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Война и политика в письмах Императрицы Александры Федоровны к Николаю II (1914-1915)

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A?? e ???? a ?n?? E????? A????u O???? e I??ath II (1914-1915)

E??ey ????e ????? I??ay II n ?????? A????? O????e ???????ue a ???i
??????? ??? A.O.Aei???, I.I.E???a e N.A.I????. O?????, ?i ???? e ???
I??ay II e ??ia ?i ??e ?y??? a ?????o ??o? ?a a ??? ???a 1918 a. Aeey
???? ?????o a?? AOeEE ??? ?????th ???eth, ??? e ???e ???e ?? ??????
????? ?i ???? ? 10 ??y?y 1918 a. A ?a ??e ???e I.I.I????e, ????a a ? ??y
??a??u E.N.N????e (???? ??? “A???”) e TH.I.N??? (????? “E???e AOeEE”),
?????? A???i ????ey ???? ae?? (AOAAe) Ae.A.?y??a e th??, ???a ??? ???e e
????, A.A.A????e. E ?c??a e ????? ????? ??? ???e ??e ?? ??eth?? ??a
N???????y ???ey ?????? ??. N n?oy?y 1918 ?? ? ????? ????? ??i?? ????????
??? e ????? ? ? ???e y?e. A 1921 ?? ?? ???ae?i, ?i ????a ????u I??ay II
????? ???th?y ? ????o ???a ? ?a?. I????? ?? ? ????? A.I.N????, e ? ?e
??? n ??ou. [1]

?????? y?e “???” ??a ??ay ????ey ??i ?????u A????u O????, ????y?y ?????
??????i “N??” a 1922 ??. I??a ??????ue, ???y n ??ey 1914 ??, ??oth ??ue
???i ?? ???ey? ???? ??i, a ??oth ??ue – ????? ? ????ii y??. E?? ???y, a
???y??e ?????i ?????? ?? ??e ??i ? ????? y??, e ???eyi ?????y?? ?????ue
??i ?a??ue ???? ????.

A?? ? y?i ?? ????y? e ????a ???a ????e. E ??? ?i ???e A.A.N???, a ???i
??th??y ????o. A?e ??? ???, ????e e iy?e ?? ????e, ???y n ??ey 1914 ??.
E ???i ?? ????u ?????, ???? ?????? ??o?. A ???e ??? I.I.I????e ???e, ?i
???, ??????? “N??i”, ???? ? ????o ???a e “???otho ??? ????e, ????a e
????”. [2]

I???y ? ?, ?i ????a ????? I??ay II n ?????ae A????? O????e, ???y n ??? ?
???y, ??? ?????? a ???e e ????e ?????, ??????ue y?o ????? ? ??????. I?
y?i a ?/?e ?y?yth?y ??? ?ae ???? ???ey?, ????, “Ae??aa??? ????e ?????
I??ay II n ?????? A????? O????e”, ????th?a ? ?, ??u ?oue “????????
?????ey? a y?e ?e??”. I??i ?? ??? ??? ???tho ?? ? ???a ??? ????ey ????e.
[3] E ??i ?ae??eyi ????y e ?????a ????e ?ae ????i “Oa??? ??oe ???e. I???
II a ????e ????a” I.A.I????i. I????y ??????ny ?????i ????i e ???-? ???a
ia ??u n ???????e ???ey? (?c ????y ??i??e). A y?i ??? ????a ????ny n ???
? 19 ??y?y 1914 ??. [4] O????u e ????y ??i, ????y ??e ??????, a ??o
I.A.I?o??a ? ?eth??. O?? ???i ????? ???? ?????y?. I? ?? ?????o ????ee
I.A.I???? a ??iy?a ??y ?a y?y?ny ??e ????e e ??o ??????ny a ??? ???.

A ???y??e ?????a ?? ???a ??u e ???a ????, ???yth?a ???????? ????u ???
???e ??e. I??i, ????a I??ay II e A????u O???? ??o ??e ??i e ??a ???a
?????, ?i ???? ? ???, ?e y? ?? n ????? A.A.A????, ??? ?????. I? y?i
????? ??o, ??? ??? ???e, ??o?? ?????u ??? ??e. E??a ???e???e ??y?o ???
????? ? ??ae. Ia ??th??, ?i ???ay a?ey ?????? ?????i ?y ??, ??u ???ue
?????? ????? ?????. I??iy? ??? a ?o ???yo ?? ????? ?????, e a A??i ???
??e, ???oue ???o ?? ? ??a?. A? y? ???ey? ??ue ????i ?ae??? e ??? ??????e
????e. Ii y?e ???a ? ???? ????e I??ay II e A????u O???? ??o ?yo ??ue ?ae
I??? ??u. I??????y, ?i y?o ??? ????aae ?????a ??? ??i e ?a ???ny
“???????”. I??a 1914-1915 ??a ????u ?i, ?i ? ?i ??i ?????, ?e ?ae ?ey??
???o ??? e ????? ????? ?iy?y ?i ??i ?????u.

I??a ?????u A????u O???? ?????? ?????? ? ???e e ??????. Ia ? ????e a ???
???e y?? ???u i ?a????i ??, ??ath?e ???a e ?iy?? ? ? ??? A.A.?????. I?
y?i ie ?????, ? ????? y?o ???a i??o-? ? ???ue ???aee?, ?i ? ????? ?????a
??. I?? ?i, ?ey?a A????u O???? e A.A.????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????, e???
????? ???? ?e ? ???? a ??ue. Y?o ???n ?????y ???a ? ??i a ?????oth ??ue
ii??-? ? ?o ?? ??????y ?????e. ss ????th ?????, ?i ? ????i ????? I??ath
II A????a O???? e A.A.????i, e ?e ????? ?????? ? ???? y? ??????.

I?????? ????? ?n? ?????u ????ue ??? ???o ?????? ?e, ??e, ????y, a ???i
???? ?a e ? ???. I ???o ???yo A????a O???? ??? ? ???? ????? e ??? ??iy?
o i?a ????a ? ???u. I??? ?????u a ??? ??? ??u ????a??ue ? ?????. A????a
O???? ???????a ? ??? ???? ??o ???o ???, a ??a ??i ? ???? ?oe. E?????
???a ?ay ??????e ? ?a ????y?a a ??????e ?i??. I???? ? ???u ???? ????a?eo
??? ???o ?y?e I??ea e I?? A???????. A????a O???? ??? ?? ??? ? ??? ???
??????e ???e, ?????ny a N??a e ????o ??yo. I????, 25 ?oy?y 1914 ??
A????a O???? ???a ?? ????ue Ia?a A??????a e ?i a??? ????? A.I.A?????
(???? A?????i ???a), ?e ?e ?o ? ???? ??ue a N??o e I.A.????o (“O???e
??oe”. N. 59). E????? ? ??????? o ?? ??i ???? e ? ???a a ?? N??e. Ec ??i
?????? ????? ??e A????a O???? ??ey? ?? O.A.E??? e I.E.E??? (y? eth? a
????? ???? ?ith ?????ue ?a??o). Eth???i, ?i ??? ????a ???o?? ? ???i y?i
????i ???ue ???o ? ??y ?e?.

A??? ???y ???ey? I??ay II ?a ??? ???e ????ue a N??a. A? ???a ?????ue ?i
???e n ??e. Y? ????? ????? ? ?? ??i. E????? ???? ??? ?aeo, ?????? ?o,
???? ? ??? ????e ???? ??ey. I?? ? ?? ????e ?? ?????y ???. A y?i ????e
A????a O???? ???i ???e?ue ? “A??? ????” A???y A???? ?????. *?a ??i ?i
??? ?????? ?????a ??c A.A.A???o.

E? y? ?a ?????? ????? a ?????? ?????, eth?e e ???????o ?y??e A????a
O???? ??? ??c ??? A.A.?????. I???? e “???? A???” ???i ?y ?????u e
?y???ue e ??????e ???e, e ??a ???e ???? ?y??i?? ????a (A?uey ??? a ?i
??o). A???e ?????e ??? ????ey ???i ????i A.A.I????a e ??-????? Na.N??a
A.Ae.N???a ?? ?, ?i ?e ????e ??? A.A.?????. “Ia ?aa ? ? ??? Ae??, ?i ???
??i?o ia???a?” e “? ??o ?a??ue ??? ?n, ?c ? ??? A?.”, – ??? ?????a ??.
(“O???e ??oe”. N. 155, 150)

A????a O???? ???e?ue a ???e ?????? n ??????oth?i ???i ?y?i I???i
I?????i. Ca ? ????y? ?iye ??e ?yae ?n?? ???, ? ????e ? ???o ?? ????a
???? ?ycy e A.A.?????. Ii ??????o ???? ?ycy A????a Ie????a, ??? ?? I??ay
I????? e I?? I????? – “?????” A???ey e I??a I????u – ??e a ???th ??th
??? ??a O???, a ??i e A.A.?????.[5] C?? ????e ??ua, e “?????”, a ? ?? e
I??? I????/ ??e ???e “???”. A??? a???i ?ycy ??e, ?i “i ???a ???o?a a
N??o ? ??y ????ey ? ae?a ??e ???? ?ycy I??ay I?????, ????ny, ? ??i ?? e
??”. [6] A????a O???? ?? ????i ?????a i ??i ????e e “Ae??”, ? y? ?? ?
?????ay ???a ? ?????y n ??????oth?i. E????? ? ??a i???ue aey? ????? ?,
?i a 1905 ?? ? ???e ????? ????ue I???o 19 ?oy?y. “Iu ?a ? ?????? ?y
???????? ??????a. I. e A?? ???? a ?i, ?i Ae?a ?????”, – ??? A????a O????
?? a ??i ? ?nai (“O???e ??oe”. N. 160).

A ??? ?ny? ??u ?????a a ??o ???o ? ?iy?y? ?????? e ??????oth?? e ??
i???a ?i “I???a”, ?e e ??. Ii n ??? 1915 ?? ?a ?????. A ???o A????u
O???? I??? I???a? ???? ??? ??? ?ae ???e “I.”. 22 y??y, ??ay? ? “Ae??”,
?????a ???a ?? ? ????ue ??????oth?? a I???? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 88). A 29
y??y ?a ?y? ???: “? ????y ?ae ?ey?? ??? e ????y ?y? ia ?ay ?ith ??, ?i ?
? a ??a ???… Y?? ????i ? ???? ??oe. I?? ? ??o ??a ??ae A?? e eth??
?????? ?? ??a” (“O???e a??”. N. 96). 4 ??ey: “O?y I. ????i ??ue ???, ?
?? ?i. I??i Ae?? ?e ?, ?e e i?y, ????i ?, ?i I. ??o ?? ?????, ??? ??????
e o.ae. ??i ???” (“O???e ??oe”. N.115). Ca ??e y?? ????y? ???????ue ????
?????u, ????ny ???? ?????u ??? ??.

E? ?y?y?ny, ???ey A?e??? O???? ?? ????????u e ???y?? ? ???? ??????e
???????. A.E.A?? ??e a ??o ???e??yo, ?i ? ????e ????y i ??a? ????? ??e
N??a ?????? ???????e ???th a ???? ??? ??iuo ????. Y? ????a ?? ????? a
???a ? ?, ?i a n??a ??u ? ??a ??e ???o ?i ?????. I??i, ??y? ??????
I??ath II ???? ??????a ????a. E ????yi, ?????i N??a, ?? ???? ???ay ???y
i??a e ?? ???a. “N??a ? ??? a ??? ?? n ??a ?????? ?? ?????? ????ey, ?
????a ?? ?????? ???e”, – ??e ????o. [7]

I??? II ??? ??y ?a???i ? ????? ? ????y ??e ?? ? ??? ??????oth??. I??i?
???i y? ??????a ?? ?e ?n???e ???e ??y a ??? ?i ???a?? I???? e E??. A ??o
? ?i??? ??y i ???iy?e ???a 5 ??ey 1915 ?? A????a O???? ???a ?i, ??ay? ?
??? A.A.??i??a, ??ue ?? ?c ??????oth??. N?? ????a?ny ?i, ?i ????ue ???
I??ay I????? ?i ??ue ???, a ??o ??y ???? ??. (“O???e ??oe”. N. 117). 7
??ey E????? ??ue ???? i ?i, ?i Ae?a ? ???y? ???e e ???? n ?e ? ??? I??ay
I?????. A.A.????i ????e ????ue ??th ???o ?a ??a ??u (“O???e ??oe”. N.
121). A ?o ? ?? I??? II ???e, ?i ? ???? n ?i, ?i I??? I????/ ??? ???ny a
N??a, ??a ?? ii?? a A??eth. Ii ???, ?i ? ??y ??u ?e ???a a ?????th
????th ??y ??? ?????? ??????oth?e. “Ii ?????? ?iy, a ? y ???? a ?i ??a”,
– ??e I??? II (“O???e ??oe”. N. 122). I?? y?? A????a O??ia? ????: “O??ue
y ???th, ??? ? ??? I. n ??e – ???i ? ?uy???, ???e” (“O??a? ??oe”. N.
123).

A?? e ?? ??????oth?? ?????a ????ue ?? ??c ??i? – 12 ethiy 1915 ??. A ?y?
n ????e ???? ???? A.A.N????? ?a ??? i I??? I?????: “E? ? y ???, ??u I.
?e ??? ????i e ? ????ny A??? ????” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 147). A ??a ethiy
A????a O?i??a ?????? ??y?? e ??a ?????ue ?? ???a ???oue N??o, ?a ? ??
??i ?eytho I??? I????/ e ?i ????a. E, ???oe, a ??a ???a ?????a ? ????
??e ???e ? ??? ???? ???? ?ycy.

Ii ??eth ????a ??o? ???? ???? ???? I.I.A???a, ?a?? ????, ????? I??ay II
?iy? ?? ??????oth??, ?? ???a ????oue ??? a ??? ?????. E y?? ????? ??????
??a ??iy?ay ???a N??e ? ???u ??????a e ???u ?????? ?y??e, ?????o ?????
“Oi???? ???e e A???? A????????a”. [8]

Eth???i, ?i ????ey ? ??? I??ay I????? ??a ? ?? ?????a. Ae?a ?????, ???
???oth?a ????a A????u O???? e ???? ?ycth, ???? ???, ??????? aa ???.
I.I.A??? ???? ?????ey ???? ???? A.A.I????a i ?i, ?i ????e, ??cy a N??o
??? I??ay II e ??????oth?? i ?i ????, ??a ? ?e ??? a ??? ??e ???. Ii ?i
???ey ? ?????ue: ? i ??e ?????e ??????y ?e ??????y ? ??i ?? e ??. [9]
A??? TH.I.Ae??? ???e, ?i “?ae ?ey?? ???o e ????? ???e 1905 a. a ???i ?y?
I??? I????? ????ny ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??a: ? n????a ????,
?????-?????? ??????? ????? ?e ?? ???a ? ?? ? ?? ?????????”. [10]
TH.I.Ae??? ???? ????? ??? a N??a. I?? ??? ?????y ???e ??e a 1915 ?? ???e
????y e I??ath I?????: “A?a A????i, ?? ? o ???, ???y ??o ??? ?n ???, e
??? ? ?? ????a ? ??e ?ae ??u”, ? ?i ??????oth?e ???e: “ss ???th”. [11]
Y? ????ey I?i?e I????/ ????? a 1917 ??, ??a ??e ? e????a ????a ?o
A.E.O???? ?????a ??y? ???a a ????i ?????, a ??i 2 ??a, ????i??? e ???i
???oth?o ??y?, ???o? I??ay II ???ny ? ????.

