay eo «ca
A?aenii» (Nu?-Aea?ueae). Yoi, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, ai a?aiaia Aa?iaeioa
auei aeiaieueii iaii?aaeaeaiiui iacaaieai aeey ei/aaieeia naaa?iie /anoe
N?aaeiae Acee. Iiyoiio Iiiiae O?ia iacuaaao eo aua aieaa iaii?aaeaeaiii
neeoaie, o. a. oae, eae a?aee e ?eieyia iacuaaee naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
naaa?iuo ei/aaieeia.

Ii No?aaiio, iannaaaou aeeee, eae e naee, a ainoi/iie /anoe
n?aaeiaaceaoneeo noaiae e auee ?iaenoaaiiu aeeoaeyi Oi?acia; iaeoaee iie
ca Nu?-Aea?ueae, a oaeaea a ai?ao, ia ?aaieiao, ino?iaao e a aieioao
ieciaee Nu?-Aea?uee. A yoeo aea ianoao aeeee’ iie, aa?iyoii, e i?e Ee?a.
O iannaaaoia ainiiaenoaiaae ?iaeiaie no?ie e a?oiiiaie a?ae. Ii
niiauaieyi aioe/iuo ienaoaeae, oi?aaeyee iannaaaoaie aeaiueiu. Iiaeiaii
aea?aeeai, iannaaaou oaeaaee noa?eeia. Aa?iaeio[I, 216] aeaao
/?acau/aeii ethaiiuoiia iienaiea iannaaaoia, eioi?ia noieo i?eaanoe
oeaeeeii: «Ii iaeaaeaea e ia?aco aeecie iannaaaou iioiaee ia neeoia.
N?aaeathony iie aa?oii ia eioaaeyo e iaoea: ciatho iaa niiniaa (aieiu);
n?aaeathony eoeaie e eiiueyie; aii?oaeaiu iaueiiaaiii naee?aie. Ana
i?aaeiaou o ieo ec cieioa e iaaee: ana, /oi o?aaoaony aeey eiiee, no?ae
e naee?, ecaioiaeyaony ec iaaee; aieiaiua oai?u, iiyna e ‘ia?aayce
oe?aoathony cieioii. Oaeaea ec iaaee aeaeatho iie a?oaeiua iaioee?e. E
aeey eioaaeae; iai?ioea, ocaea/ee, oaeeea e oaea?u i?eaioiaeythony ec
cieioa. AEaeaca e na?aa?a iie aiana ia oiio?aaeytho… iau/ae eo oaeiau:
oioy eaaeaeue ec ieo aeaieony ia iaeiie aeaiueia, ii aeaiaie iie
iieuecothony niiaua… I?aaeaea aeecie o ieo ia iieaaaaony aiana, ii eoi
i/aiue ninoa?eony, e oiio noiaeyony ana ?iaenoaaiieee, oaeaatho aai, a
aianoa n iei e ?aciue neio, aa?yo yoi aianoa e iiaaeatho… Iie ie/aai
ia natho, ieoaynue aeiiaoieie aeeaioiuie e ?uaie, eioi?oth a eciaeeee
aeinoaaeyao ei ?aea A?aen (Nu?-Aea?uey). Iie iuetho iieiei. Ec aiaia
/ooo oieueei nieioea, eioi?iio i?eiinyo a aea?oao eioaaeae».

