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Возникновение антидемократических альтернатив развития и социально-экономическое развитие цивилизации в первой половине ХХ века

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?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «Aicieeiiaaiea aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea ?acaeoey e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee a ia?aie iieiaeia OO
aaea»

Aicieeiiaaiea aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea ?acaeoey

Ie? anooiae a XX aae a ianoaiiaea oe?aieaiey eiaeono?eaeueiie
oeeaeeecaoeee, ?anoe?aiey aa a?aieoe (ia?aua aa ?inoee iiyaeeenue e a
Eaoeineie Aia?eea). Ii?aaeaeeeenue aaaeouea no?aiu, ia?auie
inouanoaeaoea iiaea?iecaoeeth: Aiaeey, NOA, O?aioeey. Eo oi?iieeenue
aeiaiaoue (a a /ai-oi aeaaea iia?aaeaee) Aa?iaiey e ssiiiey, ?inney e
Eoaeey, ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa. A iiauo oneiaeyo eciaieeinue e naii
iiiyoea «iiaea?iecaoeey»: iineieueeo a oeaeii ?yaea no?ai iia oaea noaea
naa?oeaoeiny oaeoii, oaia?ue iiae iae iiae?acoiaaaeinue oiaeia e auno?ia
iaeaaeaiea iiuoii ia?aaeiauo aea?aeaa, «iiaeoyaeaaiea» e iei.

I?aeiouanoaa iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee auee i/aaeaeiu, iie aeaaaee naay ciaoue
oaea ia oieueei a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, ii e a nioeeaeueiie noa?a.
Aeaaiaea?y iieeoeea nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i ainoaea?noai e iauanoai ia
?oaaaea XIX—XX aa. ana e?ai/a naycuaaee acaeiiua eioa?anu, /oi
iaania/eaaei a aaaeoueo no?aiao yaiethoeeiiiue iooue ?acaeoey e naiaeeei
e ieieioio ii/ao aeey aioo?aiieo eiioeeeoia. Iauanoai ana a aieueoae
ia?a noaiiaeeinue a?aaeaeaineei, o. a. nicaeaaaei iacaaeneioth io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa nenoaio i?aaiecaoeee e ianniauo aeaeaeaiee,
ionoaeaaaoeo i?aaa e eioa?anu a?aaeaeai. I?e yoii a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai
ia auei aeueoa?iaoeaie ainoaea?noaaiiui einoeoooai, iai?ioea, iii
aeiiieiyei eo, a ii?ie e i?aaeii?aaeaeyei eo oaae. Oae, iiuiia
i?ionithciia aeaeaeaiea ca ?anoe?aiea i?aa ?aai/eo ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeei
(iniaaiii a Aiaeee e a NOA) e eciaiaieyi a ioeoeeaeueiii ?aai/ai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

No?aieoaeueiue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa a aaaeoueo no?aiao «oeaio?a» aeeeoiaae
ei iooue yeiiiie/aneie yeniainee, eioi?ay a oneiaeyo oiai a?aiaie auea
oanii naycaia n iieeoe/aneie. A iineieueeo e eiioeo XIX a. aeaeaae
«ia?eoa?eeiuo» oa??eoi?ee e ?uieia nauoa a oeaeii aue oaea caaa?oai,
no?aiu eae au ?acaeaeeeenue ia «aeiaieueiua» e «iaeaeaiiua»: ia?aua
no?aieeenue cae?aieoue aeinoeaiooia, a aoi?ua aeaaeaeaee ia?aaeaea.

A yoie neooaoeee oi e aeaei aniuoeaaee ia?aie/aiiua aiaiiua eiioeeeou:
yiiii-eeoaeneay aieia (1894—1895), aia?eeaii-eniaineay (1898),
aiaei-ao?neay (1899—1902), ?onnei-yiiineay (1904—1905) e i?.
Noaiiaeeinue ana yniaa, /oi aeaei iiaeao eii/eoueny anaiauae noaaoeie, a
eioi?ie eaaeaeiio i?eaeaony ai?ioueny ca naay. Ii yoi ia iiaei i?eianoe
ie/aai, e?iia oaina, iiyoiio eiieo?e?othuea no?aiu no?aieeenue
iacaaanoenue neeueiuie e iaaeaaeiuie nithcieeaie. Ia/aeinue oi?ie?iaaiea
aiaiiuo aeieia, ec eioi?uo auaeaeeeenue aeaa: O?ienoaaiiue nithc n
o/anoeai Aa?iaiee, Aano?i-Aaia?ee e Eoaeee (ii aue caeeth/ai a 1882 a.)
e nithc ?innee, O?aioeee e Aiaeee, neiaeeaoeeny e 1907 a. e iacaaiiue
Aioaioie («niaeaneai»). Aicieeiiaaiea a oeaio?a Aa?iiu aeaoo iiuiuo
aiaiiuo a?oiie?iaie n ai iiiaii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eioa?anaie aeaeaei
«aieueooth» aieio iaecaaaeiie.