A 1914 ?? A????a O???? ????? n ????e e i?o ??i ????i ?c. 19 ?y?y ?a ???a
I??ay II ????ue ??? ??????i I.E.??i???? ???oth?i ??e ???e-?uth??a
I.E.Ie??i. “O?ay ??y ??? e eth?i ???ie”, – ??? ?????a (“O???e ??oe”. N
67). Ae??????, I.E.I??? y?i ?iy?e ?ay ? ??y ???-y???e ??u ?e ????e
??????e ????. Ii ?????i ??? ?? ????i ?c ???ey. I.E.I??? ? ??y?y ?? ????a
???a (a 1918 ?? ? ???? ??ue ??????i). 12 ???y A????a O???? ???a ??y
????ue ???e-??? I.I.A??? e????i ??? ?i ??????? ????? (“O???e ??oe”. N.
82). Ii e y? ???a ? ?? ????a. A ??i ? ??oth?o ??i ?????a ???? ? ?, ?i
????? ??? ???? “???e” ????e I.I.O?? (“O???e ??oe”. N 90).

A??e 1915 ??, ??a ? ??? ???? ????, ?????a ?a /?a ??a ????ue e ???
A.A.?????. I??i ???, ???ey?? ?????, ? ?n??ue ??? ??? ??? ????. 10 ??ey
A????a O???? ????, ?i, ? ??eth A.A.?????, ?? ???ue “?????e? ???” e
????ue ? ???? ?? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 125). 20 ??ey ?????a ?n?a, ?i ????y
?????a ??? ? A???: “I? Ae?a n??? ? ???i ???e, ???o ????a ????i, ? ???o,
?i A? ???o”. A????a O??i?a ????? ???ue ????th ? ??? E??u (“O???e ??oe”.
N. 135). 10 ethiy ?????a ????? I??ath II ????ue ???a ??aeu ???iae?ue
?????, ?e ?a ???i ? O??? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 145).

N?????? ???a ??u ???y I???o i ???a ???? ???i ??y? ??????? e ???th a ???
??. N??y? ? Ae??, ?????a ???a ?????ue n y?i ???ii. “N??e ??? Ae??, ??
?o, ?i ??? ??? ???? ???e e ??. A? ???i ?i ?i ???, ??? ? ??? ???? ???
???ey ? ?i ??a – ?e ? ???y?y ? ???. E? ??i ?y ?n ??ue ? ??? ?i ???u, ? e
???… I?y i????? ???a ??? Ae??, e y ?ath, ?i ? ????? ?i ??o ??ue ???i ?y
?n e ?? ???”, – ????? e????? a ??? 11 ethiy (“O???e ??oe”. N. 146). I?
???a ???? ??? ???? ???i ??y? ?oy ? ? ?ae, ?e ?e a ????i ??? y? ???o ??i
?e ? ?cy??a ???. 16 ethiy I??? II ???e ??, ?i ? ????? c???? N??a ????a e
N??e ??????ny ??? i ???a ???? ???i ??y?. A?i ??? ?? ???? ??? 1917 a?a
(“O??aue ??oe”. N. 159).

A ???????? ???? ???a ???? ???i ??y? ?? ???i ???e, ?i y? ???ny a ???o
?????u. Y?? ???o I.I.A??? ??y?e ????th ???? ??? ?????ey. E ethith 1915
?? ????? ???? ???i ??y? ?e ????. A??a ??ay ??o???? ???a ???? ???i ??y?,
? ?????o ??? i ???? ????? ?e ? ??e ?? ?y? a ?y? ???oth?o ??e. Y? ??
????e, ?????ua ???y ?e ?????? ????e a na?a, ???a ??? ?? ??????ny ?e ???
a ?? ?e ???y ??. A??? ??? i ???a ???? ???i ??y? ?e ??yo ? ????e N??a
????a 16 ethiy 1915 ??. O?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????ey 1917 ai?.
Ii ?a 4 ???a ??? ???a ???? ?e ????i ?y?. E y?? ???e ?????? i ???a ?i??
??y? ?a ?e ??? a Ae?o. Ii ?i ?i ?????? ??????ue, ?e e? ???? ? ?? ???u,
?i A???o ?????? ????? oa?a ????? eth?e e ?? ????? ??? a???? e ??????ue.
A ??i N??a i???? ??ey ????ue. A.Ae.N??? e A.A.E???? ???e, ?i ????? ??e
??o ?? ????a ????u e n ???? ??i ?????ue. A.I.U???a ??uaae, ?i ?c ???e
Ae?u ??? ???? ? ???y, ?e ?e eth? ????ny ? ??i. A ??a a ?oy?a 1915 ?? ???
???? ???i ??y? ?e ?a ? ????, a e ??o 1916 ?? e y? ???u ?? ????u. [12]

I???i, ?i ? ???? ???a ???? ???i ??y? ??ey? ???? ?i ?????ey a Ae?a. E ??o
???? ???i ??y?, ???, ?????e e ?????? ?i A.A.????? Ae???. 30 ???a A????a
O???? ???a ????a a ??o ???o i ?i, ?i ?? A.A.??io?? ??o ???ue ??ua
(“O???e ??oe”. N. 197). 1 ??y?y ?????a ????, ?i A.A.????i “a ??a, ?i n?a
???atho, a ? ?????? ????” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 202). A ????? ?????a ????
???ue I??ay II ????? nu? A.A.????? ? ??a-??? i?? a ??. Ii ?? ???e
??????ei ???i. Nay? ???? ???a ???? ???i ??y? n ??i A.A.????? ???e
I.I.I????e a ?????e e ???o n????o ???th ????e. [13]

12 ethiy A???ae? Oa???a ???? ??, ?i ?a ??? ???? ???? ???? A.A.N?????, ?e
?e ?i ??iytho a ???? ????ey (“O?i?? ??oe”. N. 147). A??i, ???u ??u ????
???? ???e ?a ????e, ?e e? a ?o ? ?? I??? II io??e ??, ?i ???e ?y? I???
I????/ ?????? ? y? ??i ?i??a A.A.I????a. Oe?ue ???e, ?i ????? ??? ????a
e ??? e ???, ?i a ??iy?e ??? A.A.I???? ?a ? ????y ???y?i ????i (“O???e
??oe”. N. 148).

A ??o ?????eyo A.E.A?? ????, ?i ????? A.A.I????a a?i ?????? N???. Ii
??eth ????oa, y? ?? y?ay ???a ?????? ?o?i. A ? ? ??y ?? ???? ?a ?a ????
? ??a ?????? ?y??e. Ie???i ????? ?e ?? I.A.Ua???, a ??-????? Na.N??a –
A.Ae.N???. A.E.A?? ???, ?i ????ue y?o ethae? ??y ??? A.A.E????, ?i ??a
?a????? ??ue ? ??a ??????a.

I?? ????ey ??? i??y?e A????o O????. A ?o ? ?? ?????a ???? ??: “E??e i?y,
? y ? ???yth ??? ??? ?a??i ???? – ? ???ue, ?e ? n? ?e ??? ??… Ii ??a ?
??e ???e, e ???? ??i ??ue ???a ?… Ia ?? ? ? ??? Ae??, ?i ??? ?e??o
????a?” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 150).

15 ethiy I??? II ???e ?? i ?i, ?i ?a ????tho ?o ?c??? ??-?????
A.Ae.N???a (“O???e ??oe”. N. 154). A ?o ? ?? ?????a ??ue ??i ??????a ?
y? ????. “N???, ?c ???ey, ??? ??? ??? Ae?? e ??o ? ???a ?o ??e??, ???o ?
? eth?? ss ?ath ??????a ???u ?i ? eth??, ?e ?e ? ??? ???e e ??? ?????
???? a ???o ??? ??? Ae??… Ii ??o ???? ??? ?n, ?ac ? ??? A?” (“O???e
??oe”. N. 155).

O? 28 ???a A????a O???? ???? i ?i, ?i ?a ????o n ??????i N??a ????a
E.E.A???e?i ?????o ??? ???? ????? ?e. Ni ?? E.E.A????a, ?????a ????ea,
/? “U???? ????i ??cy ?o??ue, ?i ?i ???o ????? ???ue” (“O???e ??oe”. N.
193). O? ? ??oth?e ??, 29 ???a, ?????a ??? ?? i A.Ae.Na???: “Iu ???
???ue N., e ?i ?i?a, ?i ??a, – ? ?? ? ????ny, ?ea ? ?y?o ?iy, ??? Ae?? e
A. (A???o) a ??ey?oth ?o?eth. Y? ??ue ??i e ??? ?????/? e ??, ? y ??a,
?i ?e e ??o, – ??? ?ay e ???e ?i ????ue, a y ??? ?? a ??i ?/ay?e”
(“O???e ??oe”. N. 194-195). “I? o??ny ????? ??e ?? ????a e ???a ???ue
U?a. e N?.”, – ??? A????a O???? a ?i ? ??? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 196). N 22
???a ????e? ??iy?i ????? ????ue ????i a????o ?e A.A.O???a. I?? ????a??
???? ???ue ??????y ? ????a, 7 ??y?y ?????a ??? ? ??? A.Ae.N???a: “Ou ???
???, ?i ii ? ???o ??o ?? – ??? ? ???? a N??a, a ??? ????? ??? Ae??. Y?
????? ??? ?n ??o – ??i????i, e ?y ?????i oy??? ???e ?? ????i” (“O???e
??oe”. N. 215).

I???y ? ?a y? a??, 7 ??y?y I??? II ??e ??, ?i “Ua??? ? y?o ?c ???? ? ?iy
a??? ??? ??????, ? ??e ???i ??? e ???ae? ???” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 216) A
???????? ????, ?e ??????y A????a O????, a ??a 1915 ?? ???y? ?? ??a. I??i
??e ? ???? ?????? I??ay II ?????e ? ?????a e A.A.????i, a “?????
?ie??a”. N?? ????a ?e???ny ???? ? ??i ??????i E.E.A????? e ??? ????y i
?i ???. E????ey ???a ???? ? 14 ??y?y, ??a a N??a ??iy?? ????a N??a ????a
a ?????e ??y. N?? ? ?? ???ue I??ay II ???? ?? ???, a ??ae ? y?i “????,
?e??a ????? ???????y ??? A???e?, ?? ????e ?? ? ??? ???u”. [14] I? y?i
A.A.I????, ?e ? ????a??y ???a ?????u, ? ???yth?? ?y???? n?e ?????? ????i
e ?a ?ae ????? a y?e ????e.

???a I.A.U???a e A.Ae.Na??? ? ?????? ??? ? ??ue ??? ?????ue ???????.
A.E.A?? ??e ? y?? ???: “Ia ???? ? N???, ? a ?????e U???a ? i???? ? ???
????y ???i ???? N??? e U???a ?? ????u, e y?o ? ?????i ???ny ??ue ??i”.
[15] I?? ??i ???? ??? ???a-??y?y 1915 ?? ????a ?????a. “A? o ?n eth?, y
??? ?ay ????th, e ?y? ? ?? ?iy?, ?e a ??e ???? ???, ? ????i ??th???,
n??i ?o ???y?o eth?e?” – ??? A????a O???? ?? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 214).

I???? ??? A.A.?????, ?????? ??c ?????o, I??? II ?o?ny ????ue ? ????. 12
ethiy A?e??? O???? ????? ????a Ae?? i ?i, ??u a ?? ?? ? ?? ?i?? ?e ???i
???? ?ae n ???? i ????e ???. I? ???a, ??u ???y??a i ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?
??e ??y, a ? io Na.N??a (“O???e ??oe”. N. 150). *?? ?e ?y, ?????a n
???????? ??e e ??a A.E.O????i, ?? ???e ?????a, ?i ??e ???? ?ae ???? ????
8 ethey a ???? ??u E???? A??e I??e (“O???e ??oe”. N. 154).

Ae??a ?????? ????? ???ye ?c ???ey. 17 ethiy A????a O????, ??ay? ? ???o
A.A.?????, ???a ????ue n ???i Ae?u, ?e ?e “?e ??o ?????y ? ?a ??”. “Iu
?a ? ?????? ?y ???????? ?????o?. I. e A?? ???? a ?i, ?i Ae?a ?????”, –
??? e?????. N??th?a ? ??? ? y? ?io ?? ?a ???. 25 ethiy A????a O??i?a n
????e ???? ? ???? Ae?o ??? ??: “Y? ??e ??th?y ??? ?? e ?????y a ?ea,
?o?? ? ?atho ???ny!” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 171). A?????, ?o ???ue a ?? ???a,
?????yny n ???e ???u ??? A.A.?????. I????i ????, ?i a ??e ???? ??????
?y?? ????? ?y?th ??. A ??? ? 8 na?y?y A????a O???? ????? ?? ?? ? ?????e
? ???? ?????? ?y??e a I??a, ????? ???th ???i??. A.E.A?? (?e ???u ?o
???th?y) ?y?ye: “Iu ??? ???e ??? – ? ???? ???, ?????th ??th?o??? ?????,
??? n ???i, ii ? ??th ???, ???y ?? ????y ?ae ???i”. E????? ??ue ??i
?a??? y? ?????a: “Y? – ??????ay ?????a, ?????ay ??? ?ay e i??i Ae??. A?
? ? y? ???o. E???, ? ?-?????e ?e ??? – ??ue A??? ? ??a ???o e ae?o ?
??y?ny” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 217).

E?? 1915 ?? ????a e ??o A????u O???? ? ????th e N??a ???? ??e ?????e.
E?????a ???? ?????ue ???e ?????y a ???i ???? ?????e. A ????? ???o ?a
???? ??, ?i ?aeyo ??e i ?i, ?i a N??a ????o ??i e y? ???e Ae??? (*??e).
16 ethiy ?? ???e, ?i y? ??e “? ?iyo ????? y?a” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 159).
I??i y? ? ????i ?????o. 24 ethiy ?a ??? ???? ?? ???ue ????ue ??? ?c ???
N??e. “Y? i?????ay N??a, ???y ????? ?ay ??e ? ??e, ??? ??, ??u ???oue
?ay a ??i ????e ???”, – ??? A?en??a O???? (“O???e ??oe”. N. 170).

I????i, ??e ?????ee ?????u ?????ue ???, ???a ?c???oth ?????oth ????.
I????, 24 ??y?y A????a O???? ???a ?? ???? ??? ???ue ? ?????e a ???o,
???? ? ????eth ??ey?ey: “I? ???? ?, ??u ?? ??? ?? n?y ???? ? ?? ????yo,
??u ?e ? ??e ???ue e ???ue – ??ue y? ???? ?e ????ayo ?????ue ????i”
(“O???e ??oe”. N. 51). 14 ???y ?????a ?????, ?i Na.N?? ??e ??, ???ath?e
????? “??”, ?e e? y?o ??? ?????i o ???. A????a O???? ???a, ?i y? ???ey ?
???ny ? ???, ? Na.N??a. “C?? ??? ?????ey ???o e ??e?” – ????? ?a (“O???e
??oe”. N. 83). 5 ??ey 1915 ?? ?????a ???a ?? ?????, ??u ??? ? ????e e ?
???e ???, ??????? ?????i: “? ??? ???ue ? ???th, ?e ?e ? ????a, ??a A?o,
a ? ???u” (“O???e ??oe”. N. 117). A ??? ??a A????a O???? ???a ???ue ???i
???? ???? ???, ?e ?e ?e e ?c ?? ?????ue ???eth.