Ia?aae Ee?ii noiyea e ae?oaay caaea/a — caueoa naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ?oaaaeae
eiia?ee io iaoanoaee ei/aaieeia ec N?aaeiae Acee. Oaea ioia/aeinue, /oi
iu ia ciaai, eae aeaeaei ia ainoie i?inoe?aeenue aeaaeaiey ieaeyi,
iaeiaei aa?iyoii, /oi caeanue, eae e ia caiaaea, caaiaaaiey Ee?a oee
iiae oeaaii iiae/eiaiey caiaeue, ?aiaa iaoiaeeaoeony a caaeneiinoe io
Ieaeee, a iuia ia?aoiaeeaoeo e iaio. A iaeioi?uo ec yoeo iaeanoae
ianoaiiaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, neiaeeeanue aeaaii?eyoii aeey Ee?a e ii/aa
aeey aeeth/aiey a ninoaa eiia?ee auea iiaeaioiaeaia, aeaaea oaeea
no?aiu, eae Aaeo?ey e A?aoiney, aio i?eoeinue caaiaauaaoue ia/ii.
Aa?iaeio (I, 205—215), iiae?iaii iienuaaao iioiae Ee?a i?ioea
iannaaaoia, aeeaoeo e ainoieo io Eanieeneiai ii?y. Anei?a iinea ia/aea
eaiiaiee Ee? ioi?aaee ia?aoii a Ia?neth naiaai nuia e ianeaaeieea
Eaiaeca a nii?iaiaeaeaiee E?aca, auaoaai eeaeeeneiai oea?y. Ai nia Ee?o
yaeeny thiue Aea?ee, nui Aenoania e aioe A?naia, neaaeiaaoaeueii oiaea
ec ?iaea Aoaiaieaeia. Ia iea/ao Aea?ey Ee? oaeaeae e?ueuey, oaiue
iaeiiai ec ieo ia?eea iaae Aceae, aoi?iai — iaae Aa?iiie. Iineieueeo
Aea?eth aua ia auei aeaaaeoeaoe eao — aic?ano iaiaoiaeeiue aeey o/anoey
a iioiaeao,— e ii inoaaaeny a Ia?nee, aaeeeee oea?ue iiaaeae Aenoanio
aa?iooueny ooaea e neaaeeoue ca nuiii, iiea aieia ia caeii/eony, /oi
Aenoani e naeaeae.

A ia?aie aeoaa oniao niioonoaiaae Ee?o — ii iaian ii?aaeaiea iannaaaoai
e acye a ieai nuia eo i?aaeaiaeeoaeueieoeu, oea?eoeu Oiie?en. Ieaiiue
oea?aae/ iieii/ee n niaie, ii a neaaeothuae aeoaa aoaiaieaeneia aienei
auei ?acaeoi, a nai Ee? iiaea. Yoi i?iecioei ieiei 530 a. aei i. y.,
iinea aeaaaeoeaoe aeaayoe eao oea?noaiaaiey. Aa?ney i aeaaee Ee?a,
iiae?iaii ?anneacaiiay Aa?iaeioii; eaaeaony iaeaieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiie;
yoie aa?nee, n iaeioi?uie ioeeiiaieyie, neaaeoao aieueoeinoai aioe/iuo
aaoi?ia (a oii /enea e Eoanee), eiiaaea caiaiyy eeoue iannaaaoia naeaie,
aea?aeeaie eee ae?oaeie ei/aaieeaie.

Nio?aieeinue aaaeiia naeaeaoaeuenoai, iicaieythuaa noaeeoue i i?aaeaeao
caaiaaaiee Ee?a a N?aaeiae Acee,— ai?iae Ee?ynoaoa eee Ee?iiieue a
Niaaeeaia, acyoue ooo?iii e ?ac?ooaiiue Aeaenaiae?ii Iaeaaeiineei. Yoio
ai?iae oiiieiaaony ai iiiaeo enoi/ieeao, aai iacaaiea yoeiieiaece?oaony
eae «ai?iae Ee?a» e ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n Eo?eao (Eea-&a) —naeaieai,
?aniieiaeaiiui iaiiaeaeaeo io ai?iaeneiai oeaio?a n?aaeiaaaeiaie
Ono?ooaiu, e naaa?i-ainoieo io Naia?eaiaea. ?a/ue eaeao, i/aaeaeii, ia
iaeiii ec ai?iaeia, iniiaaiiuo Ee?ii aeey caueou ainoi/iuo a?aieoe
aea?aeaau e aeeth/aaoeo a naay oe?aieaiiia iinaeaiea, aaea ?aniieaaaeny
aa?iecii. Ee? inoaaee aeoaieee neaae a iaiyoe ia?nia ia oieueei eae
iniiaaoaeue eiia?ee. Aai eiaiai, anee iaioeoeeaeueii, oi, ii e?aeiae
ia?a, a ia?iaeiuo i?aaeaieyo, ia?aeaeenue ?aee, ianoiinoe, ai?iaea.
Aa?iaeio (III, 89) niiauaao, /oi ia?nu e ai a?aiaia Aea?ey I aniiieiaee
i iyaeina?aea/ee Ee?a e iacuaaee aai iooeii. Ecaanoii ianeieueei
aa?eaioia «eaaaiaeu i Ee?a», oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a ia?iaea. Ana yoi
iieacuaaao, eaeei aieueoei oaaaeaieai e neiiaoeae iieueciaaeny
iniiaaoaeue aeeianoee.