Iniaaiii ino?uie auee i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae (a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eo nithcieeaie) ia Aaeeaiao, eioi?ua oaea aeaaii
eiaiiaaee «ii?ioiaie ai/eie Aa?iiu». A 1908 a. Aano?i-Aaia?ey i?e
aeeieiiaoe/aneie iiaeaea?aeea Aa?iaiee i?eniaaeeieea auaoea iniaineea
aeaaeaiey Ainieth e Aa?oeaaiaeio, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee aua n 1878 a. auee
ieeoie?iaaiu aano?eeneeie aieneaie. A a 1912—1913 aa. ?ac?aceeenue aeaa
Aaeeaineea aieiu. A ia?aie ec ieo Aieaa?ey, Na?aey, A?aoeey e *a?iiai?ey
auno?i ?aca?iieee Oo?oeeth, i?e/ai iniiaiua ieiaeu iiaaaeu aeinoaeenue
Aieaa?ee. A anei?a ia/aeanue aieia iaaeaeo iae e aa auaoeie nithcieeaie,
e eioi?ui i?eniaaeeieeanue ?oiuiey. I?ioea aieaa? oaeaea aunooieea
«iaeaeaiiay» Oo?oeey, e aieaa?neay a?iey auea ?acaeoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa eeoaie aaeeaineeo i?ioeai?a/ee caiooaeny aua neeueiaa. 28
ethiy 1914 a. na?aneea iaoeeiiaeenou oaeee a Na?aaai, noieeoea Ainiee,
ianeaaeieea aano?eeneiai i?anoiea e aai aeaio. Aano?i-Aaia?ey iieo/eea
eaeaaeueiue iiaiae aeey iaiaaeaiey ia Na?aeth. Ii Na?aee
iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaaea ?inney, ?aoeoaeueii iiaeaea?aeaaoay aa e ia nae
?ac. Aeeieiiaoe/aneea iiiuoee o?aaoee?iaaoue eiioeeeo ie e /aio ia
i?eaaee. 28 ethey Aano?i-Aaia?ey iauyaeea aieio Na?aee, ?inney a ioaao
ia/aea anaiauoth iiaeeecaoeeth, a Aa?iaiey 1 aaaonoa iauyaeea aieio
?innee. A aieio aeeth/eeenue oaeaea O?aioeey, Aiaeey, a caoai e ae?oaea
ainoaea?noaa.

Oae ia/aeanue ia?aay a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ie?iaay aieia, a eioi?oth
iinoaiaiii aoyioeenue 34 no?aiu ia noi?iia Aioaiou e /aou?a aea?aeaau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai aeiea (Aa?iaiey, Aano?i-Aaia?ey, Oo?oeey e Aieaa?ey).
Ianooaau yoie aieiu, aea?oau e ?ac?ooaiey, eioi?ua iia i?eianea, i?inoi
ia oeeaaeuaaeenue a niciaiee ethaeae oie yiioe. Ca aiaeu aieiu a
aeaenoaothuea a?iee auei i?ecaaii aieaa 70 iei /aeiaae, 10 iei ec ieo
iiaeaee, i?eia?ii aaeaia aieueoa auei ?aiaii. AEanoieinoue (a oii /enea
e i?ioea ie?iiai ianaeaiey), n eioi?ie aaeanue aieia, auea ianeuoaiiie
aeey nia?aiaiieeia. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea a oiaea aieiu /aeiaa/aneay
aeeciue a ianniaii niciaiee iaanoeaieeanue, a aeooao ethaeae ?inea
iaeanoi/aiiinoue (eee, iai?ioea, aiaoey, aac?acee/ea ei anaio). E yoi
o?aae/anee neacaeinue ia aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee Aa?iiu e ie?a.

Iniaaiii oyaeaeua iineaaenoaey eiaea aieia aeey enoi?e/aneeo noaeaa
?innee e Aa?iaiee. I?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee, a aiaiiua aiaeu ?aaioaaoae n
i?aaeaeueiie iaa?oceie, auei ana neiaeiaa iaania/eaaoue ioaeaeu a?iee,
iaeaaei auei ?aoaoue e aii?inu i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai niaaaeaiey. ?in
aiaoiee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea ?innee: ae oi e aeaei i?eoiaeeeinue
i?eaaaaoue e oeiainiaie iiiiue nithcieeia ii Aioaioa. Ioi?aaiiinoue io
aeiia e i?eau/iiai o?oaea iaaoaii neacuaaeanue ia iauai ninoiyiee e
aeooa ?onneie a?iee, a aieueoeinoaa naiai ninoiyaoae ec a/a?aoieo
e?anoueyi.

A?ieth ?aceaaaea e i?iiaaaiaea aieueoaaeeia, i?ecuaaaoeo ai?ioueny «ca
ii?aaeaiea naiaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa». Yoio eicoia aieueoaaeee iuoaeenue
iaaycaoue e aa?iiaeneei nioeeae-aeaiie?aoai, ii aieueoeinoai iineaaeieo
i?aaeii/ei iiaeaea?aeaoue eiaiii naie i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ieacaaoenue a
ecieyoeee, aieueoaaeee acyee eo?n ia iiaeaioiaeo ?aaiethoeee a ?innee,
oioy a eeanne/aneii ia?enecia i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey aeieaeia iiaaaeeoue a ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai iaeiia?aiaiii.