I??ay n ???a 1915 ??, ??? A????u O???? ???tho ?iy? ??ue, ?? ????ny e ?
?????. Yoi ???a, ????a ???ey, ??? ?????? ???a. E??a ?iy?ny e n?i ????a
?? e ??, ?y?yth?y ??a ??????? “Iiy ??y ??a. I.” (4 ??y?y), “I? ???
????a” (13 ??y?y). E??a ?????a ???ny, ?i ?? ? ?o?a, e ??? ???ey ?
??????? ???. A??atho ????a e ??o?? ???a ?????e: “Oe???ay ??? ?a ? 6 ? 8
?n., ? n A?e ??? 7 ?” (14 n?oy?y).

Ia ??? ??????, i?????i ?????ny e A????a O????, – A.E.A??, I.I.A???, ? e
?????, ?y?y?? i ??e ?????e ???e ??a, ??? i ???i ?ey?e ?????u (a ??c ?a e
A.A.?????) ? ?n?????? ??. I????, A.E.N????/ ?e ?uy?ye y? ?ey?a: “A??e
??????e, ???ic?e ? ??????e, ?a a y?e ??? ??? ??? ??i ??? ??a ? ??,
????ue ? A?a, ? ???o, ? ??, a ?e ???u ?a ??? – ? N??a”. [16]

I????i ????, ?i a ????eth???a ?? y? ????y ???e ????? ??a. A ??e ??a “Ia
?oyo e ????? ?????” N.I.I???? ???e, ?i ???e ??th ? ?? ???? I??????i ??a
????i ?????a i ?i, ?i I??? II ??e ??e ?y ??th??y ?????i ?? n A???? ?ae
?ey?? “???i ??a” (?ae yo? ???????ue ?????a, A.A.????i e ? ????a ????a).
A ??? ?y? ???? ?a a 1915 ??: “????i, ????? o???e, ??? ?e ? ????? ??e
????? a ??? ??th??y ?? n ??a?”. [17]

E??i ????ey ??i?? I??ay II e A????u O???? ???a ??ay? ?? i ???o ?????i ??
e ???. Ae?a A.O.E????, ?i ??ae ??eth?? e ?????e ??e i ????ii ??, a ??o
?????eyo ?e ?a ??ue ????i. O?y ? ?-???? ?????, ?i “???y ???a ??? ???e –
??? ?????”, ? ????y n ??y e ??? ?a ?? ?y?. A ??i ???? ?????i ?? ?????
??????i, a “I??? II ?o ? ?e ?i”. “I???? ? ?e-??? e y?? A????a O????”,
ia???o ?a ???ue ? ?a. N?? ???i ????? ?i???? ??? ?? ?, ?i “????? a??u ?c
??a ????ue ??? ?a e ???e A????”. A.O.E???? ????? ????ny a ?i, ?i, “??y e
???”, ? ? ?? ??e ??????e aei??eth???o ????e ?????u. [18] Ae?a
I.I.I?th?a, n Ae??? ???u ???i ??iy?? ?????o a ???, a ??o ???? ????e, ?i
“??? ??? ??iy?y e ??? ??????” (? ?? ????th a ????). [19]

Ii ??iy?? ???e ?y ????o e ????? ???a ??i?? I??ay II e A????u O???? ?? e
?-???? ???ny ??i-? ??????i ????? ??? ?????o ????. I????, ?-????, y?yth?y
????? ???? e?????y e ???a y?? ia????. N??ay y?????y “A???ey”, ???ay
???????th ?y????ue I??ay II, ????, ?i “?????i ???ny ? ??a ??ey, ????
???e ?i ?????? ????ue ?????? ?y ??, ??u ????ny n ?????? ????”. [20] A??
??, ???a ????? ?????a I.A.I????e ?????ue ?y????ue I??ay II ? ??o ?????
??????oth?? ?? ????a a ??e. I? ????? ? ??a “A??ay ?????” ??o I.A.I????e
???? ?????, ?a ?a????, ?i a ?????? “????? ???? ????? ???? ??y ???u, ?a
????? ?iy??. I????i ?????? ??? I??ay II (a ?c???a ?i ?y?e e ??y?e)
????ath?y, ?? ?? ??iy???a e ?????? c???a ??ae?ey ??????y n ????”. [21]

I??? II a ??o ???o ????o ?e ???e ???e, ???ath?e ????? e ????? ???y. E
????th, ????ue e “???ue” ??y ????? ia ???y? a ??? ?? ????? ?i ???????th
???. I???i, ?i ?a ????y ??????a a “???? ???iey”, ?????? ??th, ?? ???u
??a ? ?????i o ?? ?????? ???a e ????????i ???a. I???i ???e ??, a ??oth
???ue, ???a ???? I??ay II ? ??ae??th ?????? ??????e ???. E???? ???y ?y
?????? ????? e ????e ??a?? ???? ?????a ????y, ???a a????? a “iy??”
?????.

O? ????a ???? ????? ? ????i ???, ????? ???????oth ?y????ue I??ay II a
??n??? ? A????u O???? e A.A.?????. I???? A.C.E?? ??e: “A??e, ???? ???i
I??? II ??i ? ????y ?ae ??????i ???? ????? e ?a ?e? ?? – A????u O????,
??i ia ?????”. [22] Ii ????a I?i?y II e A????u O???? ???? ?????, ??a ???
??e ????? A.A.????i.

A 1914-15 ??o ??? ??? ????? ? ??? ? E?? e I?a??ue ? ??y ??u (? ????i);
????ue ??? ???? ?? ? ??y ??u (? ????i); ?????ue n ???? ???? 2-? ??y?
(???? ? ? ?ae a ? ?e ?ny?); ????? ???? ??????e ???? ?ae (???? i ?????
?o); ????ue ??eth Ae?u ??i 1915 ?? (? ????i); ia ????ue ??, ????? ?i ?
???th ????ue (? ????i). E?? ????, ?i ??? A.A.????? ?? ??? e ????
???a????o ????. I? y?i 1914-15 ??o I??? II y? ?????? ??? ? ???ye. E????
? ??? ??ai, ??u ??? ?? A.A.????? ? ???a ?e ?oy ? ????? ? ???th ????ue (i
??i ?ey?e ??a y?? ??i ?????). I? ???o ??? ???ue, ?i ???ey ??a ????ny a
1916 ??.

N ?????ey? A????u O???? ?? ??iy? ???e. A 1915 ?? ?a ?a ?? ??a ??? ?? ???
??????i ??a. A ????? ?a ?????, ?i ?????a ? ??i ?aey?i ?? ??????? ??.
I???i ?????y ?????ey ?e ????ey n ???a???ueth ?a ? ????a. Ii ????i ????yi
A????u O???? ??i ??? i ?i, ?i ?? ? I??? II a???e a ??ue ??? ??, ? ????y
?? ? ????? e ???? ?????. I? y?i ??? ?????ey A????u O???? ???? “??y?”. O?
? ?aeo ????y ?????a ????? ?i ?? ?????? ??. I?? ?????ia a y?i ????e ??a –
“??ue A??? ? ??a ???o e ?? ? ??y?ny”. I???a “???e” ????ue o A????u O????
e a ????e ? ????? ????y. Y?o ?? ??? ???? ?c ?y?? ??a e, ??y?i, ????i ?y
??o ????.

A ???th ??o ????e? ? ?????ue. Aa ?????? ???? ??o ??????o ???i, ????eth i
e??? ?a ???? ? ??o. A ???? ????ey ???o ?a ?????ue /?a ??i ??a, ??a ?e
???? ??? ??????e ???e ?e ????? ???o ???.

I???? ??i ??? ? ???i, o A????u O???? ?? “?o?” ? eth?e. Eo ?y???ue a ???a
a?u ?????a ???y? ?e ??? A.A.?????. E?? ????, ?i ????, ??ey?? ??????
(O.A.E??? e I.E.E??a) ?????? ? ?? a ?????a-????ea ?e 1917 ?? ????e ????
?????. Y? a ? ??y ?e ????a I??ay II ?e ????i ??? ??, ?e a?????e ?????ue,
???a ??y. A???, ??? ???o ??????ue ?????a (???e ?y? I??? I????/,
A.A.I????, A.O.Ae?????, a ?????? e I.A.A???a), ? ????e ???y ?????.
A.A.I???ia e A.O.Ae????? ?n??? ? ??? e ?????i.

Eeth??i ???? a y?i ????e y?y?ny ?, ?i ??? ??e ?? I??? II ??iy?i ?????e.
Ae?a ?? a ???? ??a ? ???? a ?? ?????? ?????u, ? ??? ? y? ?e ?a ??e ?yae
??? ???. I? y?i ? ?? ??ay, ??u a ???o A????a O???? ???a ????a ?? ?
?????? ? ??????. A?????a, ?i ?a ???y? ?? ??? ??ue e ??ue, – ????? i
??oth?e ? ????. E????? ????i ????, ??e a?c ???????e ???ai ? ????? e ??ae
?i ?o ??a?y ???ue ??o. E ????th, ???? /??i ? ???? ? ??? ??????e ???????
(???e ??ue ?????? eth?), ? ?? e ??u ???e ???e.

A???a A?a A?????? (????ay O???), (1884–1964), ???? e ???a E????? A????u
O????, ?? ???? A.N. O???; ? ?y, ??y? n ??? A.A. ?????, ??????? ???e
E??????i ??y ?y ??????e ???; ? ??y ??u ??? n Eii????e ???? ???e ????ey a
Oe??????i ????a; ??a O????? ??eth?e ?? ????? A??i?i ??????? e ??th?? a
I?????n?th ????, ? ??i ?????a ?-? i??? ????ey «???a ?????ey»; a i??a ai?
??????? ??? ???? ????a a I????a, ?????? ?????ue n I. A???; ?????
????oe?e ???ey Oe??? N??. A 1919 ?? ??ea a O?ey?eth, ??y? ????? ???a ?
A????i ????a. A ?? ?? ??ie ???iae. N????ue a O?ey?ee.

A???a A?a A?????? (1884—1964). Ae?ue ??????yth?? N????? a.e.a. ???y?e
A.N. O???. N 1903 ???? ?????u. N 1907 ???i ? ???i ?????i A.A. A????, ???
????ue, ????ue ? Ae??. A??? a ????a ????a ??????e ??e; ???y? ????
???????? ????y I??ay II e A????u O????, a o./. e ?y??? n ??? ??th ?e ??a
A.A. ????ia. I?? O????? ??eth?e ?? ????ia; a ??a—eth? 1917 ????? a
c?eth??e a I??????? ????, ??i a N????. I????? ? ????eth I?????. I?? ???
??? a ?oy?a 1918 ???, ????? a I????a. A 1920 ????? ???a a O?ey?eth.
I???a ?????ey; A.A. A???? i?????? ??a ????i ???????i a 1927 a E????a
????, ?????i ??i ???e y????? i????i.

A?y?y ??????? ?????, ??ay ?????e ??o ?i e ???e ???. Ai ??y I??e ???e ??u
? ???, ????? a ???? ?????e ? ???, y???ny ????? ???????e ?????, ?????? a
Oe??? N?a ??i? ????ue, a ???i ???? ???e ????ey ??y? n ?????? e ? ????.
I?? O????? ??eth?e ????ia; a ??a – eth? 1917 a. ????? a ??th??e a
I??????? ????, ??i a N????. I??y?? ? ?ey?e ? ???? e a ???? ????yo n
???o??. A?a ?????a *????? ?????? ????e (*NE) ?????? ?????? ?????????th,
??????o ??????ue A????. I????? ? ????eth I?????. I???? ??y ???? ????a a
I????a, ?????? ??a??? n I. A???; ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??e. I?? ??? ???
a ?oy?a 1918 a. ???, ????? a I????a. A 1920 a. ????? ???a a O?ey?eth.
I?iy? ????? ???a a A????i ????a. A ?? ?? ??? ????e. N????ue a O?ey??.

E?????u ????u ??e: Ae??? ?????. I., CAI “I?a I?? A??”. 2008. (Y?o ??o
?????o ?????yi ????e ??e – ??. ?o. i. Ae.A.E?th?i??o e ??. ?o. i.
E.A.E?iy??).

A?a A?????? O???-A???a – ????y ???a ?????u A????u O????, ????? I??ay II,
eth???a A???y ????? – ??e ?ny? ?o ?? ?i ????, ?o?? ????e ???th ???eth o
a??e. O???a ? ????? ??a i ???e ??a ?a: ?i ?? e ???, ?i ?th??, ?i ???o,
?? ???e eth???, a ?i ???y?e ??? ????… 

Ae??? ???o ? ?? ???: ????a ??; ??a.

E?? ?????? A. A. O???e (A????) “N???u ?? ??e” ?? ???a ??? a I??a a 1922
?aeo. A? ????? ???y y?e ??e ??a??e ?????? ????y ???, ??a ??, ??i ???ue,
?????ue ?????? ???a.

A ???e ?? ? ??o ????a ?e ?????i a ???? «O???a A? A????a A?a A???? a 1993
?? ??????i «ORBITA». A???e y?e ????e y??? ????e ????e ???? A.I.O??? e
???e I.A.U???a, ??? ?? *?????e ?????? ???? A???i? ??????a, n????? ???? —
A.A.E???. Y? ?????ey ????? ????? a 1927 — 28 ?. a ???a “I???a ??”.

I????? ?o ? ??o ?????i ??????i «E??? ????i ? N????i ?????i e ??????i
«I?ay ??? a ???? «Oe????? ???? a ?????eyo ???????», ???ai a 1999 ??,
??a, ?e e a ???? «O???a A? A????a. O?? ?????i ??? I???i ?????? «O???»
2002 ??, e?th??y a ???i ??? O????? ???o?e.

E? ???????o A.E???, ??o, ???? a ?i ???e, ?n?????i ? ??a «O???a A?
A?????, ???y ??a a 1928 ?? a ????? e?????a «I???. «E i??e y? ??o ?????
??i N.E????a, ??? ?????y ? ??? ?????? ??i e ????i ?????e ???u, ???? a
??e ??????e I?????, I????, U???? e O???a — ??n?? ????? ??, — ??o A.
E???, ??? y?o ??? ?e?i ? ???: ??a «???» e «????i» ??? ?? ? ???? ???
«??????, ?e ?e ?????ay ??? ???a e ????eth ???? ????? ???.

“Ae????i-????i” ??? ?? ? ??? ????ue ??o, ? e ?eth?? a ?? ?????a ???, ?
??????a ?? ???. N??? y? ?? n ???e oe?ueth ???ue o ???ey ?????a ? ??? ?e
???? ??e??? ?a, ?i ??? ???????i ???a?? a y?????e ??a ??eth, ????o ????a
? ????a ??????, ?a ????y ? A?a A????. E???? ? ??????i ??e ???i, ?-????,
????i ???? ??.