Ee? aue iaeiie ec iaeaieaa auaeathueony ee/iinoae ae?aaiae enoi?ee. Ii
i?iecaiaeee ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea ia nia?aiaiieeia. Aaea
ioaeii—iacaiaaeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea (iioiae i?ioea Eeaeee), aaea ioaeii
— oiaiea aeaeaoue (iioiae i?ioea Aaaeeiia), iaeciaiiua aiaiiua oniaoe,
oiaiea i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio anao, a iiiiue eiai ii aue
caeioa?aniaai, — ae?oaeie neiaaie, i?aaeeueiia iiieiaiea naieo caaea/ e
oiaeia eo auiieiaiea — aio /oi oa?aeoa?eciaaei Ee?a eae iieeoe/aneiai
aeayoaey.

Aeaaa 3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai a Ia?neaea e a caieyo, caai?aaiiuo
a ?acoeueoaoa iioiaeia Ee?a Aaeeeiai e Eaiaeca II e eiioeo i?aaeaiey
Eaiaeca II

3.1 Aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai

Ai aeaaa iiauo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ie?oaia noiyee nao?aiu. Ec o?oaea
Aa?iaeioa (III, 89 e ae.) auoaeaao, /oi aeieaeiinoue nao?aia aia?aua
auea aaaaeaia Aea?iai I. Iaeiaei oeooe nao?aia nouanoaiaae aua aei
aicieeiiaaiey Ieaeeeneie aea?aeaau aeey iaicia/aiey naiinoiyoaeueiuo
aiaeaeae a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii E?aia [24, n. 154 e 323—324; 25, n. 303].
Aiciiaeii, aeieaeiinoue nao?aia — iaeanoaia/aeueieea nouanoaiaaea e a
Ieaeee, oioy e ia eneeth/aii, /oi iia auea aaaaeaia eiaiii i?e
Aoaiaieaeao [n?. 35, n. 361; 24, n. 323]. Ai anyeii neo/aa, aeieaeiinoue
nao?aia ecaanoia n ia/aea aicieeiiaaiey Aoaiaieaeneie aea?aeaau, ii i?e
Ee?a e Eaiaeca iaianoieeaie iiiaeo no?ai auee ianoiua oea?e, aiaeaee e
/eiiaieee, eae aua a Anne?eeneie e Ieaeeeneie eiia?eyo. Oioy nao?aiu ai
iiiaii iioiaeeee ia iaeeeo oea?ueeia, a eo aeai?u e aaeieieno?aoeey
eiie?iaaee aeai? e i?aaeoaeuenoai oea?y oea?ae, iineaaeiee iieueciaaeny
cia/eoaeueiie aeanoueth e i?e ?aoaiee aioo?aiieo aeae nao?aiee. Oea?ue
oea?ae aue aa?oiaiui noaeueae e aunoae einoaioeeae aeey aiaeeyoeee. Oioy
a iineaaeiee ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey aea?aeaau iianaianoia,
i?aeoeeiaaeinue iauaaeeiaiea aiaiiie e a?aaeaeaineie aeanoe a ?oeao
nao?aia, ii oea?ue oea?ae inouanoaeye aa?oiaiue eiio?ieue iaae a?ieae.
Nao?ai aeieaeai aue iaania/eaaoue iinooieaiea iaeiaia, oi?aaeyoue
yeiiiieeie, auiieiyoue noaeaaiua ooieoeee e eiio?iee?iaaoue iieeoe/aneia
iieiaeaiea a nao?aiee. Ninoaa nao?aiee ia inoaaaeny iaeciaiiui,
?acee/iua iaeanoe aea?aeaau eiaee naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe e n.
oi/ee c?aiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, iaeiaei iianaianoii nao?ai iieueciaaeny
aieueoie aeanoueth. Ia?nu eae i?aayuee ia?iae, iniiaa iiaouanoaa
Aoaiaieaeia, auee inaiaiaeaeaiu io oieaou iiaeaoae e ianaiey
iiaeiiinoae, ii aeieaeiu auee iinoaaeyoue aienei. Io?yaeu ia?nia
neoaeeee aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeaie ?iaeeiu, e Aea?ee a naieo iaaeienyo n
ai?aeinoueth aiai?eo i iiaaaeao, iaea?aeaiiuo ia?neaeneeie aieiaie.
Iaaieueoea eieiiee ia?nia iaoiaeeeenue ai anao iaeanoyo aea?aeaau—
aiaia/aeueieee, nieaeaou, noaeuee e ae?oaea /eiiaieee ec /enea ia?nia
ioi?aaeyeenue a naiua ioaeaeaiiua eiioeu no?aiu, /oiau neoaeeoue oea?th
oea?ae.