Iacaaeneii io ieaiia aieueoaaeeia a ia/aea 1917 a. a Iao?ia?aaea
aniuoioee noeoeeiua aieiaiey, e noieeoea oaeoe/anee ieacaeanue a ?oeao
nieaeao e ?aai/eo. 2 ia?oa oea?ue Ieeieae II io?aeny io i?anoiea, e
aeanoue ia?aoea e ao?aeoacii-eeaa?aeueiiio A?aiaiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao. Ii
e iii ia niiaei noaaeeeciaaoue iieiaeaiea a no?aia. A a?iee ?inei
aeaca?oe?noai, ?aai/ea, ooiieaiiua aieiie e iiaeno?aeaaiua
aieueoaaeeaie, ana /aua aanoiaaee. A ianoaiiaea ?ac?anoaaoaainy a no?aia
oaina oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aeaenoaiaaee oieueei aieueoaaeee, iaoiaee/ii
aioiaeaoea caoaao aeanoe. E inaie ei oaeaeinue nia?aoue a Iao?ia?aaea
aiaaie eoeae ec ia?aoaaeoeo ia eo noi?iio nieaeao e iao?inia, a oaeaea
?aai/eo.

Ouaoaeueii iiaeaioiaea ia?aai?io, aieueoaaeee 6—7 iiya?y iaeaaeaee
noieeoeae, anei?a aeanoue ia?aoea a eo ?oee e a ?yaea ae?oaeo ai?iaeia.
N?aco aea iinea yoiai ?inney oaeoe/anee auoea ec ie?iaie aieiu, ioi?iea
yoi a ia?oa 1918 a. naia?aoiui ie?iui aeiaiai?ii (A?anoneei) n
Aa?iaieae. I?e yoii ?inney iioa?yea cia/eoaeueiua oa??eoi?ee, ii oaea
/a?ac 8 ianyoeaa aa?ioea naaa /anoue ec ieo. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui a
?acoeueoaoa aiaiiiai ?aca?iia Aa?iaiee e aa nithcieeia no?aiaie Aioaiou,
a oaeaea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aieiaiee a Aa?iaiee, i?eaaaeoeo e e?ooaieth
iiia?oee.

11 iiya?y 1918 a. Aa?iaiey iiaeienaea ia?aie?ea, e ia?aay ie?iaay aieia
caaa?oeeanue. Aa ieii/aoaeueiua eoiae auee ioi?ieaiu a ethia 1919 a. ia
Aa?naeueneie eiioa?aioeee. Aa?iaiey eeoeeanue iaeioi?uo oa??eoi?ee a
Aa?iia e anao eieiieaeueiuo aeaaeaiee. Iineaaeiea, eae e aeaaeaiey
?aniaaoaeny Iniaineie eiia?ee, auee iiaeaeaiu iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e
O?aioeeae. Niaaoneay ?inney, ia o/anoaiaaaoay a Aa?naeueneie
eiioa?aioeee, i?eciaea iacaaeneiinoue Oeieyiaeee, Eeoau, Eaoaee, Ynoiiee
e Iieueoe, a ninoaa eioi?ie aioee oaeaea iieueneea caiee, aua a eiioea
XVIII a. ioioaaeoea e Aa?iaiee (I?onnee) e Aano?i-Aaia?ee. Ia?anoaea
nouanoaiaaoue e naia Aano?i-Aaia?ey: ia aa oa??eoi?ee aicieeee
iacaaeneiua Aano?ey, Aaia?ey, *aoineiaaeey e THaineaaey.

Iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu a ie?a aicieeea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay
ianoaiiaea, /oi auei naycaii ia noieueei n ia?ae?ieeie a?aieoe, neieueei
n aicieeiiaaieai ianoaiaea?oiuo oaiaeaioeee e iiaeaeae
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iaeaieaa
oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? a yoii niunea yaeyea niaie Niaaoneay ?inney.
?inneeneee eaieoaeeci ooaa?aeaeae naay iaaeinoaoi/ii aeoeaii (eeoue a
iineaaeiea aiaeu ia?aae ie?iaie aieiie aai ?acaeoea onei?eeinue). E oiio
aea a ia?eiae aieiu a iauanoaa aiciee ?aceaae: /anoue e?oiiie ao?aeoacee
e aeaaea aeai?yineie a?enoie?aoee anoaea a iiiiceoeeth e iiia?oee. Ii e
iinea aa iaaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee ?aneieiaoaany
iauanoai ia niiaei eniieueciaaoue ioe?uaoeany aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia e iiaea?iecaoeee.

Aieueoaaeee aea a oneiaeyo eieinnaeueiiai aiaiiiai iai?yaeaiey noiaee
ainiieueciaaoueny ?inoii ianniaiai iaaeiaieuenoaa e iai?aaeoue aai a
ioaeiia ei ?onei. Auaeaeioa ?yae i?eieoeaiuo, aeinooiiuo iannai
eicoiaia, iie nicaeaee iniaoth eaeath ainoaea?noaa, iniiaaiioth, ii nooe
aeaea, ia ?aeeaeiciuo i?eioeeiao. Ii iiaua ?aeeaee, eae i?aaeei, ?aaeei
oaeeaathony ni noa?uie. Ia neo/aeii a aieueoaaenoneie ?innee ana ?aeeaee
(oi?iaeueii iie ia auee cai?auaiu) ieacaeenue auoaniaiiuie ia caaeai?ee
aeecie, a aa?othueo e neoaeeoaeae eoeueoa ?anniao?eaaee eae
iioaioeeaeueiuo a?aaia ainoaea?noaa. A niaaoneie enoi?ee auee e ia?eiaeu
i?yiuo aiiaiee ia oea?eiaue. Oae, n?aco iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee
iiiaea nayuaiiineoaeeoaee (a oii /enea e aunoea ea?a?oe I?aaineaaiie e
ae?oaeo oea?eaae) auee oece/anee oie/oiaeaiu eee a?anoiaaiu.