I??? II

I??? II, E???? A?????? – ???e ?i E????a A????a III e E????? I?? O????u .
???ny 6 ?y 1868 a. a Oe??? N?a. A 1877 a. ?e??? ?????a ???? A? ?iy?y?
?ei ???? ???? A.A. Ae????o. O??? ?iy?y ?? ?????? ? 12 ?o; ??? 8 ?o ??
??yu?u ????i ??????? ??a, a ????a ??? ?? ?? ??????u ?y ??a ??? ??.
Ne???ue ????u ???a e ??????e ?i???ey ?iy?e ?a ? ?? ?ae. E?n ??? ?? ????i
?e e ???eth n ?????e ?????ueth ?ai?? ?? e e ??????? ?????eth n ?????e
???? th????? e y?????? ??. I?????ey? I????a Oe????a ? ???o ??? ???i ??a
??: E.E. ss??a (???/??a ??i, a ?y? n ???? ??? e ???? ???e), I.O. A??
(???o?a, ?????ay y???y e ????? ??i), E.I. I?????a (y?????y ??????y,
???????a, ?????a e ????a ??i), I.I. E???i (???a??? ??i), A.A. C?????e
(???/??y ???y), I.I. A??? (??y). I?????ey? ? ??? ???o ?? ??iy?: I.I.
I??? (???y ?????), I.E. Ae????a (??ay ????? ??e), A.A. E?? (???aey e
???y ???y), I.A. Ae?uey??? (????ey), I.E. E?? (???y ??????y), I.Y.
O????o (???ey e ????ey), I.E. A??a-E???/ (???a), Oe.A. Ethe (???e??y),
A.E. I????? (???y ???? ????a), A.A. A???i e I.I. E?? (???-???a ??). Aeey
???ey ???? ??? e ?????ey n ????i ??i, I???? Oe???? ??? ?a ?a??o ??a a
?y?o ??-???e I?????e?i ??a, ?a ??? ??? ??y?e ??????e ??? a ?y?o
??-?????? ?????i A? A????a ??a, ?ei ???? ?? ??iye a ?y?o ????e? ????? e
? ????ey ? ???e ?????, a ?? ?????, ??? ?o???i ??-?????? I??????? ??a.
Aeey ??????i ?????ey n ????e ?a???i? ????ey I???? Oe??a?/ n 6 ?y 1889 a.
????? a ?iy?yo A???????i ??? e ???? ????a. Aeey ?????ey n ????? ???y?
???e I???? Oe???? ?????e N??i A?o???? ????y ? ??? ???? A? ? ??n?. A
?oy?a 1890 a. I???? Oe???? ????ye ?????a ? Ae?ue?e A??e, ??????, ??c
A?o, O??o, A??th e A??o, a E?eth, E?? e ssi?eth. A ?? ? ?????e ?????y n
????y? ???-???? ??. A ss??e I???? Oe??aa? ???e a. I?o, ?a 23 ??ey 1891
a. ???e, ?????ny a ??a ?????o, ???? ????a ? ??ue A? A????a, ???e A? ??
??? a ???; e ???th, ?? ???a? ????e. I???e ?? I???? Oe???? ???? ??i ??i,
??c N??ue, ???a ??? ??????th ???? ????? ????? ??. A ??? ???a ?? ? ??
I???? Oe???? ????o?i ???? ?? ?????a, ??????ny ??a 9 ?ny?a; ?i ?? ???i
?y?i Y.Y. O????. A 1891 – 92 ?. I???? Oe???? ?????????e a ??? ???? ?
???eth i??e ????th ????, ?????? ? ?o??y. A 1892 a. I???? Oe???? ???i a?
e ???????? a ???? N???? ???? ???, ???a ???e ? ??e e ? ????? ? ???e. A
??? 1894 a. I???? Oe???? ?e ????i n ????? A??e A????e (?. A????a O????a,
I, 854). A?i?????ay I??? ???a a ???th ? ???u ??? ? ???u ????? A????a
III.

I???o i ????? ? ???e A???y E????a I??ay A???ae??? (20 ?oy?y 1894 a.)
????e ????a A? A????a “??? ??ue ??? ??th ??ia ???ay?a, ????? e ??o ???e
???e e ????a ???y ?? A? ???????”. A ???y?? ??, ?????e ??????yi ???e ?e
?????o ??? 28 ?oy?y 1894 a., ?? ?y??i, ?i A? A????i “??y?o ?a N?e ???
???eth ????aai ?????y?y ???e e ? a ?i ? ????y ? ??? ??eth??e, ???e e
?y???? ????, ??ue ??i ???????e ????o ??e??th”, ??? ???y “??o ?-????
???e?? a ???? ??a e ????i ??y?a ????e ??a ?ci???? ?n???a”. 14 ?y?y 1894
a. ??iy?? ??????? A???y E????a, ??????? I????i ?????. Ae?e A???y ? y??
??a: I???? Oe????, ???e ?y? A??? I????/ (???y 30 ethey 1904 a.) e ???a
?y?u I?aa (???? 3 ?y?y 1895 a.), O?uey? (???? 29 ?y 1897 a.), I?ey (????
14 ethiy 1899 a.), A???ey (???? 5 ethiy 1901 a.) I????u. – 14 ?y 1896 a.
??iy?? Nay??? E????? A???y Ei???? e A????e E?????. Y? ???a ?? ??????
A???????i ?????. A??a ??a ????e Eo A????a ????y? ?a ???e ? A??a. Ai ??y
??? ? y?o ???e ??iy?? ????a A???? e A????? O??ee. Y? “???y ??ey” ? O???
(n 5 ? 10 ?oy?y 1896 a.) ????a ?u ???-???e ???, ??? ???e ?? ???ii ?e
????? A????a III. I??th??y ?e??a ???e ??a ???? y?? ????a a ????? A???y ?
??? ??? ??a??? (???y?ay ?? ??n?a ?????o ?e ? 12 ???a 1898 a.; ?. A???a
?????e, XII, 278 e ?.). N??ey ? Ae??? A??? ???e a 1900 – 1901 ?. e ???th
???e a ????e ?????i ????y a E??, a 1904 – 1905 ?. – e ??a n ss???. 12
???y 1904 a. ??iy?y A????e ?? i ??????eyo e ????????eth ???????? ??y?a.
Ec ??a ??a, ???? a ????? y?? ??a, ????i y?y?ny ?? 17 ??ey 1905 a. i
??????oe (?. A??????ue, XII, e 195 e ?.). ???u ? ??????? ??? ?????a??
??????, ??????a ??a ??????y ????a 17 ?oy?y 1905 a., a ????yo, i? ??? A?
A????a ????????i, c????? 23 ??ey 1906 a. ???? ??o ???uo a??????? ???a.
27 ??ey i????? a C??i Ae??a ???? A???? E????? ??o ???????o ??????. A
???a 1912 a. ??iy??, ?e ???e A????? N??, ?????a e ????a ? ??ath ???ey
I?????? ??u. N ??? ???????ueth ???y ??ae??? 21 ???y 1913 a. ?????? Ae?a
?????. Y?o ?? ?e ???i ????? e A????i ??? i ????e ???? ????th.

A ???e ???o ???ee ??oey 1913 a. ? A????i ????i? ???? A???y E????a ????ny
e ??th ?????o e e ??eth ????o n ???? ???ny ???e ??y?i ? ?ay ?y?????i. Ai
??y ?????a, i???????o ???? ??a, A???? E????? a?i ????? ???? ???i-????
??? ? ?????? ???? ?????e. E?? A???? ?? ?uy??a ?e? ???e, A???ue E????, ?
????y ????i, ? ???? ?????????? ?????, ??ue ??a ? ? ??a ????? e i??? ?e,
???????o ?y ???o ????, ???e ???? ?ycth I??ath I????? ?? A????
A??????th?i. I?????i ?? ???u A??????? ??o e A??????ay ??, ?iy?y ???o ??
???u 26 ethey ???i a C??i Ae??a ??? Ai??????? ??? e A??????? ??. N ???
?????e ?? ????? a ???e ???a ???o ????. 22 ???a 1914 a. A???ue E???? ???e
?????a ???e ???, ?ia e ???? ???e ????? ??? ? ????y ???? ???e. I?
????????i A????e E????? A????u O????u ????i, ? ??o 11 ???a 1914 a.,
????e ??o ?y ?????y ?y????e ? ????th ??e ?oe, ????? ? ??o, a ??a ?i?
???o e ??? ???. O?i ? ??a ????i ??? ???o ???e ?y?u I?? I????u ? ???eth
???????i? ??? ??yi ?oe, ????? ? ??o. 14 ??y?y ????i ???o ???e ?y?u
O?uey? I????u aeey ???ey ????e ??? ?????? ? ???o ????. N ??? ??? ??u
A???ue ?????? ???? ?????y a ???oth?th ??th (???? y?o ?????e, ??????
???e-???i Ae???ei, ???ny ??????i E??????i Ae??; e ??a?th 1915 a. ??i ?e
???a), 23 ???a 1915 a. A???ue E???? ??i ??ye ? ?ay i?????????? ??e
?????e e ???ie ???, ??aey??ny ? ??? ???o ae???e. 25 ?oya?y A???ue E????,
???? ?????o ?????? ?? TH?-C???? ???, ????e ????ue ? ?ay ??i Nay?? A??ey
4-e ???e. N??ey ??o???y A???y E????a ??o ???? ???? a ??? “???y” (???y).

A ???yo, ?i?????o ??e ???th ???th iy??ny?o ??a ????i ???ey, ?? ? ???o
???aey?o ?e ????ey? ??i?ue ????? I??ay I????.

A ???a ??e ???????i ?????ey y?? ????y A??a ??? a ?i ???????i ?a????ey e
????a ??????ny ???u ????i?e e ?????? ??e ???a, a ????y?????ay ?????y
???y ?e ? ?a?? ?????ue a ??a ??? ???a. I?????y ?ey, ????e ????, ????ue
????e, eth?? e ?ia? ?????o e ???a ?????ue ???th ? a????i e ???i ????yo ?
?????uo ????i ????yo — ?????? ??? ??i? ?????ue, ?i ????? I??? I???/ ?
????y ? ????? ??, n /? ??cy ?? ? ????y. A ?i ?? ????????? ???u ??? ??
????? ?th??a, ?? ?????i ??a; ??????e ??? ??? ????i ??? ?i ????? ?e ????,
? e ? e ??? ????i a ??? ?? ?i ?y??.

Iiy?? ?????? ?????e ????? I??ath I???? ??e ???e e ?? ???e ?????? ???e
C???e A??u ????? ?c ????? n ?????? e ????e ????th y?? ????y.

Ca ????i ?ny?a ? ????ey ???? ?ycy I?? I???? ? ???e, a ?a?i — 25 ethiy
1796 ??, ???y ??? ?i ?i, ???e ?y? I??? I???/, ????e ? ??? ?????u A????
II, ?y???ny ? ?? ?e ? ??e. O ???? ??????? ???y ?????a ???a ?i «????, e
y? ?????? ??? ?????ue ??????i e ???? ????? I??ay.

Ii ??????? ?e ?i???? A???? ??y?o ???e ?y? I?i?e n ??? ???ey ???? ? ???i?
?????e ??e, ? ??????y ??? ???a ?????u ???? ?ey?a ? ia ?ae ????ey ????
?ycy. A?i???? a y?i ????e ????i, ?????i A????e ??? ???? ??o, ?e ??????
??? iy?, ????e [6] E??, ?a?e a ???a ??? ?? ?o ?i ?e????e ????????e. TH?e
???e ?ycue ? ?? ??e ?? ??y??y e ??e ??? ???????a, e ??cy ? ?????y n ?i,
?i a ??? ???i ???a «????e, ???? ???i??, ???e e ???? ???? iy? E??» ???e
????e e ? ???? ? ??????.

I?? ????y ?????a I?? ????? ???? ?ycy I??ay e ?????y a 1798 ?? ????? ??
I??? ???i a ?? ????e. Ae?? ??????ny ?????i ???o ???e ?a?? ??? ??y????
??? ?? ???ie ??? ???ue ? ?aae?o. E ??????i, ????? I?? ???? eth?e ?????
??e ??o, ???? ? ???? ?ycy I??ay I????. Ii ??? ??? I. A. E??, «? ??? ?
??? ??i, ?? ???a ? ??? ? ??». N??ay ?th?????a ????i y??? o?i ???e,
?????a I?ey Oa???a ?????iy? ?i ? ?? ??? e ? ????? ???o ?y?e, ???a «a ???
?? ???a ????? ? n?? ?????e ???th a ????yo ???i??e e ???? ????e e ??
?y?e; ????y ? ????? e ?e?i ??a ??? ????e ?y ?o ?? ??????, a ?? ????? e
th???.

N??ue ????? I?? ia ??a ? ??????y a ?iy? iy??o?? ???? ?ycy I??ay I????.
Y? ?e ??? ?? ???, ????? ?o a ??? ?i?i ???i ????, ??, ???e, ?????, ??? ?e
a ???i, ?e ?????? n ??iy?????, ???i???? ????a ????? A????a I, ???oue
???? ?? a ????a I??ay I????.

A ??? ???? ?ycy ????, ??i ???i, ??e ???i, e n y?o ?? ?? ?i ????ey e
?????y ???????ue ???i e ??th???? a ???e ??????? ?????u I?? O????, ? ???a
?????? e ???e ????? A???? ??????y io ?y?? ?ey?y ? ?n???a ??o ???o ???a.

«A?????i, ? ??eth ??? I. A. E??, ?????i ?????u I?? O???? ?? ???yy, ??o
???y, ? ???????ue e ??i ?oyi e e ??i, ? ?a ?????», e y? ???????ue, ????i
n ??? ????e ??y??e, ????????e a ? ??y i? ??a, e ?e ????a ??? ????aey
???? ?ycy, ???? E????, ???ea ?????? ???a ?e ??? ????e, ???y ?????? ???
??????ue ai ???i ?iy??? ?? I??ay I????.

O?ay ??????? a ????? ???o ???o ?y?e ??a, ???i, e ??a ??a ????y. Ae????i
?i??? [7] ???? A????? ??a ??? I?? I????, a ???i ???i ?????ue ???ay ???ay
???? n ???????i ?????? ?????e ?????.

A?? ???? E???? ? ????ue ?????y ???? ?ycy ?e ??? ?a ?????i I??i, ? ??
????????i ????ey ?i ?e ??a ??? ?????? e ????? ?????? e ?? ?????u-???
????? ???atho, ?i ???e y?o ??? ?????ye ??????? ????eyi I?? O????.

I??e E???/ E???o, ? ??y ??e ???????? ????eth ia ????ue ?????y ???e e
?????o??e ?y????e, ????y ?e ???e n ?????? ????e e, ?c ???ey, ??????
???eth y?? ???? a n?? ??????. Ii ??y?a ? ?????ue?a ??? ????? ?????th,
??e ??th???? ??i-?????e ???? e ??i ??iy? ? ???? ia???e. Ie ?i ?????ue
???? ?ycy, ? ?e ????? «????», ????a ? ?i ?n????, ????i ??i ??? ? ????
???eyi, ???a ? ???y? ??????i ? ???a ?????y, e ???? ?, ? ??? ?????o
????o, ??? ?e ?? ???? ???. Ei ? ???ue ?y? ????i e ?????i ?? ??e?i ?ycy a
?? ?? e ?? ?o ????? ?????a; ?a ????ue e ??i ????y e ??? ???e ??? n ?????
????? ??????.