Aeaeaa, i?e Ee?a e Eaiaeca a?aaeaeaineea e aiaiiua ooieoeee auee
iauaaeeiaiu a ?oeao iaeiiai e oiai aea eeoea, a eiaiii nao?aia. Ia yoii,
a /anoiinoe, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeieoiaiou i aeayoaeueiinoe nao?aia
Aoaa?o a Aaaeeiiee e Ca?a/uea, eioi?ue iaeiia?aiaiii aue a?aaeaeaineei e
aiaiiui iaianoieeii.

Enaiioiio ooaa?aeaeaao[Oec., IV. 10-13], /oi o ia?nia aiaiiia
eiiaiaeiaaiea auei iieiinoueth ioaeaeaii io aaeieieno?aoeaiiai. Ii aai
neiaai, eiiaiaeaio aa?ieciia iaycai aue iaania/eaaoue ie? a iiaeaeanoiie
aio iaeanoe, a i?aaeoaeue iaeanoe – yeiiiie/aneia i?ioeaaoaiea e oieaoo
iiaeaoae. Iaeiaei yoi auei aeaeaei ia oae.

Oeooe nao?aia iineee ia oieueei iaianoieee e?oiiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ie?oaia, ii oaeaea e ia/aeueieee aieaa iaeeeo iaeanoae, aoiaeeaoeo a
ninoaa oao eee eiuo nao?aiee. Iie iaoiaeeeenue a iiae/eiaiee o
niioaaonoaothueo iaeanoaia/aeueieeia. Iiyoiio aeaeaeneea enoi/ieee
aiai?yo i 120—127 nao?aieyo io Eiaea aei Yoeiiee aianoi 20 nao?aiee,
oiiieiaaiuo Aa?iaeioii. Ia?nu ea?aee a naiae eiia?ee aeaaainoaothuoth
?ieue, iaeiaei, oioy yoa aea?aeaaa e ia auea aeaoaaeeiui ainoaea?noaii
Aaanao?aia, ieaeyia caieiaee aaaeiua iinou i?e aeai?a ia?auo
Aoaiaieaeia. Aieia n E?acii iiaea ?anniao?eaaoueny Ee?ii eae
ni?aaaaeeeaay, eai ?a/ue oea i i?eniaaeeiaiee no?aiu, caoaa/aiiie
eeaeyiaie a oi a?aiy, eiaaea a?iee Ieaeee n?aaeaeenue n ia?naie. Ee?
aunooiae eae ianeaaeiee Anoeaaa, a iioiio n/eoae naay iaycaiiui
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue o?aaeeoeee e caaioeoueny i iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe a?aieoe
Ieaeeeneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Iiaaaeu ia?nia a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia i?aainoiaeeee aiaiiuo oniaoia
i?aaeieo caaiaaaoaeae e iaei /ai ioee/aeenue io ieo, oioy aiaiiia
eneonnoai, ianiiiaiii, oaaioei aia?aae a nayce n i?eiaiaieai eaaaea?ee e
niioaaonoaaiii eciaiaieai oaeoeee. Iiaeeeiii iiaui, ioee/iui io eo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia auea iieeoeea i?eie?aiey, iai?aaeaiiay ia aeinoeaeaiea
iniiaiie oeaee Ee?a — nicaeaiea pax Achaemenica. Aeey yoiai Ee? aeieaeai
aue nio?oaeie/aoue n iiei?aiiuie ia?iaeaie. Ath?ie?aoe/aneee aiia?ao,
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oi?aaeaiey iaoe?iie eiia?eae, iaae?aeny i?aaeaea anaai
ec n?aaeu ienoeia Ne?ee e Ianiiioaiee., Eae a eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?a
Aoaiaieaeia, oae e a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aea?aeaau auee i?aaenoaaeaiu
?aciua noeoee; iiiaaeiaeeenue aaiee Ee?a e a aua aieueoae ia?a Aea?ey,
/oiau eo neioace?iaaoue. Aieaa /ai aa?iyoii, /oi nicaeaiea aaeeinoaa
Aoaiaieaeneie aea?aeaau auei aeaeii Aea?ey, ii Ee? caeiaeee iniiau yoiai
aaeeinoaa.