Iiaay aieueoaaenoneay «?aeeaey» iiae?acoiaaaea aaccaaaoioth,
iai?a?aeaaioth aa?o a ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue e i?aaeaiiinoue ae.
I?ioeaieee yoie aeanoe iaiaaeeaiii eno?aaeyeenue oece/anee, e aeaaea oa,
eoi anaai eeoue niiiaaaeny a aa iaiia?aoeiinoe, iauyaeyeenue «a?aaaie
ia?iaea» e iiaeaa?aaeenue no?iaui ?ai?anneyi. Iiiyoey «ainoaea?noai» e
«ia?iae» ioiaeaeanoaeyeenue: aoi?ia noaiiaeeinue eae au i?eaeaoeii
ia?aiai. Yoei ia?a/a?eeaaeny aeaiie?aoe/aneee i?eioeei «iauanoaaiiiai
aeiaiai?a», i?eciathuee ca ia?iaeii i?aai ?anoi?aiooue aai, anee aeanoue
i?aiaa?aaaao aai eioa?anaie, iiie?aao eo.

Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai n naiiai ia/aea oaeaeyei ia?iiiia aieiaiea
eaeaieiae/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth ia iauanoai. Nicaeaa iiaoth «?aeeaeth»,
iii iaicia/eei e e?oa aeaaiuo «aiaia»: Ia?en, Yiaaeuen, Eaiei, caoai e
Noaeei. Iinea nia?oe eeaea?a aieueoaaeeia Eaieia (1924) aai
caaaeuecaie?iaaiiia oaei auei iiiauaii a niaoeeaeueii nii?oaeaiioth
a?iaieoeo (iaacieae), n/eoaaoothny iniiaiui iauaeoii iieeiiaiey aeey
aeeoaeae NNN? (oae a 1922—1991 aa. eiaiiaaeanue ?inney). Ono?aiaiea
neiaa «?inney» ec iacaaiey ainoaea?noaa oaeaea eiaei neiaiee/aneee
niune: iaoeeiiaeueiinoue e ana, n iae naycaiiia (o?aaeeoeee, iau/ae,
ia?yaeu e o. ae.), iooaniyeenue a ianniaii niciaiee ia aoi?ie ieai,
iineieueeo caaea/ae aieueoaaeeia auea ie?iaay ?aaiethoeey, eioi?ay
aeieaeia auea i?eaanoe e nicaeaieth anaie?iiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaa n aaeeiui, aiaiaoeeiiaeueiui a?aaeaeainoaii. I?aaaea, oaea
e eiioeo 1920-o aa. ia?aaeueiinoue inouanoaeaiey ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee
noaea ianoieueei i/aaeaeiie, /oi i iae noa?aeenue ia oiiieiaoue. Iaeiaei
?a/ue oea ia ia ioeaca io naiie eaeae, a eeoue ia ion?i/ea aa
?aaeecaoeee.

E ia/aeo 1930-o aa. a NNN? ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeny iiaue oei
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaeeia — oioaeeoa?iue (anaiauee). Oioaeeoa?eci
ioee/aeny io o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeeeoaoo?u (eee, iai?eia?, io ainoi/iuo
aeaniioee) oai, /oi ainoaea?noai i?aoaiaeiaaei ia aaniethoiia
iiae/eiaiea naaa iauanoaa, no?aiynue iinoaaeoue iiae naie eiio?ieue
ee/ioth aeeciue a?aaeaeai, ainieoaiea aeaoae, aeaaea oanii iaeaaeaeu e
o. ae. Niaaoneia iauanoai (a iniaaiiinoe aei na?aaeeiu 1950-o aa.)
ooieoeeiie?iaaei ii i?eioeeio aeaaioneie eaca?iu. E?anoueyia auee
cae?aieaiu ca nicaeaiiuie a eiioea 1920-o aa. eieoicaie iaiiaeiaea
e?aiinoiuo, ei aeaaea ia auaeaaaeenue ianii?oa. Ii e aeey eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey, eiaaoeo ianii?oa, ia?aiauaiea ii no?aia auei e?aeia
cao?oaeiaii ec-ca einoeoooa i?iienee — ana a?aaeaeaia aeieaeiu auee
i?iaeeaaoue ii eiie?aoiiio aae?ano, aeey ia?aiaiu eioi?iai o?aaiaaeinue
i?aiaeieaoue oeaeue ?yae ia?aie/aiee e cai?aoia.

I?e yoii a niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeoeaii inouanoaeyeanue
iiaea?iecaoeey, iniaaiii ao?ii ?acaeaaeny aiaiiue naeoi?. NNN?
oi?iaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaae iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiioaeou, ii anaaaea nio?aiye
ca niaie «iniaoth iiceoeeth». ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu ai aeaaa n E. Noaeeiui
noa?aeinue ie/ai ia naycuaaoue naay n inoaeueiui ie?ii, eioi?ue,
niaeanii niaaoneie oa?ieiieiaee, eiaiiaaeny «eaieoaeenoe/aneei
ie?oaeaieai». Naii neiai «ie?oaeaiea» i?aaeiieaaaei, /oi «ie?oaeaiiua»
?aii eee iicaeii iiiuoathony aai i?i?aaoue. E yoi i?ae?anii iiieiaee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ninaaeieo n NNN? no?ai.