A ??o ?i ??ae ?a e ????a I??ay I???? a ?????e ???e ?y??ny ?a a ???i ?i
????. I??????, ????? ??e??ue, ????y ???a, ???ue ? ??o ????, ?o ??????,
?????ny a ?c???a ??y a ??????e ???? nith?i, — ?a y? ?????ue ?a a ??i ???
???a e, ???i, ??an a ??o ????o ???o. I. E. O?ue?? a ??i ??????e ?????
I??ay I???? ??? ?i ?????, ???? ?????o ??e, a ??a ???i ??. «I????? ?n?a
????e, ??????e e ?????, a a ???a ?? e ??ue [8] ?????e ???e, I??? I???/
??i ?????ny ? ??y ??. Ae???? a ?i ??? ???e ?iy?y?? o?? n ?????e ??e. A
???? ??e?? n 1802 ? 1809 ?ae ?n?y?i ?o??th?y ??? ? ?, ?i «? ?a ?ie ???ey
? ??? ???i ??i ???????», «a ??o ??o ? ??e ??iyi? ???o ?i, ?i ???y? ?? ??
?e ???», ?i ?o ?????a «???ue ??ey?ny e ??????», ???oe, a ?iii ???, ?e
???? ?i ??, ???i: «?i ?? ? ?? ?? ????i, ?i ? ????e ???ny ?? e a ???
?????e, ?i ??y? ???a a ??o. Y?o ???? ???? ??o a?ue ?uy?? ?? ?i, ?i ??
?????, ?i ???, e ????y, ?i ??a, ????i ? ????ue ?o, e ?i ? ????i ? ???? ?
e ????o i?y??eth ?????????.

O?? ???e th?? ??e?i ?ycy ????e ??? ?????? e ?????? a ?????e ?i ????ey, a
?i ?????ue, ????? e ??ay?th e ????th i ??o ??? ????o, a ??a ???i ???
??y???? e ???th?i, ???a ???y?? ????11, ????y ??? ? ???? n ?i ????a,
????, ??? ?????ue ??i ??????i ?????y, ?e ????e, ???i, ??????e, ???? y?
????? ????? I??ay I????. I??a ???? ?ycy e ???? E???? a 1808 ?? e ????a ?
????e ??iy?? ?e ?i ????a ?i???? I?? O????a a ?????e ??a? ???eytho y?
?i???? ?i?? ?i ????a.

«O?????a ??? ?i ?????y ???? ?? ???e. I? ??e ??a e ???? ?y ? ??? ??oi
???… I???ath? ???ue ?n, ???e, ???? ?a y? ?????ue e ??ath? ?????y ???a
? ? ??i?y?».

«N?th ???ue ?ay, ?i ?? ????????? ??? ??, ? ?n?? ?? ???e ??? e a. A????,
???ny ????i ??e ?????e, ? ???e ??, y ?y y?? ??? ?a ?c???».

A ?ith ???ue, ????, ????a ? ????? ???? ?ycy, ???? ?????a-???: «Ai ??y
??a ???? y??, ?aey, ?i ?i (???? ?ycy) ??ay??? ?iy ????, ? ?e ?e ????i,
?i ???ny ? ?a ? ?th, ???y? ???e e ? ?ay ?????e ????? ??a. I???? aai
??????? ????? ???? ?ycy Ie??y ?? ???a. Ii ??? ?e ??a ???, ?i ?????i, e
???? y??, ? ?? ??y???, ?? ??ue i ?i, ?i ? ??? ??????ny. Ii ??i ????y ?
??i ?y????, ? ???? ??e a ?????? ???e ?????? e a ???».

E??? ??e ????? I??ay I???? ? ????o, ??i ???i ???? ???? ?ycy ?????? a
a??????i [9] ????e y?? ????e ?i ????a.

I????a ??? ?????u I?ee O???? a ?? ????ey I??ay I???? ??th??? a ????
i???? ?i ? ????y ???? ????ey?, ???a ?????? a ?i n ??? ???i ???a. N??? e
?????e ???a ???? ??, ???ay a ???e ??e ????? Ia?a, ???a a oe??? ??a ????
e ???a ??e. E???? A????, ????y ? ?? ?????, ?e ??y?i ?????? ??-??? e a?o
?i ????e; ???e ?y? E????i I???/ ????e ??? ???a ?? ? ??o, ??e ?????
e??ae. I??? ??uey ? ???? a y?e ???e ???i.

A??? ?y? I??? I???/ n ??? ???i ???a ??e ????? ??? ?????a e ???i ???? e e
????i i ???o ???eyo. Eo?? ?y ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????y ? ??ae ?e ???, ?a ?
n ??? ????i ??th?e ? ?? ??????i, ?????ay? ?? ? ????? ?????yo.

Ca ????? ???y ?i???? I?? O???? ???ue ???? ?ycy ? y?e ???e ?????e ?i
?y?nue ????e ?e?e; ?e ? ?? ???? ????ue ? ??? ?????? e ??????th ???, ??a
?????? ???a. I???a ??, ????y ???a ????ey, ????? ????? ??????, ????? e
???e ???? e e ????yi ???e ??? ?eo?? a ??? ???? ?ycy ?th ???? ????? ??a.
Y? ????? ???? a ?i a ?????e ???e e a ??? ???? e ????, ?e ??? ??, ????? ?
????a ?????y ???e ??e. Ii a ? ? ??y ????a ???? ???eoue ???? ?ycy ? ??i
???? ? ?? ?o ?????e ???? i????a a y?e ???e ??? ?????a e ????? ? ???o
???o ?? ??th??y ????a ?????e. I???? ?a?? ?y????e ????? I??ay I???? [10]
???ey? ??ey?ny ??????e ??? ?i ???o ??y?a e ?????? ?????e, ???a n ?????
??? ????? ???? ???? ??, ?e ????? ????y ??ae ???i ??e.

C??u ? ???? e ?????e ???? ?ycy ???????e? a ?o ? ???? ??o ?????? I??ay
I???/a. I? ? ??? ? ??e ???ue ???? ?ycth eth?e e ???, ? ???e ?a ????a,
??u ????? ?i ? ?a?y. A ???i ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? e ??, ??u ? ?? thiiio
???? ?ycth ???e ????ny ?i eth??i ???i ??i e ???i ???o ??. N???? ?y y??
?? ???i ??a ??????a ?y, ???a ???y? a ???y??e ?????? ???? ??a ????? ???e.
N y?e ??th, ?e ?y???i o/??e ??e ?????u, ? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???u ??? n
????i ?????i ????? ??a ????? ?iy?e ???e ????ie, ? e ?i ???? ?iy?e ?e
??th?i a ??ue ?????? e ??? ??e. «A??? ?y?y ? ??? ae?a ???y? ?? ???? ???
????, ??ny??y e ????, i ???i n ?? ??otho, ?? y? ???u ???????i ia ??ny?y
e ?????i ?uy??eyi ?y ???ey ??? ????, i ???i ? ???y?, — ???ey? ?????a
I?ey O?i??? ???? E????.

A?? ?????o ?y I??ay I???? ??????? ??a ???eye ??? ???i. «I???? ? ??a y?o
?????a, — ???o I. E. O???, — ?? eth? ??? ???, ? ? ?? ? ?o ? ?e ???
?????ueth ???? ????i ??? ???a e ???ue a ?i ???? e ??????e ???. I?? ?o
??oy, ?a a 1847 ??, ????? I??? I???/ a ????a n ???i E??i ??? ?i ??oth
??????? ??o ????a, a ??? n ?i e ???u ??? ???aa?y. «N????i ???? n ??e,—
??? ????,— ?i ? ?? ???i ??i ???????y ? ?????o ????o, ???a ??i ?e
???th?y, ?e ? ??aeyo ???? ????ey a ????. ss ??th, ?e ?n ??? ?ae y?i ?a
????, ??ue ???, i?? ???y, e ??ue ??a, ? ?a ?n????a ???u: ????e A??uey??e
e E????. I?i ???? ?i ? ??e ?? y??a, ? ???o ? ?? ????? ? ???, i ???o,
???? e A? ??ue ?a ??o ???o; ??? — ?i-oi i ??? «??????» ??a. A ???? e ?i
y?y?y ?a O?? ? ??? ??????e ??ey? i ?????? y???e, ???a ??e ?i ? ??e ????
?????e ???, ??i ? ???a?cy [11] y?e ????e. E ?i ? ????? Ia ??? y?o ??? iu
?e ???e, ?e ???? ??e-??? ???, ??? ?????a ? ?????? ????, a ??i, e y????,
????e ?i-??? a ??y?o, ?c ??a e ??? ?y ?ae??i. Ii-??o, ??ay ??ey ??a —
?a?y ???????, a ?a ??? ?? a n??a ????? ? y?o ???a???e e ??ue ??i ?????
???th. A y?i ?? ?oyi ??a ??a, ?i ?ei ?i, ???o ??e ??? ????ny a ????a ??y
??? ? ???? ??o?ue ??? ???u, ? ??oy? i ?i, ?i ???? a ??». Ai ??y ?? ?
????a ???? ? ???e ??ay ??? ?? ???ey ??? ???? e ??iy?e eth?e e ??? ?i
??eo ????a. A???a ?? ??yae ? ??e??i e ?ath ?????, a ???o, ?e ?? ?
??????e, ? ????e ???i ??a?ue ?????, ????? Ie??e I???/ ????, ?i n y?e
???u ? ??? ? ??o ????ue ?ey?th ??o ????, ? ??ue ??? ?y?i ethaeyi, a ????
???o ? ?e, a ?a?i: A????, A???? e I????. «I?, — ? ??? ????y, — ????
eth?? ???th e, ??o ?i, ????, ?i ??i ?? ??i ??? ???i, ? ???aey, ??? ?, ?c
???a ??i ??????».

E?? ??i ?????, e?, ?e ??o ???yo, ?i ?????a ???? ?ycy. I???y ??????ue
????, ?c ?????? ?y?, ???y ??a ? ???ue e ???? e ????????o ???eth ?????i
????a. Aea e ??? ??o ????a ?????ey ?e ??? ??????, ?c ????i ?????? ????u.
A??a ??i ????? ???? ? ?aaei?u ?????a, ??????a, e ? y??, ??a — ? ????
????i ????a, a ?i ???ny ???o ??, ? ?e ??? ??y ?? ????? ?uy? ? ???? ??a
???? ????? ??y ????? ??e. A ??????i c??e ???? y?ea ???? ??e???e ?i
????ny, [12] ???y, ??u ? ??? ?i ?????, ?e ?e ? y? ??ue ?e ?i ????? ?
???? ???? ???ey. Ii ??? ??e ??i e ?c ?????y, ? ? ??? ????ye ??a a ?????i
? ????. *oi ???ny ? ?? ??????, ??ue ?????o ???o, ? ?e ??e ? ???e a ????o
?????y ???? ?ycy. Ii ??? A. A. I???a, I??? I?e??, ???a ?? ??? ?????y, ?i
????y ??? ????th e ??a ???u ???ny ????ue y?o ???, ? ???y ??e ??ay??,
?????? ??i? ?iy?e e ???a ???e ???? ?c? ????e ?i ? ??iy?? ????? ??o. «Oi
?i ? ????i, ????? ?i ?? ????», — ??? ? ?????a I??? I???? ei??? A?o?ey a
1844 ??.

Ia ? ??, ???, ??? ???e ?y? ????y n ?????, ? ?i ???, ?????i. I???u
?????a, ??????a, ??a ????? ?i ?e??a, e ??yae ? ? ????y ?y???ei ???i ???
????e; ??e ? ?????, ?ath?a ????a e ??????o ????eth, a ??a ?????? ???y
????i ???? ?? I??ath I???? ???? ? ??.

A??? ?y? n ??? ???i ???a ???e ???a ?????a e ??????o ????o, e y? ne????
?????ue a ?i ? ?th ??ue. E?? ??ay ?????, ? ???ye ?? ??? ??e ??th???? e
???eth ??????? ???, ?????, ??? ???? e e ????th ??e. A? eth?? e i?y?i
??yi e ?????? ????eyi ??i?ea? ?????? a ?????o I?????o ???. I? ???? ???e
th?e ???e ?y? ???? ??????y ?yo?y? ????? y??, e ??ue ?????ue o ?? ??,
???i ? ?????? ?e ? e ???i ????y n ?????? ???????. C?eth??y ?i i ????o
?????? ???oyo ????? a ?i ????e, ?i ????? ? ??y? ???? ????ey ?????e ????,
???i ii ? ???e ? ??a ??e ??e. A ????e I??a II a ?i ????? ???a?? ?
?????i, n ???i y?o ???? ???? ?????? ???i ??? ????y ??a (les principaux
habitants de Rome). A ??? Eth??ea XVI I??? I???/ ??e ??, ????oth ?????i
???i ? ?????? ??? ??a a ????e ?????a. «A?ue ??? ? ??? ?? ?????i, — ??? ?
? y?? ??? ??? ?a????eth.— I??o ? ??o ??a ???ue ??? ????a. Eth??e XVI ??e
??ae ??e ??iy?a ?????, ???a ?ae ??? ????i ???u; ? ???? ? ? ??? ???ae ??
??ae, ? ???a ??????». E??e ???e ???? Ai???a ? ????e ?i [13] ????i ?ae
a???e. I??a ? ???? ???? ?ycy ???e I?? A???, e y? ????? ?iy? ?????i ??? ?
???? ?i ? ??e ???. C?ao?a ??i? ?????u I?? O???? ????? ?n???ue ???? ?ycy
I??ay I???? ? ???ey ???o ?? ? ??i ????e?ny a ??? ??. A????ue, ???y ??a
???ue I??ay I????, e ?????? ?????, ????? A??o ? ??y I??????o ??,
«??????? ??? ??? ??? ?ae «???e ????, e e ???? ?ycth ?? ????? ?????a,
???a ??? ?? ????ue ???a i?? a ???? ???e ????. Aeey y?e ?? ?? ???u ????e
????ue ???e I???i e, a ??? ?o, ????? Ae???e e I???/.

I. E. O???, ???? ?????ay? a ??i ??????e ?????a I??ay I???? ? ???? ????
?ycth ????e ??-???? e ???? ???? ???? ???a, e ????th, ??e ? ?? ???? i ?i,
??i ???i ????ue ? ???? ???ey ???? ??, ???? ????i ???e ?????ee ?????
I???. I? ???ey, ?i ?e?? ?y? ?? ?? ??a ??ye ??eth eth??o ? ???o ?? e, ??i
???i, a ?????? ???e ?e ?y?i ????i ??o ???? ??? ??; ? ?? ???, ?i ???th ??
a y?i ????e ???e e ??? ?????? ?i ???? ?????y. I?i ?y ???? I????, ?e
????? ??????y ??e ???-??i??e ??e ?? ???e, ???u, ???? ?????? ??? ?i ?????
I??? I???/, a ??a ??ay ?iy?, ???th ? ?a a 1847 ?? ???? i ??? ??i ?????,
I????, ?????tho, ?i ??????e ???o ?? ?????? ??a??? ???i ????i ??? ??????,
?i ????a?? ????o ????a.