3.2 Noaeii?iecaiaenoai

Ia?nu eiaee naia i?eieoeaiia i?aai, iniiaaiiia ia iau/ayo. ?aoaiey oea?y
auee iineaaeiae einoaioeeae e ia iiaeeaaeaee eciaiaieth. Ii oea?ue
aeieaeai aue i?aaeoue a niioaaonoaee n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie onoaiiaeaieyie
ia?nia, niaaoiaaoueny n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naie ciaoiuo ?iaeia, eioi?ua
ea?aee aieueooth ?ieue a i?aaiaie aeecie no?aiu. A iniai aaaeiuo neo/ayo
oea?ue niae?ae niaao, eioi?ue ninoiye ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ciaoe. A ?aiiee
ia?eiae o ia?neaeneeo ieaiai ooieoeeiie?iaaei ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, ia
eioi?ii ?aoaeenue aaaeiaeoea aeaea. Oea?ue iia onoaiaaeeaaoue iiaua
caeiiu, nnueaynue ia aeaeaiea Aoo?a-Iacaeu.

Aeey ?anniio?aiey iaeaieaa aaaeiuo i?anooieaiee noaeuee iacia/aeenue
ee/ii oea?ai. Iai?eia?, aeey noaea iaae a?iyineei oea?ai, eioi?ue
eciaiee nithco n ia?naie, Ee? II nicaae ia?neaeneeo e eiaeeeneeo
i?aaeaiaeeoaeae.

Iau/iua i?anooieaiey ?anniao?eaaeenue oea?neeie noaeueyie, eioi?ua
iacia/aeenue ec ciaoiuo ia?nia iiaeeciaiii e n ianeaaenoaaiiie
ia?aaea/ae naieo aeieaeiinoae. Iie ?ac?aoaee oyaeau iaaeaeo ia?naie, a
oaeaea oieeiaaee caeiiu e iau/ae. Aia?aua oea?neea noaeuee oiiieiathony
i?e Eaiaeca II. Ii ?anneaco Aa?iaeioa (V, 25), iaeei ec oea?neeo noaeae
ii eiaie Nenaii a?ae acyoee. Eaiaec aaeae niae?aoue n iaai eiaeo,
auaeaeaoue aa e iaoyiooue noaeaeneia e?anei acyoi/ieea. Caoai Eaiaec
iacia/ee noaeueae nuia eaciaiiiai, i?eeacaa aio auiineoue ?aoaiey, neaey
ia yoii e?anea. Iinea caoaaoa Aaeioa ia?naie oea?neea noaeuee
iinoaiiaeee eacieoue ca eaaeaeiai iiaeaoaai aieia ec a?iee Eaiaeca ii
aeanyoue ciaoiuo aaeioyi.

I?anooieaiey i?ioea oea?y eee aai naiuee ea?aeenue nia?oiie eaciueth.
*anoi ca oaeea i?anooieaiey iaeacuaaee anth naiueth, /oi nicaeaaaei
e?oaiaoth ii?oeo.