Oioaeeoa?eci noae na?ueaciui auciaii aeaiie?aoe/aneiio iauanoao,
oi?ie?iaaaoaiony a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, Naaa?iie Aia?eea, ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao.
Aai iaeaieaa aa?anneaiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue iieo/eea iacaaiea oaoeci (io
eoae. «naycea», «io/ie»), i?aaaea, ii iiaieth ?yaea o/aiuo, yoi
noiaeiua, ii ana aea ?aciua yaeaiey.

Eeanne/aneee oaoeci neiaeeeny a Eoaeee e Aa?iaiee. A Eoaeee oaoenoneay
aeeeoaoo?a ai aeaaa n A. Ionnieeie onoaiiaeeanue e na?aaeeia 1920-o aa.,
a a Aa?iaiee oaoenoneay (iaoeenoneay) ia?oey A. Aeoea?a i?eoea e aeanoe
a 1933 a. A iaaeo no?aiao oaoenou oiaei eniieueciaaee iaaeiaieuenoai
ianaeaiey eoiaaie ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu e aaaenoaaiiui yeiiiie/aneei
iieiaeaieai. Yoi iniaaiii eanaeinue Aa?iaiee, yeiiiieea eioi?ie auea
iiaei?aaia eieinnaeueiuie aiaiiuie ?anoiaeaie e oyaeeei a?aiaiai
?aia?aoeee, iaeiaeaiiuo ia no?aio aea?aeaaaie-iiaaaeeoaeueieoeaie .

Eiaei ea?ay ia /oanoaao iaioeaa, aeoea?ianeay ia?oey iaauaea ei ia
oieueei ?aaaio ca ii?aaeaiea a aieia, ii e nicaeaiea «iiaiai ii?yaeea» a
ie?a, oeaio?ii eioi?iai aoaeao Aa?iaiey, yeiau iani?aaaaeeeai
iaaeaeaiiay «aeeciaiiui i?ino?ainoaii». I?e yoii iaioeu iauyaeyeenue
«aunoae ?anie», a?eeoeaie, aoaeoi au iaaeaeaiiuie i?aaii oi?aaeyoue
«iecoeie ?anaie». Aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Aa?iaiee aa?eei yoei iaauaieyi,
oai aieaa /oi oaoenoai oaeaeinue auno?i auaanoe no?aio ec e?ecena,
eeeaeaee?iaaoue aac?aaioeoeo e caiaoii iiauneoue o?iaaiue aeecie.

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Aa?iaiee noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa aa?anneaiie, ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia 1930-o aa. oaoenou i?enooieee e caaiaaaieth «aeeciaiiiai
i?ino?ainoaa» aeey «aunoae ?anu». A 1935 a. Eoaeey iaiaea ia Yoeiieth e
anei?a caoaaoeea aa. Caoai Aa?iaiey e Eoaeey ioe?uoi iiaeaea?aeaee
eniaineeo oaoenoia a oiaea a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a Eniaiee (1936—1939). A
1938 a. Aa?iaiey i?eniaaeeieea Aano?eth e Noaeaoneoth iaeanoue
*aoineiaaeee. Iineaaeiaa noaei aiciiaeiui a ?acoeueoaoa iieeoeee
oie?ioai?aiey oaoenoia, eioi?oth a oa aiaeu i?iaiaeeee ?oeiaiaeeoaee
Aiaeee e O?aioeee. Iie iiaeienaee Ithioaineia niaeaoaiea n Aa?iaieae e
Eoaeeae (naioya?ue 1938 a.), iaaeaynue, /oi oaoenou ia?aie/aony caiyoeai
/anoe *aoineiaaeee.

Iaeiaei Aa?iaiey, ia?ooea aeiaiai?aiiinoue, oaea a ia?oa 1939 a.
ieeoie?iaaea anth *aoineiaaeeth. A /a?ac ianyoe Eoaeey i?eniaaeeieea
Aeaaieth. Aeaey, /oi eo?n ia «oie?ioai?aiea» ia niiniaai naea?aeaoue
aa?anni?ia, Aiaeey e O?aioeey aa?aioe?iaaee Iieueoa e ?oiuiee iiiiuue a
neo/aa iaiaaeaiey ia ieo, a caoai anooieee a ia?aaiai?u n NNN?. Ii
iineaaeiea caeii/eeenue iaoaea/ae, oae eae ia?aeeaeueii ia/aeenue
eiioaeou NNN? e Aa?iaiee. A aaaonoa 1939 a. aue caeeth/ai
niaaonei-aa?iaineee iaeo i iaiaiaaeaiee. Ii nii?iaiaeaeaeny nae?aoiuie
i?ioieieaie, ii eioi?ui e Aa?iaiee iooiaeeea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
Iieueoe, a e NNN? — aa ainoi/iua iaeanoe. Aa?iaiey oaeaea i?eciaaaea
noa?ie eioa?ania NNN? no?aiu Aaeoee e Oeieyiaeeth.