N???y i ???i ?????e ???? ?ycy ??? ????u, e i??y ????ue ?? ?iy?y ?? i ?o
????, ???a ???e a ?? ????ny ?o ???; ? y?i ??i ??? ?? ???????. [14]

I?????a n ??? ?i?? ???? ???? ???? ?ycy e e????? ????o, ? e ?? ??????ue
???? ?????ey ???? ?????y a???a I????, ?tho ????a ??????, ?i ???y ?ey
???ey ?? ??u?a ? ????oth ????? ???? ???e-????? ? ????? ??e. *? ? ???ny
????o ???o ????a, ? a ae???o ? ?n ???eyo ?????ue ???ey, ?i a 1813 ??
???? ?ycth ??????ue ????y, a n 1815 ?? ???? ???a ??? I??ay I???? n ????i
I????i.

A??u y? ??iy? a ?i, ?i ???e ?y? ??e ??????a ? ??i ???? i ??????? ??i?
???eyo, ?e ??u ??u ? ???oth ??, e ??e ?uy??ey, i??y??y ? ?????? ???????
???. A y?i ? ??, ??o ???, ???e ?y? ???? ???o «I ??a ??? ???a?? ?e I??? e
I???, ???i ????e ???y ??ue ???i, ????? ??, ?i ?i ??? ?? a ??o ??o ia??,
?????? ? y? ? ?? ??i ???i ????i. I?????i n y?i ???e ?y? ????y n I???/?
«???? ?????», a n Ae???e — ???i ????e AE?i e E??a i ??? ???eyo, ??i ?e
???? ???a «Ia ???? ??e ? A??u ?e ????o ??? ???y?.

C?y?y y?, ???, ?e ??????, ?e ?e a ???? 1815 ?? ???e I???i ???? ???a
????y I??ay I???? e ???? ?o ??? ????a ???e ??????o ????, ??c ?i «????i
??? ????????ny a ???i ?y? ?i ??oy?a ???a ?i????, ???????i ??iy?a a ???a
??i e y?i ??? i ???o ???ey?.

N???, ???i, ??y?? ?a ? ??i ?????i ?????? ???? ?????y ???? ?ycy, a ??ii i
???i ????? «??-?????, E?? O????a I????. C????i n ?i ??iy?? a I??a a 1815
??, ??a ?? «I??? I???/, — ???o I???/ a n?? ????, — ??iy?i ?iy ?? e ?? e
???? ?????? i ???i? ???eyo. Iu n ?????? ???e ? ??i ??i ??? ????e ?a
???ey e ??u 12,13-? e 14-? a??. Y?? ????? ??? e ??e ???? a ??o, ?i ?
(???e ?y?) a ?iy ?th??y. A? ??cy ?? ? etha?ue. A??ay ?i ??a, ?o?? ? ?iy
???e e ??, y? — ?yi?a e ???????.

A ????o ???? ?????y ???? ?ycy ? ???u ??, ???y, ????, ???a ??e ? ?? ?o
????? ?iy?a i ?o ?????o ?e?? ???? ??, ? ???o a ????ue?e ???e ???o ??o
?y?e ???e ???? e [15] ?c ??????? ??ey ???o ?? ???? ??? ???o ?? ? ????
??? a ??? ??. Ie n ????ey?, ???a ??i ??uy?y? ???o ?e ????? e ??? ???a, ?
n ???ie ???y ?y, ?, ???oe, ? ??e ???e y????e ?e?, ???a ???eytho ???e
????o ???o ????, ???e ?y? a ??e ????e, ???, ? ?e ?????? ?????, e y?
??iy????, ????i n ???e ?????y??e ???y?, ? ???? ?c ???? ?ey?y ? ??iy?a
??e ??e a y?? ?????ey ????? I??ay I????. A?ath??y, ????i, ???a ???u ????
?ycy ???????, ?e ????a ?i ???? ?????y, n ????? a ???a ??e ?oo-????e
????y? A??????? y?? e ????e ? ?????y, ???a e ??? ?o?o ????? ?y ??????? a
???e ??? ????? I??ay I.

A???, a ????? ?e????? ???? ?????y ???? ?ycy ???o ????, ?i a ? ??y ia
?????? ? ???e, ? ???e ???e ?e ??e, ?????? ? ??a ??ae?i ??????? ?????ey;
? ?????? e ????? y?o ??, ???y ? ???i y?? ?y??? ???i ???a ???o? ??a.

E?n ?????y ???? ?ycy ae??i ?e ?????y ?i ?????? ? ???e e ? ???o. I??y???a
???a I??ay I???? ?????ue a ???eyo ???????e ??u ????i ???oe ????? A????a
?????y a 1814 ?? ? ???? ?i ???o a??? e ??e, ??? ????? ???? ??iy? ?e ?o
???e-?uth??o E?????. A y?i ????? ?????, ???y, ?????? ???a ????y a ??
????ey e ?????y ???o ???o ?y?e, e ???, ? ????e, ?e, ?????, i???a ???e.
I??? ??, ????e ?ay ??y??u? ???e, E????i ???ye a ??, ?e ???? ?o ???a
????a e ?????? ????? n ???i ??i, ?a ?i???? ???y ?y ????ey ?????e ia ??
???. I??a ?e ?ee?o ?y?yo ? ??y ? ?????e a 1814e 1815 ??o, ? ?e ???? a
??oth?i ?? ? ?? ???? ????, e ?i ?????ay ?y????ue ?e ?????ey i?????? ????
?????y ???? ?ycy I??ay I???? ??? ?? ?????ny. N?? ???????a ????? ?e
?????o th??o, ??y??? e ?io ? n ????? e ??????ueth ??????ny ? ??y?? ????
E????, ? ??i ???? ? ???? ?????? ???, ? ? ?y?i ??? ?i ? ?o??ue ?c ??i????
?ey?y. [16]

I? ?????e n ???ie ?y?y? ???e-?uth?? E????i ???? ? a ??? ??? ?yae ???a ?y
???e ? ?y????e. Y? ??? ????ey? ?????e ???n ?e a ????e o??????e ??? ???,
?e e ?o?o, ?i a ?i ??? ?? ????ny ?????a E?????i ??u ????a ???o ?y?e.

«I??? ??????? ???, — ??e ? ??o ???, — ?c ??y??y ??, ?c ??a ? ?????y.
N??????, ?y ??? e ???? ???? ? ??o? ?? ??? ???e ???ey?, ???a ???tho e
??th ????. *?? ????? ????, ??? ??i, ?c ?? ?, ?e ???ue, ????, ???? ? ?ay
?? ?? ?n a ?? (? ??? ?? ?????) ?iy? ??i e??-?? ??? ?e ???eai, ???? a ??i
??? ?? ??, ??u ? ?????? ????a a ?? ??y. A ?????yo ??o ???ey? ???a ? ???,
?? ???? i ?i ??; ? ??? ??????? ???? ?????o. I?ay ????? ?????, a ?????ue,
e aua ??a ????, ??o ?n ???o e ?????? ??ae. Ae???? eth?e ??o, ???a ? ? ?n
??? ? ???, ???a ? ???y?? ? ???? ??i e n ????? ????i ???? ? ?i ??? e
??????e ? ?i ?y ?????y ?n ? ?a?a???e. A?e ??? ??y ?????ue ?i ??y? ??e, ?
??o ????a ?? ???? i ????? ? ??? e i i???? ???o e ?????. N????ue ?o??ue
????a ???i, ? ???? ? eth?e ??????. E?e e ??? ??? ?c??atho, a ??? ?i ?
???oo. Ia ??? ???i ????i eth?? ????ny. A?a ???ny ?i ?? a ???o ???eyo,
????? ??o eth?e ???o. I???? ?? ???, ??? ???? ??????

I??ae ???o ?y?e e ??e ?e oy??i ????? ?y e????? I?? O????, ? ?a ????a ?th
??????ue ?i, a ??? e ????ue n ????e ????. E????? n ??? ??????th ????a
?????a ??o ???e, ???a ??? ????? ????ey? ?oe, ? ???????, e ?a ?????
?????y ??i ???i ?ycueyi. Y? ????? ?????y ????? ?????? ??? e ??iy? ? ?y?
????????? ???a, ??th??y ????y, ?iy?e e ??y??????ey ???o ?y?e. I?ey O????
? ???o ????i e ????? ???a ????. I? ????? ??????? ???e ? ????y ???? ???e
???, ???y, ???? ??, ????ny ???ey?, ??ath?? ???o ????oe?. «N???, — ???
?????a, — ?o?? ?a, ?i ???ny ? ???a?y ???a, ???i ?e ??i ?????atho, ???y ?
???a ??u, [17] ?????i ????eyi, ???o ???th?th e ????? ?????».

A??? ?y?yi ? ???ue ??y? ???y a ???o ???eyo, e ?e ???e a I??, ??u ??
??a?ey? ??u ????? A????a e ????? ???e ??e. A????? ??????i ???i ??a ?y
I??ay I????, e ????th, ?????a ??? ? O???e a?? 1828 ??. A? ???? ?????ny
?? ?????i ??? ??? ?????y.

I????? ????? A????a ???????y ?????i ???o ???a ? ????, ?? ?e ?iy??
?????????i ??? ?????y a I??a, ?ae ?????? ???? ???a E???, e ????e ?????a
? A????, A??e e O????, ia ????i ????ey ? ???u I?? O????, ???y, a ??o
??????, ????ue ???????? ????ey ???e a ???a O???.

E a ??? ??? ?a??? ????? ???? ?ycy I??ay I?e??a ? ??o ????; ? ????? a
Ia?? ???????i ????ey ???a, ???????th ??o, ?i ????a, ???u, ????e.

A???u I??ay I???? ? ?tho ??e ???o ????, ? ???i ??i ?? ? ??? i ?ey?e ? ??
?????o ???e 1814 e 1815 ??a. I?ii ??a ??y?? ?? i ?i, ?i ? ??y y?o ???e
?y???ue eth?? ???o ???o ?y?e ? ??o ???, ???o, e, ? ??? I??????-Ae?????i,
?e «?????ue ?? ?i, ?i ?? ????». O?? ? ? ??? a A?oth 29 a??? 1815 ??
Ie??e I???/ ?a?? ??? ??ae ???, ???oy 2-e ???? 3-e ?????? ???e. N??ay ?
y?i ?????a I?? O????, ???e-?uth?? E????i ???eye, ?i ???a ?y?y, «???oy
??? ??y? ????i ???i, i???? ??ii? ???? ? ?e?, ? ?????o, ?????ueth a ???a,
????th e ??????i ? ?? ???.

A 1816 ?? ?? ????y? ???i ?y?i I???i I????i ???? ?????y ? ???e e A??e.
[18]

I??a ??i ??th ?????? ? ??i ????? a ????????, ?????? e ?????? ????yo e
??iy?? ?y? ?ae ?????? ??? ??, a ??? ???e-?uth??a A????a-Eo???. I????? ?y
y?? ?????y, ?c????? n ??? ??????th ?????? Ia??e O????e, ????ue ???ue ?i
??i ?????? e ??????, i?? ???e ?ey?, ??????ue ?y I??ay I???? ?????
??ey??? ??e ???a.

Ai ??y ??? ????aey ???e ?y? ?y?i ?e ??e ??? ???u, ??y a ?o ?? ????iey ?
?????e e ?????? ??yi e ???? ? ???e ??e. Y? ???u, ???? ??????? ???i ?y?i,
??? ?i ????? ?? ??? ?????y, a?e ? ??? ????u ?y ?i ????e??e, ?, e ????th,
?e iae???u a ???, e ?? I. E. O??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ? ?????? e ???? ?
???a. I??i e y? ???? ???e ???tho ????a ??u ??? ????. I????a ?y????
????e, ??o ?? e ??????o ???ae??e, ???? ??ae ?a n ????? e ????? ??y?i ?
??, ???y ??th?????ue, ? ???th?y ? ?? e ???e, ??????y e ???y ??? ????y ?e
e eth?? e ??y?o — ???i ???ny I??? I???/ ? ???? ?i ????????? ae???.

«I????? e n ?????i ??? ????ue, — ????? A????-E??? ?????a I?? O???? ?
?????e ? ?????y, — ?i A? A????i ??th? ???? ???? ????, ???i?? e eth?? ?
?? ????. ss ???i ????ath A? A????o, ?i ?ai ?? ? ?y?i A??o E??????o
Aa????; ???a, ????a ?e ?????, Aa?i A????? ?? ???????.

I????? a A??th ??? ??, ? ??? I?? O????, ? ??? ??????ue eth??o?? ????
?ycy, ? e ????ue ?i ????e ?c??y? e ???e. I??i a ? ? ??y y? ?????a ???i e
????a ?a??a, ?????, ???i, ???????a ?e ?y????y ?a ????a I??ay I????, a
???: ????, ??u ?ee?e ?y? ? ???i ???y ????? ?????y? A??e e ? ???? ? a
i?y?th ?y? n ??i ?????? ?????yiey ?. A? ???? ??e ?a ????i ?????ny n ????
?o ???i, ???i ? ?y?e ??????? ???????i, /? ????e a ???????i ??? ??cy ??
?????.

E ??????i, ? ??y ??? ????ey a A??e ???e ?y? ??a ??i ??????y ?????e ??ey?
a ??? ??? e a ??? ??i, a ??a ?????e ? y?o y??eyo [19] ????? ?????? ??e.
???????i? a ??? ??u e ???e ??a ? ????e ????ey ? ???u I??ay I????. «A?e
?, — ??? ? ? yo?o ??? A????o-E???o, — e ??? ????th ??e-??? ?? ??e ???n e
?i y? ??u e ???e, ??th?a ??a ??, ?i ??, ? y ??? ? A?a ????ue ?? ???ey
y??a ?e, ?a ??a, ??? ?? ??a ?? ?o, ???a ??tho ? ?? ??a ???????.

*????ny?? ????? a???i ?ycy a A??e ??? a ????o ? ?? ?????yi, ?y ?????ey n
???e ???y? ??e y?e, ???? ? ?? ????? A??u, ???. I??ae I???/, ? ???
???????i ?i N????, ? ???e ??i ????i ? i??i ????, ?? ???????, e ??i ????
ia????i ???? ???? ???? e ???o. Y?o ??a ??????ny e ???e ??? ?i ??u.

N???y ? ??o ???io e a ??? ??? ? ???? ??e?o ?ycth. E?y ?????ue ?????y n
??? ??????? ??????e e ?????a??e ?y?ey? ???, ???? A??y ??a ????ue, ?
?????e ???? e ??? n ??????y? ????? ??e. A??y ????a ? ???? ???? ?ycy
?????? ?????a. O???? e ?e?????? ?????i ?a ? ??e ? ?ee?? ? ??o ???? ?ycth
I??ath I????. N???e ?i e A??e ? ??i ?????, ??i ?o ??oy, ?? ? ???a
???????a, ???a ???? ??i ????yi ????? ???o. E???? I??? ???a ? ???ye ??e i
?th? n A??i????e.

E?a-??e ??? E????, O???, ??n a ?? ???e ???? ????? I??ay I???? a y? ??y.
Ii ?i ???, ? ?e ??????i ????, ?????? ???e ???e, ?y?e, ?e ??a, n ?????e
???e ??, ???? ??, ????e ??y?, ??????i ???? ??i, ???? ????i ?? e ??i
????? ?????i. Ii ????y ??ue ????? ????, ???e ????y, ? [20] ?c ?oy???e e
???ey. A ? aea ??y ???e ?y? ??? ????? i??o? a ????a ??e ???i?e ?????th n
??? e ?????e ????e ??? ??e. «Ii-????, ? ???? ?????i ???? ?????, — ?????o
??? O??? ?? ?????ey i Ie??a I????.