3.3 Naeueneia oicyenoai

A aoaiaieaeneee ia?eiae ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea i?iecioee cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey a nenoaia caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Ia?aaaouaaaiay caiey auea oi/ii ecia?aia, e eo/oay aa /anoue
i?eiaaeeaaeaea oea?th, o?aiai, oi?aiaui aeiiai. aiaiiie ciaoe,
/eiiaieeai oea?neie e o?aiiaie aaeieieno?aoeee. A Aaaeeiiee, Aaeioa,
Yeaia e Ia?nee ec ca?iiauo eoeueoo? /aua anaai nayee y/iaiue,
cia/eoaeueii ?aaea iieao e ioaieoeo. Iineaaeiyy auea iniiaiui i?iaeoeoii
ieoaiey a Iaeanoeia, aaea oaeaea au?aueaaee ai?io, /a/aaeoeo e ai?/eoeo.
E?iia y/iaiy a Aaaeeiiee nayee i?ini, nacai, ai?io, eai, ai?/eoeo,
/aniie e eoe, a ec iaiuae e o?oeoia au?aueaaee iao?oeu, yaeiee, a?aiaou
e aa?eeinu. A Aaaeeiiee e Yeaia ia?yaeo n y/iaiai iniiaiui i?iaeoeoii
ieoaiey auee oeieee, ec eioi?uo aeaeaee oeaa, aeii, oenon, iaae.
Noai?iaeoeou oeieeiauo iaeuei (aaoae, aieieia e o. ae.) eniieueciaaeenue
eae ei?i neioo, a oaeaea aeey ieaoaiey aeaa?ae ‘ e ia?aae, ecaioiaeaiey
aa?aaie, iaoeia, oeeiiaie e aeaaea iaeaaeaeu.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea Aa?iaeioa, /oi a Ia?nee ia ?anoao eiaee? e /oi aaaeeiiyia
ia ciaee aeiia?aaea, iaaa?ii, oae eae yoe eoeueoo?u oiiieiathony a
oaenoao ec E?aia e Aaaeeiiee. A Ne?ee, Eeee-eee, Ia?nee, A?iaiee e
Niaaeeaia auei ?acaeoi aeiiaeaeea (i?e yoii a Ia?nee oaea a ae?aaiinoe
neaaeeenue oe?acneea aeia) “, a a Aaaeeiiee e Yeaia aeaaiui ia?acii
aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue ieaii ec y/iaiy e oeieeia. A Aaeioa ieai aa?eee ec
y/iaiy, e a aeieoiaioao ec Ia?naiiey oiiieiaaony aaeiaoneee ieaiaa?. O
e?aioeaa caiaaeiua ia?iaeu iao/eeenue au?aueaaoue eeiiiiia aea?aai, e
iiyoiio a?aee iacuaaee eeiiiu eiaeeeneei eee ia?neaeneei yaeieii. A
E?aia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo no?aiao Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea auei ecaanoii e
i/aeiaiaenoai.

Aaeiao, Aaaeeiiey, O?eaey e E?ai auee aiaaou neioii. Aa?iaeio (I, 133)
ieoao, /oi ia?nu a aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey, eioi?ue o ieo aue naiui aieueoei
i?acaeieeii, iiaeatho ia noie caaea?aiiuo oeaeeeii aueia, eiiae e
aa?aethaeia. Ca eneeth/aieai Ia?nee, aaea iyni aoiaeeei a aaeaaeiaaiue
?aoeeii ieoaiey, iii a ?yaea no?ai inoaaaeinue ?ineioueth. Aeaaea a
aiaaoie Aaaeeiiee iyni auei aeinooiii oieueei aiaaoui, a inoaeueiua aee
aai eeoue iyoue-oanoue ?ac a aiaeo (aeaaiui ia?acii ia o?aiiauo
i?acaeieeao). Iiei/iay ieua oaeaea caieiaea iacia/eoaeueiia ianoi a
iauai ?aoeeiia ieoaiey. A oaenoao aeeaioiua aee?u oiiieiathony i/aiue
?aaeei, e a Aaaeeiiee aeeoaeyi i?eoiaeeeinue aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny
eoiaeooiui, a a Iaeanoeia — ieeaeiaui ianeii. Ii a Aaeioa ieeaeiaia
ianei auei eiii?oiui e n/eoaeinue ?ineioueth, caoi aeeaioiua aee?u
noieee oai n?aaieoaeueii iaaei?iai.

A Ieaeee, Ia?nee e A?iaiee ?acaiaeeeenue eo/oea ii?iaeu eioaaeae, e
iniiaiui ei?iii eo auea ethoea?ia. Yoo o?aao noaee nayoue e a Aaaeeiiee
e aa e?aineia iacaaiea anianoa («eioaaeeiay aaea») auei caeinoaiaaii
aeeaaeneei ycueii, a ni a?aiaie a?aei-ia?neaeneeo aiei iia
?ani?ino?aieeanue e a A?aoeeth, aaea aa iacuaaee ieaeeeneie o?aaie.