1 naioya?y 1939 a. Aa?iaiey iaiaea ia Iieueoo, a ioaao Aiaeey e
O?aioeey, auiieiyy naie iaycaoaeuenoaa, iauyaeee aieio Aa?iaiee. Oae
ia/aeanue aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia. Ia aa ia?aii yoaia neiaeeeanue e?aeia
iianiay neooaoeey aeey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo aea?aeaa Caiaaea e
eiaeono?eaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii. Aua n 1937 a. nouanoaiaae nithc
iaaeaeo Aa?iaieae, Eoaeeae e ssiiieae, eioi?ay a ia/aea 1930-o aa.
?acaycaea aa?anneth i?ioea Eeoay. Aei aaniu 1941 a. ia noi?iia yoiai
nithca oaeoe/anee aunooiae e niaaoneee oioaeeoa?iue ?aaeei. A 1939—1940
aa. NNN? i?eniaaeeiee e naaa ainoi/iua ?aeiiu Iieueoe, no?aiu Aaeoee,
/anoue oa??eoi?ee ?oiuiee e Oeieyiaeee. A iniiaiii yoi inouanoaeyeinue
iooai aeeieiiaoe/aneiai aeaaeaiey, e oieueei Oeieyiaeey a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa ieacuaaea aii?oaeaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea. Oai a?aiaiai
Aa?iaiey caoaaoeea Aeaieth, Ii?aaaeth, Aaeueaeth, Aieeaiaeeth, iaianea
ii?aaeaiea O?aioeee, eioi?ay a ethia 1940 a. auoea ec aieiu. A
?acoeueoaoa a Aa?iia e ie?a neiaeeeanue iiaay ?annoaiiaea nee.
Na?ueaciui niia?ieeii Aa?iaiee e aa nithcieeia inoaaaeanue oieueei
Aiaeey, eioi?oth oaoenou iiaeaa?aaee iinoiyiiui aiiaaaeeai. NOA
ieacuaaee aiaee/aiai iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo, iaeiaei oi?iaeueii a
aieio ia aiaoeaaeenue.

A yoeo oneiaeyo Aa?iaiey iuoaeanue aeiaeoueny i?yiiai o/anoey NNN? a
aieia. Ii eioa?anu aeaoo oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia noieeioeenue ia Aaeeaiao.
Iinea oiai eae Aeoea?o noaei ynii, /oi NNN? ia iaia?ai onooiaoue, auei
i?eiyoi ?aoaiea iiaa?iooue aa?anneth ia ainoie. A ai?aea 1941 a.
Aa?iaiey caoaaoeea THaineaaeth e A?aoeeth, a 22 ethiy iaiaea ia NNN?.
Aeey Aeoea?a yoi auei ?ieiaui oaaii: oaia?ue aiaiiia nio?oaeie/anoai
NNN? e aeaiie?aoe/aneeo aea?aeaa Caiaaea noaiiaeeinue iaecaaaeiui.
I?aaenoiyei aua ianeieueei oyaeaeaeoeo eao aieiu, ii aaeain nee oaea
eciaieeny ia a iieueco oaoenoia. A iinea anooieaiey a aieio NOA
(aeaeaa?ue 1941 a.) iioaioeeaeueiue ia?aaan aeaiie?aoe/aneeo aea?aeaa e
NNN? iaae Aa?iaieae, ssiiieae e eo nithcieeaie noae aua aieaa
cia/eoaeueiui.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea eiaeono?eaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee a
ia?aie iieiaeia XX a

Yeiiiieea aaaeoueo no?ai Caiaaea, auaea?aeaa eieinnaeueiua iaa?ocee a
oiaea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, oaea a 1920-a aa. noaaeeece?iaaeanue. A
iaeaieaa auaiaeiii iieiaeaiee ieacaeenue NOA: iie anooieee a aieio
iineaaeieie (a ai?aea 1917 a.), ia iino?aaeaee io ?ac?ooaiee e aac
iniaiai iai?yaeaiey auianee a?aiy aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

A yoe aiaeu NOA aeoeaii no?aieeenue iiaee?aieoue naia yeiiiie/aneia
ia?aainoai eeaea?noaii a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo. Iinea Aa?naeueneie
eiioa?aioeee ii eieoeeaoeaa NOA auea nicaaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
eiioa?aioeey a Aaoeiaoiia (iiya?ue 1921 — oaa?aeue 1922 a.), ia eioi?ie
aia?eeaioeai oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny auaiaeiuo aeey naay niaeaoaiee, a
/anoiinoe a iaeanoe aiaiiiai oeioa. Niaieoiiinoue aeiaiai?ia e
niaeaoaiee, caeeth/aiiuo a Aa?naea e Aaoeiaoiia, noaee eiaiiaaoue
Aa?naeuenei-Aaoeiaoiineie nenoaiie. Iia auea i?ecaaia iaania/eoue ie? e
noaaeeueiinoue e iaeioi?ia a?aiy (aei iiyaeaiey oaoenoneie oa?icu)
aeaenoaeoaeueii ii?aaaeuaaea naay.

A 1929—1933 aa. ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee niaieeny caoyaeiui
e?ecenii, i?eiyaoei anaie?iue oa?aeoa?. E?ecenu ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa auaaee
e ?aiueoa, iiiaea o/aiua aeaaea iaoiaeeee a eo iiaoi?yaiinoe iaeoth
caeiiiia?iinoue. Ii yoio e?ecen, iacaaiiue aaeeeie aeai?anneae, ia ciae
naaa ?aaiuo ie ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, ie ii aeoaeia. Aai aeaaiua
i?e/eiu caeeth/aeenue a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo ao?iiai ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa
no?aieoaeueii onoa?aaaea i?aaeiyy nenoaia ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee,
?aaoee?iaaiey iio?aaeaiey e ni?ina. A ?yaea io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa
aicieeaei caoiaa?eaaiea, i?iecaiaeeoaeyi i?eoiaeeeinue oie/oiaeaoue
oiaa?u, nie?auaoue iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi iaecaaaeii aaei e ianniaie
aac?aaioeoea.