?y?i ????o ?????e ????ny ??? ?? ?????y ???? ?ycy, e a ??oth?i 1817 ?? ?i
?a ???e ???e ????i ???y. A y?i ?? ??iy?y ?? ???? ?ycy n ????? ????
O????, e I??? I???/ ??? «?? ??????i ????i e ???? ??ouey», ???a ? ???e a
???a ?? ??e a ??e ??a e ???? ?, ?????e a ?? ???o ???? ??e, ?e ??? ?a a
1814 ?aeo.

N y?? ???e ????ny ?????ay ?y????ue ???? ?ycy Ie??y I????, a ??? ? ??o
???? ????ue ??? ??e ??? y?e ??th??y, ???e ????. A??i ????e ? ???u ?i
?????? ??, ???e ?? ?y?o ?eth?e e ????e, ? ?? ??i ???? e ????? ??y? ? ??,
???e ?y? a ?????i ??o? ???e ?iy?ye ?????e e ???o, ?i e ?????; ????ue ?c
??????ny ????e a ?i ??ue ??i ?a a ??a ?e ???? ?a, ???y ????? n ???
???y?? ??o ??, ????i ???o e ????o, ? e ? ??? ???o ????e. Y? ??????y ??a
?????? I??ay I???? ?? ??? ???? e ???eth e ?????? ????eth a ??ue ??e-???
?? a ??i ?????e, ?i e ??i?eth ? ??i ?oy ? ???i ????ey a ???o. E?????
??ae ?a ???? ?ycy ??e ?y ?? ??ue ???i ????a ??? ???, e ???? ? ?a ????ue
??? ????ue, ??i ?????? ??? ??o ????. I???ia ??????? ???? ?o ?? ??a ?
???, ?i ???e ??? ????? i??.

I???? ?n????a ?????a ??? e ????th ????o o????o ????e, ? ?????a ???? ?ycy
I??ay I???? ? ???????i yo? ???yi, e ? ???? ? ??o ?????? ??e ?? n ?? ????
???e, ???? ???a ?i ???a i? ????. «E?????? ????a ?e?? ?y?e, — ???o ? y??
??? E???a, — ????a ?????i e ????? ?????i ??? ???ue ? ??th??e?i ?ae ??i
?ey??, ?????i ??? ?? ?????ue a ?o ???? ?????? c???e e ?????. N ??? ???i
???? ???? I??ay I???/a, ?e ???o ???? ?????? ????o, ???a ? ??iy? [21] ?o
a ???a ?? ??e, ????y ??????e ????ueth, ??? ????? ????e, ???i ????eai
??a, ?????ueth e ??? ??y????th e ?????. Ii, ??y? n y?i, a ?i ?????i ??
???u ??eth?a e ??????ue, ?????a n ????e ??e ?????? e ????y. Y? ??n?a
????a ????i ???y? ????-?????th ??? ???? ?ycy ?e ??????i ????? n ?e e
??????? ?o a ?????? ?????i ??a ??????, ?i eth?e, ???? ????o, — ???y ????
??ue ??i ???? ??oth ???y ?? ???? ?ycy.

A?e ????? ???? ?ycy, ?ae ?????? ????e ??e?e ???????e ????? ?????u I??
O????, ????i e ???eth ??????o ???a ?i ????a, ?, n ??? n???, ???????ay a
?i ????? ?n?? ? ??a ???e e ?y??eth ??oe???? ??? ????a I??ay I????. O??y
«?i ? ?i e ?a ? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??ue ??i ?????? ???? ???i ??a ???? ?ycy, a
??? ???i ? ?y??? ?i. Ii y? ???a ???o ???? ???i? ??a ?a e ? ?a?oth ???o,
?i ?a ???a a I??? I??a?a ??yae ? ?o, ?e ? ???a ??????? ????, ????a ?
??????? ?? ???o ??????i ?????y e ????ey, ??ue ???? ?i ????e e ??? ??.
A????? ???? ?ycy, ? ?? ??y???, ???, a, ??o ??, e ? ??e ???i ??? A???, ?i
«?????th ?? ??? ?c????ue ????i ??????y ?e ????y, a ? ???i ??????i
????y».

N???? ????? ??o ???? ???i o ???? ?ycy, ????i n ?iy?? i ???????e ?????,
?iy?a i ????? e ??a ?e ia ???? ???? ?????? e ???? ??e. Aei ????e
???eth??e e ? ?????e ?? a ???o ???ey ??? ?????, I??? I???/ ?e ?ni?????
???? ? ?? ?? ?????, ??? ??a, e ??e ???. *??? ????ey ??a o ???? ?ycy ??
???i ? ??????e, e ??i ? ??i ????? ?i ? ????ey ??, /?, ? ?i ??eth, ?o
?????e ??.

E y?? ? ???e o I??ay I???? a ?????e ??a? ?y???ue eth?? e ????o, ?y?? ???
????, ????? ? ?y?? ?? ???, ?o ??????, e ?a y? a ??o ?????? e ??????o
???, ???a ???????e ??o ??? ?i ?????.

E?n ????? ? ??, a ???a — ??? ? ?????ey, ? ??e, ?e ?? ???i ??, ????e??
???i [22] ???ue ? e ?????e ???? ?ycy. Ii ???e ?????, ?c any?e ????? ?y?
e ??o ???a, ???ey ? ??ui ???yi ???; ???ey y? ?? ??a ??u ? ?i ????i, ???a
????ue ???? ?ycth, e ????? ???? ? ????i, e ???i ? ??? ???? ?i ???ey.

O?? ?????a ? ??i ???????ue ???? ????th, ???a ???e I??? I???/ ? ???
???eth, e ??????, ??a ?o ???? ??ue o ???a ????y, ? ? ??e a ??e ??????e
????? ?o ??a, ???a ???e ? ?o n ??? ???e e ??????th ??? eth??e ? ???e,
??? ? ??e ??ueth, ???a ???? e ????? ??, ??i ??? ?o ? ???u.

Ii, ??? n ?i, ????? e ?????e ???? ?ycy ??? ? ??? ????? a ?i, ? e ???ue
eth?? ? ??o ????, ???? n?? ?????; ?e ???e ?o ????y ???i ???i ??i, ?????i
a ?? ?? ??ae, ???e ?th? ? ?i ????ue. E???? I??? I???/ e ????y?????ay ??y
??a ?????? ???? ?? ??a e ?ith?i ??? a ?????oth ?? ?? ???i. A y?i ????
Iee?ay I???? ??th??? ? ??, ???y ????, ? ??? ?? ??????a, ? ?????? y???c?
???? ??u ?e ???????e ? ??i ??i, ???y ???a e ?? ???? ? ???u ???, ????y ?
??? ??? ?? a ?i ??ae??. [23]

Ae??? e th??ue I??ay I???? ??? ??o ?????? ????i ?? ???????? a ? ??y
????e ???? e ?????e ???, ??y??uo n ???i ????? e ??????? n ??? ???a
????ey?, e ??????i ??????i ????, ??ny??y ? ???y ??u. A???o ?ycth ? ???ue
???? ???? ????? ???o ????; ? ? ?e ????? ? ?????e, ? ?????? n ??? ????
???? ??; ?a ?????ue ?y ?? a ?o ??????o ???, e ???i ? ??? n ???a ? ????,
???o e ???? ????.

N???a ???? th???? ?o ???? a I??? I???? ?? ? ?th ??ue, ???e ?e ???c n ?i
??th??ny ???? ????y?.

O??? ????ey?ny ?i ???oue ???? ?ycy I??ay I??a?a ? ???e ????y ? ?????y e
????ey ? ???iy???e ????e ??. I???i ????ath?y ? ?iy? ??a, ????? A. A.
I???? a ?? ???e ? ??? ?? ??a ??? ????? I??ay I???/a: «A?e a, ?e ??ue ???
????? ????o, ???? ?e ??? ???? ?????, ? ???e ????? ??????? ?i ????
??a??th, ?, ?c ???ey, ? ?e ? ??i ? ???o ??????57.

I??a ?? ???? ?ycy I??ay Ia??e? ? ???a ?????? ?y????e ?? ???u ?e ???
?????y?? ??iy????o. I???i, ???a ?i ??e ? ??i, ? ??? ? ?iy?? e ??, th??,
??????, ??? ?i ??????y ??? ?ith ??? I????, ? i???? /o??a ????, a, ????,
??o ????ue ??ue ????i. A??ue, ???ay a ??o ???? ??ae 20 ethiy 1817 ?? a
???o ???u ???? ?ycy, ????u O???u, ????o i ?????? a ??oth ???o ????e ????
e I??ath I????. Ii ??? ???, ? ??? ? ?? ???? ?ycy ?a a ? ??y ????????
«????? ????? ????, ???a a ?i ?????? ??? ??y?e ??. Ae?? A??ue ?????o, ?i
I??? I???/ ?e ??????i, ???i e ?? ??? ?a?ao ??? ??a; a ????? ?i ? ?e ???i
??a e ?? e ???. «A ????? ??? ?i ???, ???? ?? ?? ??a ??y-? ??????ue,
??y-? ?????y ????ue. I?? ? ??, ??i ? ??e ? ?i ???????, ? ??? a ?a??????
??? ?i, ?e a ?y?i ???? ????o, ?e ??i ?a ??? ???th ???o ?e. N?ae? ?th
???, ? ??? ? ?e eth??. [24]

Oy??a, ? ??eth ?????a, ???u ????a I??ay I???? ?? ?? ????; i ?o, ? ??????
??o ?????? ?????e, ????y ??? ?????iy?? ? ??o ???; ??????a ? ?i ????
????? ????? ?? ?i ????, ???a ?e ? ?? ??i ? ????, ?e ? n??e ???? ? ?ae
???e ??? ????ueth aa??? ?ycy. E?? ??, ?? ?????, a ???e ?o ????i? ?? e
???? ? ????ey ? i???, ? ??????? ???? ?ycth ???? ?ay a ??? ???; ?????
???? ?y????e, ?e ?i ????e e ?n?y??o ??o ???, i???a ???ey? ??y?? ??i ???e
???i, a ????? e ?????a a ?i ?iy?a i ???a ??a ???i ?i ?? ??th a ????th ?e
?????, ???y a oi ??y ??????? a ????? ??a I??????i ????a.

N???ay ?y?e??? ???? ?ycy I??ay I???? ? ????ey ?i ? ???e ??iy? a ??????
e.-?. E?????i ???, 2-e ???? 1-e ?????e ???? ???e e n ?? 1825 ?? y?e
????. I? y?i a ???ie ????e ????a ???u, ??thu?i ??th???? ???oth ?????
?e?, ???? ?ycth ???? ???ue n ??? ?? ?o, a ???a ???o ?o ?e?i e ?????ue
????y a ??????i ??o ???????? a ? ??y ???u [25] ???i ?????y ??o ??e. A?e
??y ???????y ?y????ue a ??i ?????e ??? ?? ? ???? ????e ????e ? ?y??
????, ? ?????a ? ? ?y???th, ???th, ?y?th e ????th ??????? ?????ny ???
I??ay I???? ??? ?? ?? ?????i ??a ???a.

Ii ??y? ? ???? ???e ? ???? ?ycy n y??y 1818 ?? ?? ????a e ??ay ?y????,
???ay ??? ???? ?i ???iy???e ?y????e. N y?? ???e ? ???e a ?????a ?y????
???e-????? ? e????e ??e.

N???a ?????a ??e ??e ?? ???e ??? ????. I i? ????i ???th?y a ??o ???? ?a
??????, e ???a e ? ????oeu, ???i ????ue ??? ?? ??th.

I?? 1815 ??, ??o ? y?? ??? ???e o????? I???/, A???-?-O??, ???yy? ???yi
A????, ?? ????ue ???u ???, ????? ? ?????a; ? ?ith ???th ??? ???e ? ??e,
??u ??y? ??e ????. «A ?ae ???e, — ?????o ?, — ??o ???, ?e ?ae? au ? ???a
e ? ??, e ???a ???? ????? y????????? ????th». A?????y a ???e ??e ?????a
n??? ? ??u ??? ????a e ????, e ???e I??? ????? ?????i ?? a ?? ???e
??oth?th ??oth ioe?? ?61 : «I??i ??iy?u ? ???, ???a ???? ?????, ????
?ye?o ???? ???. I???? ????? ? ?????ue a ?????a, ??i ?e ?ae ???, ???e ?y
?a ???y».

A?e ??a ?????a ???ey ??????? ? ?? ??e, oi ?i ??? ?? ???ue ?a ??a a???a
??e a ???e, ? ??? ???o?a A????a e ?i ?????a ??a A????a.

A ??e-? ????? ?i???? ??ay ???ay ??? I??ay I????, e ? ??? a y?i ?? ?
i?i-?a ?aea, a ??o ??? ?o. A? ??? ????a ?y????e, a ??? ???? ?? y?e
?y????e ??????i ???i y????????? A?????? ??a?y. I?y?i, ?i ??y ???????y
???? ? ??? ?y ???? ?ycy ????i.

Ii, ?????? n ???i ????i ???, ??e ???? ?????? ???a ??????? ??ay ???a???.
«I?????? ???a e ?????ue ??? ? ???, — ??o ???e ?y? I??? I???/ a ??o ????
? y?i ???e, — ???? e ?/???? ???i ?????, e ??? ?? ?? ??i, ?i ? ?? ? ???,
? ??y?a, a ?a [26] ???? ????? ?????i e ?e ? ????, ?? ?e?i ?? ? ?y ? ??».

I??? I???/, ?????e ????? a ??? ?????e e n ?o?? ??y?? ? ????a ?y???oe, ?
?e ???? ??????? ?????eny ??????e. E??? ?i ?????? ???e ? ????a, a ???i ?
???ny, ???oy ?????e ????.

«O??i ?i ???e y a ?????? ????, ?e ????, ?????a e ???a ??? a ??a e?y. Ec
?? ??e y n ??e e ?i? ???? ?? a ???e. E?e, ?e ??i ?? ????? a ???, ?a ?a
????a ?? ??ue ?????, ??a-?????y, ???? y ?e ?? n ????i ????, ? n ?????e
?????ueth.

ss ??e ?????y ? ??e ???? e ? ???? ????y, ?i ??? ?a ??a ????? ??a, ?i ???
?eth ????y, ?i ?i ???e, ???e ?, ?i ???a ?? a ?n ??? ??u. ss ??e ????? —
??, ?i, ?i y, ? ??o ???e, ????, ???y?? ??a, ?? ??e ??????. I???? ?? ??a
???a; ?????ue ??a ?? ???? ?? ???e e ae??; ? ?i y y?i ??? e ????e? e
?????o ??? ?ay, ?i ??a, ?i ?iy ? ??e, e ?i?a ?e ? ????, ?e ? ??? ????.

Ii ?? ??, ?e ??e y ?????y ? ??? ?????? e ??? ??????a a ??? ???, y ???e
??ue, ?i ?ae ?i, o. a. a??? ?????i, ???ue ?i-? ???, e ??ue ?y ??iy?i o
?iy ????? ????? ???o ??th??e. A??a ???e y, ?i ???u ???? ? ?e ??i?: ?
???? ???? e ?ath?o, ? ??? ??o, ? ?????, e ? ????? ???, o. a. ????a,
???o, ???o e ????? ???o; ? ?-?, ??a??, ?? y ?c ????ey e ?y??e ???ny ??
????ny, ?i ?a e ????ue. Ii ?? ?a ?? ????, ?i ?e-? eth? ???ey? ?e ? oe?ue
??c ?a ??e e a ???? ??e ??????, ?? ???a ?ey?a ?????ue ?y?e ?c ?? ??iu?
???e e ?? ??ey??oy?, ???? ??a?a ? ? ??? ?a ???????.