A Aaaeeiiee ec aeiiaoiae ioeoeu auee ecaanoiu oieueei ooee e aone. A
oaenoao e?aiinoiie noaiu ec Ia?naiiey oiiieiathony aeaaiaaeoeaoue aeaeia
ioeoeu, a oii /enea eo?u, aone e ooee.

A Aaeioa e Aaaeeiiee aaaeiui i?iaeoeoii ieoaiey auea ?uaa, eioi?ay a
eciaeeee aiaeeeanue a ?aeao, ica?ao e aieioao. Aua a ae?aaiea a?aiaia
aaaeeiiyia ciaee iiiai niiniaia eiina?ae?iaaiey ?uau. A /anoiinoe, aa
nieeee, ayeeee, eiioeee, eiina?ae?iaaee a ?anoeoaeueiii niona e o. ae.

A Aaeioa e Aaaeeiiee aeiaeaeae auiaaeaei iaei, e iiyoiio aieueooth ?ieue
ea?aei eneonnoaaiiia i?ioaiea, A Aaaeeiiee o ai?iaea Neiia? aue
nii?oaeai aieueoie aannaei, /oiau ?aaoee?iaaoue e ?ani?aaeaeyoue aiaeo
eae ai a?aiy aanaiiaai iaaiaeiaiey, oae e ai a?aiy canooe, e ec yoiai
aannaeia oee e?oiiua eaiaeu. Aieueoay /anoue aaaeeiineeo eaiaeia
i?eiaaeeaaeaea ainoaea?noao, a iaeioi?ua — o?aiai e ioaeaeueiui eeoeai.
Ca iniaoth ieaoo oaeeie eaiaeaie iiaee iieueciaaoueny ana
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu. Aieueoea eaiaeu nouanoaiaaee oaeaea a N?aaeiae Acee.
*oi eanaaony naiie Ia?nee, a iaeioi?uo aa /anoyo, aaea aac
eneonnoaaiiiai i?ioaiey iaaiciiaeii auei iieo/aoue onoie/eaua o?iaeae,
oaeaea auee nii?oaeaiu eaiaeu.

E?oiiua caieaaeaaeaeueoeu aieueoae /anoueth naeaaaee naie caiee a
a?aiaeo. A?aiaeiay ieaoa auea aeaoo aeaeia: ?acia? aa eeai
onoaiaaeeaaeny oaea ca?aiaa i?e caeeth/aiee eiio?aeoa e caaenae io
ea/anoaa caiee e oiea/eaaeny iaoo?ie eee aeaiueaaie, eeai aea aeaaeaeaoe
iieo/ae ‘/c o?iaeay, a a?aiaeaoi? — 2/3. Eiio?aeo iau/ii caeeth/aeny ia
iaeei aiae.

Iaeeea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu ia?aaaouaaee naie o/anoee naie aianoa n /eaiaie
naiae, a eiiaaea e n iiiiuueth ?aaia e iaaiieeia, eioi?uo iau/ii
iaieiaee ia a?aiy oai?ee o?iaeay. O?oae iaaiieeia oe?iei i?eiaiyeny a
e?oiiuo oicyenoaao (iniaaiii a o?aiiauo), aaea iie ?aaioaee eeai e?oaeue
aiae, eeai ai a?aiy oai?ee o?iaeay. Eiiaaea oaeeo ?aaioieeia i?eaeaeaee
aeaaea ec ninaaeieo no?ai ca ieaoo e oa?/e, a iinea oai?ee o?iaeay iie
aica?auaeenue ia?aoii aeiiie.