Noaiiaeeinue ana yniaa, /oi neaaeoao ?ai?aaieciaaoue aanue eiiieaen
i?iecaiaenoaa e nicaeaoue iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, aei
yoiai ioaeaiiuo ia aieth noeoee. A oao oneiaeyo ooieoeee ?aaoee?iaaiey
iiaei acyoue ia naay oieueei ainoaea?noai, ii iii ia auei aioiai e yoie
iai?eau/iie caaea/a. O?aaiaaeenue ?aoeoaeueiua oaae, e eo i?aaei?eiye
iiaue i?aceaeaio NOA O. ?ocaaeueo, aaniie 1933 a. ia/aaoee oe?ieee
eiiieaen aioee?eceniuo ?aoi?i, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea iiaue eo?n. Nooue aai
caeeth/aeanue a aeiaieueii aeanoeii ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee
yeiiiieee, eiio?iea iaae aaieianeie nenoaiie, aaaaeaiee «eiaeaenia
/anoiie eiieo?aioeee», i?aaeiieaaaaoeo ?acoiiia nio?oaeie/anoai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a oeaeyo i?eaaaeaiey a niioaaonoaea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea. Aeaaiui eoiaii yoeo e ae?oaeo
ia? «iiaiai eo?na» noaei oe?aieaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa ai anao iaeanoyo
aeecie NOA. Ii iii i?eaaei ia e iiaeaaeaieth i?aa ee/iinoe (eae a
oioaeeoa?iuo no?aiao), a e ?anoe?aieth e aieueoae aa?aioe?iaaiiinoe yoeo
i?aa.

Aia?eeaineee iiuo a oie eee eiie ia?a eniieueciaaee i?e auoiaea ec
e?ecena e ae?oaea no?aiu. Naiaia?aciue oa?aeoa? i?eiyee ?aoi?iu a
Oaaoeee (yoi iicaieyao aiai?eoue i oaaaeneie iiaeaee). Oaaaeneea
nioeeae-aeaiie?aou, n 1932 a. noaaoea i?aayuae ia?oeae, ?acaa?ioee
oe?ieea ?aoi?iu a nioeeaeueiie noa?a (a /anoiinoe, ?anoe?aiea i?aa
i?ionithcia), /oi niinianoaiaaei aa?iiie/iiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth ?aai/eo e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.
«Oaaaeneay iiaeaeue», aeaaiie /a?oie eioi?ie auei eiiieaeniia
i?iaaaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i, ieacaeanue aanueia yooaeoeaiie e noaea
i?eia?ii aeey iiiaeo no?ai.

A 1920—1930-a aa. iiaea?iecaoeey ?acaa?ioeanue e a ?yaea no?ai Acee e
Eaoeineie Aia?eee. ?iaeea iiiuoee a yoii iai?aaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaeenue a
iaeioi?uo ec yoeo no?ai e i?aaeaea, ii oaia?ue ?a/ue oea ia iaoe?iii e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. I?ienoiaeee naiaai ?iaea aoio «ia?eoa?ee»,
ia aeaeaaoae i?aauaaoue ia caaeai?eao yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
aeecie ieaiaou. Cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia aeiaeeanue ssiiiey (i?aaaea, aa
yeiiiieea a oio ia?eiae ana aieueoa aiaiece?iaaeanue), ?aoeoaeueii
oaaioea aia?aae e Oo?oeey, eioi?ay iinea ioaeaeaiey ionoeueiaineie
oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa noaea naaoneie ?anioaeeeie. Anoaee ia iooue
iiaea?iecaoeee e oaeea no?aiu Eaoeiiaia?eeaineiai ?aaeiia, eae
A?aaioeia, Iaeneea, O?oaaae, A?aceeey, *eee. A Eaoeineie Aia?eea
ia?aaeei aicieeaee aeeeoaoi?neea ?aaeeiu oioaeeoa?iiai oeia, ii oaea a
oa aiaeu iaiaoeeny ethaiiuoiue oaiiiai: yoe ?aaeeiu, iiaeaaeyy
aeaiie?aoe/aneea naiaiaeu, eae i?aaeei, niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth
iiaea?iecaoeee a noa?a yeiiiieee e i?iaiaeeee aa aieaa oniaoii, /ai
eeaa?aeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Eaaeia iao/iuo ioe?uoee e ecia?aoaiee, ia/aaoay iaae?aoue nei?inoue aua
a eiioea XIX a., i?iaeieaeaea ia?anoaoue. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa
auno?i (ii?ie — ii/oe iaiiaaiii) aiaae?yeenue a i?iecaiaenoai, ia eo
iniiaa iinoiyiii nicaeaaaeenue iiaua oaoiieiaee. A ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey
XX a. aicieeee iiaua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a /anoiinoe
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea e iaoeiino?iaiea. Oaaioee ia ea/anoaaiii eiie o?iaaiue
e noa?ua io?anee — o?ainii?o, no?ieoaeuenoai, iaoaeeo?aey, oeie/aneay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue e ae?.