E ??????i, I??? I???/ ?e ??a e ?????i ? ??ie ??????; ? ?? ???? ???? ?
??? ? ????i ??????. Ii yoi ? ??, ?e ??ea ??tho, ??n??i ?i ????i ???, a
?????i ???e ???u, ??th??a ???e ?e ??i ???ey? ?o ???? ??. A????ay ????ue
???? ??? ?oe, ???a ?? ???? ???? ?ycth ??th???? n ??? ???u, e a ???i?o
???o ? ??e ?? ?? ?oth ?eth. I???ey ? ? ????a ????e ??ue ??i ??? ? ??e
???? ???? ?ycy ????ue ?ith ????ue ??? ????i, a a [27] ??? ???????i ????y
e ????i ?????. I ??????o o?? ????yo ?? a ? ??y, ??a I??? I???/ ?e ?
???ea, ???atho ??? ? ??????a.

N??e ???i, ????? ????y e ??i ?????i, ???a ??? ? ? ??? ???ey? ??? ? ???
??th??y a y?o ??? ??e ???? ?ycy. Ae?a a ?o ???? ???o e ?? ?????u I??
O????, ???a ????o a ???, ?????? ??ey??? ?????? I??ay I???? i n?ueyo
?????o ?o ???? e i ?????? ? ???. O?? ???? ??i ?o??e, ? ?iy?? ????, ?
?aea ???e, ???e ???e ?y? ??????y ?y?? ??th???? n ??????e ??i?. I?i ??? e
???e ???? ?? ??? ??a ??i ?????? ????a ????a I??ay I???? e ??i ????i?.
E?? 1825 ??, ??a ? ?a ????? ????, ???e-??? A???, ?? ? ?????o ???? ?ycy,
????y e ?? n ???? ?? ? ??e ?ith?e ??? ? ??ae, ?e ?e ?i ?????y ??? ?
????e ??? ??? ?i ? ??a. «I????y aea a ????? ?? ????e, — ?????o ???e A???
?ith ?????oth ???o, — ?a ? e ??, ??a A??i E??????i A????a, ? ??y? ????y
??ae ?? a ?? ?????. O??i ????a? ????ue e ????? ???? ?ycy n ii???e ????y?
e ?? ?i ?????o!

A?? ???? ???a ?y ???iy???e ?y????e I??ath I???? ????ey? ?i ????ue
???e-????? ? ????? ??e.

A ??i ??????i ?e?? ? ??? ??i ???e ???? ?i? ?????i ???a ? ?, ?i «?????i
?????i ??o ?y????e, ???ai i ??? ???????e e ???? ?a???i ?y?e ???? ?????
???e, a ? ?a ??? ????i ???y ??ae ??i A? A????a. Ii, a ????i ???, ? ????
????, ???a ???a e ? a ??i ??? ???i ? ??o, ???ny ? ?? ????e [28] c???».
O?? ???i, ??????? e ??o???o ???? e ??ue ?? ???? ??? ??i, ? ???a n y?i a
??e ???iy???e ??? aa??? ?ycth ???ue ????? ???? ?????a, e «?y????ue I??ay
I???? ?e ???e-????? ?? ? ?? ????yo ??oy?y e ?????ay; ?a ???? ???th i??o
?????o, ??? e ??e ???e ????? ???» e ?a ?o oi ???a ????a, ???e ???? ? e
??? ??i ????y.

A ?? ?????i ????ey ???e ?y? ????e ?? ???e ???? ?o y???. I?? ????i ? ???e
???????? ?o ????ey; ???oy a ?? ????? ????, ? ??ue ??i ????? ? ??eyo
????? e ??????o ???a A???i ?????i ???a, ??? ?????? ????i, ???eny ????i e
???e ?????, ??u ia ?? ?????i ????? ?????? ???u, ? ???y ?? ?. N?iai ????y
n ?????o ? ?????????? ????e, I??? I???/ ? i??? e ??e ????? ?e ??,
????th?? ???u. A. N???a ???? ???, ??a ???e ?y?, ???y ???? ??e?? ? ???
?????i ???a, o ????i ? ????a ???ny ???, ???? ???ue ??o e ? ??? ae???uey
— ?e ??, ????i a ?????e ???a.

A y?o ? ??? ??e I??ay I???? ?????? a ?i e ???e ?y????e ? ??? ?????y,
???y, a ????o ??? e ? ???ay ????e ???????e, ???e ??? ???? ??c ?a ?i
??????.

Ii ?? ???? ?ycy e ?ae ?i ????i ?????? ?? ????a a 1823 ?? ??a ?????o
???????, a ???e ???a ?????a ???u ????ue ???i ???. I???a eth??i ???i
I??ay I???? ?? A??? ????? ???a, ? ????a, ?????i?a e ?????? ? ???a e ???a
????a. Ia ????i ??e, ??u [29] ??e? ?y? ? ???e ??? ???a e ? ??ae ? ?n
?????e ???e, ???e e ???? ?i ??e.

A ??? ? ?ae ? ????? ???a I??? I???/ ????y e ?i ??????i n ??????, a ???i
??ey??tho ?a ? ? ???? ?o ???a ??e. «E???ue, ???? e ???????a ?????a
??oyi, — ??e ???e ?y?, — ?? ??????a ???? ??y?th?o ?ay ???e ??? e a
?????e ????? a A??? e????a ???a, ?a ????e ???????i ???a ???u ?a ???u e
?????eth ????, ??coth?o ????, ?????yy ?o ??? n ?i ??? ?? e ??e e ??a
I???? e ?????e ??e. I?y?e e ???a ????? ?????o ? ???i ?y????e, ???
?i????e ????e, ?????iy??e ? ?y?i ???? e ???, ???o ? ??????, ????y??o e
????? ??? ? ?a ??y ???.

Ii ?????? n y?e ???e i ?????e e ??????? ?e?? – ?y? ?iy?e ???th ?????? i
????? ????? ???? ??a. I???? ????o ??? ?? ?a?? ?? ?iy?a i ???? ?????
??????a ?e a ????e ??? ?????y, ?e e ? ? ??????e. A ??? ??????? e ?????a
?????? ??? ?? ???i? ???e ??e.

*? ???ny ? ????iu, ???????? a ?e??, ? ?a, ????ny, ?? ????? ? ??? ?????y
?? ???e, ??a ? ?????? ??? ??? A??? «? ??? ??????ue n ????e ?????ueth e,
????yy ????ue, ???y? ? n ?ey???th». I??? e ????? ?? ??ae?u ??e ???
????????o ??, ????? ??iy?? ? ???o e ????o ? ? ????a ??e. E????? ??
????ue e ???i ????yi ? ????? ????e e ??? e ????yi, ?ath?i ?e?????e ?y
??eth?y ???o eth?e oa???. Ii ??a ?e ?o ?? ???e, e a ??? ???o ????yo
????a n ??????? ?? ?a ??a ???.

A??? ?y?, ? ???e ??, ??e o ?ay a ???a ????i ???i ?y??ue y? ??a ????
?i???? ???i ??? ?y? ?i??o e ?????? ?????a. «I???? y?o ?oe n ????th,
????, ?????a, ????y, ?????? ?e n ????, ????i ?? iy?e, ?i ????? ??th
eth?? e y?i ??????.

E?? ??, I??? I???/ ??e ??????th i ?n?????, ??? ???? n ??, a ??a ??a? e
?????, ?e ??i, ?e e ?????? I?? O????, ???ny ????ue ? ?????? ???ue,
????ue ? ? ???? ????, [30] ???a ??i a ???o A???????i ???e. E ??? ec ???
????a ? ??e ??? n ??????i ????? ?y ??? ???i ???e-?????.

N???e ??th ????? ????a e ???th?? ????? ??ueth, ???e a ? ??y ???????
????, ?????? ?y ?????y ?y????ue I??ay I???? ? ????ey ?i ia ???e. Ii ? ?e
???? ? e ??i ??? ????????i ????yi, ? ?e ????? n ??? ???????? e ??? ?e
????? ??? ? ??i, ?i ???? ? ???u ?i ????e ?y????e.

«Ni?????a E????? I????, — ??e ?? ? ?????e? ?e y??, — ????? A???? ? ?y?y;
????/ ? ?e ? eth?i, ? ???i e ??i ?a ???e, ?i ?????ue ? ??o e ? ??o.
A???? aiy?y ??????a I??ay e ???eye ?i ??? ??oth e oy??th ?? ???i ????? e
?????? ????a, ????? ????? ??e, ? ??? a ???e. A????a, ??a ? ?e I??? ? ??i
?????i, ???i ?????, n ???th?? e eth??th e ?y??o, ?? ? ?i ??ae? e ??o ?oy
? ?e, ?e ????ey? A?????.

E I??? I???/ ??????i oy???y ????? ?????i a ??ay???e ????e ????? ????.
A??ai, ???? y?? ??????ey a ?i ?????ue ??? ???u e ? a ???i ????a n A. O.
I???. E?? y?o ????e ??? ???? ?ycth, ?i ??o ????ny ? ???u, ? ?, ????a,
?????: «Ou A??? O???? I??, y I??? I???/; ??o ?? ?? ?c??, e ??e ?? ??a
???a, ? ??? ? ?a ??i??? ????, ?ay ?ae ??i ?????i ?? ????? ???».

O??i ??????, ??u I??? I???/ ???y ????ue ????? A????o oy???? ?i ????a: ?a
n th?o ?o ?i ??????a ?????a I?ey O????, ??? ???y ???? ??? ???? ??, ?
???? ??? n ?i ???? i ??o. [31]

A 1824 ?? ???e ?y? ??? ???????a ??y a I???. C??, ? ??e ????? ? ??o ????,
? ??y?e ??i ???e ????? n ????e ????. E? ??ue e etha?? cy? ??ey, ? ?a a
??? ?? ??????ue ?ith eth??????? e ?? ??a ???? ?? ??th??y, ?i a ???e, ?a
?i ???? ????ny ??? ????e ????? ????a. A??? ?ycue ??????e ? ????? e
??ii??? ????, ? ???o, ? ??o?? ??o ??e e, ???oe, ?e a ??a ?? ??? ??o
????i ???? ??????.

N??e ?????y? ???e ?y? ???y a ???o n ?????i A?????, e y? ???, ??? ???a ?
????y, ?o??? a ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?ycy e ?i ???o ??y?a. A ?o ??ey???
?a oa ? ???ay ?o ??th?????ue, ????ue e ???? a ????yo, ????? ?y?o
???????, ???y ??? ??i ????i, e ??? ??? ia ??? a ??o ???, ? n ??y?? ?
a???a ?? ???e, ???a ???a ? o????e ? ???ey ???? ?ycy. I???ay a ??? ??ue
????i ?? ?????a ????, ? ?????e ????ue ??? ???, ??a ?????? ?oe.

I?? ???, I??ath I???? ???? ??????? ? ????e ??o, ??y???ny n ??u ????a.
Aea?y ????th ??ue ????e ??o ? y?i ????e, ???e ?y? ??? ? ??c? ?ay ??i
?????i ????????ey ??????? ??ey, e??? ?i i???e ???ue. A y?i ????e ? ??ae
??? ??? ?????a i ??? ??? ??ey, ? ? ?y ??? ?????ey ? ???ey ???? ???a
????e i??? ????. I???a ????ey, ?e ????, ??e ??i ?????a e na??nyo iy? ?o
??oy.

I??????? ????? a???i ?ycy a A??? ? ???? a ? ? ??y ?c ?ey?y ? ????? ?i
???? e ???? ??e, ???a ??i ? ???? ?i ?th ??ue.

Ca y?o ??? a ??e ???e ??e I??? I???/ ?e ??i ???iy????e a ?a ???e ???e,
?i a ????e ?y????e. E????? I?ey O???? ????? ???? ? i?i, ???? ?a ????i,
?e ? ?????????i ?a th??, e ???a a ??a? ?????e. Y? ???ue I?? O?i??u ??iy?
???o ??o ???o ???e ???? ? ??, ?i ???e ?ycue I??? I???/ e ???y ?y?iy
A?e??? O???? ???? ? ?a ???? ? ?, ?i ?c ????ey ??? ???ny ? I???? a Oe???
N?i e ???e e ?????a A???? A????a.

Oy??a ????a e ??n???a ????a I??ay I???? ?e ? ???????ue ?i ??? ???? ????.
A [32] ????a ? ??? e ????? ??e ??y ? ????ny ???yi ??e ???? ??e a A????
??? — ??e, e ???e ? ??i ?a ????y e i ???e ? ????? ???ue. «A?e ?i-???
???o, — ???e ? ? y?? ??? ???e ?y??, — a ??i ??? ?? ????ny ???? ???a, ???
????a, ??e ?i a A????ee ??. E ????ae?i, ??? ? ??i ?? ??????, ?e ??? ????
?ycy a ???? ??. E?ue ??ei ????? ? e ?? ? ??a, ?e ??th??ue ??a ????, ???y
??i ? ???i, a ???? ????? ??o, ?e???? ??i e ??? ????o ???aieth n ???th??.

A ??e ???e ????ea ??a ??ue ?????i ?a ????? ???? ???? ? ???e ???
????n?ey, ???y, ??? ?? ???? ?ycy I??ay I????, ???a ?i ? ??.

E a y? oy??a ?e ??????y I??? I???/, ????y? ? ????e ????e ? ??????? ?o
??a ? ???e, ???e ? ???a ??? ????a e ??????? e ?e???e, ???a ????i ???? ?i
n ??? ???i ????. O??i 12 ???y 1825 ?aea, ?????? ??e??ue a ??a???i ???e
????? E????? I???? ? ????ue ?????i ?????? ?o ???, I??? I???/ ??ye ???
????y, ???? ? ???i ??e ????a ???? ?ay? ?o ??e ??e.

N????i ? ??y??? a ???u ??? ???? e ? ?????e ???? ???y a ???????o ??o,
????? ? ?ay ????? ??? ???e e ?????i ??iy?y ?????a, ???e ?y? I??? I???/
??? ? ???e, ??? ??e ?????, ?e ?u? ??? ?ai ??????e; ?? ??? ??????? ??
???? i ????e ???? ?ycy, ?????? a ???? ?????? ? ?????? ????e, ????e ???a
?? I??ay I???? ? ?i ??i ???i ??. A ??o ?i ????? ????a ??nee a y? ??y
????? a ??i ?????i ?n?y?e.

A 1814 ?? ? ????? Oeth???a ?? ???ey e ??e, ?i ???a I???? I, ?????a
I?ey-E??, ????a a ?o ?? ??c Oeth?o, ???eyy? a A??. N????th?a ???? ?ycth
???e, ?i ? ?????y ????y n ?th, ? ????. A????????e I??? I?e?? ???e: «A???
?ey?? ?? ? ??ue, ?i ?a, ???yy ?? ??, ???eya?y, ???oe, e ?? ? ??? Y??», e
????e ?ith ????th ????.

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