3.4 Iaeiaiaay nenoaia

A aoaiaieaeneie aea?aeaaa, eae e iianthaeo, auei iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo
iaeiaia. Aceiaeenue iaeiae ca noiyieo noaeia a aaaaiyo, ?uii/iua iaeiae,
nai?u ca auacae a ai?iaeneea ai?ioa, ca iieueciaaiea aei?iaaie,
iia?aie/iua iioeeiu, iaeiae ca aeiiaoiee neio (aiciiaeii, aeanyoeia), a
oaeaea oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo. I?eiioaiey oea?th i?eo?i/eaaeenue e
i?acaeianoao Iiaiai aiaea; ai a?aiy iooaoanoaee oea?y ii oa??eoi?ee
aea?aeaau ia ianaeaiea eiaeeeenue aeiiieieoaeueiua iiaeiiinoe. Aieueoay
/anoue «aea?ia» e ?acee/iuo iaeiaia iinooiaea aeaaiui ia?acii iaoo?ie, a
ia caiieie iiiaoie. Ianaeaiea ianei e oyaeeoth o?oaeiaoth iiaeiiinoue ia
no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia, iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee e o. ae., nii?oaeaaiuo ii
i?eeaco oea?y eee nao?aiia. A oeaeii aeeciue i?inoiai ia?iaea auea
i/aiue iaeaaeie.

?aaiou, i?iaiaeeaoeany a i?iaeioeeyo e o?aaiaaaoea i?eaea/aiey aieueoiai
/enea ethaeae, iiea/eaaeenue, aa?iyoii, ca n/ao ianoiuo iaeiaia, a ia ec
oeaio?aeueiie eaciu, oiaaea eae. cieioi e na?aa?i aeieaeiu auee
iaiieiyoue oea?neea noiaeoee, Nthaea aea noaeaeenue e aeioiaeu io
iiianoee, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo naiiio oea?th, io ?oaeieeia e e??eaaoeeiiiuo
nii?oaeaiee, eioi?ua oaeaea aeinoaaeyee ia?iiiua noiiu. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue cieioa ?anoiaeiaaeanue ia aieiu eee oea ia iiaea?ee, ?acaeaaaaiua
oea?ai. Ec a?a/aneeo enoi/ieeia ecaanoii, neieueei aeaiaa o?aoeeinue
Ia?neaeneei oea?ai e nao?aiaie ia iiaeeoi a?aeia.

A eoiaa iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ainoaea?noai auei iieiinoueth oieoa?iui,
i?eiaaeeaaeauei e eeanne/aneiio Ainoieo, aiaaoui, ii n i/aiue aieueoeie
iaeiaaie a iieueco ainoaea?noaa e o?aiia, i/aiue aiaaouie o?aiiauie
oicyenoaaie. Ec-ca anaai yoiai i?ienoiaeeee i/aiue /anoua e i/aiue
iiiai/eneaiiua ainnoaiey. Ioaeii auei iaiyoue, ?aoi?ie?iaaoue anth
nenoaio oi?aaeaiey e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e enoi/ieeia

1. «Ianeaaeea E?aia /?e/a?ae Iaeuenii O?ae/ Ia?aaiae Aeaiaeaiaaaa
Iooaiiaaea Aaaeoeeaaeu?iae/a / Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Hayea»/ ?aaeaeoi? –
Aeaiaaeaiaaa Iooaiiaae Aaaeoeeaaeu?iae/, Iineaa— 468 n.

2. «Ia?neaeneea oea?e» / Oeiaoiae/ TH?ee Ieeieaaae/ / Ieine: Aaea?onue,
1999—329 n.

3. «I/a?e enoi?ee Ae?aaiaai E?aia» / Aeueyeiiia Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ /
Iineaa: Aeaaeaiey Iaoe NNN?: Einoeooo ia?iaeia Acee: Ecaeaoaeuenoai
ainoi/iie eeoa?aoo?u, 1961—418 n.

4. «Eoeueoo?a e yeiiiieea Ae?aaiaai E?aia»/Aeaiaeaiaaa Iooaiiaae
Aaaeoeeaaeu?iae/, Eoeiiei Aeaaeeie? A?eai?ueaae//Iineaa: «Iaoea»,
1980—416 n.

5. «E?ai i?e ia?auo Axeiaieaeao (VI a. aei i.y.)» / Aeaiaeaiaaa
Iooaiiaae Aaaeoeeaaeu?iae/ / Iineaa: Ecaeaoaeuenoai ainoi/iie
eeoa?aoo?u, 1963—290 n.

6.http://www.dielib.nio/ngibin/dl.cgi?l=ru&base=colier&page=showid&id==8
455

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