Aianoa n oai a oneiaeyo ia?eiaee/anee iaino?yaoaeny iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
ianoaiiaee iiiaea ioe?uoey e ecia?aoaiey i?yii eee einaaiii
eniieueciaaeenue a aiaiiuo oeaeyo, iiyaeeenue iiaua aeaeu aii?oaeaiey
(oaiee e naiieaou, iiuiua a?iiaiinoeu e iiaeaiaeiua eiaeee), a yaea?iie
oeceea o/aiua aieioioth i?eaeeceeenue e iieo/aieth aoiiiie yia?aee. E
eaoo 1945 a. yoi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth aoiiiie aiiau — no?aoiiai i?oaeey
ianniaiai ii?aaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ao?iia ?acaeoea iaoee e oaoieee
oaea a ia?aie iieiaeia XX a. i?eia?aei i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?. Aaaey e
?aceoaeueiiio oeo/oaieth oneiaee aeecie, iii a oi aea a?aiy auaiaeeei ia
naa?oaunieee o?iaaiue niiniau oie/oiaeaiey, e a aiaeu aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu ianooaau eno?aaeaiey ethaeae i?aacioee ana iuneeiua i?aaeaeu.

A ?acoeueoaoa nithca NNN? e aeaiie?aoe/aneeo aea?aeaa Caiaaea e iath
1945 a. oaeaeinue ?aca?iieoue a?iee Aa?iaiee e aa nithcieeia. A a
aaaonoa auea nie?ooaia e ssiiiey ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea.

Iniiaiay oyaeanoue oyaeaeuo eniuoaiee aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auiaea ia
aeieth NNN?, i?ioea eioi?iai n?aaeaeinue, eae i?aaeei, 70—80% aiene
Aa?iaiee e aa nithcieeia. Oaoenou iaianee ia?iiiue iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a
?yaeo aa?iiaeneeo ?aeiiia NNN?, a?aiaiii caoaa/aiiuo a oiaea aieiu. Ec
60 iei /aeiaae, iiaeaoeo ai a?aiy aieiu (aeeth/ay ie?iuo aeeoaeae),
ieiei iieiaeiu ninoaaeyee niaaoneea a?aaeaeaia. No?aoiue o?ii iiianei e
aa?aeneia ianaeaiea Aa?iiu: oaoenou oece/anee oie/oiaeeee 6 iei aa?aaa.
Yoio ianniaue aaiioeeae ie?iiai aa?aeneiai ianaeaiey aioae a enoi?eth
eae Oieieinoi (eno?aaeaiea).

Eieinnaeueiua iioa?e ethaeneeo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iiaei?aaee
yeiiiieeo iiiaeo no?ai Aa?iiu e Acee. Ii a oiaea iineaaiaiiiai
ainnoaiiaeaiey NOA (iie, eae e a ia?aie ie?iaie aieia, iiianee
iaeiaiueoee o?ii) ieacaee iino?aaeaaoei no?aiai oe?ieoth
iaoa?eaeueii-oeiainiaoth iiiiuue. A iniiaiii yoi aeaeaeinue a ?aieao oae
iacuaaaiiai ieaia Ia?oaeea (ii eiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?y NOA),
niaeanii eioi?iio oieueei a 1948—1952 aa. 17 aa?iiaeneeo no?ai iieo/eee
io NOA aieaa 13 ie?ae aeieea?ia.

A ?acoeueoaoa iineaaiaiiay ?ac?ooa auea i?aiaeieaia aeiaieueii auno?i.
Iniaaiii ?aceoaeueiuie auee oniaoe ssiiiee, Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee (iia auea
ia?aciaaia a 1949 a. iooai neeyiey aiaeeeneie, aia?eeaineie e
o?aioeocneie cii ieeoiaoeee) e Eoaeee, aiaiece?iaaiiay yeiiiieea eioi?uo
auea ai iiiaii ia?ai?eaioe?iaaia ia eaaeoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
i?iecaiaenoai i?aaeiaoia ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey. Ai?i/ai, e iniiaiua
io?anee oyaeaeie eiaeono?ee ?acaeaaeenue a yoeo no?aiao aieaa /ai
oniaoii. A 1950—1960-a aa. oaiiu ?inoa yiiineie yeiiiieee i?eaeeaeaeenue
e 15% , a O?A yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaeye 8—9% , a Eoaeee — 5—6% . Auno?i
?acaeaaeanue a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae e yeiiiieea ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai
Aa?iiu, Acee, Eaoeineie Aia?eee.

Eieoeeaoeau aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo aea?aeaa ii oe?aieaieth
eiaeono?eaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee, oi?i/aieth nio?oaeie/anoaa a aa ?aieao,
eiia/ii, ia ia?aie/eaaeenue «ieaiii Ia?oaeea». Aua a eiioea aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu noaea nicaeaaaoueny ?acaaoaeaiiay nenoaia e?aaeeoiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey ioaeaeathueony no?ai. Yoa nenoaia, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea
A?aoiiaoaeneay (ii eiaie aia?eeaineiai ai?iaea), iiaeeoeoee?oynue e
i?eniinaaeeaaynue e iiaui ?aaeeyi, a oeaeii inoaaony iniiaie e
nia?aiaiiuo aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee. A 1944—1945 aa. auee
ia?aciaaiu oaeaea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae (IAO) e
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey (IA??),
i?aaeinoaaeythuea iaoe?iua e?aaeeou naiei /eaiai, /enei eioi?uo
iinoiyiii ?anoao.

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